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Sample records for amazon forest measured

  1. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  2. Interpretation of Variations in Modis-Measured Greenness Levels of Amazon Forests During 2000 to 2009

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    Samanta, Arindam; Ganguly, Sangram; Vermote, Eric; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates variations in satellite-measured greenness of Amazon forests using ten years of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. Corruption of optical remote sensing data with clouds and aerosols is prevalent in this region; filtering corrupted data causes spatial sampling constraints, as well as reducing the record length, which introduces large biases in estimates of greenness anomalies. The EVI data, analyzed in multiple ways and taking into account EVI accuracy, consistently show a pattern of negligible changes in the greenness levels of forests both in the area affected by drought in 2005 and outside it. Small random patches of anomalous greening and browning-especially prominent in 2009-appear in all ten years, irrespective of contemporaneous variations in precipitation, but with no persistence over time. The fact that over 90% of the EVI anomalies are insignificantly small-within the envelope of error (95% confidence interval) in EVI-warrants cautious interpretation of these results: there were no changes in the greenness of these forests, or if there were changes, the EVI data failed to capture these either because the constituent reflectances were saturated or the moderate resolution precluded viewing small-scale variations. This suggests a need for more accurate and spatially resolved synoptic views from satellite data and corroborating comprehensive ground sampling to understand the greenness dynamics of these forests.

  3. Interpretation of variations in MODIS-measured greenness levels of Amazon forests during 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Arindam; Myneni, Ranga B; Ganguly, Sangram; Vermote, Eric; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates variations in satellite-measured greenness of Amazon forests using ten years of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. Corruption of optical remote sensing data with clouds and aerosols is prevalent in this region; filtering corrupted data causes spatial sampling constraints, as well as reducing the record length, which introduces large biases in estimates of greenness anomalies. The EVI data, analyzed in multiple ways and taking into account EVI accuracy, consistently show a pattern of negligible changes in the greenness levels of forests both in the area affected by drought in 2005 and outside it. Small random patches of anomalous greening and browning—especially prominent in 2009—appear in all ten years, irrespective of contemporaneous variations in precipitation, but with no persistence over time. The fact that over 90% of the EVI anomalies are insignificantly small—within the envelope of error (95% confidence interval) in EVI—warrants cautious interpretation of these results: there were no changes in the greenness of these forests, or if there were changes, the EVI data failed to capture these either because the constituent reflectances were saturated or the moderate resolution precluded viewing small-scale variations. This suggests a need for more accurate and spatially resolved synoptic views from satellite data and corroborating comprehensive ground sampling to understand the greenness dynamics of these forests. (letter)

  4. The intensity of segregation of the OH-Isoprene reaction -measurements above the amazon rain forest-

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    Sörgel, Matthias; Berger, Martina; Dlugi, Ralph; Harder, Hartwig; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Mallik, Chinmay; Marno, Daniel; Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Wolff, Stefan; Yanez-Serrano, Ana-Maria; Zelger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Incomplete mixing (segregation) causes reduced reaction rates compared to laboratory values derived for well mixed conditions. The dominant contribution to atmospheric chemistry is given by the most important oxidizing agent, the OH-radical, which is regarded as the detergent of the atmosphere as it reacts with the majority of atmospheric pollutants and therefore accelerates their removal from the atmosphere. Hence, to understand atmospheric self-cleansing, we need to quantify and understand the budgets (sources and sinks) of OH. Budgets are generally derived by measuring mixing ratios of known source molecules (either primary or recycling) and the total sink for OH of which isoprene is an important part in the pristine rain forest. The production and loss terms are calculated by using the measured mixing ratios and the laboratory derived kinetic values. If reactants are not well mixed their actual reaction rates are lower in the atmosphere than in the laboratory. Therefore, segregation might play a substantial role in quantifying and understanding the derived budgets. We measured OH-radicals, isoprene and other species (O3, NOx, HO2, H2O) with high time resolution (1-10 Hz) shortly above a rain forest canopy (41 m above ground level) at the ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W). The site is characterized by high isoprene (up to 20 ppb) and low NO (50 ppt - 500 ppt). Simultaneous measurements of OH and isoprene with high time resolution (necessary to directly calculate the intensity of segregation) are sparse. To our knowledge this is now the third dataset for OH-isoprene segregation but the first from a tropical rain forest. The results will be compared to modeling results from different environments and the effect of trace gas exchange driven by coherent structures on the intensity of segregation will be evaluated as well.

  5. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

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    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  6. The changing Amazon forest

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amaz...

  7. Trace Gas Fluxes From Through-Canopy Measurements in an Upland Forest of the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

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    Crill, P.; Keller, M.; Silva, H.; Dias, J. D.; Albuquerque, S.; Czepiel, P.; de Oliveira, R. C.

    2007-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a radiatively active trace gas whose atmospheric budget has been perturbed by humans. Wetlands have been recognized as the main natural source of CH4 for the past 30 years. Current inverse models indicate that tropical sources account for the bulk of CH4 emissions. The largest sources are likely wetlands, agriculture and burning and that these sources may be underestimated. As part of the LBA experiment, we automatically sampled CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in profiles through two forest canopies at sites 67 and 83 km south of Santarém, Pará. CH4 and CO2 can have a strong diurnal signal. CH4 mixing ratios correlated well with CO2. Both gases had column maxima in the early morning near dawn because of stable nocturnal conditions. However there were differences in the profiles. Highest CO2 mixing ratios tended to occur near the surface due to the strong respiration source of CO2. Often the lowest mixing ratios of CH4 were found near the surface which is consistent with a weak soil sink. Calculations of the CH4 flux of example periods from different seasons were made by correlating height weighted averages of the half hourly ambient mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 and relating this correlation to the ratio of coincident nocturnal NEE CO2 eddy correlation fluxes made during windy nights at two towers at the same sites and automated chamber flux measurements made at the km67 site. Fluxes were calculated to be between 2.2 and 23.3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. If the area of the upland forest area of the Amazon basin is 5 x 106 km2, we then estimate a CH4 source strength of 4 to 43 Tg y-1. This estimate is consistent with a flux of 4 to 38 Tg y-1 calculated from a survey of profile and flux measurements made during the dry and wet seasons at three other sites across the Amazon basin.

  8. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

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    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  9. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  10. Amazon Forest Structure from IKONOS Satellite Data and the Automated Characterization of Forest Canopy Properties

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    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Stephen Hagen; Bobby . Braswell

    2008-01-01

    We developed an automated tree crown analysis algorithm using 1-m panchromatic IKONOS satellite images to examine forest canopy structure in the Brazilian Amazon. The algorithm was calibrated on the landscape level with tree geometry and forest stand data at the Fazenda Cauaxi (3.75◦ S, 48.37◦ W) in the eastern Amazon, and then compared with forest...

  11. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, S.; van Soelen, E.E.; Teunissen van Manen, Milan L.; Flantua, Suzette G.A.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, Elton Luiz; van Loon, Emiel; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hoorn, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-western Amazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also determined the sediment provenance in the fluvio-estuarine system and reconstructed the overall floral composition of the Amazon lowland forest during the

  12. Carbon Tetrachloride Emissions from the Amazon Forest

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    Jardine, K.; Chambers, J. Q.; Higuchi, N.; Jardine, A. B.; Martin, S. T.; Manzi, A. O.

    2014-12-01

    As a chemically inert greenhouse gas in the troposphere with lifetimes up to 50 years but active in ozone destruction in the stratosphere, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) plays a major role in the atmospheric chlorine budget and is widely considered strictly of anthropogenic origin deriving from numerous industrial processes and products. However, satellite remote sensing studies have shown higher concentrations at the Equator, and earlier work has suggested possible biogenic sources. Here we present highly vertically-resolved atmospheric gradients of CCl4 within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem from three towers in the Central Amazon. The observed buildup of CCl4 mixing ratios near the top of the main canopies provides new evidence for a potentially large biogenic source from the Basin. By demonstrating the need to represent tropical forests as biogenic sources of CCl4, our study may help narrow the gap between remote sensing observations of CCl4 and emission, chemistry, and transport models and therefore lead to improved predictions of its role in atmospheric chemistry and climate.

  13. Integrating the avoidance of forest degradation into systematic conservation planning in the Eastern Amazon

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    Ferreira, J.; Barlow, J.; Thompson, J.; Berenguer, E.; Aragão, L. E.; Lees, A.; Lennox, G.; Brancalion, P.; Ferraz, S.; Moura, N.; Oliveira, V. H.; Louzada, J.; Solar, R.; Nunes, S.; Parry, L.; Fonseca, T.; Garrett, R.; Vieira, I.; MacNally, R.; Gardner, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undisturbed forests are becoming increasingly rare in the tropics. The area of forest degraded by some form of disturbance, such as logging or fire, in the Brazilian Amazon now greatly exceeds that which had been deforested. Yet forest policy in the Amazon, as elsewhere in the tropics, remains overwhelmingly focused curbing the rate of forest loss without considering impacts on forest quality. We use a unique data set from the Sustainable Amazon Network (RAS), in the eastern Brazilian Amazon to assess the impacts of forest disturbance on biodiversity and assess the benefits of including avoided degradation measures in conservation planning. Biodiversity data on trees and fauna from two large regions, Santarém and Paragominas, were combined with remote sensing data to model biodiversity patterns as well as estimates of above-ground carbon stocks across a range of land-use types and forest conditions. We found that impact of forest disturbance on biodiversity loss in the state of Pará equates to double that lost from deforestation alone, -the equivalent of losing 92,000-139,000 km2 of primary forest. We found a strong positive relationship between increasing carbon stocks and higher biodiversity in varyingly disturbed forests. Simulations demonstrated that a carbon-focused conservation strategy is least effective at conserving biodiversity in the least disturbed forests, highlighting the importance of on-the-ground biodiversity surveys to prioritise conservation investments in the most species rich forests. We explored trade-offs among management actions to guide priorities for habitat protection, avoided degradation and restoration and found that where restoration imposes significant opportunity and implementation costs, efforts to avoid and reverse the degradation of existing forests can deliver greater returns on investment for biodiversity conservation. Systemic planning of forest management options at regional scales can substantially improve biodiversity

  14. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

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    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate

  15. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  16. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

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    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  17. Size and frequency of natural forest disturbances and the Amazon forest carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.D.B. Espirito-Santo; M. Gloor; M. Keller; Y. Malhi; S. Saatchi; B. Nelson; R.C. Oliveira Junior; C. Pereira; J. Lloyd; S. Frolking; M. Palace; Y.E. Shimabukuro; V. Duarte; A. Monteagudo Mendoza; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; T.R. Baker; T.R. Feldpausch; R.J.W. Brienen; G.P. Asner; D.S. Boyd; O.L. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory studies in the Amazon indicate a large terrestrial carbon sink. However, field plots may fail to represent forest mortality processes at landscape-scales of tropical forests. Here we characterize the frequency distribution of disturbance events in natural forests from 0.01 ha to 2,651 ha size throughout Amazonia using a novel...

  18. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  19. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations’ carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L. Phillips

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. Results The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Conclusions Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations

  20. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  1. Charcoal chronology of the Amazon forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulart, Ana Carolina; Macario, Kita D.; Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Bachelet, Caroline; Pereira, Bruna B.; Levis, Carolina; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Feldpausch, Ted R.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon region holds a wide variety of ethnic groups and microclimates, enabling different interactions between humans and environment. To better understand the evolution of this region, ancient remains need to be analysed by all possible means. In this context, the study of natural and/or

  2. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    type parameter values are assigned and assumed invariant with environmental condition but also ii) these models use leaf N as a factor that limit photosynthesis. Instead, since leaf P may also limit photosynthesis of the tropical forest (Reich et al. 2009), we use a more specific description of photosynthetic capacity across the basin based on the model evaluation done in Mercado et al. (2009) in which canopy photosynthetic capacity is related to foliar P but also using the relationships derived between canopy photosynthesis and leaf nutrients (N and P) from measurements in tropical trees (Domingues et al.In review). A study of this kind can inform the global vegetation/climate community as to the need for variability in key model parameters in order to accurately simulate carbon fluxes across the Amazon basin. Baker, T. R., et al. 2004. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 359 (1443):353-365. Phillips, O. L. et al. 2004. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 359 (1443):381-407. Malhi, Y. et al. 2004. The above-ground coarse wood productivity of 104 Neotropical forest plots. Global Change Biology 10 (5):563-591. Mercado, L.M. et al. 2009. Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink. Nature 458 (7241), 1014. Cox, P. M. et al. 1998. A canopy conductance and photosynthesis model for use in a GCM land surface scheme. Journal of Hydrology 213 (1-4):79-9 Sitch, S. et al. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology 9 (2):161-185. Reich B. R. et al. 2009. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynhtesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species. Oecologia, doi 10.1007/s00442-009-1291-3. Domingues, T. et al. In review. Co-limitation of

  3. Forest disappearance by firewood consumption in the Amazon estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Akio; Hiraoka, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation of flooded (várzea) and non-flooded (terra firme) forests caused by firewood consumption at tile factories (olaria) was investigated in Abaetetuba Island at the Amazon estuary. Várzea is spatially limited, the area is only 3% of the whole Amazon, however, it is heavily influenced by human activities, especially by the cultivation of acaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). The trees are cut down for the olarias. The number of tree species are small, and they have less wood density th...

  4. Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest

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    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary layer chemistry over the Amazon forest during the dry season is simulated with a photochemical model. Results are in good agreement with measurements of isoprene, NO, ozone, and organic acids. Photochemical reactions of biogenic isoprene and NOx can supply most of the ozone observed in the boundary layer. Production of ozone is very sensitive to the availability of NOx, but is insensitive to the isoprene source strength. High concentrations of total odd nitrogen (NOy) are predicted for the planetary boundary layer, about 1 ppb in the mixed layer and 0.75 ppb in the convective cloud layer. Most of the odd nitrogen is present as PAN-type species, which are removed by dry deposition to the forest. The observed daytime variations of isoprene are explained by a strong dependence of the isoprene emission flux on sun angle. Nighttime losses of isoprene exceed rates of reaction with NO3 and O3 and appear to reflect dry-deposition processes. The 24-hour averaged isoprene emission flux is calculated to be 38 mg/sq m per day. Photooxidation of isoprene could account for a large fraction of the CO enrichment observed in the boundary layer under unpolluted conditions and could constitute an important atmospheric source of formic acid, methacrylic acid, and pyruvic acid.

  5. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

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    Soriano Candia, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, W.H.; Pena Claros, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many

  6. Impacts of the 2010 Amazon drought on forest structure and function using CAO AToMS

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    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.; Kellner, J.

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 Amazon mega-drought is thought to have had a widespread impact on forest condition, including tree mortality. However, no large-scale, high-resolution information exists on changes in forest structure, function, turnover or other processes in response to the drought. With the possibility of increasing drought frequency in the Amazon basin, it is now critical that we develop repeat, large-area studies to assess impacts and recovery. Using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), we assessed the impacts of the 2010 drought by repeat flying of approximately 500,000 hectares of lowland humid tropical forest in the Peru Amazon. The CAO AToMS Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Visible-to-Shortwave-Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometers recorded changes in forest canopy spectral, chemical and physiological state from 2009 to 2011. Areas of greatest functional change were observed near the Peru-Brazil border in areas under heavy forest use for selective logging. The CAO AToMS waveform Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments measured highest rates of treefall and canopy gap formation in areas subjected to combined drought and logging, and on low fertility soils. The results provide the first spatially-explicit, large-scale and ecologically detailed information on the response of Amazonian forests to drought.

  7. Gap formation and carbon cycling in the Brazilian Amazon: measurement using high-resolution optical remote sensing and studies in large forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. D. B. Espirito-Santo; M. M. Keller; E. Linder; R. C. Oliveira Junior; C. Pereira; C. G. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dynamics of gaps plays a role in the regimes of tree mortality, production of coarse woody debris (CWD) and the variability of light in the forest understory. Aims: To quantify the area affected by, and the carbon fluxes associated with, natural gap-phase disturbances in a tropical lowland evergreen rain forest by use of ground measurements and high-...

  8. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Soriano

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa. Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  9. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  10. Foliicolous lichenized fungi of lowland Amazon forests in Pando, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foliicolous lichens are an important component of lowland tropical forests and are useful bioindicators of vegetation continuity or forest health. This study of these fungi in lowland Bolivian Amazon forests of Pando Department revealed the presence of 180 species, 101 of which are reported as new for Bolivia. The following 15 species are mentioned for the first time from South America: Anisomeridium guttuliferum Lücking, Byssolecania pluriseptata Breuss, Caprettia confusa Lücking & Sipman, Chroodiscus submuralis Lücking, Coenogonium barbatum Lücking, Aptroot & L. Umaña-Tenorio, Echinoplaca tetrapla (Zahlbr. Lücking, Gyalectidium laciniatum Lücking, G. pallidum Herrera-Campos & Lücking, Mazosia conica Sérus., Phylloblastia excavata P. M. McCarthy, Porina conica R. Sant., Porina subnucula Lücking & Vězda, Porina aff. subpallescens Vězda, Strigula minuta Lücking and Trichothelium intermedium Lücking. The up-to-date list of foliicolous lichens of Bolivia now numbers 218 species, 52% more than known previously. The foliicolous lichen biota of Pando, a substantial part of the Bolivian Amazon, has clear affinities to neighboring countries due to the significant proportion of species typical for lowland and submontane humid forests in the Neotropics. Analyses of the lichen diversity in the area suggest that its species composition is positively correlated with the presence of specific forest types.

  11. Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmenta lservices. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid deforestation include repression through command and control, creation of protected areas, and reformulation of infrastructure decisions and development policies. An economy primarily based on the value of environmental services is essential for long-term maintenance of the forest. Much progress has been made in the decades since I first proposed such a transition, but many issues also remain unresolved. These include theoretical issues regarding accounting procedures, improved quantification of the services and of the benefits of different policy options, and effective uses of the funds generated in ways that maintain both the forest and the human population.A floresta amazônica produz serviços ambientais, tais como a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono. Estes serviços têm um valor muito maior para a sociedade humana do que a madeira, carne bovina e outros produtos que são obtidos destruindo a floresta. Mecanismos institucionais ainda estão faltando para transformar o valor da floresta em pé no alicerce de uma economia baseada em manter, em lugar de destruir, este ecossistema. Manejo florestal para madeira e para produtos florestais n

  12. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaina Braga do Carmo; Michael Keller; Jadson Dezincourt Dias; Plinio Barbosa de Camargo; Patrick Crill

    2006-01-01

    We sampled air in the canopy layer of undisturbed upland forests during wet and dry seasons at three sites in the Brazilian Amazon region and found that both methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios increased at night. Such increases were consistent across sites and seasons. A canopy layer budget model based on measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 was...

  13. Recovery of Methane Consumption by Secondary Forests in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K.; Meredith, L. K.; Piccini, W.; Pedrinho, A.; Nüsslein, K.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Mui, T. S.; Saleska, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere and its atmospheric global mole fraction has roughly doubled since the start of the industrial revolution. The tropics are thought to be a major CH4 emitter, with the Amazon River Basin estimated to contribute 7 % of the annual flux to the atmosphere. The Amazon has experienced extensive land use change during the past 30 years, but we lack an understanding of the qualitative and quantitative effects of land use change on CH4 flux from the Amazon and the associated reasons. To illuminate the factors controlling CH4 flux across land use gradients in the Amazon we measured the CH4 fluxes and will measure the associated stable isotopic composition from pastures, primary forests, and secondary forests, at Ariquemes (Western Amazon, more deforested), and Santarem (Eastern Amazon, less deforested), Brazil. The sites near Santarem were sampled in June of 2016 and the sites near Ariquemes were sampled in March and April of 2017, both at the end of the wet season. Little difference was observed between land use types in Santarem with each land use type slightly consuming atmospheric CH4. However, pasture fluxes at Ariquemes were higher (+520 μg-C m-2 hr-1) than in primary (0 μg-C m-2 hr-1) and secondary forests (-20 μg-C m-2 hr-1; p = 6*10-4). CH4 flux from individual Santarem sites was not correlated with environmental variables. CH4 flux from Airquemes was correlated with several parameters across all samples including soil temperature (p = 7*10-4), and soil humidity (p = 0.02). Despite the fact that pastures experienced higher soil temperatures than forest soils this appears to be a low predictor of CH4 flux from these environments as it was seen at both Santarem and Ariquemes. The analysis of the stable isotopic composition of CH4 from these chambers will aid in understanding the competing processes of microbial CH4 consumption and production in these soils and why pastures may become CH4 sources and

  14. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufalino, L; Mendes, L M; Tonoli, G H D; Fonseca, A; Rodrigues, A; Cunha, P I; Marconcini, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers

  15. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P

    2017-04-18

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.

  16. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

  17. Aerosol number fluxes over the Amazon rain forest during the wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Artaxo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Number fluxes of particles with diameter larger than 10 nm were measured with the eddy covariance method over the Amazon rain forest during the wet season as part of the LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia campaign 2008. The primary goal was to investigate whether sources or sinks dominate the aerosol number flux in the tropical rain forest-atmosphere system.

    During the measurement campaign, from 12 March to 18 May, 60% of the particle fluxes pointed downward, which is a similar fraction to what has been observed over boreal forests. The net deposition flux prevailed even in the absolute cleanest atmospheric conditions during the campaign and therefore cannot be explained only by deposition of anthropogenic particles. The particle transfer velocity vt increased with increasing friction velocity and the relation is described by the equation vt = 2.4×10−3×u* where u* is the friction velocity.

    Upward particle fluxes often appeared in the morning hours and seem to a large extent to be an effect of entrainment fluxes into a growing mixed layer rather than primary aerosol emission. In general, the number source of primary aerosol particles within the footprint area of the measurements was small, possibly because the measured particle number fluxes reflect mostly particles less than approximately 200 nm. This is an indication that the contribution of primary biogenic aerosol particles to the aerosol population in the Amazon boundary layer may be low in terms of number concentrations. However, the possibility of horizontal variations in primary aerosol emission over the Amazon rain forest cannot be ruled out.

  18. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  19. Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

  20. Physical properties of the sub-micrometer aerosol over the Amazon rain forest during the wet-to-dry season transition - comparison of modeled and measured CCN concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles were studied in the Amazon region, 125 km northeast of Manaus, Brazil (-1°55.2'S, 59°28.1'W. The measurements were performed during the wet-to-dry transition period, 4-28 July 2001 as part of the LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia CLAIRE-2001 (Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment experiment. The number size distribution was measured with two parallel differential mobility analyzers, the hygroscopic growth at 90% RH with a Hygroscopic Tandem Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA and the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a cloud condensation nuclei counter. A model was developed that uses the H-TDMA data to predict the number of soluble molecules or ions in the individual particles and the corresponding minimum particle diameter for activation into a cloud droplet at a certain supersaturation. Integrating the number size distribution above this diameter, CCN concentrations were predicted with a time resolution of 10 min and compared to the measured concentrations. During the study period, three different air masses were identified and compared: clean background, air influenced by aged biomass burning, and moderately polluted air from recent local biomass burning. For the clean period 2001, similar number size distributions and hygroscopic behavior were observed as during the wet season at the same site in 1998, with mostly internally mixed particles of low diameter growth factor (~1.3 taken from dry to 90% RH. During the periods influenced by biomass burning the hygroscopic growth changed slightly, but the largest difference was seen in the number size distribution. The CCN model was found to be successful in predicting the measured CCN concentrations, typically within 25%. A sensitivity study showed relatively small dependence on the assumption of which model salt that was used to predict CCN concentrations from H-TDMA data. One strength of using H-TDMA data

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest degradation by selective logging and forest fire in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricardi, Eraldo A. T.

    Selective logging and forest fires have increased at a rapid pace in tropical regions in recent decades. Forest disturbances caused by selective logging and forest fires may vary in scale, ranging from local damage to forest canopy, habitats, soils, and biodiversity, to global changes caused by logging-related release of carbon into the atmosphere. This study provides a regional assessment of forest impacts by selective logging and forest fires for 1992, 1996, and 1999. Multivariate statistical models, remote sensing approaches, Geographic Information System (GIS), and remotely sensed imagery combined with field data were applied to verify the scale of environmental changes associated with these processes of forest disturbance. In this regard, the study widens the current knowledge on land use and land cover classifications to include selectively logged and burned forests as additional thematic classes. These classes have not yet been properly accounted for by conventional remote sensing approaches of deforestation assessment, despite their relevance for the understanding of the changes affecting tropical forests. This study is the first multi-temporal and spatial assessment of the selective logging and forest fire impacts in the Brazilian Amazon. The resulting estimates show that at least 11800 km 2, 16500 km2, and 35600 km2 of natural forests were selectively logged and/or burned by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. More than 60% of these forest disturbances observed in the Brazilian Amazon during those years were due to selective logging activities. However, forest fires were responsible for the greatest impacts on natural forests, causing an estimated loss of 18.8% of forest canopy in the study region. I also estimated that approximately 5467 km2, 7618 km2, and 17437 km2 were active areas of selective logging and/or forest fires in 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. In addition, approximately 4% of total forest disturbed by selective logging and forest fires

  2. From space and from the ground: determining forest dynamics in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hott, H.C.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has been partially attributed to the establishment of settlement projects. Acknowledging the difficulties in quantifying the rate and patterns of deforestation, the objective of this paper is to determine forest dynamics (deforestation and reforestation) in

  3. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Longo; Michael Keller; Maiza N. dos-Santos; Veronika Leitold; Ekena R. Pinagé; Alessandro Baccini; Sassan Saatchi; Euler M. Nogueira; Mateus Batistella; Douglas C. Morton

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha)...

  4. Regeneration in canopy gaps of tierra-firme forest in the Peruvian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Jovanovic, Milos; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    the regeneration dynamics of logging gaps with naturally occuring canopy gaps. In the concession of Consorcio Forestal Amazonico in the region of Ucayali in the Peruvian Amazon, a total of 210 circular sample plots were established in 35 gaps in unmanaged natural forest and 35 canopy gaps in forest managed...

  5. Necromass in undisturbed and logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Carlos. Passos

    2007-01-01

    Necromass is an important stock of carbon in tropical forests. We estimated volume, density, and mass of fallen and standing necromass in undisturbed and selectively logged forests at Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10.488S, 58.478W). We also measured standing dead trees at the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (3.088S, 54.948W) complementing our earlier study there...

  6. Mixing Carrots and Sticks to Conserve Forests in the Brazilian Amazon: A Spatial Probabilistic Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Marinho, Eduardo; Wunder, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services, at various administrative levels. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model for deforestation decisions in response to policy incentives and disincentives. The model builds on elements of optimal enforcement theory and introduces the notion of imperfect payment contract enforcement in the context of avoided deforestation. We implement the simulations using official deforestation statistics and data collected from field-based forest law enforcement operations in the Amazon region. We show that a large-scale integration of payments with the existing regulatory enforcement strategy involves a tradeoff between the cost-effectiveness of forest conservation and landholder incomes. Introducing payments as a complementary policy measure increases policy implementation cost, reduces income losses for those hit hardest by law enforcement, and can provide additional income to some land users. The magnitude of the tradeoff varies in space, depending on deforestation patterns, conservation opportunity and enforcement costs. Enforcement effectiveness becomes a key determinant of efficiency in the overall policy mix. PMID:25650966

  7. Mixing carrots and sticks to conserve forests in the Brazilian Amazon: a spatial probabilistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Marinho, Eduardo; Wunder, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services, at various administrative levels. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model for deforestation decisions in response to policy incentives and disincentives. The model builds on elements of optimal enforcement theory and introduces the notion of imperfect payment contract enforcement in the context of avoided deforestation. We implement the simulations using official deforestation statistics and data collected from field-based forest law enforcement operations in the Amazon region. We show that a large-scale integration of payments with the existing regulatory enforcement strategy involves a tradeoff between the cost-effectiveness of forest conservation and landholder incomes. Introducing payments as a complementary policy measure increases policy implementation cost, reduces income losses for those hit hardest by law enforcement, and can provide additional income to some land users. The magnitude of the tradeoff varies in space, depending on deforestation patterns, conservation opportunity and enforcement costs. Enforcement effectiveness becomes a key determinant of efficiency in the overall policy mix.

  8. Mixing carrots and sticks to conserve forests in the Brazilian Amazon: a spatial probabilistic modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Börner

    Full Text Available Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services, at various administrative levels. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model for deforestation decisions in response to policy incentives and disincentives. The model builds on elements of optimal enforcement theory and introduces the notion of imperfect payment contract enforcement in the context of avoided deforestation. We implement the simulations using official deforestation statistics and data collected from field-based forest law enforcement operations in the Amazon region. We show that a large-scale integration of payments with the existing regulatory enforcement strategy involves a tradeoff between the cost-effectiveness of forest conservation and landholder incomes. Introducing payments as a complementary policy measure increases policy implementation cost, reduces income losses for those hit hardest by law enforcement, and can provide additional income to some land users. The magnitude of the tradeoff varies in space, depending on deforestation patterns, conservation opportunity and enforcement costs. Enforcement effectiveness becomes a key determinant of efficiency in the overall policy mix.

  9. Estimated net radiation in an Amazon-Cerrado transition forest by Landsat 5 TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Heloisa Oliveira; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; Pavão, Vagner Marques; Machado, Nadja Gomes; Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Danelichen, Victor Hugo de Morais

    2017-10-01

    The Amazon-Cerrado transition forest is an extensive region with unique characteristics of radiation exchanges. The measurements of the net radiation (Rn) in this ecosystem are limited to the local scale, and their spatial distribution can be carried out by remote sensing techniques, of which accuracy needs to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the accuracy of the model of surface Rn derived from measured solar radiation and estimates of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface albedo (α), and land surface temperature (LST) estimated by images of Landsat 5 TM in an Amazon-Cerrado transition forest. The Rn, NDVI, α, and LST were estimated by Landsat 5 TM images and related to micrometeorological measurements in a tower of the study area. There was seasonality of micrometeorological variables with higher values of incident solar radiation, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit during the dry season. However, there was no seasonality of Rn. NDVI decreased and α increased during the dry season, while LST was nearly constant. The Rn had negative correlation with α and positive with NDVI. Both instantaneous and daily Rn estimated with Landsat 5 TM images showed high correlation and low error values when compared with Rn measured in the study area.

  10. The Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon2014/5) Observes Pollution Affecting Gases, Aerosols, Clouds, and Rainfall over the Rain Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S. T. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Artaxo, P. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Machado, L. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Manzi, A. O. [National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; Souza, R. A. F. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Schumacher, C. [Texas A& amp,M University, College Station, Texas; Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Biscaro, T. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Brito, J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Calheiros, A. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Jardine, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California; Medeiros, A. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Portela, B. [National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; de Sá, S. S. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Adachi, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Aiken, A. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Albrecht, R. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Alexander, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Andreae, M. O. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Barbosa, H. M. J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Buseck, P. [Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona; Chand, D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Comstock, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Day, D. A. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fast, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fisch, G. [Aeronautic and Space Institute, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Fortner, E. [Aerodyne, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts; Giangrande, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Gilles, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California; Goldstein, A. H. [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California; Guenther, A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Hubbe, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Jimenez, J. L. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Keutsch, F. N. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Kim, S. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Laskin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McKinney, K. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mei, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Miller, M. [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Nascimento, R. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Pauliquevis, T. [Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Pekour, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Peres, J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Petäjä, T. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Pöhlker, C. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Pöschl, U. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Rizzo, L. [Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Schmid, B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shilling, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Dias, M. A. Silva [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Smith, J. N. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Tomlinson, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Tóta, J. [Federal University of West Para, Santarém, Pará, Brazil; Wendisch, M. [University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    2017-05-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment took place around the urban region of Manaus in central Amazonia across two years. The urban pollution plume was used to study the susceptibility of gases, aerosols, clouds, and rainfall to human activities in a tropical environment. Many aspects of air quality, weather, terrestrial ecosystems, and climate work differently in the tropics than in the more thoroughly studied USA, employed an unparalleled suite of measurements at nine ground sites and onboard two aircraft to investigate the flow of background air into Manaus, the emissions into the air over the city, and the advection of the pollution downwind of the city. Herein, to visualize this train of processes and its effects, observations aboard a low-flying aircraft are presented. Comparative measurements within and adjacent to the plume followed the emissions of biogenic volatile organic carbon compounds (BVOCs) from the tropical forest, their transformations by the atmospheric oxidant cycle, alterations of this cycle by the influence of the pollutants, transformations of the chemical products into aerosol particles, the relationship of these particles to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and the differences in cloud properties and rainfall for background compared to polluted conditions. The observations of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment illustrate how the hydrologic cycle, radiation balance, and carbon recycling may be affected by present-day as well as future economic development and pollution over the Amazonian tropical forest.

  11. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

  12. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  13. Landscape biogeochemistry reflected in shifting distributions of chemical traits in the Amazon forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Knapp, David E.; Sinca, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    Tropical forest functional diversity, which is a measure of the diversity of organismal interactions with the environment, is poorly understood despite its importance for linking evolutionary biology to ecosystem biogeochemistry. Functional diversity is reflected in functional traits such as the concentrations of different compounds in leaves or the density of leaf mass, which are related to plant activities such as plant defence, nutrient cycling, or growth. In the Amazonian lowlands, river movement and microtopography control nutrient mobility, which may influence functional trait distributions. Here we use airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to develop maps of 16 forest canopy traits, throughout four large landscapes that harbour three common forest community types on the Madre de Dios and Tambopata rivers in southwestern Amazonia. Our maps, which are based on quantitative chemometric analysis of forest canopies with visible-to-near infrared (400-2,500 nm) spectroscopy, reveal substantial variation in canopy traits and their distributions within and among forested landscapes. Forest canopy trait distributions are arranged in a nested pattern, with location along rivers controlling trait variation between different landscapes, and microtopography controlling trait variation within landscapes. We suggest that processes of nutrient deposition and depletion drive increasing phosphorus limitation, and a corresponding increase in plant defence, in an eastward direction from the base of the Andes into the Amazon Basin.

  14. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests ecosystems respond dynamically to climate variability and disturbances on time scales of minutes to millennia. To date, our knowledge of disturbance and recovery processes in tropical forests is derived almost exclusively from networks of forest inventory plots. These plots typically sample small areas (less than or equal to 1 ha) in conservation units that are protected from logging and fire. Amazon forests with frequent disturbances from human activity remain under-studied. Ongoing negotiations on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) have placed additional emphasis on identifying degraded forests and quantifying changing carbon stocks in both degraded and intact tropical forests. We evaluated patterns of forest disturbance and recovery at four -1000 ha sites in the Brazilian Amazon using small footprint LiDAR data and coincident field measurements. Large area coverage with airborne LiDAR data in 2011-2012 included logged and unmanaged areas in Cotriguacu (Mato Grosso), Fiona do Jamari (Rondonia), and Floresta Estadual do Antimary (Acre), and unmanaged forest within Reserva Ducke (Amazonas). Logging infrastructure (skid trails, log decks, and roads) was identified using LiDAR returns from understory vegetation and validated based on field data. At each logged site, canopy gaps from logging activity and LiDAR metrics of canopy heights were used to quantify differences in forest structure between logged and unlogged areas. Contrasting patterns of harvesting operations and canopy damages at the three logged sites reflect different levels of pre-harvest planning (i.e., informal logging compared to state or national logging concessions), harvest intensity, and site conditions. Finally, we used multi-temporal LiDAR data from two sites, Reserva Ducke (2009, 2012) and Antimary (2010, 2011), to evaluate gap phase dynamics in unmanaged forest areas. The rates and patterns of canopy gap

  15. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  16. Rapid Assessments of Amazon Forest Structure and Biomass Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Messinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs can provide new ways to measure forests and supplement expensive or labor-intensive inventory methods. Forest carbon, a key uncertainty in the global carbon cycle and also important for carbon conservation programs, is typically monitored using manned aircraft or extensive forest plot networks to estimate aboveground carbon density (ACD. Manned aircraft are only cost-effective when applied to large areas (>100,000 ha, while plot networks are most effective for total C stock estimation across large areas, not for quantifying spatially-explicit variation. We sought to develop an effective method for frequent and accurate ACD estimation at intermediate scales (100–100,000 ha that would be sensitive to small-scale disturbance. Using small UAVs, we collected imagery of 516 ha of lowland forest in the Peruvian Amazon. We then used a structure-from-motion (SFM approach to create a 3D model of forest canopy. Comparing SFM- and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived estimates of canopy height and ACD, we found that SFM estimates of top-of-canopy height (TCH and ACD were highly correlated with previous LiDAR estimates (r = 0.86–0.93 and r = 0.73–0.94 for TCH and ACD, respectively, at 0.1–4 ha grain sizes, with r = 0.92 for ACD determination at the 1 ha scale, despite SFM and LiDAR measurements being separated by two years in a dynamic forest. SFM and LiDAR estimates of mean TCH and mean ACD were highly similar, differing by only 0.4% and 0.04%, respectively, within mature forest. The technique allows inexpensive, near-real-time monitoring of ACD for ecological studies, payment for ecosystem services (PES ventures, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+, forestry enterprises, and governance.

  17. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yannick; Morton, Douglas; Hartin, Corinne; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Cardoso Pereira, José Miguel; Hurtt, George; Asrar, Ghassem

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest's future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climate-driven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under current and projected conditions. In a scenario of low mitigation efforts with substantial land use expansion and climate change - Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 - projected understory fires increase in frequency and duration, burning 4-28 times more forest in 2080-2100 than during 1990-2010. In contrast, active climate mitigation and land use contraction in RCP4.5 constrain the projected increase in fire activity to 0.9-5.4 times contemporary burned area. Importantly, if climate mitigation is not successful, land use contraction alone is very effective under low to moderate climate change, but does little to reduce fire activity under the most severe climate projections. These results underscore the potential for a fire-driven transformation of Amazon forests if recent regional policies for forest conservation are not paired with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  18. Evaluating multiple causes of persistent low microwave backscatter from Amazon forests after the 2005 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Frolking; Stephen Hagen; Bobby Braswell; Tom Milliman; Christina Herrick; Seth Peterson; Dar Roberts; Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Krishna Prasad Vadrevu

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia has experienced large-scale regional droughts that affect forest productivity and biomass stocks. Space-borne remote sensing provides basin-wide data on impacts of meteorological anomalies, an important complement to relatively limited ground observations across the Amazon’s vast and remote humid tropical forests. Morning overpass QuikScat Ku-band microwave...

  19. Macrofungal diversity in Colombian Amazon forests varies with regions and regimes of disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Straatsma, G.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of fungal biodiversity studies from some selected Colombian Amazon forests in relationship to plant biodiversity and successional stages after slash and burn agriculture. Macrofungal diversity was found to differ between forests occurring in two regions (Araracuara vs

  20. Climate response to Amazon forest replacement by heterogeneous crop cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A. M.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    Previous modeling studies with atmospheric general circulation models and basic land surface schemes to balance energy and water budgets have shown that by removing the natural vegetation over the Amazon, the region's climate becomes warmer and drier. In this study we use a fully coupled Earth system model and replace tropical forests by a distribution of six common tropical crops with variable planting dates, physiological parameters and irrigation. There is still general agreement with previous studies as areal averages show a warmer (+1.4 K) and drier (-0.35 mm day-1) climate. Using an interactive crop model with a realistic crop distribution shows that regions of vegetation change experience different responses dependent upon the initial tree coverage and whether the replacement vegetation is irrigated, with seasonal changes synchronized to the cropping season. Areas with initial tree coverage greater than 80 % show an increase in coupling with the atmosphere after deforestation, suggesting land use change could heighten sensitivity to climate anomalies, while irrigation acts to dampen coupling with the atmosphere.

  1. Nutrient retranslocation in forest species in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978. The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of non-pioneer and deciduous species.

  2. The role of clouds in the surface energy balance over the Amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, E.A.B.; Humphries, E.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon region will initially impact the energy balance at the land surface through changes in land cover and surface hydrology. However, continuation of this human activity will eventually lead to atmospheric feedbacks, including changes in cloudiness which may play an important role in the final equilibrium of solar and terrestrial radiation at the surface. In this study, the different components of surface radiation over an undisturbed forest in the Amazon region are computed using data from the Amazon region micrometerological experiment (ARME). Several measures of cloudiness are defined: two estimated from the terrestrial radiation measurements, and one from the solar radiation measurements. The sensitivity of the surface fluxes of solar and terrestrial radiation to natural variability in cloudiness is investigated to infer the potential role of the cloudiness feedback in the surface energy balance. The results of this analysis indicate that a 1% decrease in cloudiness would increase net solar radiation by ca. 1.6 W/m 2 . However, the overall magnitude of this feedback, due to total deforestation of the Amazon forest, is likely to be of the same order as the magnitude of the decrease in net solar radiation due to the observed increase in surface albedo following deforestation. Hence, the total change in net solar radiation is likely to have a negligible magnitude. In contrast to this conclusion, we find that terrestrial radiation is likely to be more strongly affected; reduced cloudiness will decrease net terrestrial radiation; a 1% decrease in cloudiness induces a reduction in net terrestrial radiation of ca. 0.7 W/m 2 ; this process augments the similar effects of the predicted warming and drying in the boundary layer. Due to the cloudiness feedback, the most significant effect of large-scale deforestation on the surface energy balance is likely to be in the modification of the terrestrial radiation field rather than the classical albedo

  3. The Amazon forest-rainfall feedback: the roles of transpiration and interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Stefan; Staal, Arie; Tuinenburg, Obbe

    2017-04-01

    In the Amazon, deep-rooted trees increase local transpiration and high tree cover increase local interception evaporation. These increased local evapotranspiration fluxes to the atmosphere have both positive effects on forests down-wind, as they stimulate rainfall. Although important for the functioning of the Amazon, we have an inadequate assessment on the strength and the timing of these forest-rainfall feedbacks. In this study we (i) estimate local forest transpiration and local interception evaporation, (ii) simulate the trajectories of these moisture flows through the atmosphere and (iii) quantify their contributions to the forest-rainfall feedback for the whole Amazon basin. To determine the atmospheric moisture flows in tropical South America we use a Lagrangian moisture tracking algorithm on 0.25° (c. 25 km) resolution with eight atmospheric layers on a monthly basis for the period 2003-2015. With our approach we account for multiple re-evaporation cycles of this moisture. We also calculate for each month the potential effects of forest loss on evapotranspiration. Combined, these calculations allow us to simulate the effects of land-cover changes on rainfall in downwind areas and estimate the effect on the forest. We found large regional and temporal differences in the importance how forest contribute to rainfall. The transpiration-rainfall feedback is highly important during the dry season. Between September-November, when large parts of the Amazon are at the end of the dry season, more than 50% of the rainfall is caused by the forests upstream. This means that droughts in the Amazon are alleviated by the forest. Furthermore, we found that much moisture cycles several times during its trajectory over the Amazon. After one evapotranspiration-rainfall cycle, more than 40% of the moisture is re-evaporated again. The interception-evaporation feedback is less important during droughts. Finally from our analysis, we show that the forest-rainfall feedback is

  4. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  5. Assessment of forest degradation by selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon using a multi-temporal dataset

    OpenAIRE

    GRECCHI ROSANA; BEUCHLE Rene'; SHIMABUKURO Yosio; ACHARD Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The forests in the Brazilian Amazon have undergone heavy pressures in recent decades not only due to deforestation but also from degradation processes (e.g. unsustainable logging, forest fires, etc.), which are still poorly monitored. The Brazilian National Institute of Spatial Research (INPE) has mapped forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon (DEGRAD project, INPE 2008) since 2007 but a preliminary assessment showed that many selectively logged forest areas are not being included. Mapp...

  6. Contrasting the microbiomes from forest rhizosphere and deeper bulk soil from an Amazon rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jose Pedro; Hoffmann, Luisa; Cabral, Bianca Catarina Azeredo; Dias, Victor Hugo Giordano; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cezar; Boschiero, Clarissa; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Silva, Rosane

    2018-02-05

    Pristine forest ecosystems provide a unique perspective for the study of plant-associated microbiota since they host a great microbial diversity. Although the Amazon forest is one of the hotspots of biodiversity around the world, few metagenomic studies described its microbial community diversity thus far. Understanding the environmental factors that can cause shifts in microbial profiles is key to improving soil health and biogeochemical cycles. Here we report a taxonomic and functional characterization of the microbiome from the rhizosphere of Brosimum guianense (Snakewood), a native tree, and bulk soil samples from a pristine Brazilian Amazon forest reserve (Cuniã), for the first time by the shotgun approach. We identified several fungi and bacteria taxon significantly enriched in forest rhizosphere compared to bulk soil samples. For archaea, the trend was the opposite, with many archaeal phylum and families being considerably more enriched in bulk soil compared to forest rhizosphere. Several fungal and bacterial decomposers like Postia placenta and Catenulispora acidiphila which help maintain healthy forest ecosystems were found enriched in our samples. Other bacterial species involved in nitrogen (Nitrobacter hamburgensis and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) and carbon cycling (Oligotropha carboxidovorans) were overrepresented in our samples indicating the importance of these metabolic pathways for the Amazon rainforest reserve soil health. Hierarchical clustering based on taxonomic similar microbial profiles grouped the forest rhizosphere samples in a distinct clade separated from bulk soil samples. Principal coordinate analysis of our samples with publicly available metagenomes from the Amazon region showed grouping into specific rhizosphere and bulk soil clusters, further indicating distinct microbial community profiles. In this work, we reported significant shifts in microbial community structure between forest rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from an Amazon

  7. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  8. Necromass production: studies in undisturbed and logged Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICHAEL PALACE; MICHAEL KELLER; HUDSON SILVA

    2008-01-01

    Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14–19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (>2 cm diameter) during 4.5 years using repeated surveys in undisturbed...

  9. Biomass burning in the Amazon-fertilizer for the mountaineous rain forest in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Peter; Kohlpaintner, Michael; Rollenbeck, Ruetger

    2005-09-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates are derived comparable to those found in polluted central Europe. As significant anthropogenic sources are lacking at the research site it is suspected that biomass burning upwind in the Amazon basin is the major source of the enhanced sulfate and nitrate imput. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m has been carried out in the Podocarpus National Park close to the Rio SanFrancisco (3 degrees 58'S, 79 degrees 5'W) in southern Ecuador. pH values, electrical conductivity and chemical ion composition were measured at the TUM-WZW using standard methods. Results reported cover over one year from March 2002 until May 2003. Annual deposition rates of sulfate were calculated ranging between 4 and 13 kg S/ha year, almost as high as in polluted central Europe. Nitrogen deposition via ammonia (1.5-4.4 kg N/ha year) and nitrate (0.5-0.8 kg N/ha year) was found to be lower but still much higher than to be expected in such pristine natural forest environment. By means of back trajectory analyses it can be shown that most of the enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is most likely due to forest fires far upwind of the ecuadorian sampling site, showing a seasonal variation, with sources predominantly found in the East/North East during January-March (Colombia, Venezuala, Northern Brazil) and East/SouthEast during July-September (Peru, Brazil). Our results show that biomass burning in the Amazon basin is the predominant source of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that fertilize the mountaineous rain forest in south Ecuador. The

  10. Lidar observed seasonal variation of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    Both light and water are important environmental factors governing tree growth. Responses of tropical forests to their changes are complicated and can vary substantially across different spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest is the dry-season greening-up of Amazon forests, a phenomenon undergoing considerable debates whether it is real or a "light illusion" caused by artifacts of passive optical remote sensing techniques. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon forests using lidar observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We found that the net greening of canopy layer coincides with the wet-to-dry transition period, and its net browning occurs mostly at the late dry season. The understory also shows a seasonal cycle, but with an opposite variation to canopy and minimal correlation to seasonal variations in rainfall or radiation. Our results further suggest a potential interaction between canopy layers in the light regime that can optimize the growth of Amazon forests during the dry season. This light regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the dry-season greening-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

  11. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández; Katherine Renton

    2017-01-01

    The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae) is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poo...

  12. The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae in the Central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed G. Barros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau, which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.

  13. Improving simulated spatial distribution of productivity and biomass in Amazon forests using the ACME land model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Shi, X.; Xu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Norby, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle, accounting for one third of the global NPP and containing about 25% of global vegetation biomass and soil carbon. This is particularly true for tropical forests in the Amazon region, as it comprises approximately 50% of the world's tropical forests. It is therefore important for us to understand and represent the processes that determine the fluxes and storage of carbon in these forests. In this study, we show that the implementation of phosphorus (P) cycle and P limitation in the ACME Land Model (ALM) improves simulated spatial pattern of NPP. The P-enabled ALM is able to capture the west-to-east gradient of productivity, consistent with field observations. We also show that by improving the representation of mortality processes, ALM is able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern of above ground biomass across the Amazon region.

  14. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Jesus, Ederson da C.; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils. PMID:26284056

  15. Post-Crackdown Effectiveness of Field-Based Forest Law Enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities. PMID:25875656

  16. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S; Mueller, Rebecca C; Jesus, Ederson da C; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils.

  17. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Börner

    Full Text Available Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities.

  18. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; König, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities.

  19. Four novel Talaromyces species isolated from leaf litter from Colombian Amazon rain forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Neriman; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Vasco-Palacios, Aída Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Various Talaromyces strains were isolated during a survey of fungi involved in leaf litter decomposition in tropical lowland forests in the Caquetá and Amacayacu areas of the Colombian Amazon. Four new Talaromyces species are described using a polyphasic approach, which includes phenotypic...

  20. Acidobacterial community responses to agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarrete, A.A.; Kuramae, E.E.; De Hollander, M.; Pijl, A.S.; Van Veen, J.A.; Tsai, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of land-use changes and agricultural management of soybean in Amazon forest soils on the abundance and composition of the acidobacterial community. Quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) assays and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene were applied to study the acidobacterial

  1. Alternatives to deforestation: Steps toward sustainable use of the Amazon Rain Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon over the past two decades has jeopardized genetic diversity, contributed to regional and global climate change, caused erosion and flooding, destroyed forest resources, spread disease, and increased poverty. This book presents a selection of papers from an international conference that explored alternatives to deforestation of tropical forests. The alternatives described include natural forest management, agroforestry systems, and forest reestablishment on degraded pastures. The book should be useful to scientists, regional planners, and the broad scientific audience

  2. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Le Page

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest's future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climate-driven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under current and projected conditions. In a scenario of low mitigation efforts with substantial land use expansion and climate change – Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5 – projected understory fires increase in frequency and duration, burning 4–28 times more forest in 2080–2100 than during 1990–2010. In contrast, active climate mitigation and land use contraction in RCP4.5 constrain the projected increase in fire activity to 0.9–5.4 times contemporary burned area. Importantly, if climate mitigation is not successful, land use contraction alone is very effective under low to moderate climate change, but does little to reduce fire activity under the most severe climate projections. These results underscore the potential for a fire-driven transformation of Amazon forests if recent regional policies for forest conservation are not paired with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  3. Spatial and temporal dynamics of forest canopy gaps following selective logging in the eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREGORY P. ASNER; MICHAEL KELLER; JOSEN M. SILVA

    2004-01-01

    Selective logging is a dominant form of land use in the Amazon basin and throughout the humid tropics, yet little is known about the spatial variability of forest canopy gap formation and closure following timber harvests. We established chronosequences of large-area (14–158 ha) selective logging sites spanning a 3.5-year period of forest regeneration and two distinct...

  4. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Page, Yannick; Morton, Douglas; Hartin, Corinne; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Pereira, José Miguel Cardoso; Hurtt, George; Asrar, Ghassem

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest's future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climate-driven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under current and projected conditions. In a scenario of low mitigation efforts with substantial land use expansion and climate change – Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 – projected understory fires increase in frequency and duration, burning 4–28 times more forest in 2080–2100 than during 1990–2010. In contrast, active climate mitigation and land use contraction in RCP4.5 constrain the projected increase in fire activity to 0.9–5.4 times contemporary burned area. Importantly, if climate mitigation is not successful, land use contraction alone is very effective under low to moderate climate change, but does little to reduce fire activity under the most severe climate projections. These results underscore the potential for a fire-driven transformation of Amazon forests if recent regional policies for forest conservation are not paired with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  5. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  6. Efficiency of protected areas in Amazon and Atlantic Forest conservation: A spatio-temporal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral-Souza, Thadeu; Vancine, Maurício Humberto; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2018-02-01

    The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are considered the world's most biodiverse biomes. Human and climate change impacts are the principal drivers of species loss in both biomes, more severely in the Atlantic Forest. In response to species loss, the main conservation action is the creation of protected areas (PAs). Current knowledge and research on the PA network's conservation efficiency is scarce, and existing studies have mainly considered a past temporal view. In this study, we tested the efficiency of the current PA network to maintain climatically stable areas (CSAs) across the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To this, we used an ecological niche modeling approach to biome and paleoclimatic simulations. We propose three categories of conservation priority areas for both biomes, considering CSAs, PAs and intact forest remnants. The biomes vary in their respective PA networks' protection efficiency. Regarding protect CSAs, the Amazon PA network is four times more efficient than the Atlantic Forest PA network. New conservation efforts in these two forest biomes require different approaches. We discussed the conservation actions that should be taken in each biome to increase the efficiency of the PA network, considering both the creation and expansion of PAs as well as restoration programs.

  7. A comparison of dry and wet season aerosol number fluxes over the Amazon rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ahlm

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical number fluxes of aerosol particles and vertical fluxes of CO2 were measured with the eddy covariance method at the top of a 53 m high tower in the Amazon rain forest as part of the LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia experiment. The observed aerosol number fluxes included particles with sizes down to 10 nm in diameter. The measurements were carried out during the wet and dry season in 2008. In this study focus is on the dry season aerosol fluxes, with significant influence from biomass burning, and these are compared with aerosol fluxes measured during the wet season.

    Net particle deposition fluxes dominated in daytime in both seasons and the deposition flux was considerably larger in the dry season due to the much higher dry season particle concentration. The particle transfer velocity increased linearly with increasing friction velocity in both seasons. The difference in transfer velocity between the two seasons was small, indicating that the seasonal change in aerosol number size distribution is not enough for causing any significant change in deposition velocity. In general, particle transfer velocities in this study are low compared to studies over boreal forests. The reasons are probably the high percentage of accumulation mode particles and the low percentage of nucleation mode particles in the Amazon boundary layer, both in the dry and wet season, and low wind speeds in the tropics compared to the midlatitudes.

    In the dry season, nocturnal particle fluxes behaved very similar to the nocturnal CO2 fluxes. Throughout the night, the measured particle flux at the top of the tower was close to zero, but early in the morning there was an upward particle flux peak that is not likely a result of entrainment or local pollution. It is possible that these morning upward particle fluxes are associated with emission of primary biogenic particles from the rain forest

  8. Large-scale wind disturbances promote tree diversity in a Central Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E; Ribeiro, Gabriel H P M; Dos Santos, Joaquim; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m(2)) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583 ± 46 trees ha(-1)) (mean ± 99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7 ± 2.4 m(2) ha(-1)). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha(-1) and 14.9 m(2) ha(-1), respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition and species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m(2)) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind

  9. Incorporating phylogenetic information for the definition of floristic districts in hyperdiverse Amazon forests: Implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto; Pitman, Nigel C A; Ter Steege, Hans; Mogollón, Hugo; Ceron, Carlos; Palacios, Walter; Oleas, Nora; Fine, Paul V A

    2017-11-01

    Using complementary metrics to evaluate phylogenetic diversity can facilitate the delimitation of floristic units and conservation priority areas. In this study, we describe the spatial patterns of phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and evolutionary distinctiveness of the hyperdiverse Ecuador Amazon forests and define priority areas for conservation. We established a network of 62 one-hectare plots in terra firme forests of Ecuadorian Amazon. In these plots, we tagged, collected, and identified every single adult tree with dbh ≥10 cm. These data were combined with a regional community phylogenetic tree to calculate different phylogenetic diversity (PD) metrics in order to create spatial models. We used Loess regression to estimate the spatial variation of taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity as well as phylogenetic endemism and evolutionary distinctiveness. We found evidence for the definition of three floristic districts in the Ecuadorian Amazon, supported by both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity data. Areas with high levels of phylogenetic endemism and evolutionary distinctiveness in Ecuadorian Amazon forests are unprotected. Furthermore, these areas are severely threatened by proposed plans of oil and mining extraction at large scales and should be prioritized in conservation planning for this region.

  10. Fine root dynamics for forests on contrasting soils in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Jiménez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that as soil fertility increases, the amount of carbon allocated to below-ground production (fine roots should decrease. To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured the standing crop fine root mass and the production of fine roots (<2 mm by two methods: (1 ingrowth cores and, (2 sequential soil coring, during 2.2 years in two lowland forests growing on different soils types in the Colombian Amazon. Differences of soil resources were defined by the type and physical and chemical properties of soil: a forest on clay loam soil (Endostagnic Plinthosol at the Amacayacu National Natural Park and, the other on white sand (Ortseinc Podzol at the Zafire Biological Station, located in the Forest Reservation of the Calderón River. We found that the standing crop fine root mass and the production was significantly different between soil depths (0–10 and 10–20 cm and also between forests. The loamy sand forest allocated more carbon to fine roots than the clay loam forest with the production in loamy sand forest twice (mean±standard error=2.98±0.36 and 3.33±0.69 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, method 1 and 2, respectively as much as for the more fertile loamy soil forest (1.51±0.14, method 1, and from 1.03±0.31 to 1.36±0.23 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, method 2. Similarly, the average of standing crop fine root mass was higher in the white-sands forest (10.94±0.33 Mg C ha−1 as compared to the forest on the more fertile soil (from 3.04±0.15 to 3.64±0.18 Mg C ha−1. The standing crop fine root mass also showed a temporal pattern related to rainfall, with the production of fine roots decreasing substantially in the dry period of the year 2005. These results suggest that soil resources may play an important role in patterns of carbon allocation to the production of fine roots in these forests as the proportion of carbon allocated to above- and below-ground organs is different

  11. Smallholder Forestry in the Western Amazon: Outcomes from Forest Reforms and Emerging Policy Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest reforms unfolding during the last two decades in the western Amazon have embraced policy regimes founded on the principles of sustainable forest management. The policy frameworks adopted for smallholder forestry aimed to clarify forest rights including those of the indigenous people and smallholders, support the adoption of sustainable forest management and put a system in place to assure a legal timber supply. The emerging forest policy regimes have significantly shaped who has access to the forest, how the forest resources are used and the benefits that are utilized. We argue that forest reforms have not addressed some critical constraints facing smallholders in managing their forests either individually or collectively. Informal timber extraction persists with contradictory effects on smallholders and forests. Local participants continue to make a significant contribution in meeting a growing demand for timber through vigorous market networks that combine legal and illegal sources of timber supply. Some recent changes to forest policy frameworks emphasize approaches towards additional integrated forest management, simplification of regulations and incentives for improved forest management. We critically reflect on the scope, implementation and expected outcomes of these policy frameworks.

  12. Are community-based forest enterprises in the tropics financially viable? Case studies from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoana Humphries; Thomas P. Holmes; Karen Kainer; Carlos Gabriel Goncalves Koury; Edson Cruz; Rosana de Miranda Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Community-based forest management is an integral component of sustainable forest management and conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, where it has been heavily subsidized for the last ten years. Yet knowledge of the financial viability and impact of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) is lacking. This study evaluates the profitability of three CFEs in the...

  13. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  14. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A; Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H

    2011-01-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  15. Aboveground Biomass Variability Across Intact and Degraded Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcos; Keller, Michael; Dos-Santos, Maiza N.; Leitold, Veronika; Pinage, Ekena R.; Baccini, Alessandro; Saatchi, Sassan; Nogueira, Euler M.; Batistella, Mateus; Morton, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, re, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha) assembled to date for the Brazilian Amazon. We developed statistical models relating inventory ACD estimates to lidar metrics that explained70 of the variance across forest types. Airborne lidar-ACD estimates for intact forests ranged between 5.0 +/- 2.5 and 31.9 +/- 10.8 kg C m(exp -2). Degradation carbon losses were large and persistent. Sites that burned multiple times within a decade lost up to 15.0 +/- 0.7 kg C m(-2)(94%) of ACD. Forests that burned nearly15 years ago had between 4.1 +/- 0.5 and 6.8 +/- 0.3 kg C m(exp -2) (22-40%) less ACD than intact forests. Even for low-impact logging disturbances, ACD was between 0.7 +/- 0.3 and 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg C m(exp -2)(4-21%) lower than unlogged forests. Comparing biomass estimates from airborne lidar to existing biomass maps, we found that regional and pan-tropical products consistently overestimated ACD in degraded forests, under-estimated ACD in intact forests, and showed little sensitivity to res and logging. Fine-scale heterogeneity in ACD across intact and degraded forests highlights the benefits of airborne lidar for carbon mapping. Differences between airborne lidar and regional biomass maps underscore the need to improve and update biomass estimates for dynamic land use frontiers, to better characterize deforestation and degradation carbon emissions for regional carbon budgets and Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation(REDD+).

  16. Historical satellite data used to map Pan-Amazon forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Desch, Arthur; Curry, Troy; Altstatt, Alice; Devers, Didier; Townshend, John; Tucker, Compton

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is well documented and the contributions of Brazilian deforestation to global change have been extensively discussed in both scientific and popular literature [e.g., Skole and Tucker, 1993]. However, deforestation within the non-Brazilian tropics of South America has received much less attention. The Pan-Amazon region covering Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia comprises ˜2 million km2 of tropical forest that is under increasing pressure from logging and development. Wall-to-wall high-resolution forest cover maps are needed to properly document the complex distribution patterns of deforestation in the Pan-Amazon [Tucker and Townshend, 2000]. The Deforestation Mapping Group at the University of Marylands Global Land Cover Facility is using Landsat data to generate tropical forest cover maps in this region (Figure l). The study shows that while rates of forest loss are generally lower than those in Brazil, there are hot spots where deforestation rates run as high as 2,200 km2 yr1.

  17. Seasonal greenness variations in Amazon transitional forests in response to light, moisture, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratana, P.; Huete, A. R.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon basin consists of structurally diverse tropical forest ecosystems resulting from unique functional responses to seasonal rainfall and radiation drivers, as well as fire and land use pressures. Dry season intensity and duration increase from the tropical wet rainforests at the equator to cerrado at the south, with transitional forests (dry forest, semi-deciduous forests, and cerradão) and the arc of deforestation between the two large biomes. Little known of this distinctive transitional forest composition and functional types, yet this zone is disappearing rapidly due to anthropological pressure and warming events. We hypothesize that these gradients in light, moisture, land use pressures, and forest functional types should be expressed in distinct canopy-level seasonal responses observable in satellite time series data. Yet, recent studies have raised concerns of concurrent seasonal sun geometry influences that confound the interpretation of satellite-derived greenness and suggest that observed tropical forest seasonality are optical artifacts of shifting sun- sensor view geometries. In this study we investigated forest seasonal variations and greenness dynamics across the transition zone, with 10+ years (2003-2013) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from the MCD43A1 product, for a fixed sun angle and fully corrected for sun- sensor view geometries. EVI values were extracted across two latitudinal transects across the Amazon transition zone sampling the eastern and central regions of the basin. We found a clear pattern of shifting forest greenness seasonality resulting from earlier onsets of the dry season from south to the north, irrespective of, and asynchronous with the solstice to equinox sun-earth geometry. From this seasonal profiles dry season greening in the wet forests and browning in the southern tropical dry forests could be observed. In many of the transitional forests, a

  18. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR H.M. DANELICHEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  19. Use and management of the natural resources of the Colombian Amazon rain forest: a biological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yaneth Landínez Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main features associated with biological use practices and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cut proposal contrasts biological level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts depending on the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. In this way, provides an integrative perspective that will address conflict situations considering environmental factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios , to give sustenance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulation mechanisms in especially in areas such as strategic biological Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, sketching involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  20. Four years of ozone measurements in the Central Amazon - Absorption mechanisms and reactions within the rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stefan; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Saturno, Jorge; Souza, Rodrigo; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W) is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, allowing atmospheric and forest studies away from nearby anthropogenic emission sources. Starting with continuous measurements of vertical mixing ratio profiles of H2O, CO2 and O3 in April 2012 at 8 heights between 0.05 m and 80 m above ground, the longest continuous record of near surface O3 in the Amazon rainforest was established. Black carbon (BC), CO and micrometeorological measurements are available for the same period. During intensive campaigns, NOx was measured as well using the same profile system, and therefore several month of parallel NOx measurements are available. This data allows the analyses of diverse patterns regarding emission, deposition, turbulence and chemical reactions of trace gases within and above the rainforest for several rainy and dry seasons. The remote Amazon generally serves as a sink for O3 which is mainly deposited to the canopy. The deposition depends to a large extent on the aperture of the leaf stomata, which is correlated to temperature, humidity, solar radiation and water availability. Comparing these parameters with the in-canopy and above canopy gradients of O3, considering the turbulent conditions and further chemical reactions of O3 with NOx and VOC molecules, we estimated the role of the forest for the removal of ozone from the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. We applied the Multi-Layer Canopy Chemical Exchange Model - MLC-CHEM to support the analysis of the observed profiles of NOx and O3. Under pristine conditions, the forest soil is the major source for NO emissions, which are directly reacting with O3 molecules, affecting the O3 gradient within the sub-canopy. We have analyzed differences between model and measurements in sub-canopy NO and O3 mixing ratios by the application of different NO soil emission scenarios and by the performance of several sensitivity analyses to

  1. Analysis of results of biomass forest inventory in northeastern Amazon for development of REDD+ carbon project

    OpenAIRE

    MELLO, LEONEL N.C.; SALES, MARCIO H.R.; ROSA, LUIZ P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, a significant reduction in deforestation rates occurred during the last decade. In spite of that fact, the average annual rates are still too high, approximately 400.000 ha/year (INPE/Prodes). The projects of emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+) are an important tool to reduce deforestation rates in Brazil. Understanding the amazon forest structure, in terms of biomass stock is key to design avoided deforestation strategies. In this work, we analyze da...

  2. Storm intensity and old-growth forest disturbances in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.D.B. Espírito-Santo; M. Keller; B. Braswell; B.W. Nelson; S. Frolking; G. Vicente

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the pattern of large forest disturbances or blow‐downs apparently caused by severe storms in a mostly unmanaged portion of the Brazilian Amazon using 27 Landsat images and daily precipitation estimates from NOAA satellite data. For each Landsat a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) was applied. Based on SMA, we detected and mapped 279 patches (from 5 ha to 2,...

  3. Forest canopy gap distributions in the southern Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Asner

    Full Text Available Canopy gaps express the time-integrated effects of tree failure and mortality as well as regrowth and succession in tropical forests. Quantifying the size and spatial distribution of canopy gaps is requisite to modeling forest functional processes ranging from carbon fluxes to species interactions and biological diversity. Using high-resolution airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, we mapped and analyzed 5,877,937 static canopy gaps throughout 125,581 ha of lowland Amazonian forest in Peru. Our LiDAR sampling covered a wide range of forest physiognomies across contrasting geologic and topographic conditions, and on depositional floodplain and erosional terra firme substrates. We used the scaling exponent of the Zeta distribution (λ as a metric to quantify and compare the negative relationship between canopy gap frequency and size across sites. Despite variable canopy height and forest type, values of λ were highly conservative (λ mean  = 1.83, s  = 0.09, and little variation was observed regionally among geologic substrates and forest types, or at the landscape level comparing depositional-floodplain and erosional terra firme landscapes. λ-values less than 2.0 indicate that these forests are subjected to large gaps that reset carbon stocks when they occur. Consistency of λ-values strongly suggests similarity in the mechanisms of canopy failure across a diverse array of lowland forests in southwestern Amazonia.

  4. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  5. The ambiguity of drought events, a bottleneck for Amazon forest drought response modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Verbeeck, Hans; Baker, Timothy; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Galbraith, David; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Meir, Patrick; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Von Randow, Celso; Zhang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Considering the important role of the Amazon forest in the global water and carbon cycle, the prognosis of altered hydrological patterns resulting from climate change provides strong incentive for apprehending the direct implications of drought on the vegetation of this ecosystem. Dynamic global vegetation models have the potential of providing a useful tool to study drought impacts on various spatial and temporal scales. This however assumes the models being able to properly represent drought impact mechanisms. But how well do the models succeed in meeting this assumption? Within this study meteorological driver data and model output data of 4 different DGVMs, i.e. ORCHIDEE, JULES, INLAND and LPGmL, are studied. Using the palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and the mean cumulative water deficit (MWD), temporal and spatial representation of drought events are studied in the driver data and are referenced to historical extreme drought events in the Amazon. Subsequently, within the resulting temporal and spatial frame, we studied the drought impact on the above ground biomass (AGB) and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes. Flux tower data, field inventory data and the JUNG data-driven GPP product for the Amazon region are used for validation. Our findings not only suggest that the current state of the studied DGVMs is inadequate in representing Amazon droughts in general, but also highlights strong inter-model differences in drought responses. Using scatterplot-studies and input-output correlations, we provide insight in the origin of these encountered inter-model differences. In addition, we present directives of model development and improvement in scope of Amazon forest drought response modelling.

  6. A Decision Support System for Land Allocation under Multiple Objectives in Public Production Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Marco W. Lentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. In 2006, a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,284/2006 established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple uses. To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. We demonstrate the model's use for Faro State Forest, a 636,000 ha forest embedded within a large mosaic of conservation units recently established in the state of Pará. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region.

  7. Characterization of forest biodiversity in Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mapping canopy species richness is a key to the study and conservation of biological diversity in tropical forests, but to date, no reliable methods exist for operational biodiversity mapping of tropical regions. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has proven potential for the discrimination of canopy tree species, as a combination of high spectral and spatial resolution allows measurement of subtle spectral variations among individual tree crowns, corresponding to the chemical properties of the leaves in different species. We developed a method to estimate the Shannon diversity index, a popular biodiversity indicator, of a forest canopy from airborne spectral data by building upon the Spectral Variation Hypothesis, which relates biological diversity to spectral variability. We collected and analyzed hyperspectral data acquired by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) over the Los Amigos Conservation Concession in the Peruvian Amazon. The data have a spatial resolution of 2.0 m and 217 bands evenly spaced between 380 nm and 2510 nm. The method relies on a k-means clustering of a subset of pixels randomly selected from a site, each cluster serving as a proxy for different species. Each pixel in the image is then assigned to the nearest 'proxy-species', the Shannon index is computed for a given area, i.e. 1 ha, and the process is repeated several times to obtain the average estimated Shannon index. To test our approach, we applied the method to two types of data acquired by CAO AToMS. The first was an artificial gradient of biological diversity generated using pixels corresponding to species identified during a field campaign. This artificial gradient allowed total control on the number of species (ranging from 1 to 36 species per ha), and accurate quantification of the results. The spectral diversity index mapped using our method showed a strong correlation with the actual Shannon diversity index (R^2=0.81). The second dataset

  8. Toward detection of CO2 fertilization of tree growth and biomass accumulation in Amazon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Ribeiro, G.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis studies of old-growth tropical forest plot networks indicate a pantropical net carbon sink of more than 1 Pg C/yr. However a number of confounding factors limit our ability to attribute these changes to direct CO2 fertilization of tree growth and forest productivity. Of primary importance is determining if the plots adequately sample natural disturbance and recovery gradients, and the larger landscape successional mosaic. In addition, forest biomass dynamics which include tree growth, recruitment and mortality can interact in complex ways with changes in forest productivity and biomass accumulation. This study represents a novel approach to determine the sensitivity of different sampling strategies for detecting tropical forest CO2 fertilization while accounting for these confounding factors. Our approach, developed for Amazon forests in Brazil and Peru, combines extensive field plot data on biomass dynamics, remote sensing analyses to generate disturbance probability distribution functions, and individual-based simulation modeling for placing plot-level results into a landscape context. Results indicate that forest plots significantly larger than 10 ha are required to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for detecting CO2 fertilization. We also present a field sampling strategy for quantifying site-to-site differences in forest biomass accumulation rates, which is useful for detecting regional differences in tropical forest sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Overall, this approach is useful in developing field campaigns that explicitly account for landscape heterogeneity in testing key predictions of Earth system models.

  9. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  10. Using ALS and MODIS data to evaluate degradation in different forests types over the Xingu basin - Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Y.; Aragão, L. E.; Galvão, L. S.; Dalagnol, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Santos, E. G.; Espirito-Santo, F.

    2017-12-01

    Degradation of Amazon rainforests represents a vital threat to carbon storage, climate regulation and biodiversity; however its effect on tropical ecosystems is largely unknown. In this study we evaluate the effects of forest degradation on forest structure and functioning over the Xingu Basin in the Brazilian Amazon. The vegetation types in the area is dominated by Open Ombrophilous Forest (Asc), Semi-decidiuous Forest (Fse) and Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Dse). We used Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data together with time series of optical remote sensing images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bi-directional corrected using the Multi-Angle Implementation for Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC). We derive time-series (2008 to 2016) of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) to analyze the dynamics of degraded areas with related changes in canopy structure and greenness values, respectively. Airborne ALS measurements showed the largest tree heights in the Dse class with values up to 40m tall. Asc and Fse vegetation types reached up to 30m and 25m in height, respectively. Differences in canopy structure were also evident from the analysis of canopy volume models (CVMs). Asc showed higher proportion of sunlit, as expected for open forest types. Fse showed gaps predominantly in lower height levels, and a higher overall proportion of shaded crown. Full canopy closure was reached at about15 m height for both Asc and Dse, and at about 20 m height for Fse. We also used a base map of degraded areas (available from Imazon - Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazônia) to follow these regions throughout time using EVI and GRND from MODIS. All three forest types displayed seasonal cycles. Notable differences in amplitude were detected during the periods when degradation occurred and both indexes showed a decrease in their response. However, there were marked differences in timing and amplitude depending on

  11. Biological processes dominate seasonality of remotely sensed canopy greenness in an Amazon evergreen forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Kobayashi, Hideki; Stark, Scott C; Meng, Ran; Guan, Kaiyu; Tran, Ngoc Nguyen; Gao, Sicong; Yang, Wei; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Miura, Tomoaki; Oliviera, Raimundo Cosme; Rogers, Alistair; Dye, Dennis G; Nelson, Bruce W; Serbin, Shawn P; Huete, Alfredo R; Saleska, Scott R

    2018-03-01

    Satellite observations of Amazon forests show seasonal and interannual variations, but the underlying biological processes remain debated. Here we combined radiative transfer models (RTMs) with field observations of Amazon forest leaf and canopy characteristics to test three hypotheses for satellite-observed canopy reflectance seasonality: seasonal changes in leaf area index, in canopy-surface leafless crown fraction and/or in leaf demography. Canopy RTMs (PROSAIL and FLiES), driven by these three factors combined, simulated satellite-observed seasonal patterns well, explaining c. 70% of the variability in a key reflectance-based vegetation index (MAIAC EVI, which removes artifacts that would otherwise arise from clouds/aerosols and sun-sensor geometry). Leaf area index, leafless crown fraction and leaf demography independently accounted for 1, 33 and 66% of FLiES-simulated EVI seasonality, respectively. These factors also strongly influenced modeled near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, explaining why both modeled and observed EVI, which is especially sensitive to NIR, captures canopy seasonal dynamics well. Our improved analysis of canopy-scale biophysics rules out satellite artifacts as significant causes of satellite-observed seasonal patterns at this site, implying that aggregated phenology explains the larger scale remotely observed patterns. This work significantly reconciles current controversies about satellite-detected Amazon phenology, and improves our use of satellite observations to study climate-phenology relationships in the tropics. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  13. High overlap between traditional ecological knowledge and forest conservation found in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Pérez-Llorente, Irene; Luz, Ana Catarina; Guèze, Maximilien; Mas, Jean-François; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2018-03-12

    It has been suggested that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) may play a key role in forest conservation. However, empirical studies assessing to what extent TEK is associated with forest conservation compared with other variables are rare. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the spatial overlap of TEK and forest conservation has not been evaluated at fine scales. In this paper, we address both issues through a case study with Tsimane' Amerindians in the Bolivian Amazon. We sampled 624 households across 59 villages to estimate TEK and used remote sensing data to assess forest conservation. We ran statistical and spatial analyses to evaluate whether TEK was associated and spatially overlapped with forest conservation at the village level. We find that Tsimane' TEK is significantly and positively associated with forest conservation although acculturation variables bear stronger and negative associations with forest conservation. We also find a very significant spatial overlap between levels of Tsimane' TEK and forest conservation. We discuss the potential reasons underpinning our results, which provide insights that may be useful for informing policies in the realms of development, conservation, and climate. We posit that the protection of indigenous cultural systems is vital and urgent to create more effective policies in such realms.

  14. Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Forest Canopy Chemistry in the Andes-Amazon Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon corridor is one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth. Elevation gradients provide opportunities to explore the underlying sources and environmental controls on functional diversity of the forest canopy, however plot-based studies have proven highly variable. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to quantify changes canopy functional traits in a series of eleven 25-ha landscapes distributed along a 3300 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to treeline in the Peruvian Andes. Each landscape encompassed a 1 ha field plot in which all trees reaching the canopy were climbed and leaves were sampled for 20 chemical traits. We used partial least squares regression to relate plot-level chemical values with airborne spectroscopy from the 1 ha area. Sixteen chemical traits produced predictable relationships with the spectra and were used to generate maps of the 25 ha landscape. Ten chemical traits were significantly related to elevation at the 25 ha scale. These ten traits displayed 35% greater accuracy (R2) and precision (rmse) when evaluated at the 25 ha scale compared to values derived from tree climbing alone. The results indicate that high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy can be used as surrogate for laborious tree climbing and chemical assays to understand chemical diversity in Amazonian forests. Understanding how these chemicals vary among forest communities throughout the Andes-Amazon corridor will facilitate mapping of functional diversity and the response of canopies to climate change.

  15. Estimates of forest height in the Amazon basin using radar altimeter data of SARIN mode onboard Cryosat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Forest height is an important parameter for global carbon cycle studies. New technologies are required since the end of the operation ofGeoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (IceSat) in 2009. CryoSat-2 is a European Space Agencyenvironmental research satellite which was launched in April 2010.The SIRAL (SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter) on board CryoSat-2 provides three operational modes for different observational requirements. Before the launch of Icesat2 around July 2016, CryoSat data represents a unique source of information on regional-to-global scale forest canopy height.We propose to use radar altimetry waveforms from the synthetic aperture/interferometric (SARin) mode to estimate canopy height in the Amazon basin. To understand the relation between canopy structure and the SIRAL waveform in Ku band, a 3D model was developed and implemented based on a Lidar model by introducingthe scattering items from crown, trunk and ground surface at Ku band. The vertical distribution of tree crown volume within a SIRAL footprint was calculated from its 3-D stand model by summing the volumes of all tree crown cells at the same height from the ground. The preliminary comparisons between simulated and measured SIRAL waveforms show that the model captures the major characteristics of the SIRAL signature. Cryosat waveform data of SARin mode and from June, 2011 to June, 2012 (cycle 04) is used to retrieve canopy height at Amazon basin under Cryosat groundtrack. The canopy height is derived by extracting the key points of vegetation and ground returns after noise estimation. Because of lack of field tree height measurement in 2012 at Amazon, we validated the results using the field measurements at four areas (the km 67 camp, the km 77 camp, Ruropolis, the Taoajos river) of Tapajos National Forest, Brazil in November 1999, and compared the results with the canopy height estimation from previous studies using Laser

  16. Influence of environmental variables on the density of shrub and tree seedlings in an Upland Forest in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolpho Gonçalves Dias Terceiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the influence of luminosity and distance from an igarapé on seedling density in an upland forest in the Central Amazon. Twenty plots were installed, where we measured the percentage of canopy openness, and the distance from an igarapé, and we also counted the number of seedlings. We obtained a linear regression of canopy openness with the seedling density and an ANOVA of seedling density according to the distance from an igarapé. We registered a total of 229 seedling individuals (seedling density = 11 plants/m2. Among the environmental variables measured, only canopy openness has positively influenced on seedling density. Small amplitude in the increase in luminosity can cause an increased seedling density. Seedling density did not differ with regard to the distance from an igarapé, due to low competitiveness and adaptations by species occurring in the wetlands.

  17. The Contribution of Multiple Use Forest Management to Small Farmers’ Annual Incomes in the Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plinio Sist

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale farmers in the Brazilian Amazon collectively hold tenure over more than 12 million ha of permanent forest reserves, as required by the Forest Code. The trade-off between forest conservation and other land uses entails opportunity costs for them and for the country, which have not been sufficiently studied. We assessed the potential income generated by multiple use forest management for farmers and compared it to the income potentially derived from six other agricultural land uses. Income from the forest was from (i logging, carried out by a logging company in partnership with farmers’ associations; and (ii harvesting the seeds of Carapa guianensis (local name andiroba for the production of oil. We then compared the income generated by multiple-use forest management with the income from different types of agrarian systems. According to our calculations in this study, the mean annual economic benefits from multiple forest use are the same as the least productive agrarian system, but only 25% of the annual income generated by the most productive system. Although the income generated by logging may be considered low when calculated on an annual basis and compared to incomes generated by agriculture, the one-time payment after logging is significant (US$5,800 to US$33,508 and could be used to implement more intensive and productive cropping systems such as planting black pepper. The income from forest management could also be used to establish permanent fields in deforested areas for highly productive annual crops using conservation agriculture techniques. These techniques are alternatives to the traditional land use based on periodic clearing of the forest. Nevertheless, the shift in current practices towards adoption of more sustainable conservation agriculture techniques will also require the technical and legal support of the State to help small farmers apply these alternatives, which aim to integrate forest management in

  18. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Souza, Aparecida Doniseti Pires de; Tachibana, Vilma Mayumi; Flores, Edilson Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using bayesian spatiotemporal methods. We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI) are important in the prediction of malaria cases. It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  19. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Domenech Tupinambá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7% were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area. More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

  20. High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Powell, George V N; Mascaro, Joseph; Knapp, David E; Clark, John K; Jacobson, James; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Balaji, Aravindh; Paez-Acosta, Guayana; Victoria, Eloy; Secada, Laura; Valqui, Michael; Hughes, R Flint

    2010-09-21

    Efforts to mitigate climate change through the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks and emissions over large geographic areas. With a new integrated use of satellite imaging, airborne light detection and ranging, and field plots, we mapped aboveground carbon stocks and emissions at 0.1-ha resolution over 4.3 million ha of the Peruvian Amazon, an area twice that of all forests in Costa Rica, to reveal the determinants of forest carbon density and to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping carbon emissions for REDD. We discovered previously unknown variation in carbon storage at multiple scales based on geologic substrate and forest type. From 1999 to 2009, emissions from land use totaled 1.1% of the standing carbon throughout the region. Forest degradation, such as from selective logging, increased regional carbon emissions by 47% over deforestation alone, and secondary regrowth provided an 18% offset against total gross emissions. Very high-resolution monitoring reduces uncertainty in carbon emissions for REDD programs while uncovering fundamental environmental controls on forest carbon storage and their interactions with land-use change.

  1. Land use change emission scenarios: anticipating a forest transition process in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Assis, Talita Oliveira; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L; Toledo, Peter Mann; Santos-Junior, Roberto Araújo Oliveira; Batistella, Mateus; Coelho, Andrea Santos; Savaget, Elza Kawakami; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; Nobre, Carlos Afonso; Ometto, Jean Pierre H

    2016-05-01

    Following an intense occupation process that was initiated in the 1960s, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, stabilizing around 6000 km(2) yr(-1) in the last 5 years. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Nevertheless, other threats remain, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We propose three updated qualitative and quantitative land-use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazon, including a normative 'Sustainability' scenario in which we envision major socio-economic, institutional, and environmental achievements in the region. We developed an innovative spatially explicit modelling approach capable of representing alternative pathways of the clear-cut deforestation, secondary vegetation dynamics, and the old-growth forest degradation. We use the computational models to estimate net deforestation-driven carbon emissions for the different scenarios. The region would become a sink of carbon after 2020 in a scenario of residual deforestation (~1000 km(2) yr(-1)) and a change in the current dynamics of the secondary vegetation - in a forest transition scenario. However, our results also show that the continuation of the current situation of relatively low deforestation rates and short life cycle of the secondary vegetation would maintain the region as a source of CO2 - even if a large portion of the deforested area is covered by secondary vegetation. In relation to the old-growth forest degradation process, we estimated average gross emission corresponding to 47% of the clear-cut deforestation from 2007 to 2013 (using the DEGRAD system data), although the aggregate effects of the postdisturbance regeneration can partially offset these emissions. Both processes (secondary

  2. Long-term Carbon Loss and Recovery Following Selective Logging in Amazon Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Maoyi; Asner, Gregory P.

    2010-09-30

    Amazon deforestation contributes significantly to global carbon (C) emissions. In comparison, the contribution from selective logging to atmospheric CO2 emissions, and its impact on regional C dynamics, is highly uncertain. Using a new geographically-based modeling approach in combination with high resolution remote sensing data from 1999-2002, we estimate that C emissions were 0.04 – 0.05 Pg C yr-1 due to selective logging from a ~2,664,960 km2 region of the Brazilian Amazon. Selective logging was responsible for 15-19% higher carbon emissions than reported from deforestation (clear-cutting) alone. Our simulations indicated that forest carbon lost via selective logging lasts two to three decades following harvest, and that the original live biomass takes up to a century to recover, if the forests are not subsequently cleared. The two- to three-decade loss of carbon results from the biomass damaged by logging activities, including leaves, wood, and roots, estimated to be 89.1 Tg C yr-1 from 1999-2002 over the study region, leaving 70.0 Tg C yr-1 and 7.9 Tg C yr-1 to accumulate as coarse woody debris and soil C, respectively. While avoided deforestation is central to crediting rainforest nations for reduced carbon emissions, the extent and intensity of selective logging are also critical to determining carbon emissions in the context of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). We show that a combination of automated high-resolution satellite monitoring and detailed forest C modeling can yield spatially explicit estimates of harvest related C losses and subsequent recovery in support of REDD and other international carbon market mechanisms.

  3. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  4. Diversity of terrestrial mammal seed dispersers along a lowland Amazon forest regrowth gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Sandi, Alexander; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Rodriguez Chuma, Victor Juan Ulises; Norris, Darren

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the restoration/regeneration of degraded tropical habitats yet the potential role of natural regenerators remains unclear. We test the hypothesis that the richness and functional diversity of terrestrial mammals differs between forest regrowth stages. We quantified the richness and functional diversity of eight terrestrial mammal seed-disperser species across a forest regrowth gradient in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We installed camera-traps in 15 sites within small-holder properties with forest regrowth stage classified into three groups, with five sites each of: late second-regrowth forest, early second-regrowth forest and abandoned pasture. Species richness and functional dispersion from the regrowth sites were compared with 15 paired forest control sites. Multi model selection showed that regrowth class was more important for explaining patterns in richness and functional diversity than other variables from three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: hunting (distance to house, distance to river, distance to town, small holder residence), land cover (% forest cover within 50 meters, 1 kilometer and 5 kilometers) and land use (regrowth class, time since last use). Differences in functional diversity were most strongly explained by a loss of body mass. We found that diversity in regrowth sites could be similar to control sites even in some early-second regrowth areas. This finding suggests that when surrounded by large intact forest areas the richness and functional diversity close to human small-holdings can return to pre-degradation values. Yet we also found a significant reduction in richness and functional diversity in more intensely degraded pasture sites. This reduction in richness and functional diversity may limit the potential for regeneration and increase costs for ecological regeneration and restoration actions around more intense regrowth areas.

  5. Evaluating multiple causes of persistent low microwave backscatter from Amazon forests after the 2005 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Stephen; Braswell, Bobby; Milliman, Tom; Herrick, Christina; Peterson, Seth; Roberts, Dar; Keller, Michael; Palace, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia has experienced large-scale regional droughts that affect forest productivity and biomass stocks. Space-borne remote sensing provides basin-wide data on impacts of meteorological anomalies, an important complement to relatively limited ground observations across the Amazon’s vast and remote humid tropical forests. Morning overpass QuikScat Ku-band microwave backscatter from the forest canopy was anomalously low during the 2005 drought, relative to the full instrument record of 1999–2009, and low morning backscatter persisted for 2006–2009, after which the instrument failed. The persistent low backscatter has been suggested to be indicative of increased forest vulnerability to future drought. To better ascribe the cause of the low post-drought backscatter, we analyzed multiyear, gridded remote sensing data sets of precipitation, land surface temperature, forest cover and forest cover loss, and microwave backscatter over the 2005 drought region in the southwestern Amazon Basin (4°-12°S, 66°-76°W) and in adjacent 8°x10° regions to the north and east. We found moderate to weak correlations with the spatial distribution of persistent low backscatter for variables related to three groups of forest impacts: the 2005 drought itself, loss of forest cover, and warmer and drier dry seasons in the post-drought vs. the pre-drought years. However, these variables explained only about one quarter of the variability in depressed backscatter across the southwestern drought region. Our findings indicate that drought impact is a complex phenomenon and that better understanding can only come from more extensive ground data and/or analysis of frequent, spatially-comprehensive, high-resolution data or imagery before and after droughts. PMID:28873422

  6. Tropical forest mapping at regional scale using the GRFM SAR mosaics over the Amazon in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgrenzaroli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The work described in this thesis concerns the estimation of tropical forest vegetation cover in the Amazon region using as data source a continental scale high resolution (100 m) radar mosaic as data source. The radar mosaic was compiled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) using

  7. Sensitivity of ALOS/PALSAR imagery to forest degradation by fire in northern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Flora da Silva Ramos Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Xaud, Haron Abrahim Magalhães

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the full polarimetric Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), to forest degradation caused by fires in northern Amazon, Brazil. We searched for changes in PALSAR signal and tri-dimensional polarimetric responses for different classes of fire disturbance defined by fire frequency and severity. Since the aboveground biomass (AGB) is affected by fire, multiple regression models to estimate AGB were obtained for the whole set of coherent and incoherent attributes (general model) and for each set separately (specific models). The results showed that the polarimetric L-band PALSAR attributes were sensitive to variations in canopy structure and AGB caused by forest fire. However, except for the unburned and thrice burned classes, no single PALSAR attribute was able to discriminate between the intermediate classes of forest degradation by fire. Both the coherent and incoherent polarimetric attributes were important to explain AGB variations in tropical forests affected by fire. The HV backscattering coefficient, anisotropy, double-bounce component, orientation angle, volume index and HH-VV phase difference were PALSAR attributes selected from multiple regression analysis to estimate AGB. The general regression model, combining phase and power radar metrics, presented better results than specific models using coherent or incoherent attributes. The polarimetric responses indicated the dominance of VV-oriented backscattering in primary forest and lightly burned forests. The HH-oriented backscattering predominated in heavily and frequently burned forests. The results suggested a greater contribution of horizontally arranged constituents such as fallen trunks or branches in areas severely affected by fire.

  8. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  9. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  10. How natural Forest Conversion Affects Insect Biodiversity in the Peruvian Amazon: Can Agroforestry Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Perry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian rainforest is a unique ecosystem that comprises habitat for thousands of animal species. Over the last decades, the ever-increasing human population has caused forest conversion to agricultural land with concomitant high biodiversity losses, mainly near a number of fast-growing cities in the Peruvian Amazon. In this research, we evaluated insect species richness and diversity in five ecosystems: natural forests, multistrata agroforests, cocoa agroforests, annual cropping monoculture and degraded grasslands. We determined the relationship between land use intensity and insect diversity changes. Collected insects were taxonomically determined to morphospecies and data evaluated using standardized biodiversity indices. The highest species richness and abundance were found in natural forests, followed by agroforestry systems. Conversely, monocultures and degraded grasslands were found to be biodiversity-poor ecosystems. Diversity indices were relatively high for all ecosystems assessed with decreasing values along the disturbance gradient. An increase in land use disturbance causes not only insect diversity decreases but also complete changes in species composition. As agroforests, especially those with cocoa, currently cover many hectares of tropical land and show a species composition similar to natural forest sites, we can consider them as biodiversity reservoirs for some of the rainforest insect species.

  11. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel; Stone, Thomas; Davidson, Eric; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  12. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan Fernando; Villegas, Juan Camilo; María Rendón, Angela; Rodríguez, Estiven; Hoyos, Isabel; Mercado-Bettín, Daniel; Poveda, Germán

    2018-03-01

    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land-atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling) that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  13. Mapping Canopy Damage from Understory Fires in Amazon Forests Using Annual Time Series of Landsat and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Hurtt, George C.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Understory fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. The annual extent of fire-damaged forest in Amazonia remains uncertain due to difficulties in separating burning from other types of forest damage in satellite data. We developed a new approach, the Burn Damage and Recovery (BDR) algorithm, to identify fire-related canopy damages using spatial and spectral information from multi-year time series of satellite data. The BDR approach identifies understory fires in intact and logged Amazon forests based on the reduction and recovery of live canopy cover in the years following fire damages and the size and shape of individual understory burn scars. The BDR algorithm was applied to time series of Landsat (1997-2004) and MODIS (2000-2005) data covering one Landsat scene (path/row 226/068) in southern Amazonia and the results were compared to field observations, image-derived burn scars, and independent data on selective logging and deforestation. Landsat resolution was essential for detection of burn scars less than 50 ha, yet these small burns contributed only 12% of all burned forest detected during 1997-2002. MODIS data were suitable for mapping medium (50-500 ha) and large (greater than 500 ha) burn scars that accounted for the majority of all fire-damaged forest in this study. Therefore, moderate resolution satellite data may be suitable to provide estimates of the extent of fire-damaged Amazon forest at a regional scale. In the study region, Landsat-based understory fire damages in 1999 (1508 square kilometers) were an order of magnitude higher than during the 1997-1998 El Nino event (124 square kilometers and 39 square kilometers, respectively), suggesting a different link between climate and understory fires than previously reported for other Amazon regions. The results in this study illustrate the potential to address critical questions concerning climate and fire risk in Amazon forests by

  14. High-resolution mapping of forest carbon stocks in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Asner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution mapping of tropical forest carbon stocks can assist forest management and improve implementation of large-scale carbon retention and enhancement programs. Previous high-resolution approaches have relied on field plot and/or light detection and ranging (LiDAR samples of aboveground carbon density, which are typically upscaled to larger geographic areas using stratification maps. Such efforts often rely on detailed vegetation maps to stratify the region for sampling, but existing tropical forest maps are often too coarse and field plots too sparse for high-resolution carbon assessments. We developed a top-down approach for high-resolution carbon mapping in a 16.5 million ha region (> 40% of the Colombian Amazon – a remote landscape seldom documented. We report on three advances for large-scale carbon mapping: (i employing a universal approach to airborne LiDAR-calibration with limited field data; (ii quantifying environmental controls over carbon densities; and (iii developing stratification- and regression-based approaches for scaling up to regions outside of LiDAR coverage. We found that carbon stocks are predicted by a combination of satellite-derived elevation, fractional canopy cover and terrain ruggedness, allowing upscaling of the LiDAR samples to the full 16.5 million ha region. LiDAR-derived carbon maps have 14% uncertainty at 1 ha resolution, and the regional map based on stratification has 28% uncertainty in any given hectare. High-resolution approaches with quantifiable pixel-scale uncertainties will provide the most confidence for monitoring changes in tropical forest carbon stocks. Improved confidence will allow resource managers and decision makers to more rapidly and effectively implement actions that better conserve and utilize forests in tropical regions.

  15. Long-term forest-savannah dynamics in the Bolivian Amazon: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Francis E; Langstroth, Robert P; Fisher, Rosie A; Meir, Patrick

    2007-02-28

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the respective roles of past changes in climate, geomorphology and human activities in shaping the present-day forest-savannah mosaic of the Bolivian Amazon, and consider how this palaeoecological perspective may help inform conservation strategies for the future. To this end, we review a suite of palaeoecological and archaeological data from two distinct forest-savannah environments in lowland Bolivia: Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NKMNP) on the Precambrian Shield and the 'Llanos de Moxos' in the Beni basin. We show that they contain markedly contrasting legacies of past climatic, geomorphic and anthropogenic influences between the last glacial period and the Spanish Conquest. In NKMNP, increasing precipitation caused evergreen rainforest expansion, at the expense of semi-deciduous dry forest and savannahs, over the last three millennia. In contrast, pre-Hispanic indigenous cultures were instrumental in facilitating recent forest expansion in the Llanos de Moxos by building a vast network of earthworks. Insights from Mid-Holocene palaeodata, together with ecological observations and modelling studies, suggest that there will be progressive replacement of rainforest by dry forest and savannah in NKMNP over the twenty-first century in response to the increased drought predicted by general circulation models. Protection of the latitudinal landscape corridors may be needed to facilitate these future species reassortments. However, devising appropriate conservation strategies for the Llanos de Moxos will be more difficult due to its complex legacy of Palaeo-Indian impact. Without fully understanding the degree to which its current biota has been influenced by past native cultures, the type and intensity of human land use appropriate for this landscape in the future will be difficult to ascertain.

  16. Higher absorbed solar radiation partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests during the 2015 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Xiao, Jingfeng; He, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Amazon forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle and Earth’s climate. The vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought remains highly controversial. Here we examine the impacts of the 2015 drought on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests to understand how solar radiation and precipitation jointly control forest photosynthesis during the severe drought. We use a variety of gridded vegetation and climate datasets, including solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), the fraction of absorbed PAR (APAR), leaf area index (LAI), precipitation, soil moisture, cloud cover, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in our analysis. Satellite-derived SIF observations provide a direct diagnosis of plant photosynthesis from space. The decomposition of SIF to SIF yield (SIFyield) and APAR (the product of PAR and fPAR) reveals the relative effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis. We found that the drought significantly reduced SIFyield, the emitted SIF per photon absorbed. The higher APAR resulting from lower cloud cover and higher LAI partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, leading to a smaller reduction in SIF than in SIFyield and precipitation. We further found that SIFyield anomalies were more sensitive to precipitation and VPD anomalies in the southern regions of the Amazon than in the central and northern regions. Our findings shed light on the relative and combined effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis, and can improve our understanding of the responses of Amazon forests to drought.

  17. Post-Crackdown Effectiveness of Field-Based Forest Law Enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    B?rner, Jan; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Hargrave, Jorge; K?nig, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiven...

  18. Differential response of Acidobacteria subgroups to forest-to-pasture conversion and their biogeographic patterns in the western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion - particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability - we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6 was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils.

  19. Diet of Monodelphis glirina (Mammalia: Didelphidae in forest fragments in southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welvis Felipe Fernandes Castilheiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the diet of Monodelphis glirina (Wagner, 1842 in forest fragments of Alta Floresta, located in the south of the Amazon, state of Mato Grosso. The diet was determined by the analysis of the stomach contents from 57 subjects sampled between May and September 2009. Nine food categories were present: Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Diplopoda, Nematoda, seeds, miscellaneous, hair and bait leftovers (banana and peanut butter. Coleoptera was the category eaten most frequently, rating 50% of abundance and 91.22% of occurrence. "Seeds" were the least abundant (0.11% and rated 1.75% in occurrence, probably because seeds are easy to digest. The size of the fragments negatively and significantly influenced the amount of Coleoptera in the diet. The rainy season seemed to have significant influence over the abundance of arthropods in the diet. The items in the diet suggest that M. glirina is opportunistic and has a generalist diet, tending to be insectivore when living in the forest and exploring the food resources according to their availability.

  20. Estimating Canopy Structure in an Amazon Forest from Laser Range Finder and IKONOS Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira Jr.; Jose N. M. Silva; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    Canopy structural data can be used for biomass estimation and studies of carbon cycling, disturbance, energy balance, and hydrological processes in tropical forest ecosystems. Scarce information on canopy dimensions reflects the difficulties associated with measuring crown height, width, depth, and area in tall, humid tropical forests. New field and spaceborne...

  1. Measuring solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, A.; Stutz, J.; Berry, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has, in our hands, been fraught with missteps and puzzling problems. Here we describe lessons we have learned and the resulting novel system recently installed in the Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil. The system is designed to measure light from 740 - 780 nm, enabling us to compare SIF computed from Fraunhofer lines in an optically transparent band of the atmosphere (745 - 759 nm) with SIF computed using the telluric O2A band (760 - 770 nm). Fraunhofer line analysis requires high optical resolution (better than 0.2 nm) to detect the relatively narrow lines, but we discovered that fiber-optic diffraction-grating spectrometers are sensitive to very small inhomogeneities in the lighting. Errors resulting from this autocorrelated but random noise were similar in magnitude to the SIF signal itself. Optical diffusers reduce this problem, leading to our final design: a sealed cylinder, dubbed Rotaprism, in which a rotatable prism selects whether light from upward- or downward-looking windows enters an axially-placed optical fiber. Cosine-correcting opal glass covering the windows not only solves the noise issue but also makes the measurements correspond to photon flux. Rotaprism also maximizes the amount of light reaching the spectrometer - maximizing the signal:noise ratio - by avoiding the need for lossy optical switches and fiber splitters. Rotaprism is driven by a pneumatic actuator that is controlled by electronic valves attached to a pressurized N2 source. The gas exhausts into the temperature-controlled spectrometer enclosure to help purge the optics. Finally, custom software provides fault-tolerant control and data acquisition, ensuring that measurements continue with little or no intervention at the remote field site despite unreliable power. Analysis of initial data demonstrates the advantage of Fraunhofer line SIF analysis: due to the atmosphere transparency in this band, the results are more

  2. Characterizing peat palm forest degradation in the Peruvian Amazon from space and on the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor Hugo; van Lent, Jeffrey; Verchot, Louis Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Peru has the second largest area of peatlands in the Tropics however little is known on how the biogeochemical cycle of its peat forests can be affected through anthropogenic intervention. The most representative land cover on peat is a Mauritia flexuosa-dominated palm swamp forest which has been under human pressure over decades due the high demand for the M. flexuosa fruit often collected by cutting down the entire palm. Degradation of these carbon-dense forests can severely affect emissions of greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change. The objectives of this research were to assess the impacts on soil trace gas fluxes and biomass carbon stocks of peat palm swamp forest degradation and to explore the potential of remote sensing methods combined with field measurements to map the distribution of peat palm swamp forest according degradation levels. Results suggest a shift in forest composition from palm- to woody-tree dominated forest following degradation. We also found that human intervention in peat palm swamp forest can translate into substantial reductions in tree carbon stocks with a decrease in initial biomass (above and below-ground) stocks (118.3 ± 1.1 Mg C ha-1) by 26 and 44% following medium and high degradation. Preliminary results suggest high and low soil CH4 and CO2 emission rates on average, as compared to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests whereas N2O emissions are of the same magnitude. Degradation seems to disrupt soil respiration mainly through micro-climatic changes induced by reduced canopy cover. The analysis indicates a good potential to discriminate areas of peat palm swamp forest with different levels of degradation from other land covers, suggesting the feasibility of monitoring peat palm swamp forest degradation using remote sensing analyses.

  3. Soil Organic Matter Responses to Anthropogenic Forest Disturbance and Land Use Change in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Regina Durigan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic forest disturbance and land use change (LUC in the Amazon region is the main source of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere in Brazil, due to the carbon (C and nitrogen (N emitted from vegetation clearance. Land use conversion associated with management practices plays a key role in the distribution and origin of C in different soil organic matter (SOM fractions. Here, we show how changing land use systems have influenced soil C and N stocks, SOM physical fractions, and the origin of SOM in the Santarém region of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Soil C and N stocks were calculated for the surface layer of 0–30 cm. Anthropogenic disturbances to the standing forest, such as selective logging and wildfires, led to significant declines in soil C and N stocks. However, in the long-term, the conversion of the Amazon forest to pasture did not have a noticeable effect on soil C and N stocks, presumably because of additional inputs from pasture grasses. However, the conversion to cropland did lead to reductions in soil C and N content. According to the physical fractionation of SOM, LUC altered SOM quality, but silt and clay remained the combined fraction that contributed the most to soil C storage. Our results emphasize the importance of implementing more sustainable forest management systems, whilst also calling further attention to the need for fire monitoring systems, helping to ensure the resilience of C and N stocks and sequestration in forest soils; thereby contributing towards urgently needed ongoing efforts to mitigate climate change.

  4. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  5. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon--II. Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Luz, S L

    1996-01-01

    An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.

  6. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon - II: Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.

  7. Analysis of results of biomass forest inventory in northeastern Amazon for development of REDD+ carbon project

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    LEONEL N.C. MELLO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, a significant reduction in deforestation rates occurred during the last decade. In spite of that fact, the average annual rates are still too high, approximately 400.000 ha/year (INPE/Prodes. The projects of emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+ are an important tool to reduce deforestation rates in Brazil. Understanding the amazon forest structure, in terms of biomass stock is key to design avoided deforestation strategies. In this work, we analyze data results from aboveground biomass of 1,019.346,27 hectares in the state of Pará. It was collected data from 16,722 trees in 83 random independent plots. It was tested 4 allometric equations, for DBH > 10cm: Brown et al. (1989, Brown and Lugo (1999, Chambers et al. (2000, Higuchi et al. (1998. It revealed that the biggest carbon stock of above ground biomass is stocked on the interval at DBH between 30cm and 80cm. This biomass compartment stocks 75.70% of total biomass in Higuchi et al. (1998 equation, 75.56% of total biomass in Brown et al. (1989 equation, 78.83% of total biomass in Chambers et al. (2000 equation, and 73.22% in Brown and Lugo (1999 equation.

  8. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  9. Leafcutter Ant Nests Inhibit Low-Intensity Fire Spread in the Understory of Transitional Forests at the Amazon's Forest-Savanna Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine S. Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutter ants (Atta spp. remove leaf litter and woody debris—potential fuels—in and around their nests and foraging trails. We conducted single and three annual experimental fires to determine the effects of this leaf-cutter ant activity on the behavior of low-intensity, slow-moving fires. In a transitional forest, where the southern Amazon forest meets the Brazilian savanna, we tested whether leaf-cutter ant nests and trails (i inhibit fire spread due to a lack of fuels, and (ii, thereby, reduce the total burned area during these experimental low-intensity fires, particularly at forest edges where leaf-cutter ant abundance was higher. Fine-medium fuel mass increased with an increase in distance from ant nest, and the mean area of bare soil was greater on nests than on the forest floor. Between 60 to 90 percent of the unburned area was within 30 m of ant nests, and burned area significantly increased with increasing distance to ant nests. In addition, the number of ant nests declined with increasing distance from the forest edge, and, with exception of the first experimental fire, burned area also increased with increasing distance from the edge. The present study provides new insight to fire ecology in Amazon environments.

  10. La producción familiar como alternativa de un desarrollo sostenible para la Amazonía; Lecciones aprendidas de iniciativas de uso forestal por productores familiares en la Amazonía boliviana, brasilera, ecuatoriana y peruana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokorny, B.; Godar, J.; Hoch, L.; Johnson, J.; Koning, de J.; Medina, G.; Steinbrenner, R.; Vos, V.; Weigelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Between 2005 and 2009, the EU-financed project ForLive set out to analyse promising local forest management initiatives in the Amazon Basin in four countries: Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. Researchers aimed to identify locally viable practices that benefit livelihoods and ecological

  11. Swath-altimetry measurements of the main stem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.

    2015-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross

  12. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Morton; Jeremy Rubio; Bruce D. Cook; Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry; Marcos Longo; Hyeungu Choi; Maria Hunter; Michael Keller

    2016-01-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART...

  13. High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor H; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, María; Lim, Yili; Pinedo-Vásquez, Miguel; Padoch, Christine; Baethgen, Walter; Fernandes, Katia

    2011-01-01

    High-yield agriculture potentially reduces pressure on forests by requiring less land to increase production. Using satellite and field data, we assessed the area deforested by industrial-scale high-yield oil palm expansion in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010, finding that 72% of new plantations expanded into forested areas. In a focus area in the Ucayali region, we assessed deforestation for high- and smallholder low-yield oil palm plantations. Low-yield plantations accounted for most expansion overall (80%), but only 30% of their expansion involved forest conversion, contrasting with 75% for high-yield expansion. High-yield expansion minimized the total area required to achieve production but counter-intuitively at higher expense to forests than low-yield plantations. The results show that high-yield agriculture is an important but insufficient strategy to reduce pressure on forests. We suggest that high-yield agriculture can be effective in sparing forests only if coupled with incentives for agricultural expansion into already cleared lands.

  14. Forest Fragmentation in the Lower Amazon Floodplain: Implications for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Provision to Riverine Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Renó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the process of forest fragmentation of a floodplain landscape of the Lower Amazon over a 30-year period and its implications for the biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services to the riverine population. To this end, we created a multi-temporal forest cover map based on Landsat images, and then analyzed the fragmentation dynamics through landscape metrics. From the analyses of the landscape and bibliographic information, we made inferences regarding the potential impacts of fragmentation on the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. Subsequently, we used data on the local populations’ environmental perception to assess whether the inferred impacts on biodiversity are perceived by these populations and whether the ecosystem services related to the biodiversity of the addressed groups are compromised. The results show a 70% reduction of the forest habitat as well as important changes in the landscape structure that constitute a high degree of forest fragmentation. The perceived landscape alterations indicate that there is great potential for compromise of the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. The field interviews corroborate the inferred impacts on biodiversity and indicate that the ecosystem services of the local communities have been compromised. More than 95% of the communities report a decreased variety and/or abundance of animal and plant species, 46% report a decrease in agricultural productivity, and 19% confirm a higher incidence of pests during the last 30 years. The present study provides evidence of an accelerated process of degradation of the floodplain forests of the Lower Amazon and indicate substantial compromise of the ecosystem services provision to the riverine population in recent decades, including reductions of food resources (animals and plants, fire wood, raw material and medicine, as well as lower agricultural productivity due to probable lack of pollination

  15. Land Use Change over the Amazon Forest and Its Impact on the Local Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Llopart; Michelle Simões Reboita; Erika Coppola; Filippo Giorgi; Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha; Diego Oliveira de Souza

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important anthropogenic influences on climate is land use change (LUC). In particular, the Amazon (AMZ) basin is a highly vulnerable area to climate change due to substantial modifications of the hydroclimatology of the region expected as a result of LUC. However, both the magnitude of these changes and the physical process underlying this scenario are still uncertain. This work aims to analyze the simulated Amazon deforestation and its impacts on local mean climate. We used t...

  16. Tranquilidad and hardship in the forest : livelihoods and perceptions of Camba forest dwellers in the northern Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkemans, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable management of tropical forests relies largely on the interest of forest dwelling people in long-term forest extraction and their capacity to prevent forest degradation by other forest users. This study discusses the role of the forest in the livelihoods and perceptions of Camba

  17. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the large scale measurements of atmospheric aerosols in the amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio

    1996-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of the atmosphere aerosol collected in different places of the Amazon Basin. We studied both the biogenic emission from the forest and the particulate material which is emitted to the atmosphere due to the large scale man-made burning during the dry season. The samples were collected during a three year period at two different locations in the Amazon, namely the Alta Floresta (MT) and Serra do Navio (AP) regions, using stacked unit filters. These regions represent two different atmospheric compositions: the aerosol is dominated by the forest natural biogenic emission at Serra do Navio, while at Alta Floresta it presents an important contribution from the man-made burning during the dry season. At Alta Floresta we took samples in gold in order to characterize mercury emission to the atmosphere related to the gold prospection activity in Amazon. Airplanes were used for aerosol sampling during the 1992 and 1993 dry seasons to characterize the atmospheric aerosol contents from man-made burning in large Amazonian areas. The samples were analyzed using several nuclear analytic techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of trace elements with atomic number above 11; Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of Na; and Proton Microprobe was used for the characterization of individual particles of the aerosol. Reflectancy technique was used in the black carbon quantification, gravimetric analysis to determine the total atmospheric aerosol concentration and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of mercury in the particulate from the Alta Floresta gold shops. Ionic chromatography was used to quantify ionic contents of aerosols from the fine mode particulate samples from Serra do Navio. Multivariate statistical analysis was used in order to identify and characterize the sources of the atmospheric aerosol present in the sampled regions. (author)

  18. Agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; da Cunha, Anderson; Smith, Julie; Tully, Thomas N; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Serra, Verna; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-11-15

    To determine the level of agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with isoflurane. Validation study. 16 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Parrots were anesthetized, and a 26-gauge, 19-mm catheter was placed percutaneously in the superficial ulnar artery for direct measurement of systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures. Indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and an oscillometric unit. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare direct and indirect blood pressure values. There was substantial disagreement between direct systolic arterial blood pressure and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with the Doppler detector from the wing (bias, 24 mm Hg; limits of agreement, -37 to 85 mm Hg) and from the leg (bias, 14 mm Hg; limits of agreement, -14 to 42 mm Hg). Attempts to obtain indirect blood pressure measurements with the oscillometric unit were unsuccessful. Results suggested that there was substantial disagreement between indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector in anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and directly measured systolic arterial blood pressure.

  19. Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads to contrasting soil carbon dynamics depending on land management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Diego; Sitch, Stephen; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Pedroni, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (e.g. REDD+) require country- or region-specific information on temporal changes in forest carbon (C) pools to develop accurate emission factors. The soil C pool is one of the most important C reservoirs, but is rarely included in national forest reference emission levels due to a lack of data. Here, we present the soil organic C (SOC) dynamics along 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion in two subregions with different management practices during pasture establishment in the Colombian Amazon: high-grazing intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) subregions. We determined the pattern of SOC change resulting from the conversion from forest (C3 plants) to pasture (C4 plants) by analysing total SOC stocks and the natural abundance of the stable isotopes (13) C along two 20-year chronosequences identified in each subregion. We also analysed soil N stocks and the natural abundance of (15) N during pasture establishment. In general, total SOC stocks at 30 cm depth in the forest were similar for both subregions, with an average of 47.1 ± 1.8 Mg C ha(-1) in HG and 48.7 ± 3.1 Mg C ha(-1) in LG. However, 20 years after forest-to-pasture conversion SOC in HG decreased by 20%, whereas in LG SOC increased by 41%. This net SOC decrease in HG was due to a larger reduction in C3-derived input and to a comparatively smaller increase in C4-derived C input. In LG both C3- and C4-derived C input increased along the chronosequence. N stocks were generally similar in both subregions and soil N stock changes during pasture establishment were correlated with SOC changes. These results emphasize the importance of management practices involving low-grazing intensity in cattle activities to preserve SOC stocks and to reduce C emissions after land-cover change from forest to pasture in the Colombian Amazon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelena L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km(2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27-28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km(2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon.

  1. Carbon in Amazon forests: unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. R. Saleska; S. D. Miller; D. M. Matross; M. L. Goulden; S. C. Wofsy; H. R. da Rocha; P. B. de Camargo; P. Crill; B. C. Daube; H. C. de Freitas; L. Hutyra; M. Keller; V. Kirchhoff; M. Menton; J. W. Munger; H. E. Pyle; A. H. Rice; H. Silva

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide was measured by eddy covariance methods for 3 years in two old-growth forest sites near Santarém, Brazil. Carbon was lost in the wet season and gained in the dry season, which was opposite to the seasonal cycles of both tree growth and model predictions. The 3-year average carbon loss was 1.3 (confidence...

  2. The principles of measuring forest fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne

    1936-01-01

    Research in fire danger measurement was commenced in 1922 at the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station of the U. S. Forest Service, with headquarters at Missoula, Mont. Since then investigations have been made concerning ( 1) what to measure, (2) how to measure, and ( 3) field use of these measurements. In all cases the laboratory or restricted...

  3. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Stalin Landázuri Paredes

    Full Text Available Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans. A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%. Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  4. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex Central Amazon forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, D.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S. E.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; dos Santos, J.; Carneiro, V. M. C.; Lima, A. J. N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.; Holzwarth, F.; Reu, B.; Wirth, C.

    2015-09-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total AGB above-ground biomass in tropical forests and AGB estimation models are crucial for forest management and conservation. In the Central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial-scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this dataset we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape-level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into good predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with RMSE root-mean-square error values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape-level in complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model parametrization, requires the inclusion of predictors related to species architecture. The model of interest should comprise the floristic composition and size

  5. Late Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics from a savanna-forest ecotone in Roraima state, northern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Meneses, Maria Ecilene Nunes; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Two sediment cores from Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps have been studied by pollen and charcoal analysis. The cores Fazenda Cigana (FC) and Terra Indígena Aningal (TIA) were taken from a savanna-forest ecotone area in the Roraima State, northern Brazilian Amazon. Based on 5 radiocarbon dates, these records allow the reconstruction of the vegetation fire and climate dynamics during the past 1550 years. At the FC site was recorded a higher proportion of forest cover, suggesting local wetter climatic conditions favorable for forest expansion, especially by gallery forests, between 1550 and 1400 cal yr BP. Stands of M. flexuosa started to establish on the site indicating sufficient soil moisture. From 1400 to 1050 cal yr BP, forest cover retreated while savanna, and the Mauritia palm swamp expanded considerably. The FC site was marked by savanna and Mauritia cover with a slight increase of forest between ca. 1050 and 900 cal yr BP. From 900 to 300 cal yr BP the savanna and palm swamp taxa became dominant and the forest area decreased. At the TIA site the savanna cover was dominant between 1200 and 1000 cal yr BP. From 1000 to 700 forest expanded while savanna and Mauritia palm swamp reduced. Between 700 and 300 cal yr BP savanna and Mauritia palm swamp increased and forest area decreased. The high amount of charred particles found in the sediments, indicate fires with a marked increase between 1400 to 1000 cal yr BP (FC site) and 700 to 300 cal yr BP (TIA site), and probably caused the retreat of forest cover during these two time intervals. The relatively lower fire activity after 300 cal yr BP until present-day favored the increase of forested area at both TIA and FC sites. The arrival of the European settler and the subsequent introduction of cattle, is suggested as the main reason for the decrease of fire in the study region. The results point the fire caused by indigenous people as the principal controlling factor for forest and savanna dynamics during the past

  6. Four years of ozone measurements in the Central Amazon - Effects of increasing deforestation rates and different meteorological conditions on near surface concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stefan; Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Pöhlker, Christopher; Saturno, Jorge; Walter, David; Ditas, Florian; Könemann, Tobias; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Yañez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Souza, Rodrigo; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W) is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, allowing atmospheric and forest studies away from nearby anthropogenic emission sources. Starting with continuous measurements of vertical mixing ratio profiles of H2O, CO2 and O3 in April 2012 at 8 heights between 0.05 m and 80 m above ground, the longest continuous record of near surface O3 in the Amazon rainforest was established. Black carbon (BC), CO and micrometeorological measurements are available for the same period. During intensive campaigns, NOx was measured as well using the same profile system, and, therefore several month of simultaneous NOx measurements are available. During a period of about four months also direct flux measurements of O3 are available. Here, we analyze the long term and seasonal variability of near surface O3 mixing ratios with respect to air pollution, deposition and transport. The Central Amazon is characterized by a clear seasonal precipitation pattern (ca. 350 mm around March and ca. 80 mm around September), correlating strongly with ozone mixing ratios. Since 2012 deforestation rates have increased again in the Amazon, leading to higher air pollution especially during the drier season in the last years. For several strong pollution events we compared the effects of long and short distance biomass burning on O3 and NOx mixing ratios using back trajectories and satellite data. By comparing O3 mixing ratios with solar radiation, Bowen ratio, several trace gases and aerosol loads (Volatile Organic Compounds, CO and BC), different correlation patterns throughout the year that are linked to the sources (transport of O3 and precursors) and sinks (stomatal uptake and chemical reactions) are investigated. For example, the last months of 2015 were strongly influenced by an extraordinary El Niño phenomenon, leading to much drier conditions and enhanced biomass burning in the Amazon, which prolonged the period of

  7. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  8. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the eastern Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA) Agropecuria do Tropico Umnido, Para (Brazil)); Kauffman, J.B. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In the state of Para, Brazil, in the eastern Amazon, the authors studied the potential for sustained fire events within four dominant vegetation cover types (undisturbed rain forest, selectively logged forest, second-growth forest, and open pasture), by measuring fuel availability, microclimate, and rates of fuel moisture loss. They also estimated the potential tree mortality that might result from a wide-scale Amazon forest fire by measuring the thermal properties of bark for all trees in a 5-ha stand of mature forest, followed by measurements of heat flux through bark during simulated fires. In pastures the average midday temperature was almost 10{degree}C greater and the average midday relative humidity was 30% lower than in primary forest. The most five-prone ecosystem was the open pasture followed by selectively logged forest, second growth forest, and undisturbed rain forest in which sustained combustion was not possible even after prolonged rainless periods. Even though the autogenic factors in primary forest of the eastern Amazon create a microclimate that virtually eliminates the probability of fire, they are currently a common event in disturbed areas of Amazonia. As many as 8 {times} 10{sup 6} ha burned in the Amazon Basin of Brazil in 1987 alone. In terms of current land-use patterns, altered microclimates, and fuel mass, there are also striking similarities between the eastern Amazon and East Kalimantan, Indonesia (the site of recent rain forest wildfires that burned 3.5 {times} 10{sup 6} ha).

  9. Testing the Amazon savannization hypothesis: fire effects on invasion of a neotropical forest by native cerrado and exotic pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, Divino V; Brando, Paulo M; Balch, Jennifer K; Putz, Francis E; Nepstad, Daniel C; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2013-06-05

    Changes in climate and land use that interact synergistically to increase fire frequencies and intensities in tropical regions are predicted to drive forests to new grass-dominated stable states. To reveal the mechanisms for such a transition, we established 50 ha plots in a transitional forest in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon to different fire treatments (unburned, burned annually (B1yr) or at 3-year intervals (B3yr)). Over an 8-year period since the commencement of these treatments, we documented: (i) the annual rate of pasture and native grass invasion in response to increasing fire frequency; (ii) the establishment of Brachiaria decumbens (an African C4 grass) as a function of decreasing canopy cover and (iii) the effects of grass fine fuel on fire intensity. Grasses invaded approximately 200 m from the edge into the interiors of burned plots (B1yr: 4.31 ha; B3yr: 4.96 ha) but invaded less than 10 m into the unburned plot (0.33 ha). The probability of B. decumbens establishment increased with seed availability and decreased with leaf area index. Fine fuel loads along the forest edge were more than three times higher in grass-dominated areas, which resulted in especially intense fires. Our results indicate that synergies between fires and invasive C4 grasses jeopardize the future of tropical forests.

  10. From landless to forestless? : settlers, livelihoods and forest dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homero Diniz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: deforestation; remote sensing; mental models; stakeholders’ perceptions; agrarian reform

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in projects in the Brazilian Amazon within the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP) framework, the rationale

  11. Empty forests, empty stomachs? Bushmeat and livelihoods in the Congo and Amazon Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, R.; Taber, A.; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    and their ecological importance. However, information on the harvest remains fragmentary, along with understanding of ecological, socioeconomic and cultural dimensions. Here we assess the consequences, both for ecosystems and local livelihoods, of the loss of these species in the Amazon and Congo basins....

  12. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  13. Carbon content of Amazon forest biomass and changes after burning; Conteudo de carbono na biomassa florestal da Amazonia e alteracoes apos a queima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro

    1997-04-01

    The carbon contained in the various types of vegetation in the Brazilian legal Amazon was estimated in 80 Pg, based on data from the literature. Transformations of biomass caused by burning took place in an open forest located in Nova Vida Ranch, Arquimedes, Roraima state. The direct and indirect method to estimate the biomass and charcoal after burning were compared and correlation coefficients are presented. Based on combustion efficiency from the above mentioned location and other localities in the Amazon, the carbon released upon burning was calculated. The annual contribution of carbon emitted to the atmosphere was also calculated and presented 119 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Recovery of Areas Degraded by Mining Within the Amazon Forest: Interaction of the Physical Condition of Soil and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Mello, G. F.; Longo, R. M.; Fengler, F. H.; Peche Filho, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    One of the greatest natural riches of Brazil is the Amazon rainforest. The Amazon region is known for its abundance of mineral resources, and may include topaz, oil, and especially cassiterite. In this scope, the mining sector in Brazil has great strategic importance because it accounts for approximately 30% of the country's exports with a mineral production of 40 billion dollars (Brazilian Mining Institute, 2015). In this scenario, as a consequence of mining, the Amazonian ecosystem has been undergoing a constant process of degradation. An important artifice in the exploitation of mineral resources is the rehabilitation and/or recovery of degraded areas. This recovery requires the establishment of degradation indicators and also the quality of the soil associated with its biota, since the Amazonian environment is dynamic, heterogeneous and complex in its physical, chemical and biological characteristics. In this way, this work presupposes that it is possible to characterize the different stages of recovery of tillage floor areas in deactivated cassiterite mines, within the Amazonian forest, in order to evaluate the interactions between the level of biological activity (Serrapilheira Height, Coefficient Metabolic, Basal Breath) and physical soil characteristics (aggregate DMG, Porosity, Total Soil Density, Moisture Content), through canonical correlation analysis. The results present correlations between the groups of indicators. Thus, from the use of the groups defined by canonical correlations, it was possible to identify the response of the set of physical and biological variables to the areas at different stages of recovery.

  15. On the certification of forest concession: non-governmental organizations, enterprises, and the construction of a new institutional frame for the development of the lumber industry in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the construction process of forest certification in the Brazilian Amazon, emphasizing its importance for the new frame of lumber industry on that region. We sustain that one of the main results of the promotion of forest certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC in Amazon was the constitution of an alliance between the environmentalist Non-Governmental Organizations, representative segments of forest business and members of the state bureaucracy for the promotion of lumber exploration based on forest management. In this perspective, the results produced by certification must be understood as part of a process of promotion of forest resources access policies, such as the approval of the Public Forests Management Law, and the creation of state entities destined to the promotion of lumber extraction on Amazon.

  16. Palaeovegetation dynamics of an ecotone forest-savanna in southern Brazilian Amazon during the late Pleistocene and Holocene based on carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gouveia, S.E.M.; Freitas, H.A. de; Bendassoli, J.A.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, R.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Brazilian southern Amazon region (Rondonia state and Humaita, southern Amazon state). Carbon isotope data on soil organic matter have been collected along an ecosystem transect of about 750 km that includes a savanna, a wooded savanna (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The main objective is to evaluate the expansion-regression dynamics of these vegetation units in relation to climate changes during the Late Pleistocene (Late Glacial) and Holocene. Large ranges in δ 13 values were observed in soil organic matter collected from profiles in the savanna (-27 to -14 per mille and forest regions (-26 to -19 per mille) reflecting changing distribution of 13 C-depleted C 3 forest and 13 C enriched C 4 savanna vegetation in response to climate change. 14 C data of humin fraction and buried charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is at least 17,000 years BP at 300-cm depth. In this period, the entire ecosystem transect are characterized by δ 13 C soil depth profiles, generated typically by C 3 plants (forest), inferring a humid climate in the southern Amazon region after the end of last glaciation. 13 C data also indicate that C 4 plants (grasses) have influenced significantly the vegetation at the transitional forest and the cerrado sites of southern Rondonia state and two distinct points in the forest ecosystem in the southern Amazon state. These typical C 4 type isotopic signatures probably reflect a drier climate during about 9000-8000 yr BP to 3000 yr BP and the savanna and wooded savanna expansion in distinct points of the transect. The 13 C records representing the 3000 yr show an expansion of the forest, due to a climatic improvement, in areas previously occupied by savanna vegetation. This study adds to the mounting evidence that extensive forested areas existed in the Amazon during the last glacial and that savanna vegetation expanded in response

  17. Interactions of Vegetation and Climate: Remote Observations, Earth System Models, and the Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetin, Gregory R.

    across seasons in the Amazon basin. We use observations of solar induced fluorescence from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO2) to statistically analyze the sensitivity of fluorescence to synoptic variations in temperature and precipitation. In addition to studying the sensitivity of vegetation to climate across seasons, we use OCO2 measurements of total column water vapor (TCWV) and CO2 concentration (XCO2) to investigate the influence of the Amazon basin vegetation on the CO2 concentration and water vapor of the atmosphere leaving the basin. Our analysis determines the seasonal importance of vegetation activity on the outflow of CO2 from the Amazon basin, while providing evidence that transpiration is primarily driven by variations in temperature during the dry season, rather than photosynthesis. We establish a statistical relationship between fluorescence (as a proxy for vegetation photosynthesis), temperature, and precipitation, as well as the difference between the outflow of atmospheric water vapor from the inflow water vapor, basin fluorescence, temperature, and precipitation.

  18. Pioneer hydraulic fracturing intervention on Brazilian Amazon Forest; Operacao pioneira de fraturamento hidraulico na selva Amazonica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cledeilson; Silva, Luis A.; Duque, Luis H.; Steffan, Rodolfo H.P.; Guimaraes, Zacarias [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States); Sabino, Afonso H. dos S.; Corregio, Fabio; Ferreira, Jose Carlos da Silva; Melo, Marcelo Moura; Ludovice, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique where fluid is pumped with enough energy to create a fracture in the reservoir and to propagate it filling the broken zone with proppant agent. To the end of the treatment the proppant agent will support the fracture creating a production flow path, once it will have permeability higher than the original formation. Since a long time it was desired to use that technique to explore tight reservoirs in the Solimoes basin. However the lack of information on the interest zones, the great amount of equipment and fluids volumes involved hindered the application in an area that withholds a environmental certification. In November 10th of 2011 these challenges were surpassed. This article describes the technique, job details and results of the pioneering hydraulic fracturing intervention in the heart of the Amazon forest that became economically viable the gas production in tight reservoirs of the Solimoes basin with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  19. Long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon rain forest – Part 1: Aerosol size distribution, hygroscopicity, and new model parametrizations for CCN prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pöhlker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved long-term measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the central Amazon Basin over a 1-year period and full seasonal cycle (March 2014–February 2015. The measurements provide a climatology of CCN properties characteristic of a remote central Amazonian rain forest site.The CCN measurements were continuously cycled through 10 levels of supersaturation (S  =  0.11 to 1.10 % and span the aerosol particle size range from 20 to 245 nm. The mean critical diameters of CCN activation range from 43 nm at S  =  1.10 % to 172 nm at S  =  0.11 %. The particle hygroscopicity exhibits a pronounced size dependence with lower values for the Aitken mode (κAit  =  0.14 ± 0.03, higher values for the accumulation mode (κAcc  =  0.22 ± 0.05, and an overall mean value of κmean  =  0.17 ± 0.06, consistent with high fractions of organic aerosol.The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, exhibits remarkably little temporal variability: no pronounced diurnal cycles, only weak seasonal trends, and few short-term variations during long-range transport events. In contrast, the CCN number concentrations exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle, tracking the pollution-related seasonality in total aerosol concentration. We find that the variability in the CCN concentrations in the central Amazon is mostly driven by aerosol particle number concentration and size distribution, while variations in aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition matter only during a few episodes.For modeling purposes, we compare different approaches of predicting CCN number concentration and present a novel parametrization, which allows accurate CCN predictions based on a small set of input data.

  20. Partitioning Uncertainty In Aboveground Carbon Density Estimates: Relative Contributions From Lidar and Forest Inventory In The Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P.; Keller, M. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon accounting for REDD+ requires knowledge of deforestation, degradation, and associated changes in forest carbon stocks. Degradation is more difficult to detect than deforestation so SilvaCarbon, an US inter-agency effort, has set a priority to better characterize forest degradation effects on carbon loss. By combining information from forest inventory and lidar data products, impacts of deforestation, degradation, and associated changes in forest carbon stocks can be more accurately characterized across space. Our approach employs a hierarchical Bayesian modeling (HBM) framework where the assimilation of information from multiple sources is accomplished using a change of support (COS) technique. The COS formulation allows data from multiple spatial resolutions to be assimilated into an intermediate resolution. This approach is being applied in Paragominas, a jurisdiction in the eastern Brazilian Amazon with a high proportion of logged and burned degraded forests where political change has opened the way for REDD+. We build on a long history of research including our extensive studies of logging damage. Our primary objective is to quantify above-ground carbon stocks and corresponding uncertainty in a spatially explicit manner. A secondary objective is to quantify the relative contribution of lower level data products to the overall uncertainty, allowing for more focused subsequent data collection in the context of uncertainty reduction. This approach provides a mechanism to assimilate information from multiple sources to produce spatially-explicit maps of carbon stocks and changes with corresponding spatially explicit maps of uncertainty. Importantly, this approach also provides a mechanism that can be used to assess the value of information from specific data products.

  1. Forest Canopy Heights in Amazon River Basin Forests as Estimated with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. H. Helmer; M. A. Lefsky

    2006-01-01

    Land-use change, mainly forest burning, harvest, or clearing for agriculture, may compose 15 to 40 percent of annual human-caused emissions of carbon (C) to the atmosphere. Spatially extensive data on forest C pools can validate and parameterize atmospheric and ecosystem models of those fluxes and quantify fluxes from forest change. Excellent evidence exists that light...

  2. 14C AMS dating of fires in the central Amazon rain forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Di Tada, M.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    Soil samples were collected in tierra firme upland and lowland areas of the Km 41 reserve near Manaus (20 deg. 30'S and 60 deg. W), in Central Brazilian Amazon, within a 1700 m transect, at eight different depth ranges, from surface to 100 cm. The highest charcoal concentrations were found at the depth range of 20-50 cm. AMS radiocarbon dating of 31 samples were performed at the ANU. The ages of the charcoals were found to vary within the 130 to 2400 years BP range, mostly between 1200 and 1400 years BP, one of the known Holocene dry periods of the Amazon region. The results show that the fires have regional dimensions and are associated with climate regional changes

  3. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities....... In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human...... settlements and remote forest with nearly closed canopies. Supervised classification and adaptive thresholding were applied on a pansharpened QuickBird (QB) image to detect kiln burn marks (KBMs). Supervised classification showed reasonable detection accuracy in the remote forest site only, while adaptive...

  4. Socio-ecological analysis of multiple-use forest management in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano Candia, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Community families throughout tropical regions derive an important share of their income from multiple forest products, with generally positive outcomes on their livelihoods. The production of these products in a multiple-use forest management scheme (MFM, the production of multiple forest products

  5. Socio-ecological analysis of multiple-use forest management in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano Candia, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Community families throughout tropical regions derive an important share of their income from multiple forest products, with generally positive outcomes on their livelihoods. The production of these products in a multiple-use forest management scheme (MFM, the production of multiple forest

  6. Birds of the Tapajos National Forest, Brazilian Amazon: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. P. Henr¡ques; J.M. Wunderle Jr.; M. R. Willig

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the avifauna of the Tapajos National forest, an area on the east bank of the Tapajos River where controlled resource exploitation occurs. Here we provide a near complete species list for terra firme forest with an incomplete list of species from less comprehensively surveyed habitats such as "varzea" forest.

  7. Avian distribution in treefall gaps and understorey of terra firme forest in the lowland Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR WUNDERLE; MICHAEL R. WILLIG; LUIZA MAGALLI PINTO HENRIQUES

    2005-01-01

    We compared the bird distributions in the understorey of treefall gaps and sites with intact canopy in Amazonian terra firme forest in Brazil. We compiled 2216 mist-net captures (116 species) in 32 gap and 32 forest sites over 22.3 months. Gap habitats differed from forest habitats in having higher capture rates, total captures, species richness and diversity....

  8. Effect of selective logging on floristic and structural composition in a forest fragment from Amazon Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Janones da Rocha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in one region of a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest located in Tapurah (Mato Grosso State, Brazil with the aim of studying its floristic and structural composition. The fixed area method was applied to 10 × 250 m clusters, allocating and measuring five clusters with five subunits of 500 m² each. Species with a diameter at breast height greater than or equal to 10 cm were considered, and the sample sufficiency of the floristic survey was verified by a species accumulation curve. The similarities between the sample subunits were calculated by the Jaccard Similarity Index, and the species diversity with the Shannon Diversity Index and Pielou Evenness Index. The horizontal vegetation structure was characterized by density, frequency, dominance and the values of ecological importance, and diametric distribution were assessed by the Spiegel procedure. The families Vochysiaceae, Fabaceae and Sapindaceae were highly represented, and Qualea paraensis, Aspidosperma discolor and Matayba arborescens were the most important species. A high diversity and low ecological dominance were found, and the diametric structure of the trees presented a negative exponential distribution. In general, the structure, floristic composition and richness of vegetation correspond to a forest with stable and autoregenerative community after selective logging.

  9. Land Use Change over the Amazon Forest and Its Impact on the Local Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Llopart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important anthropogenic influences on climate is land use change (LUC. In particular, the Amazon (AMZ basin is a highly vulnerable area to climate change due to substantial modifications of the hydroclimatology of the region expected as a result of LUC. However, both the magnitude of these changes and the physical process underlying this scenario are still uncertain. This work aims to analyze the simulated Amazon deforestation and its impacts on local mean climate. We used the Common Land Model (CLM version 4.5 coupled with the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4 over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX South America domain. We performed one simulation with the RegCM4 default land cover map (CTRL and one simulation under a scenario of deforestation (LUC, i.e., replacing broadleaf evergreen trees with C3 grass over the Amazon basin. Both simulations were driven by ERA Interim reanalysis from 1979 to 2009. The climate change signal due to AMZ deforestation was evaluated by comparing the climatology of CTRL with LUC. Concerning the temperature, the deforested areas are about 2 °C warmer compared to the CTRL experiment, which contributes to decrease the surface pressure. Higher air temperature is associated with a decrease of the latent heat flux and an increase of the sensible heat flux over the deforested areas. AMZ deforestation induces a dipole pattern response in the precipitation over the region: a reduction over the west (about 7.9% and an increase over the east (about 8.3%. Analyzing the water balance in the atmospheric column over the AMZ basin, the results show that under the deforestation scenario the land surface processes play an important role and drive the precipitation in the western AMZ; on the other hand, on the east side, the large scale circulation drives the precipitation change signal. Dipole patterns over scenarios of deforestation in the Amazon was also found by other authors, but the

  10. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  11. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Persistent Changes of Forest Canopy Structure After 2005 Amazon Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingjie; Liu, Junjie; Zhao, Maosheng; Yu, Yifan; Saatchi, Sassan

    2017-12-01

    The long-term impact of Amazonian drought on canopy structure has been observed in ground and remote sensing measurements. However, it is still unclear whether it is caused by biotic (e.g., plant structure damage) or environmental (e.g., water deficiency) factors. We used the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and radar backscatter observations from SeaWinds Scatterometer on board QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite to investigate the relative role of biotic and environmental factors in controlling the forest canopy disturbance and recovery processes after the 2005 Amazonian drought. We validated the CLM4.5 simulation of the drought impact and the recovery of leaf carbon (C) pool, an indicator of canopy structure, over southwestern Amazonia with QSCAT backscatter observations, which are sensitive to canopy structure change. We found that the leaf C pool simulated by CLM4.5 recovered to the 2000-2009 mean level (343 g C m-2) in 3 years after a sharp decrease in 2005, consistent with the QSCAT observed slow recovery. Through sensitivity experiments, we found that the slow C recovery was primarily due to biotic factors represented by the canopy damage and reduction of plant C pools. The recovery of soil water and the coupling between water and C pools, which is an environmental factor, only contributes 24% to the leaf C recovery. The results showed (1) the strength of scatterometer backscatter measurements in capturing canopy damage over tropical forests and in validating C cycle models and (2) the biotic factors play the dominant role in regulating the drought induced disturbance and persistent canopy changes in CLM4.5.

  12. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  13. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  14. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  15. Amazon Forest Response to Changes in Rainfall Regime: Results from an Individual-Based Dynamic Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcos

    The Amazon is the largest tropical rainforest in the world, and thus plays a major role on global water, energy, and carbon cycles. However, it is still unknown how the Amazon forest will respond to the ongoing changes in climate, especially droughts, which are expected to become more frequent. To help answering this question, in this thesis I developed and improved the representation of biophysical processes and photosynthesis in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED-2.2), an individual-based land ecosystem model. I also evaluated the model biophysics against multiple data sets for multiple forest and savannah sites in tropical South America. Results of this comparison showed that ED-2.2 is able to represent the radiation and water cycles, but exaggerates heterotrophic respiration seasonality. Also, the model generally predicted correct distribution of biomass across different areas, although it overestimated biomass in subtropical savannahs. To evaluate the forest resilience to droughts, I used ED-2.2 to simulate the plant community dynamics at two sites in Eastern Amazonia, and developed scenarios by resampling observed annual rainfall but increasing the probability of selecting dry years. While the model predicted little response at French Guiana, results at the mid-Eastern Amazonia site indicated substantial biomass loss at modest rainfall reductions. Also, the response to drier climate varied within the plant community, with evergreen, early-successional, and larger trees being the most susceptible. The model also suggests that competition for water during prolonged periods of drought caused the largest impact on larger trees, when insufficient wet season rainfall did not recharge deeper soil layers. Finally, results suggested that a decrease in return period of long-lasting droughts could prevent ecosystem recovery. Using different rainfall datasets, I defined vulnerability based on the change in climate needed to reduce the return period of long droughts. The

  16. Spatial Simulation of the Dynamics of Establishment of Secondary Forest in Abandoned Pasture in the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebel, K. T.; Riha, S. J.; Rondon, M. A.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Fernandes, E. C.

    2001-05-01

    In the Amazon, approximately 35 million hectares of primary forest that was converted to pasture is now being abandoned. This represents about 70% of all pastureland that was previously established. The dynamics of reconversion of this land to secondary forest is of interest because the length of time required for pasture to convert to secondary forest will impact net primary productivity and the amount of carbon being stored on abandoned pastures. In addition, the length of time required for pasture to convert to secondary forest may depend on the size of the pasture, whether it is surrounded by primary or secondary forest, and on pasture productivity at the time of abandonment. Pasture productivity at the time of abandonment will depend primarily on the age structure of the pasture grasses and on weediness, which are influenced by grazing and fire history. Also, an understanding of the dynamics of conversion of pastureland to forest can serve as the basis for management strategies to inhibit pasture conversion. A spatial, dynamic model of the conversion of pasture to secondary forest was developed using the PCRaster Dynamic Modeling Package. This software provides a computer language specially developed for modeling temporal and spatial processes in a GIS, and is well suited for the development of ecological, dynamic models. The model of pasture conversion is implemented for the central Amazon. We assume that succession involves only three plant types: pasture grass, weeds and woody plants. The pasture grass is parameterized for Brachiaria (brizantha, humidicola), the weeds for Borreria and Rolandra, and the woody plants for Vismia spp. The model uses a 1m x 1m grid and 2-month time step. Each initial plant and each surviving propagule is referred to as a plant and only occupies one grid cell. A number of values are calculated for each grid cell for each time-step. These include whether vegetation is present and, if so, which species, the age of the species, the

  17. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  18. A Metagenomic Perspective on Changes to Nutrient-cycling Genes Following Forest-to-agriculture Conversion in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Womack, A. M.; Rodrigues, J.; Nüsslein, K.; Bohannan, B. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been shown to alter nutrient cycling and the community composition of soil microorganisms. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at how the abundance, composition, and diversity of microbial genes involved in nutrient cycling change with conversion. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to analyze soil from primary rainforest and converted cattle pasture sampled at the Fazenda Nova Vida in Rondônia, Brazil. The diversity, richness, and evenness of nutrient cycling genes were significantly higher in the pasture, and the composition of nutrient cycling communities differed significantly between land use types. These results largely mirror taxonomic shifts following Amazon rainforest conversion, which tends to increase diversity, richness, and evenness of soil microbial communities. The abundance of genes related to N cycling and methane flux differed between land use types. Methanotrophy genes decreased in abundance in the pasture, whereas methanogenesis genes were not significantly different between land use types. These changes could underlie the commonly observed shift from methane sink to source following forest-to-agriculture conversion. Multiple genes in the nitrogen cycle also differed with land use, including genes related to N-fixation and ammonification. Metagenomics provides a unique perspective on the consequences of land use change on microbial community structure and function.

  19. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) collected from tethered balloon-sampling platforms above selected forest and...

  20. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupá vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carolina T; Shepard, Glenn H; Piedade, Maria T F

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  1. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupá vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T de Freitas

    Full Text Available Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas. The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  2. Anthropogenic Land-use Change and the Dynamics of Amazon Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    2004-01-01

    This project was focused on assessing the effects of prevailing land uses, such as habitat fragmentation, selective logging, and fire, on biomass and carbon storage in Amazonian forests, and on the dynamics of carbon sequestration in regenerating forests. Ancillary goals included developing GIs models to help predict the future condition of Amazonian forests, and assessing the effects of anthropogenic climate change and ENS0 droughts on intact and fragmented forests. Ground-based studies using networks of permanent plots were linked with remote-sensing data (including Landsat TM and AVHRR) at regional scales, and higher-resolution techniques (IKONOS imagery, videography, LIDAR, aerial photographs) at landscape and local scales. The project s specific goals were quite eclectic and included: Determining the effects of habitat fragmentation on forest dynamics, floristic composition, and the various components of above- and below-ground biomass. Assessing historical and physical factors that affect trajectories of forest regeneration and carbon sequestration on abandoned lands. Extrapolating results from local studies of biomass dynamics in fragmented and regenerating forests to landscape and regional scales in Amazonia, using remote sensing and GIS. Testing the hypothesis that intact Amazonian forests are functioning as a significant carbon sink. Examining destructive synergisms between forest fragmentation and fire. Assessing the short-term impacts of selective logging on aboveground biomass. Developing GIS models that integrate current spatial data on forest cover, deforestation, logging, mining, highway and roads, navigable rivers, vulnerability to wild fires, protected areas, and existing and planned infrastructure projects, in an effort to predict the future condition of Brazilian Amazonian forests over the next 20-25 years. Devising predictive spatial models to assess the influence of varied biophysical and anthropogenic predictors on Amazonian deforestation.

  3. Restoration of tropical moist forest on bauxite mined lands in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated forest structure and composition in 9- to 13-year-old stands established on a bauxite-mined site at Trombetas (Pará), Brazil, using four different reforestation techniques following initial site preparation and topsoil replacement. These techniques included reliance on natural forest regeneration, mixed commercial species plantings of mostly exotic timber...

  4. Seasonality of reproduction of epiphytic bryophytes in flooded forests from the Caxiuanã National Forest, Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Gabriela R; Ilkiu-Borges, Anna Luiza; Ferreira, Leandro V

    2016-05-13

    This work aimed to recognize the reproductive biology of the epiphytic bryoflora of phorophytes of Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex. Rottb.) Warb. in várzea and igapó forests in the Caxiuanã National Forest, to answer the following question: The reproductive period of the bryophyte species is influenced by the environment due the climatic seasonality present in flooded forests, being higher the occurrence of the sexual and asexual reproduction in the rainiest months? The bryophytes were identified and analyzed for the type of reproduction, sexual system and reproductive structures. In total, 502 samples of bryophytes were analyzed, resulting in 54 species, of which 34 were fertile. The comparison of the fertility of the species in different environmental conditions (dry or rainy, and igapó or várzea forest) was assessed using the chi-square test. The fertility of the seven studied species could not be defined by a pattern, considering the forest type and the seasonality. However, two species were associated to the forest type and two further species to the seasonality, showing that, for some bryophyte species, invest in constant fertility may be favoring the maintenance of their populations in tropical forests.

  5. Monitoring Forest Dynamics in the Andean Amazon: The Applicability of Breakpoint Detection Methods Using Landsat Time-Series and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large

  6. Potential trajectories of the upcoming forest trading mechanism in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Brito

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Brazilian government revised the federal Forest Code that governs the use of forest resources on rural properties. The revisions included a forest trading mechanism whereby landowners who deforested more than what is legally allowed before 2008 could absolve their deforestation "debts" by purchasing Environmental Reserve Quotas (CRA from landowners who conserved more forest than legally required. CRA holds promise as a tool to complement command-and-control initiatives to reduce deforestation and incentivize restoration. However, the success of this instrument depends on how its implementation is governed. This study builds on a few recent assessments of the potential of the CRA in Brazil-but that are focused on biophysical potential-by assessing how a few key implementation decisions may influence the CRA market development. Specifically, this study estimates how decisions on who can participate will likely influence the potential forest surplus and forest debt for the CRA market, and takes into account governance characteristics relevant to the State of Pará, eastern Amazonia. In particular, the study evaluates the effects in the CRA market eligibility after simulating a validation of properties in the environmental rural registry (CAR and assessing different scenarios surrounding land tenure status of properties. Results show how regulatory decisions on CRA market eligibility will determine the extent to which CRA will serve as a tool to support forest conservation or as a low-cost path to help illegal deforesters to comply with legislation, but with limited additional environmental benefits. The study reviews regulatory options that would reduce the risk of forest oversupply, and thereby increase the additionality of the areas eligible for CRA. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including governance as well as biophysical characteristics in assessing the potential of forest trading tools to deliver additional

  7. Potential trajectories of the upcoming forest trading mechanism in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, the Brazilian government revised the federal Forest Code that governs the use of forest resources on rural properties. The revisions included a forest trading mechanism whereby landowners who deforested more than what is legally allowed before 2008 could absolve their deforestation "debts" by purchasing Environmental Reserve Quotas (CRA) from landowners who conserved more forest than legally required. CRA holds promise as a tool to complement command-and-control initiatives to reduce deforestation and incentivize restoration. However, the success of this instrument depends on how its implementation is governed. This study builds on a few recent assessments of the potential of the CRA in Brazil-but that are focused on biophysical potential-by assessing how a few key implementation decisions may influence the CRA market development. Specifically, this study estimates how decisions on who can participate will likely influence the potential forest surplus and forest debt for the CRA market, and takes into account governance characteristics relevant to the State of Pará, eastern Amazonia. In particular, the study evaluates the effects in the CRA market eligibility after simulating a validation of properties in the environmental rural registry (CAR) and assessing different scenarios surrounding land tenure status of properties. Results show how regulatory decisions on CRA market eligibility will determine the extent to which CRA will serve as a tool to support forest conservation or as a low-cost path to help illegal deforesters to comply with legislation, but with limited additional environmental benefits. The study reviews regulatory options that would reduce the risk of forest oversupply, and thereby increase the additionality of the areas eligible for CRA. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including governance as well as biophysical characteristics in assessing the potential of forest trading tools to deliver additional environmental

  8. EXPANDING THE AREA OF DISTRIBUTION OF EUFRIESEA FRAGROCARA KIMSEY (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. S. Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agriculture in the Arc of Deforestation causes deforestation and habitat loss. Euglossines sampling was done near Juruena River, Cotriguaçu municipality, northern Mato Grosso State. The bees were collected on understory and canopy using different baits. A total of 41 males of Eufriesea fragrocara Kimsey were collected. This is a rare species in collections and catalogued only in Huánuco (Peru, Napo (Ecuador, Ouro Preto D’Oeste and Ariquemes, Rondônia, Brazil. This new records increase the geographic distribution of E. fragrocara in 500 km to the western Amazon Basin, reducing the filling gaps in their distribution range in the Neotropics.

  9. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods forest regeneration, but overall forest integrity was largely related to the hydrological regime and age. Given this disjunction between factors mediating canopy and understory integrity, we present a subset of metrics for regeneration and recruitment to distinguish forest condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major drivers of

  10. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Maeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (∼ 1497 mm year−1 and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (∼ 986 mm year−1. For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  11. Long-term impacts of recurrent logging and fire in Amazon forests: a modeling study using the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, M.; Keller, M.; Scaranello, M. A., Sr.; dos-Santos, M. N.; Xu, Y.; Huang, M.; Morton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Logging and understory fires are major drivers of tropical forest degradation, reducing carbon stocks and changing forest structure, composition, and dynamics. In contrast to deforested areas, sites that are disturbed by logging and fires retain some, albeit severely altered, forest structure and function. In this study we simulated selective logging using the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED-2) to investigate the impact of a broad range of logging techniques, harvest intensities, and recurrence cycles on the long-term dynamics of Amazon forests, including the magnitude and duration of changes in forest flammability following timber extraction. Model results were evaluated using eddy covariance towers at logged sites at the Tapajos National Forest in Brazil and data on long-term dynamics reported in the literature. ED-2 is able to reproduce both the fast (energy fluxes compared to flux tower, and the typical, field-observed, decadal time scales for biomass recovery when no additional logging occurs. Preliminary results using the original ED-2 fire model show that canopy cover loss of forests under high-intensity, conventional logging cause sufficient drying to support more intense fires. These results indicate that under intense degradation, forests may shift to novel disturbance regimes, severely reducing carbon stocks, and inducing long-term changes in forest structure and composition from recurrent fires.

  12. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  13. Tropical forest soil microbes and climate warming: An Andean-Amazon gradient and `SWELTR'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, A.; Turner, B. L.; Fierer, N.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N. J.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R.; Silman, M.; Bååth, E.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming predicted for the tropics in the coming century will result in average temperatures under which no closed canopy forest exists today. There is, therefore, great uncertainty associated with the direction and magnitude of feedbacks between tropical forests and our future climate - especially relating to the response of soil microbes and the third of global soil carbon contained in tropical forests. While warming experiments are yet to be performed in tropical forests, natural temperature gradients are powerful tools to investigate temperature effects on soil microbes. Here we draw on studies from a 3.5 km elevation gradient - and 20oC mean annual temperature gradient - in Peruvian tropical forest, to investigate how temperature affects the structure of microbial communities, microbial metabolism, enzymatic activity and soil organic matter cycling. With decreased elevation, soil microbial diversity increased and community composition shifted, from taxa associated with oligotrophic towards copiotrophic traits. A key role for temperature in shaping these patterns was demonstrated by a soil translocation experiment, where temperature-manipulation altered the relative abundance of specific taxa. Functional implications of these community composition shifts were indicated by changes in enzyme activities, the temperature sensitivity of bacterial and fungal growth rates, and the presence of temperature-adapted iso-enzymes at different elevations. Studies from a Peruvian elevation transect indicated that soil microbial communities are adapted to long-term (differences with elevation) and short-term (translocation responses) temperature changes. These findings indicate the potential for adaptation of soil microbes in tropical soils to future climate warming. However, in order to evaluate the sensitivity of these processes to climate warming in lowland forests, in situ experimentation is required. Finally, we describe SWELTR (Soil Warming Experiment in Lowland

  14. Measuring and modelling forest transpiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Čermák, J.; Naděždina, N.; Pražák, Josef; Tesař, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2008), č. 012050 ISSN 1755-1315. [Conference of the Danubian Countries on the Hydrological Forecasting and Hydrological Bases of Water Management /24./. Bled, 02.06.2008-04.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0375; GA ČR GA205/08/1174; GA ČR GA526/08/1016; GA MŠk MEB0808114; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/151/07; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : plant transpiration * SAP flow * floodplain forest Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  15. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  16. Leaf development and demography explain photosynthetic seasonality in Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Albert, Lauren; Lopes, Aline; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Hayek, Matthew; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Guan, Kaiyu; Stark, Scott C.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Prohaska, Neill; Tavares, Julia V.; Marostica, Suelen; Kobayashi, Hideki; Ferreira, Maurocio L.; Campos, Kleber Silva; da Silva, Rodrigo; Brando, Paulo M.; Dye, Dennis G.; Huxman, Travis E.; Huete, Alfredo; Nelson, Bruce; Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen tropical forests, the extent, magnitude, and controls on photosynthetic seasonality are poorly resolved and inadequately represented in Earth system models. Combining camera observations with ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes at forests across rainfall gradients in Amazônia, we show that aggregate canopy phenology, not seasonality of climate drivers, is the primary cause of photosynthetic seasonality in these forests. Specifically, synchronization of new leaf growth with dry season litterfall shifts canopy composition toward younger, more light-use efficient leaves, explaining large seasonal increases (~27%) in ecosystem photosynthesis. Coordinated leaf development and demography thus reconcile seemingly disparate observations at different scales and indicate that accounting for leaf-level phenology is critical for accurately simulating ecosystem-scale responses to climate change.

  17. Samba virus: a novel mimivirus from a giant rain forest, the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael K; Boratto, Paulo V; Assis, Felipe L; Aguiar, Eric R G R; Silva, Lorena C F; Albarnaz, Jonas D; Dornas, Fabio P; Trindade, Giliane S; Ferreira, Paulo P; Marques, João T; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Kroon, Erna G; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-05-14

    The identification of novel giant viruses from the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses group and their virophages has increased in the last decade and has helped to shed light on viral evolution. This study describe the discovery, isolation and characterization of Samba virus (SMBV), a novel giant virus belonging to the Mimivirus genus, which was isolated from the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. We also report the isolation of an SMBV-associated virophage named Rio Negro (RNV), which is the first Mimivirus virophage to be isolated in the Americas. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, SMBV belongs to group A of the putative Megavirales order, possibly a new virus related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). SMBV is the largest virus isolated in Brazil, with an average particle diameter about 574 nm. The SMBV genome contains 938 ORFs, of which nine are ORFans. The 1,213.6 kb SMBV genome is one of the largest genome of any group A Mimivirus described to date. Electron microscopy showed RNV particle accumulation near SMBV and APMV factories resulting in the production of defective SMBV and APMV particles and decreasing the infectivity of these two viruses by several logs. This discovery expands our knowledge of Mimiviridae evolution and ecology.

  18. High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; George V. N. Powell; Joseph Mascaro; David E. Knapp; John K. Clark; James Jacobson; Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin; Aravindh Balaji; Guayana Paez-Acosta; Eloy Victoria; Laura Secada; Michael Valqui; R. Flint. Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to mitigate climate change through the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks and emissions over large geographic areas. With a new integrated use of satellite imaging, airborne light detection and ranging, and field plots, we mapped aboveground carbon stocks and emissions at...

  19. Restoring tropical forests on bauxite mined lands: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    2001-01-01

    Restoring self-sustaining tropical forest ecosystems on surface mined sites is a formidable challenge that requires the integration of proven reclamation techniques and reforestation strategies appropriate to specific site conditions, including landscape biodiversity patterns. Restorationists working in most tropical settings are usually hampered by lack of basic...

  20. Amazon forest carbon dynamics predicted by profiles of canopy leaf area and light environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. C. Stark; V. Leitold; J. L. Wu; M. O. Hunter; C. V. de Castilho; F. R. C. Costa; S. M. McMahon; G. G. Parker; M. Takako Shimabukuro; M. A. Lefsky; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; J. Schietti; Y. E. Shimabukuro; D. O. Brandao; T. K. Woodcock; N. Higuchi; P. B de Camargo; R. C. de Oliveira; S. R. Saleska

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest structural variation across heterogeneous landscapes may control above-ground carbon dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that canopy structure (leaf area and light availability) – remotely estimated from LiDAR – control variation in above-ground coarse wood production (biomass growth). Using a statistical model, these factors predicted biomass growth...

  1. Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchard, Edward T. A.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo, Abel; Baker, Timothy R.; Lewis, Simon L.; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Carlos A.; Gloor, Manuel; ter Steege, Hans; Meir, Patrick; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf; Bonal, Damien; Brown, Sandra; Brown, Foster I.; Ceron, Carlos E.; Chama Moscoso, Victor; Chave, Jerome; Comiskey, James A.; Cornejo, Fernando; Corrales Medina, Massiel; Da Costa, Lola; Costa, Flavia R. C.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Domingues, Tomas F.; Erwin, Terry L.; Frederickson, Todd; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Levis, Carolina; Killeen, Tim J.; Laurance, William F.; Magnusson, William E.; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Mendoza Polo, Irina; Mishra, Piyush; Nascimento, Marcelo T.; Neill, David; Nunez Vargas, Mario P.; Palacios, Walter A.; Parada, Alexander; Pardo Molina, Guido; Pena-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel; Peres, Carlos A.; Prieto, Adriana; Poorter, Lourens; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Restrepo Correa, Zorayda; Roopsind, Anand; Roucoux, Katherine H.; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P.; Schietti, Juliana; Silveira, Marcos; de Souza, Priscila F.; Steininger, Marc K.; Stropp, Juliana; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van Andel, Tinde R.; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Vieira, Simone; Vilanova-Torre, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Zartman, Charles E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L.; Cruz, A.P.; Cuenca, W.P.; Espejo, J.E.; Ferreira, L.; Germaine, A.; Penuela, M.C.; Silva, N.; Valenzuela Gamarra, L.

    Aim The accurate mapping of forest carbon stocks is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle, for assessing emissions from deforestation, and for rational land-use planning. Remote sensing (RS) is currently the key tool for this purpose, but RS does not estimate vegetation biomass

  2. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type

  3. Climate risks to agriculture in Amazon arc-of-deforestation create incentives to conserve local forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. H.; Fleck, L. C.; Cohn, A.; Abrahão, G. M.; Brando, P. M.; Coe, M. T.; Fu, R.; Lawrence, D.; Pires, G. F.; Pousa, R.; Soares, B. Filh

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of agriculture is a necessary condition for sustainably meeting global food demands without increasing deforestation. In southern Amazonia, a region that produces 7% of the world's soybeans, double cropping has become the preferred system for the intensification of agriculture, which is essentially rainfed. Rainy season is shortening in the region, due to climate change, and is predicted to become shorter in the future. The climate risks are worsened by the region's land use change. This increases the climate risk and even threat the intensive double-cropping agriculture that is currently practiced in that region, with potential perverse consequences to everyone. Repeated or widespread climate-driven crop failure could prompt a return to the single cropping system or even cropland abandonment. A shift to single cropping could decrease the agriculture output in this critical region, push up global food prices and heighten incentives to convert regional ecosystems to agricultural land. Further agricultural expansion into ecosystems would increase climate change. The more forest lost, the higher the climate risk will be, due to climate feedbacks from deforestation itself, triggering a spiraling decline of the rainforests and rainfall over southern Amazonia and other critical agricultural regions known to depend on the forests of Amazonia for rainfall. We show that there are economic and social reasons to preserve the forests, and it is in the best interest of the agribusiness, local governments and people, to conserve the remaining forests. The adaptation and mitigation needs, and policies to reconcile production and protection while mitigating supply chains risks are also discussed.

  4. A new species of Atractus (Reptilia: Ophidia: Colubridae: Dipsadinae) from the Amazon forest region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Prudente, A.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Three specimens of Atractus natans were found during fieldwork in the “Reserva Mamirauá”, Amazonas and a fourth one in the “Estação Científica Ferreira Penna”, Floresta de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. The specimens from Mamirauá were all collected in floating logs in várzea forest during the period of

  5. Some aspects of the structure and the diversity of the arboreal vegetation of a forest of origin alluvial, not inundating of the Amazons River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Pablo A

    2001-01-01

    For the unaware observer, the Amazonian it is a great green and homogeneous mat, sometimes interrupted by serpentine currents of water that they break the continuity of the vegetable mantel. A detailed observation dispels that impression of homogeneity of the Amazon forest. On the contrary the Hylea is sprinkled of overflowed ambient, with numerous plants of thin shafts that conform a tangle, alternate of environments of plane topography, of soils well drainages, trees of thicker trunks, or set of hills of marked slopes, with narrow or wide summits and trees of diverse size and grosser. Equally the Amazonian region has environments that don't correspond to properly this forest, located on tables of gritty white of thin and low vegetation. The author treats topics as general aspects of the Amazonian area, characterization of landscape and forest structures

  6. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads to differences in dead wood dynamics depending on land management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Diego; Sitch, Stephen; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Pedroni, Lucio; Duque, Alvaro

    2016-04-15

    Dead wood, composed of coarse standing and fallen woody debris (CWD), is an important carbon (C) pool in tropical forests and its accounting is needed to reduce uncertainties within the strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). To date, information on CWD stocks in tropical forests is scarce and effects of land-cover conversion and land management practices on CWD dynamics remain largely unexplored. Here we present estimates on CWD stocks in primary forests in the Colombian Amazon and their dynamics along 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion in two sub-regions with different management practices during pasture establishment: high-grazing intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) sub-regions. Two 20-year-old chronosequences describing the forest-to-pasture conversion were identified in both sub-regions. The line-intersect and the plot-based methods were used to estimate fallen and standing CWD stocks, respectively. Total necromass in primary forests was similar between both sub-regions (35.6 ± 5.8 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 37.0 ± 7.4 Mg ha(-1) in LG). An increase of ∼124% in CWD stocks followed by a reduction to values close to those at the intact forests were registered after slash-and-burn practice was implemented in both sub-regions during the first two years of forest-to-pasture conversion. Implementation of machinery after using fire in HG pastures led to a reduction of 82% in CWD stocks during the second and fifth years of pasture establishment, compared to a decrease of 41% during the same period in LG where mechanization is not implemented. Finally, average necromass 20 years after forest-to-pasture conversion decreased to 3.5 ± 1.4 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 9.3 ± 3.5 Mg ha(-1) in LG, representing a total reduction of between 90% and 75% in each sub-region, respectively. These results highlight the importance of low-grazing intensity management practices during ranching activities in the Colombian

  8. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  9. Assessing Impacts of Selective Logging on Water, Energy, and Carbon Fluxes in Amazon Forests Using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, M.; Keller, M. M.; Longo, M.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Fisher, R.

    2016-12-01

    As a key component in the climate system, old-growth tropical forests act as carbon sinks that remove CO2 from the atmosphere. However, these forests could be easily turned into C sources when disturbed. In fact, over half of tropical forests have been cleared or logged, and almost half of standing primary tropical forests are designated for timber production. Existing literature suggests that timber harvests alone could contribute up to 25% as much C losses as deforestation in Amazon. Yet, the spatial extent and recovery trajectory of disturbed forests in a changing climate are highly uncertain. This study constitutes our first attempt to quantify impacts of selective logging on water, energy, and carbon budgets in Amazon forests using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES). The Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), with and without FATES turned on, are configured to run at two flux towers established in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). One tower is located at in an old-growth forest (i.e. KM67) and the other is located in a selectively logged site (i.e., KM83). The three CLM4.5 options, (1) Satellite Phenology (CLM4.5-SP), (2) Century-based biogeochemical cycling with prognostic phenology (CLM4.5-BGC), and (3) CLM4.5-FATES, are spun up to equilibrium by recycling the observed meteorology at the towers, respectively. The simulated fluxes (i.e., sensible heat, latent heat, and net ecosystem exchange) are then compared to observations at KM67 to evaluate the capability of the models in capturing water and carbon dynamics in old-growth tropical forests. Our results suggest that all three models perform reasonably well in capturing the fluxes but demographic features simulated by FATES, such as distributions of diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem density (SD), are skewed heavily toward extremely large trees (e.g., > 100 cm in DBH) when compared to site surveys at the forest plots. Efforts are

  10. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p Erosion reduction at the AFS site was mainly attributed to the ground cover plants characterizing the recently established system. Moreover, edaphic change throughout AFS and F soil profiles differed from the SCC site. At the latter site, losses of fine particles and Hg were enhanced towards soil surface, while they were less pronounced at the other sites. This study shows that agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels

  11. Measuring and monitoring forest degradation for REDD : implications of country circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdiyarso, D.; Skutsch, M.M.; Guariguata, M.; Kanninen, M.; Luttrell, C.; Verweij, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843; Stella, O.

    2008-01-01

    Forest degradation is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. In the Brazilian Amazon it is responsible for 20 per cent of total emissions (Asner et al. 2005). In Indonesia, the forest stock is decreasing by a rate of six per cent a year, only one-third of which is due to deforestation (Marklund

  12. Measuring Forest Height and Biomass from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueh, Temilola Elisabeth Fato

    2013-01-01

    Talk about doing earth science at NASA and how what we do is focus on the biosphere- that is the living portion of the earth.In particular, we are interested in looking at forests-quantifying deforestation, regrowth, change in general and helping develop new cutting-edge technologies and instruments to be able to measure these changes in land use, land cover and quality more accurately.

  13. Amazon forest ecosystem responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 and alterations in nutrient availability: filling the gaps with model-experiment integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhansl, Florian; Andersen, Kelly; Fleischer, Katrin; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Rammig, Anja; Schaap, Karst; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar; Lapola, David

    2016-02-01

    The impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and alterations in nutrient availability on the carbon (C) storage capacity and resilience of the Amazon forest remain highly uncertain. Carbon dynamics are controlled by multiple eco-physiological processes responding to environmental change, but we lack solid experimental evidence, hampering theory development and thus representation in ecosystem models. Here, we present two ecosystem-scale manipulation experiments, to be carried out in the Amazon, that examine tropical ecosystem responses to eCO2 and nutrient addition and thus will elucidate the representation of crucial ecological processes by ecosystem models. We highlight current gaps in our understanding of tropical ecosystem responses to projected global changes in light of the eco-physiological assumptions considered by current ecosystem models. We conclude that a more detailed process-based representation of the spatial (e.g. soil type; plant functional type) and temporal (seasonal and inter-annual variation) diversity of tropical forests is needed to enhance model predictions of ecosystem responses to projected global environmental change.

  14. Impact of the biomass burning on methane variability during dry years in the Amazon measured from an aircraft and the AIRS sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; de Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues; Medeiros, Adan Sady; Guimarães, Patrícia Costa; Barbosa, Cybelli G G; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Martin, Scot T; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2018-05-15

    The present study examines the spatiotemporal variability and interrelations of the atmospheric methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and biomass burning (BB) outbreaks retrieved from satellite data over the Amazon region during the 2003-2012 period. In the climatological context, we found consistent seasonal cycles of BB outbreaks and CO in the Amazon, both variables showing a peak during the dry season. The dominant CO variability mode features the largest positive loadings in the southern Amazon, and describes the interannual CO variations related to BB outbreaks along the deforestation arc during the dry season. In line with CO variability and BB outbreaks, the results show strong correspondence with the spatiotemporal variability of CH 4 in the southern Amazon during years of intense drought. Indeed, the areas with the largest positive CH 4 anomalies in southern Amazon overlap the areas with high BB outbreaks and positive CO anomalies. The analyses also showed that high (low) BB outbreaks in the southern Amazon occur during dry (wet) years. In consequence, the interannual climate variability modulates the BB outbreaks in the southern Amazon, which in turn have considerable impacts on CO and CH 4 interannual variability in the region. Therefore, the BB outbreaks might play a major role in modulating the CH 4 and CO variations, at least in the southern Amazon. This study also provides a comparison between the estimate of satellite and aircraft measurements for the CH 4 over the southern Amazon, which indicates relatively small differences from the aircraft measurements in the lower troposphere, with errors ranging from 0.18% to 1.76%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A century of Amazon burning driven by Atlantic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makou, M.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, M. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    Very little is known about annual burning trends in the Amazon Basin prior to remote sensing of fires beginning in the late 1970's. Fires reduce Amazon forest biomass and species richness, release pollutant aerosols, and impact the carbon cycle, compelling further investigation of fire-climate dynamics. We measured organic compounds derived from vegetation burning in ice core samples from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru at better than annual resolution to reconstruct wet and dry season burning throughout the Twentieth Century. Variations in the abundance of methyl hexadecanoate, which is produced by thermal alteration of vascular plant alkanoic acids, were used as a proxy for past fire activity. Concentrations of this compound in Quelccaya ice varied strongly on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales over the last 100 years, with high-amplitude dry season variability and muted, decadal-scale changes in wet season fire activity. Decade-long periods of repeatedly enhanced burning occurred during the 1930's and 1960's when dry season precipitation was perpetually reduced, as evidenced by low stages of the Rio Negro. These decadal trends suggest that changes in dry season precipitation drive fire activity in the western Amazon and highlight the potential of Amazon forests to undergo repeated strong burning. Fires occurred during years when sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the north tropical Atlantic were elevated and the north-south tropical Atlantic SST gradient was enhanced; this SST pattern likely displaced the intertropical convergence zone northward, driving subsidence and drought in the western and southern Amazon basin. Thus, our novel ice core record suggests that Amazon forest fire activity during the Twentieth Century was driven primarily by Atlantic climate processes, and future forest health will depend heavily on the evolution of tropical climate.

  16. Is the Amazon Rainforest Drying Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S.; Xu, L.; Bloom, A. A.; Konings, A. G.; Yang, Y.; Aragão, L. E.; Fu, R.; Worden, J. R.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Hotter droughts are the emerging characteristics of recent climate conditions, causing increased aridity over many land areas, broad-scale die-off, and pervasive mortality in forest ecosystems globally. Using a suite of eco-hydrological measurements from satellite observations combined with ecosystem data assimilation model, we show the Amazon forests, under recent changes in climate, have been consistently losing water in vegetation from increased leaf temperature. These long-term changes have caused a decline in evapotranspiration with consequences of changing the seasonality of precipitation by increasing the dry season length and delaying the wet season arrival. Three severe droughts (2005, 2010, 2015), occurring on the background of this long-term warming have an unprecedented legacy resulting in longer delays in recharging of water storage and recovery of forests after drought induced disturbances (4-5 years after each drought). The paper discusses the evidences of eco-hydrological changes pointing to the drying of forests of Amazonia.

  17. Selection of forest species for the rehabilitation of disturbed soils in oil fields in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacís, Jaime; Casanoves, Fernando; Hang, Susana; Keesstra, Saskia; Armas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Soils in the Amazon Basin disturbed by petroleum extraction activities need to be restored to allow for the rehabilitation of these areas and the restoration of the ecosystemservices that these areas can provide. This study explores the performance of saplings of 20 species transplanted to four

  18. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  19. Using empirical measurements of tree branching architecture to scale whole-tree metabolism along a 4000 m elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, L. P.; Shenkin, A.; Enquist, B.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Plant scaling models use measurements of architecture (i.e., length, width, and order of branch or xylem segments) to ultimately predict whole-plant metabolism via mass and water-use allometries. The application of plant scaling models is broad, and holds potential to simplify forest modelling efforts. However little is known regarding the influence of the environment (e.g., temperature, light, etc) on variation in branching architecture traits and how this variation affects scaling. Furthermore, scaling model assumptions of a self-similar and symmetric branching network have not been extensively tested, especially in tropical forests. As such, it is still unclear to what extent tree communities can be approximated by simple geometrical models, and where important functional divergences from theory exist. Here we analyse novel tree architecture data from diverse species along a 4000m elevational gradient spanning the Andes to the Amazon in Peru. Specifically, we calculate and compare inter- and intra-specific scaling exponents related to branch segment length and width within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Preliminary results indicate that branching architecture significantly varies among and within species especially with respect to light environments. As such, we explore the role of light in driving tree geometry by also analysing differences in light environment and crown shape. Then, we attempt to link branch architecture and crown shape. Using 6 branch-level and whole-tree traits (path length fraction, crown depth, crown width, crown volume, crown depth/width and crown width/depth) we are able to cluster 68 species of trees into 6 unique groups related to architecture and explain ~60% variability in these data. In the future, it will be important to relate these architectural groups to variation in leaf-level traits and physiology. Lastly, we discuss the implications of using these results to understand tropical forest responses to environmental change.

  20. Palm bract breeding sites and their exploitation by Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in an upland forest of the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S

    1994-03-01

    Considering the potential importance of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (F.) as a biological control agent of other mosquitoes, this species was studied in an upland forest of the Central Amazon. Palm bracts, the natural breeding sites, were sampled monthly in two different study areas for a period of 1 yr to detect the presence of immature stages and to determine their capacity to recolonize new or empty bracts. The ability of these breeding sites (bracts) to retain water was greater on a plateau where there is less humidity than in a valley. The availability of breeding sites may be related to the number of existing palms and the low precipitation. Tx. h. haemorrhoidalis is multivoltine, and the greatest abundance of larvae occurred in natural breeding sites in the valley. The population fluctuations of the larvae of this species may be influenced by the availability of natural breeding sites and by low precipitation which occurs during the dry season.

  1. Turbulent Fogwater Flux Measurements Above A Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Eugster, W.; Buetzberger, P.; Siegwolf, R.

    Many forest ecosystems in elevated regions receive a significant fraction of their wa- ter and nutrient input by the interception of fogwater. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the suitability of the eddy covariance technique for the direct measure- ment of turbulent liquid water fluxes. Since summer 2001 a fogwater flux measure- ment equipment has been running at a montane site above a mixed forest canopy in Switzerland. The measurement equipment consists of a high-speed size-resolving droplet spectrometer and a three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer. The chemical composition of the fogwater was determined from samples collected with a modified Caltech active strand collector. The deposition of nutrients by fog (occult deposition) was calculated by multiplying the total fogwater flux (total of measured turbulent and calculated gravitational flux) during each fog event by the ionic concentrations found in the collected fogwater. Several uncertainties still exist as far as the accuracy of the measurements is con- cerned. Although there is no universal statistical approach for testing the quality of the liquid water flux data directly, results of independent data quality checks of the two time series involved in the flux computation and accordingly the two instruments (ultrasonic anemometer and the droplet spectrometer) are presented. Within the measurement period, over 80 fog events with a duration longer than 2.5 hours were analyzed. An enormous physical and chemical heterogeneity among these fog events was found. We assume that some of this heterogeneity is due to the fact that fog or cloud droplets are not conservative entities: the turbulent flux of fog droplets, which can be referred to as the liquid water flux, is affected by phase change processes and coagulation. The measured coexistence of upward fluxes of small fog droplets (di- ameter < 10 µm) with the downward transport of larger droplets indicates the influ- ence of such processes. With the

  2. Determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Freeman, Diana M; Schuster, Patricia J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-09-01

    To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots. 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements. Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean +/- SD of 326.0 +/- 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality. IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

  3. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  4. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tropical Forest Ecosystem Respiration, Manaus, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf, live wood (tree stem), and soil respiration were measured along with additional environmental factors over a 1-yr period in a Central Amazon terra firme forest...

  5. LBA-ECO TG-07 Tree Geometry in an Undisturbed Forest in Cauaxi, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Canopy measurements in an undisturbed eastern Amazon forest (Cauxi, Para, Brazil. See Figure 1) were derived from a one-time event in 2000 using a hand-held laser...

  6. LBA-ECO TG-07 Tree Geometry in an Undisturbed Forest in Cauaxi, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy measurements in an undisturbed eastern Amazon forest (Cauxi, Para, Brazil. See Figure 1) were derived from a one-time event in 2000 using a...

  7. Measurements of Ammonia at Blodgett Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-04-01

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a 3 week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx}2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  8. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  9. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de

    2014-01-27

    but also the main driver of forest degradation. Effective restoration approaches must transform problems into solutions by empowering local people. Successional agroforestry combining annual crops and trees may be a suitable transitional phase for restoration. The model must be designed collectively and include species of ecological, cultural, and socioeconomic value. In deprived communities of the Amazon, forest restoration must be a process that combines environmental and social gains.

  10. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes biophysical measurements collected in 2009 from five New England experimental forest stations: Bartlett Experimental Forest, Harvard Forest,...

  11. Laser measurements of flow over a forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-30% of the total European wind energy growth takes place in areas where the wind flow is affected by forests. The description of the wind conditions near and above forests poses a challenge, since assumptions of classical boundary-layer theory are violated. Turbines...

  12. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution.

  13. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  14. Soil CO2 exchange in seven pristine Amazonian rain forest sites in relation to soil temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Meesters, A.G.C.A.; Waterloo, M.J.; Kruijt, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Luizao, F.J.; Dolman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed soil respiration measurements made in seven distinctly different pristine rain forests in Central Amazon, ranging from stunted heath forest (Campina) to tall terra-firme rain forest. The differences in soil respiration fluxes between sites and their causes were investigated, as well as

  15. [Measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Wei, Shu-Jing; Jin, Sen; Sun, Long

    2012-05-01

    Forest fire is the main disturbance factor for forest ecosystem, and an important pathway of the decrease of vegetation- and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. To scientifically and effectively measure the carbonaceous gases emission from forest fire is of importance in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire, which covered three critical issues, i. e., measurement methods of forest fire-induced total carbon emission and carbonaceous gases emission, affecting factors and measurement parameters of measurement model, and cause analysis of the uncertainty in the measurement of the carbon emissions. Three path selections to improve the quantitative measurement of the carbon emissions were proposed, i. e., using high resolution remote sensing data and improving algorithm and estimation accuracy of burned area in combining with effective fuel measurement model to improve the accuracy of the estimated fuel load, using high resolution remote sensing images combined with indoor controlled environment experiments, field measurements, and field ground surveys to determine the combustion efficiency, and combining indoor controlled environment experiments with field air sampling to determine the emission factors and emission ratio.

  16. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  17. Multiple constraint modeling of nutrient cycling stoichiometry following forest clearing and pasture abandonment in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric; Nifong, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    While deforestation has declined since its peak, land-use change continues to modify Amazonian landscapes. The responses and feedbacks of biogeochemical cycles to these changes play an important role in determining possible future trajectories of ecosystem function and for land stewardship through effects on rates of secondary forest regrowth, soil emissions of greenhouse gases, inputs of nutrients to groundwater and streamwater, and nutrient management in agroecosystems. Here we present a new synthetic analyses of data from the NASA-supported LBA-ECO project and others datasets on nutrient cycling in cattle pastures, secondary forests, and mature forests at Paragominas, Pará, Brazil. We have developed a stoichiometric model relating C-N-P interactions during original forest clearing, extensive and intensive pasture management, and secondary forest regrowth, constrained by multiple observations of ecosystem stocks and fluxes in each land use. While P is conservatively cycled in all land uses, we demonstrate that pyrolyzation of N during pasture formation and during additional burns for pasture management depletes available-N pools, consistent with observations of lower rates of N leaching and trace gas emission and consistent with secondary forest growth responses to experimental N amendments. The soils store large stocks of N and P, and our parameterization of available forms of these nutrients for steady-state dynamics in the mature forest yield reasonable estimates of net N and P mineralization available for grasses and secondary forest species at rates consistent with observed biomass accumulation and productivity in these modified ecosystems. Because grasses and forests have much different demands for N relative to P, the land use has important biogeochemical impacts. The model demonstrates the need for periodic P inputs for sustainable pasture management and for a period of significant biological N fixation for early-to-mid-successional secondary forest

  18. Oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida contribution to decomposition dynamic of leaf litter in primary forest, second growth, and polyculture in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franklin

    Full Text Available We studied the contribution of oribatid mites in the dynamics of litter decomposition in an experiment using litterbags of three different mesh sizes (20 µm, 250 µm, and 1 cm. The experiment was carried out at a primary forest (FLO, a secondary forest (SEC, and at two polyculture systems (POA and POC. We compared the weight loss of the leaves of Vismia guianensis and the changes of the oribatid mite species community. We processed the samples after 26, 58, 111, 174, 278, and 350 days from the beginning of the experiment by using the Berlese-Tullgren to extract the animals. We hypothesized that: 1. the abundance and diversity of oribatid mites would exert an influence in the decomposition process; 2. there would be a successional changing of the species during decomposition; and 3. there would be differences in the colonization of species in relation to the mesh size of the litterbags. A total of 95 species of oribatid mites was found. The biomass data was the first registered for the Amazon region. The great dominance of oribatid mites did not exert an influence in the decomposition process. There was not a successional changing of the species during the course of the decomposition process, unlike those shown by results obtained in the temperate forest, because we found neither early colonizers nor species that prefer advanced decomposition stages. The oribatid mite community, which developed in the litterbags under tropical conditions, was atypical of the normal stages of leaf litter breakdown and decomposition. There were differences in the colonization of species in relation to the mesh size of the litterbags. These differences were very closely related to the specific habits and habitat of the dominant species.

  19. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  20. Soil heat flux measurements in an open forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMeulen, MJW; Klaassen, W; Kiely, G

    1996-01-01

    The soil surface heat flux in an open oak forest was determined at four locations to account for the heterogeneity of the forest. Soil temperatures and soil water content were measured at several depths and an integration method with three layers was used. The thickness of the bottom layer was

  1. Rill erosion in natural and disturbed forests: 1. Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Robichaud; J. W. Wagenbrenner; R. E. Brown

    2010-01-01

    Rill erosion can be a large portion of the total erosion in disturbed forests, but measurements of the runoff and erosion at the rill scale are uncommon. Simulated rill erosion experiments were conducted in two forested areas in the northwestern United States on slopes ranging from 18 to 79%. We compared runoff rates, runoff velocities, and sediment flux rates from...

  2. Lacunarity as a texture measure for a tropical forest landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Haiping; Krummel, J.

    1996-01-01

    Fragmentation and loss of tropical forest cover alters terrestrial plant and animal population dynamics, reduces biodiversity and carbon storage capacity, and, as a global phenomenon could affect regional and global climate patterns. Lacunarity as a texture measure can offer a simple solution to characterize the texture of tropical forest landscape and determine spatial patterns associated with ecological processes. Lacunarity quantifies the deviation from translational invariance by describing the distribution of gaps within a binary image at multiple scales. As lacunarity increases, the spatial arrangement of tropical forest gaps will also increase. In this study, we used the Spatial Modeler in Imagine as a graphic programming tool to calculate lacunarity indices for a tropical forest landscape in Southern Mexico and Northern Guatemala. Lacunarity indices were derived from classified Landsat MSS images acquired in 1974 and 1984. Random-generated binary images were also used to derive lacunarity indices and compared with the lacunarity of forest patterns derived from the classified MSS images. Tropical forest area declined about 17%, with most of the forest areas converted into pasture/grassland for grazing. During this period, lacunarity increased about 25%. Results of this study suggest that tropical forest fragmentation could be quantified with lacunarity measures. The study also demonstrated that the Spatial Modeler can be useful as a programming tool to quantify spatial patterns of tropical forest landscape by using remotely sensed data.

  3. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl. Pers. (Hypericaceae in the central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Jardine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene (Is emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1 under standard leaf temperature (30 °C, isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn. Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  4. Multi-scale Visualization of Remote Sensing and Topographic Data of the Amazon Rain Forest for Environmental Monitoring of the Petroleum Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, L.; Miranda, F. P.; Beisl, C. H.; Souza-Fonseca, J.

    2002-12-01

    PETROBRAS (the Brazilian national oil company) built a pipeline to transport crude oil from the Urucu River region to a terminal in the vicinities of Coari, a city located in the right margin of the Solimoes River. The oil is then shipped by tankers to another terminal in Manaus, capital city of the Amazonas state. At the city of Coari, changes in water level between dry and wet seasons reach up to 14 meters. This strong seasonal character of the Amazonian climate gives rise to four distinct scenarios in the annual hydrological cycle: low water, high water, receding water, and rising water. These scenarios constitute the main reference for the definition of oil spill response planning in the region, since flooded forests and flooded vegetation are the most sensitive fluvial environments to oil spills. This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazon by using 3D visualization techniques to help the analysis and interpretation of remote sensing and digital topographic data, as follows: (a) 1995 low flood and 1996 high flood JERS-1 SAR mosaics, band LHH, 100m pixel; (b) 2000 low flood and 2001 high flood RADARSAT-1 W1 images, band CHH, 30m pixel; (c) 2002 high flood airborne SAR images from the SIVAM project (System for Surveillance of the Amazon), band LHH, 3m pixel and band XHH, 6m pixel; (d) GTOPO30 digital elevation model, 30' resolution; (e) Digital elevation model derived from topographic information acquired during seismic surveys, 25m resolution; (f) panoramic views obtained from low altitude helicopter flights. The methodology applied includes image processing, cartographic conversion and generation of value-added product using 3D visualization. A semivariogram textural classification was applied to the SAR images in order to identify areas of flooded forest and flooded vegetation. The digital elevation models were color shaded to highlight subtle topographic features. Both datasets were then converted to

  5. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  6. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  7. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon - Satellite data from 1978 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skole, David; Tucker, Compton

    1993-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery covering the entire forested portion of the Brazilian Amazon Basin was used to measure, for 1978 and 1988, deforestation, fragmented forest, defined as areas less than 100 square kilometers surrounded by deforestation, and edge effects of 1 kilometer into forest from adjacent areas of deforestation. Tropical deforestation increased from 78,000 square kilometers in 1978 to 230,000 square kilometers in 1988 while tropical forest habitat, severely affected with respect to biological diversity, increased from 208,000 to 588,000 square kilometers. Although this rate of deforestation is lower than previous estimates, the effect on biological diversity is greater.

  8. Does Flapping of a Butterfly in Amazon Forests Can Cause a Storm in USA? Chaos Theory and a Discussion in Accordance with Butterfly Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Mercan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some words, which are basic cues of determining actors of current time-likeglobalization and information age-, change, speed, competition, and diversitybecame nearly catchwords. All the world, have been grazing from the limitedperception of history about place and time and have been facing the fact that thefuture is changing totally in different axis. This orbit has differentcoordinates,tools and methods and it is unavoidable. Likewise, basic dynamics ofinformation age are not being able to explain with the paradigms of industrialage. In whole world, new coordinates of information age which guide a new era-so ist paradigm-is becoming chaos theory, its captains are becoming differentleaders of different geographies. “Butterfly Effect”, another concept , which isrelated to “Chos Theory”of Edward N. Lorenz, can define as small changes ininitial datas in a system can cause big and unknown results. Globalization andinformation age make butterfly effect common. In this study, from the point of “ A butterfly’s flapping in Amazon Forest can cause a storm in USA” view, possibleeffects of chaos theory and butterfly effect to social life and to organizations willbe evaluated.,In the first part of this researchwill explainedchaos theory,inthethesecond part will mentionedfrom dominant metaphors in the past andfuture organizations ,inthethird part will analyzedmodel of chaos managementorganization.

  9. Abbreviated larval development of Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae from an Amazon Basin forest stream, Brazil, reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper brings the description and illustrations of the abbreviated larval development of the Amazonian freshwater palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982. The study was based on ovigerous females (mean total body length of 27.0 ± 1.64 mm collected in a small forest stream in the Reserva Florestal Ducke, near Manaus, Brazil, of which four released their larvae in the laboratory. The females carried 8 to 19 eliptical (2.39 ± 0.10 X 1.67 ± 0.08 mm, yolk-rich eggs. The larval period consists of three benthic, lecithotrophic larval stages, and lasts 10-11 days. The newly-hatched larvae bear very advanced morphological features such as antenna with several marginal plumose seta on scaphocerite and long, multi-articulated flagellum; fully developed, functional uniramous pereiopods 3-5 (walking legs and biramous pleopods. The morphology of the carapace, all appendages of the cephalothorax and pleon, and the tail fan are described in detail and illustrated. The larval form was considered to be a decapodid because of the benthic behavior and due to the fact that functional walking legs and pleopods are the main structures for displacement and propulsion. The larval development of M. inpa is compared with those of the so-called "continental" group of the caridean shrimps from the Amazon River basin.

  10. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  11. The charcoal of Carajas: A threat to the forests of Brazil's eastern Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (BR))

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the risk of deterioration of forests in the Amazonian region, following the planning and construction of a series of pig-iron smelters in the Grande Carajas region of Brazil. The demand for wood as raw material for charcoal production will be far greater than what is possible to harvest from the forestry management plans. Silviculture plantations give a rather high price for wood, why there is prudent to anticipate that most of the charcoal is likely to come from cutting native forest as long as they exist. (U.W.).

  12. Short-Term Responses of Birds to Forest Gaps and Understory: An Assessment of Reduced-Impact Logging in a Lowland Amazon Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Luiza Magalli Pinto Henriques; Michael R. Willig

    2006-01-01

    We studied physiognomy-specific (i.e., gaps vs. understory) responses of birds to low harvest (18.7 m3/ha), reduced-impact logging by comparing 3500 mist net captures in control and cut blocks of an Amazonian terra firme forest in Brazil at 20–42 mo postharvest. Species richness did not differ significantly between control (92 species) and cut (85) forest based on...

  13. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Oliveira, Júlio C; Ferrari, Stephen F; Vasconcelos, Huann C G; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N G; Araújo, Andrea S; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S; Isaac, Victoria J

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  14. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  15. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  16. Assessing the Impacts of forest degradation on water, energy, and carbon budgets in Amazon forest using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Xu, Y.; Longo, M.; Keller, M.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Fisher, R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forest degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation not only alters carbon stocks and carbon fluxes, but also impacts physical land-surface properties such as albedo and roughness length. Such impacts are poorly quantified to date due to difficulties in accessing and maintaining observational infrastructures, and the lack of proper modeling tools for capturing the interactions among biophysical properties, ecosystem demography, and biogeochemical cycling in tropical forests. As a first step to address these limitations, we implemented a selective logging module into the Functional Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) and parameterized the model to reproduce the selective logging experiment at the Tapajos National Forest in Brazil. The model was spun up until it reached the steady state, and simulations with and without logging were compared with the eddy covariance flux towers located at the logged and intact sites. The sensitivity of simulated water, energy, and carbon fluxes to key plant functional traits (e.g. Vcmax and leaf longevity) were quantified by perturbing their values within their documented ranges. Our results suggest that the model can reproduce water and carbon fluxes in intact forests, although sensible heat fluxes were overestimated. The effects of logging intensity and techniques on fluxes were assessed by specifying different disturbance parameters in the models (e.g., size-dependent mortality rates associated with timber harvest, collateral damage, and mechanical damage for infrastructure construction). The model projections suggest that even though the degraded forests rapidly recover water and energy fluxes compared with old-growth forests, the recovery times for carbon stocks, forest structure and composition are much longer. In addition, the simulated recovery trajectories are highly dependent on choices of values for functional traits. Our study highlights the advantages of an Earth system modeling approach

  17. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

  18. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

  19. Exploring uncertainty of Amazon dieback in a perturbed parameter Earth system ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Chris A; Booth, Ben B B; Good, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The future of the Amazon rainforest is unknown due to uncertainties in projected climate change and the response of the forest to this change (forest resiliency). Here, we explore the effect of some uncertainties in climate and land surface processes on the future of the forest, using a perturbed physics ensemble of HadCM3C. This is the first time Amazon forest changes are presented using an ensemble exploring both land vegetation processes and physical climate feedbacks in a fully coupled modelling framework. Under three different emissions scenarios, we measure the change in the forest coverage by the end of the 21st century (the transient response) and make a novel adaptation to a previously used method known as "dry-season resilience" to predict the long-term committed response of the forest, should the state of the climate remain constant past 2100. Our analysis of this ensemble suggests that there will be a high chance of greater forest loss on longer timescales than is realized by 2100, especially for mid-range and low emissions scenarios. In both the transient and predicted committed responses, there is an increasing uncertainty in the outcome of the forest as the strength of the emissions scenarios increases. It is important to note however, that very few of the simulations produce future forest loss of the magnitude previously shown under the standard model configuration. We find that low optimum temperatures for photosynthesis and a high minimum leaf area index needed for the forest to compete for space appear to be precursors for dieback. We then decompose the uncertainty into that associated with future climate change and that associated with forest resiliency, finding that it is important to reduce the uncertainty in both of these if we are to better determine the Amazon's outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad above the forest canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Wolff, Stefan; Sörgel, Matthias; Berger, Martina; Zelger, Michael; Dlugi, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, thus contributes to oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the exchange fluxes of these species between the atmosphere and the biosphere are important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research as well. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, being largely undisturbed by anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (gas profile system which has been operational at the site since 2012. From these measurements, we present eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 triad. We relate the fluxes to the canopy-atmosphere exchange of the trace gases and other scalars using the profile data along the tower. Chemical and turbulent transport timescales of the triad

  1. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of the NO-O3-NO2 Triad above the Forest Canopy at the ATTO Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, A.; Wolff, S.; Berger, M.; Zelger, M.; Dlugi, R. J. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Sörgel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (denoted together as NOx) determine the abundance of the tropospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 that regulate atmospheric self-cleaning. The three reactive trace gases NO, NO2 and O3 undergo a series of interconnected photochemical reactions and are therefore often referred to as the NO-O3-NO2 triad. Ozone deposition is mainly controlled by stomatal uptake, therefore resulting in oxidative stress for the plants. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide from above or below the canopy is deposited to leaves through stomatal uptake. NO emissions from soils contribute to above canopy O3 formation and accelerate OH recycling. Therefore, quantification of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange fluxes of these species is important for atmospheric chemistry and ecosystem research. The eddy covariance method is state of the art for direct measurements of ecosystem fluxes of trace gases. Eddy covariance measurements of NOx in pristine environments are rare because of lack of availability of instruments with the required precision to resolve concentrations characteristic of these environments with the required high time resolution. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. It is the ideal site for studying the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the NO-O3-NO2 triad, because of the absence of nearby anthropogenic sources. During an intensive measurement campaign in November 2015 at the ATTO site, measurements of NO, NO2 and O3 were carried out at 42 m above ground level on the 80 m walk-up tower with a fast (5 Hz) and sensitive (< 30 ppt) instrument (CLD790SR2, Eco Physics) for NO and NO2 and with 10 Hz for O3 (Enviscope GmbH). Additionally, a suite of micrometeorological instruments was installed, including a profile of 3-dimensional sonic anemometers and meteorological sensors. Vertical concentration profile measurements of NO, NO2 and O

  2. The potential uses of sarcosaprophagous flesh flies and blowflies for the evaluation of the regeneration and conservation of forest clearings: a case study in the Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Roberto Pereira; Esposito, Maria Cristina; Carvalho Filho, Fernando da Silva; Juen, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    The level of association between dipterans of the families Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae and habitats with different levels of vegetation cover was analyzed at Porto Urucu in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aim of identifying the potential of these taxa as bioindicators for the assessment of forest regeneration and conservation. The flies were collected in 16 sample areas, 12 of which were clearings at different stages of regeneration (C1--early regeneration; C2--moderate regeneration; and C3--advanced regeneration) and 4 in continuous forest (F). According to the IndVal analysis, nine sarcophagid species--Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann), Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Wiedemann), Peckia (Squamatodes) ingens (Walker), Sarcofahrtiopsis cuneata (Townsend), Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker), Peckia (Euboettcheria) collusor (Curran & Walley), Oxysarcodexia fringidea (Curran & Walley), Oxysarcodexia amorosa (Schiner), and Helicobia pilifera (Lopes)--were associated indiscriminately with clearings (C1 + C2 + C3). In contrast, only one calliphorid species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was associated with clearings in the early moderate regeneration (C1 + C2) phases, and four calliphorids were associated with continuous forest or mature clearings (C3 + F): Mesembrinella bicolor (F.), Eumesembrinella randa (Walker), Mesembrinella bellardiana (Aldrich), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann). These results indicate that sarcophagids may be useful for evaluating the degree of anthropogenic impact but are not suitable for the detection of minor variations in forest cover. In contrast, calliphorids may be appropriate for the evaluation of both anthropogenic impacts and the degree of forest regeneration and conservation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. NACP New England and Sierra National Forests Biophysical Measurements: 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set includes biophysical measurements collected in 2009 from five New England experimental forest stations: Bartlett Experimental Forest, Harvard...

  4. Measuring low rates of erosion from forest fuel reduction operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Ina Sue Miller

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate three methods for measuring low levels of hillside soil erosion associated with forest fuel management activities, and to measure erosion from cable logging and skid trails. The tipping bucket device with a sediment basin appears to be a better tool for this application than silt fences or rillmeter analysis. The greatest erosion...

  5. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-06

    XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries, thirty-seven fortifications had been established to defend the Amazon Region. At the end of the XVII century, iron ...Community to drive the Brazilian Government to interrupt the project "Grande Carajas " (Great Carajas ), and thus trying to inhibit the planned search...oxygen production potential in the Amazon region. Ironically , however, in order to allow plants to grow, part of the forest would have to be

  6. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  7. Phenology of the multi-use tree species Carapa guianensis in a floodplain forest of the Amazon Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson R. Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carapa guianensis is a multi-use tree species that is used for the production of timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs that are used and sold by rural Amazonian populations. Here we aimed to evaluate the phenophases of C. guianensis in várzea forest and relate them to climatic seasonality. Phenophases of flowering (flower buds and open flowers, fruiting (unripe and ripe fruits, and leaf flush and leaf fall were recorded for 30 individual trees during a 25 month period. Relationships between rainfall and the proportion of trees in each phenophase were tested using Generalised Linear Models with quasi-binomial errors. Flowering was found to peak in the driest months of the year (September to December, while fruiting peaked during the wettest months of the year when river levels are at their highest (January to May. Leaf flush and leaf fall occurred simultaneously throughout the year, regardless of seasonality. Strong seasonality in flowering and fruiting of C. guianensis likely represents a reproductive strategy that maximizes pollination and hydrochorous seed dispersal. This study has the potential to aid in planning the timing of seed collection and oil extraction activities, thus contributing to the sustainable exploitation of this tree.

  8. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  9. Predictive Models of Primary Tropical Forest Structure from Geomorphometric Variables Based on SRTM in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Polyanna da Conceição; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro; Balzter, Heiko; França, Helena; Bispo, Pitágoras da Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Surveying primary tropical forest over large regions is challenging. Indirect methods of relating terrain information or other external spatial datasets to forest biophysical parameters can provide forest structural maps at large scales but the inherent uncertainties need to be evaluated fully. The goal of the present study was to evaluate relief characteristics, measured through geomorphometric variables, as predictors of forest structural characteristics such as average tree basal area (BA) and height (H) and average percentage canopy openness (CO). Our hypothesis is that geomorphometric variables are good predictors of the structure of primary tropical forest, even in areas, with low altitude variation. The study was performed at the Tapajós National Forest, located in the Western State of Pará, Brazil. Forty-three plots were sampled. Predictive models for BA, H and CO were parameterized based on geomorphometric variables using multiple linear regression. Validation of the models with nine independent sample plots revealed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 3.73 m2/ha (20%) for BA, 1.70 m (12%) for H, and 1.78% (21%) for CO. The coefficient of determination between observed and predicted values were r2 = 0.32 for CO, r2 = 0.26 for H and r2 = 0.52 for BA. The models obtained were able to adequately estimate BA and CO. In summary, it can be concluded that relief variables are good predictors of vegetation structure and enable the creation of forest structure maps in primary tropical rainforest with an acceptable uncertainty.

  10. Post-fire dynamics of the woody vegetation of a savanna forest (Cerradão in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Matias Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFire can change the species composition, diversity, and structure of savanna vegetation, thus altering growth and mortality rates. Such changes in the woody vegetation of burned savanna forest were evaluated over four years in comparison to unburned savanna forest. All woody plants with a diameter at breast height > 10 cm were measured in 100 permanent plots. Six months later, 38 of these plots were burned. Three and a half years later, all surviving individuals were re-sampled. Species richness, diversity, and the number of individuals did not change in the burned plots, although they had significantly higher (p < 0.05 increases in basal area and mortality rates (5.1% year-1 than the unburned plots (3.0% year-1.Tachigali vulgarishad the greatest post-fire increase in basal area (53%. The results indicate that fire alters the dynamics and structure of the savanna forest, excluding the less fire-tolerant species and smaller individuals (? 15cm. Tachigali vulgaris is a key species for the recovery of savanna forest biomass due to its considerable post-fire gains in basal area, at least over the short term due to its short life cycle. It follows that frequent burning of savanna forest would result in a marked change in the species composition and structure of its woody vegetation.

  11. Tree ring reconstructed rainfall over the southern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lidio; Stahle, David; Villalba, Ricardo; Torbenson, Max; Feng, Song; Cook, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Moisture sensitive tree ring chronologies of Centrolobium microchaete have been developed from seasonally dry forests in the southern Amazon Basin and used to reconstruct wet season rainfall totals from 1799 to 2012, adding over 150 years of rainfall estimates to the short instrumental record for the region. The reconstruction is correlated with the same atmospheric variables that influence the instrumental measurements of wet season rainfall. Anticyclonic circulation over midlatitude South America promotes equatorward surges of cold and relatively dry extratropical air that converge with warm moist air to form deep convection and heavy rainfall over this sector of the southern Amazon Basin. Interesting droughts and pluvials are reconstructed during the preinstrumental nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the tree ring reconstruction suggests that the strong multidecadal variability in instrumental and reconstructed wet season rainfall after 1950 may have been unmatched since 1799.

  12. Combined fluorescence, reflectance, and ground measurements of a stressed Norway spruce forest for forest damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banninger, C.

    1991-01-01

    The detection and monitoring of stress and damage in forested areas is of utmost importance to forest managers for planning purposes. Remote sensing are the most suitable means to obtain this information. This requires that remote sensing data employed in a forest survey be properly chosen and utilized for their ability to measure canopy spectral features directly related to key tree and canopy properties that are indicators of forest health and vitality. Plant reflectance in the visible to short wave IR regions (400 to 2500 nm) provides information on its biochemical, biophysical, and morphological make up, whereas plant fluorescence in the 400 to 750 nm region is more indicative of the capacity and functioning of its photosynthetic apparatus. A measure of both these spectral properties can be used to provide an accurate assessment of stress and damage within the forest canopy. Foliar chlorophyll and nitrogen are essential biochemical constituents required for the proper functioning and maintenance of a plant's biological processes. Chlorophyll-a is the prime reactive center for photosynthesis, by which a plant converts CO2 and H2O into necessary plant products. Nitrogen forms an important component of the amino-acids, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic compounds that make up a plant, including its pigments. Both chlorophyll and nitrogen have characteristic absorption features in the visible to short wave IR region. By measuring the wavelength position and depth of these features and the fluorescence response of the foliage, the health and vitality of a canopy can be ascertained. Examples for a stressed Norway spruce forest in south-eastern Austria are presented.

  13. Measuring the marketing performances of state forest enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... achieved through measuring the activity outcomes that can be described as marketing performance. Because marketing is a social science ... be the single factor used in assessing the strength of an enterprise. Enterprise ... Marketing in forest enterprises is similar to marketing of agricultural and industrial ...

  14. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Day, Douglas A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Martin, Scot T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, Saewung [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Souza, Rodrigo [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Barbosa, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution. The first objective of the project was to understand and quantify the interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions with respect to the production of secondary organic material. In clean conditions in the Amazon basin, secondary organic material dominates the diameter distribution of the submicron particles. How and why is the diameter distribution shifted by pollution? The second objective followed from the first in that, although the diameter distribution is dominated by secondary organic material, the actual source of new particle production remains uncertain (i.e., the number concentration). The second objective was to test the hypothesis that new particles under natural conditions are produced as a result of evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores as well as to investigate any shifts in this mechanism under pollution conditions, e.g., in consequence to the high concentrations of SO2 in the pollution plume. Combined, the number-diameter distribution is the key connection to upscaling to the effects of aerosol

  15. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  16. Heat and hydration status: Predictors of repeated measures of urine specific gravity among Tsimane' adults in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher

    2015-12-01

    Hydration status is critical to physiological and cognitive health, yet it is unclear how populations living in hot-humid environments experiencing lifestyle transitions manage this underexplored facet of heat adaptation. This study assesses the predictors of repeated measures of hydration status for adults from two villages (close and distant from a market town) in the Bolivian Amazon. Interviews and focal follows were conducted with 36 Tsimane' (50% male). Urine samples, temperature, activity levels, and anthropometrics were measured pre-interview and post-follow and yielded a small panel (72 observations). Urine samples were analyzed for urine specific gravity (USG), a biomarker of hydration, with a refractometer. The mean USG was 1.020 g/ml (SD ± 0.008) with men (1.022 ± 0.008) slightly more dehydrated than women (1.018 ± 0.007). Using 1.020 as the criteria for clinical dehydration, 42% of the participants were dehydrated at both intervals and 21% were extremely dehydrated. Controlling for activity level, village membership, and covariates in random-effects linear regression models, each degree centigrade increase was associated with a USG increase of 0.0008 g/ml (P = 0.000). Adults from the village closer to the market town had significantly higher USG (B = 0.0041; P = 0.04) than those in the distant village. Dehydration was predicted to occur at 29°C, just above the thermoneutral range, and extreme dehydration at 37°C. These findings suggest that hotter temperatures coupled with lifestyle transitions may create conditions that increase vulnerability to dehydration among rural populations through landscape modifications and diet changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early recruitment responses to interactions between frequent fires, nutrients, and herbivory in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Tara Joy; Balch, Jennifer K; Mews, Cândida Lahís; Porto, Pábio; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; Brando, P M; Vieira, Simone A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding tropical forest diversity is a long-standing challenge in ecology. With global change, it has become increasingly important to understand how anthropogenic and natural factors interact to determine diversity. Anthropogenic increases in fire frequency are among the global change variables affecting forest diversity and functioning, and seasonally dry forest of the southern Amazon is among the ecosystems most affected by such pressures. Studying how fire will impact forests in this region is therefore important for understanding ecosystem functioning and for designing effective conservation action. We report the results of an experiment in which we manipulated fire, nutrient availability, and herbivory. We measured the effects of these interacting factors on the regenerative capacity of the ecotone between humid Amazon forest and Brazilian savanna. Regeneration density, diversity, and community composition were severely altered by fire. Additions of P and N + P reduced losses of density and richness in the first year post-fire. Herbivory was most important just after germination. Diversity was positively correlated with herbivory in unburned forest, likely because fire reduced the number of reproductive individuals. This contrasts with earlier results from the same study system in which herbivory was related to increased diversity after fire. We documented a significant effect of fire frequency; diversity in triennially burned forest was more similar to that in unburned than in annually burned forest, and the community composition of triennially burned forest was intermediate between unburned and annually burned areas. Preventing frequent fires will therefore help reduce losses in diversity in the southern Amazon's matrix of human-altered landscapes.

  18. Eco-efficiency in oil and gas exploration and production in regions of humid tropical forests: the PETROBRAS case in the Amazon region; Eco-eficiencia na exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas em regioes de florestas tropicais umidas: o caso da PETROBRAS na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyen, Bianca de Castro

    2008-09-15

    This dissertation discourses about the application of eco-efficiency concepts to the case of PETROBRAS oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Amazon Forest, proposing the use of indicators as a systematization tool for this application. First there is a description about the concepts concerning corporate sustainability, corporate social responsibility and eco-efficiency, considering their application to the oil and gas industry. The main exploration and production projects in rainforest regions are described next, with distinction to PETROBRAS case in the Amazon Forest. Finally there is a description about the process of alignment of PETROBRAS Amazon activities management to the eco-efficiency and corporate sustainability, followed by a proposal of a body of indicators to the case study. (author)

  19. Aerosol Hygroscopicity Measured in Pristine and Polluted Conditions During the First Year of the GoAmazon 2014/15 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, H. M.; Krüger, M. L.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Pauliquevis, T.; Brito, J.; Poeschl, U.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosol particles on cloud microphysical properties, cloud cover, precipitation, and regional climate are an important aspect of the climate system. The Amazon region is particularly susceptible to changes in number-diameter distributions of the atmospheric particle population because of the low background concentrations and high water vapor levels, indicating a regime of cloud properties that is highly sensitive to aerosol microphysics. This natural regime, different from most other continental areas worldwide, is expected to be perturbed by the interaction of the Manaus urban plume with the natural the natural environment. Studying the effects of this interaction on the cloud and aerosol life cycle is the main objective of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) campaign taking place around Manaus-Brazil from January 2014 to December 2015. In this paper we compare the particle hygroscopicity calculated from measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei performed at three ground sites during the first year of the GoAmazon 2014/15 experiment. Site T3 is about 70 km downwind from Manaus experiencing urban polluted and background conditions; site T2 is just across the Rio Negro from Manaus and CCN measurements were performed there only from 15 August 2014 to 30 Jan 2015; and T0, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), is a pristine site about 200 km upwind from Manaus. Our results indicate a lower hygroscopicity under polluted conditions (mean kappa values around 0.14 to 0.16) than under clean conditions (mean kappa around 0.2 to 0.3). At the clean site, it was possible to identify peaks of large sea salt particles with organic coating, while small particles seems to be purely organic. The activation fraction and hygroscopicity will be compared and discussed as a function of particle size. The mean kappa at ATTO is 0.17+-0.05 (mean of June and September) when there is no impact from long range transport from Africa or fresh soot emissions

  20. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  1. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  2. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  3. Comparative measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes from two nearby towers in a central Amazonian rainforest: the Manaus LBA site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, A.C.; Nobre, A.D.; Kruijt, B.; Elbers, J.A.; Dallarosa, R.; Stefani, P.; Randow, von C.; Manzi, A.O.; Culf, A.D.; Gash, J.H.C.; Valentini, R.; Kabat, P.

    2002-01-01

    Forests around Manaus have staged the oldest and the longest forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange studies made anywhere in the Amazon. Since July 1999 the exchange of CO2, water, and energy, as well as weather variables, have been measured almost continuously over two forests, 11 km apart, in the Cuieiras

  4. Physical properties and concentration of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during background and biomass burning conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guyon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the size distribution, scattering and absorption properties of Amazonian aerosols and the optical thickness of the aerosol layer under the pristine background conditions typical of the wet season, as well as during the biomass-burning-influenced dry season. The measurements were made during two campaigns in 1999 as part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH. In moving from the wet to the dry season, median particle numbers were observed to increase from values comparable to those of the remote marine boundary layer (~400 cm-3 to values more commonly associated with urban smog (~4000 cm-3, due to a massive injection of submicron smoke particles. Aerosol optical depths at 500 nm increased from 0.05 to 0.8 on average, reaching a value of 2 during the dry season. Scattering and absorption coefficients, measured at 550 nm, showed a concomitant increase from average values of 6.8 and 0.4 Mm-1 to values of 91 and 10 Mm-1, respectively, corresponding to an estimated decrease in single-scattering albedo from ca. 0.97 to 0.91. The roughly tenfold increase in many of the measured parameters attests to the dramatic effect that extensive seasonal biomass burning (deforestation, pasture cleaning is having on the composition and properties of aerosols over Amazonia. The potential exists for these changes to impact on regional and global climate through changes to the extinction of solar radiation as well as the alteration of cloud properties.

  5. Spatial Pattern of Standing Timber Value across the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Ewers, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determine...

  6. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sonter, Laura J.; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J.; Galford, Gillian L.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil’s Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boun...

  7. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether...

  8. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  9. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-02-28

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species.

  10. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns of tropical deforestation and forest degradation in response to the operation of the Tucuruí hydroelectricdam in the Amazon basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Gang; Powers, Ryan P.; Carvalho, de Luis M.T.; Mora, Brice

    2015-01-01

    The planned construction of hundreds of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon basin has the potential to provide invaluable 'clean' energy resources for aiding in securing future regional energy needs and continued economic growth. These mega-structures, however, directly and indirectly interfere with

  12. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  13. Trace elements in aerosols from background air pollution monitoring stations in the Amazon Basin using nuclear-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, P.; Martins, J.V.; Yamasoe, M.A.; Gerab, F.; Kocinas, S.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the natural release of aerosol particles by the Amazon Basin tropical rain forest, the composition and size distribution of biogenic aerosol particles were analyzed. The role of the atmospheric emissions from the Amazon Basin rain forest in the global atmosphere will be investigated. The atmosphere was studied in long-term sampling stations in three different locations. The elemental composition of aerosol particles released during biomass burning was also measured in several different ecosystems, from primary forest to Savannah. One of the main focuses was to identify and quantify important physical and chemical processes in the generation, transformation and deposition of aerosol particles. Also important was to obtain a better understanding of natural aerosol sources concerning identification, their characteristics and strength, to be able to understand the natural chemistry in the atmosphere on a global scale. 36 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  15. Regional nitrous oxide flux in Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felippe, Monica Tais Siqueira D'Amelio

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N 2 O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rain forest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N 2 O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajos National Forest (2000-2009) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (2004-2007), and the estimation of N 2 O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites using two methods: Column Integration Technique and Inversion Model - FLEXPART. To our knowledge, these regional scale N 2 O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. For the both methods, the fluxes upwind of Cuieiras Biologic Reserve exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 1.9 ±1.6 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for the Column Integration Technique and 2.3±0.9 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 for Inversion Model - FLEXPART. For fluxes upwind of Tapajos Nacional Forest, the Inversion Model - FLEXPART presented about half (0.9±1.7 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) of the Column Integration Technique (2.0±1.1 mgN 2 Om -2 day -1 ) for the same period (2004-2008). One reason could be because the inversion model does not consider anthropic activities, once it had a good representation for less impacted area. Both regions presented similar emission during wet season. By Column Integration Technique, fluxes upwind Tapajos Nacional Forest were similar for dry and wet seasons. The dry season N 2 O fluxes exhibit significant correlations with CO fluxes, indicating a larger than expected source of N 2 O from biomass burning. The average CO:N 2 O ratio for all 38 profiles sampled during the dry season was 82±69 mol CO:molN 2 O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N 2 O budget than previously reported. (author)

  16. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  17. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  18. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  19. LBA-ECO LC-14 Biophysical Measurements, Rainfall Exclusion, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports forest biophysical measurements from a rainfall exclusion experiment conducted at the km 67 Seca Floresta site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil...

  20. Recent findings related to measuring and modeling forest road erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2009-01-01

    Sediment is the greatest pollutant of forest streams. In the absence of wildfire, forest road networks are usually the main source of sediment in forest watersheds. An understanding of forest road erosion processes is important to aid in predicting sediment delivery from roads to streams. The flowpath followed by runoff is the key to understanding road erosion...

  1. Measurement of C-14 distribution in forest around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Arakhatoon, Jahan

    2003-01-01

    A simple analytical method of C-14 measurement using fast bomb combustion and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been developed for measuring C-14 distribution in the terrestrial environment. Specific activities of C-14 in cedar leaves and soils collected from an area around nuclear facilities and control areas were measured using this method. Depth distribution of Cs-137 in soils was also measured at the same sampling sites and compared with the depth distribution of C-14. C-14 specific activity in cedar leaves examined around nuclear facilities exceeded that in the control areas by 8 to 30 mBq (g carbon) -1 . The depth distribution of C-14 in forest soil shows that C-14 has peak values in the top 10 cm of the soil profiles ascribed to the highest bomb C-14 level in the 1960's. The data were made available to assess the behavior of fallout C-14 in the surface environment. (author)

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  3. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  4. Measurement and characterization of cellulase activity in sclerophyllous forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Stéven

    2002-07-01

    Cellulases are enzymatic proteins which hydrolyze cellulose polymers to smaller oligosaccharides, cellobiose and glucose. They consist in three major types of enzymes: endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91) and beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) which play an essential role in carbon turnover of forest ecosystem. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the parameters (i.e. buffer type, pH, temperature, quantity of litter, incubation time and reagent type) which affect the measurement of cellulase activity in a sclerophyllous forest litter, and secondly to compare two methods for measuring cellulase activity: a direct method and an extraction method. In the direct method, the litter was directly incubated with a buffered solution containing the enzyme substrate, whereas in the extraction method, the cellulases were firstly extracted before measuring their activity. The results were compared with other studies about soil cellulase activity, and it appeared that several parameters (buffer type, pH, temperature and sample quantity) which influence the measurement of cellulase activity differ according to whether a soil or a litter is considered. Concerning the procedure used for the measurement of cellulase activity, results showed that the activity values were higher when using an extraction procedure than when using a direct procedure. The extraction procedure, combined with a concentration stage of the extract, also allowed electrophoretic analysis (PAGE) of the cellulases extracted from the litter. The electrophoretic pattern revealed two cellulase isoenzymes which may be related to the occurrence of two pH-activity peaks of these enzymes when citrate buffer was used for the measurement of cellulase activity in the litter.

  5. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  6. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  7. Consistency of Vegetation Index Seasonality Across the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jerome; Mottus, Matti; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  8. Novas perspectivas para a gestão sustentável da Floresta Amazônica: explorando novos caminhos New perspectives for the sustainable management of the Amazon forest: exploring new avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ros-Tonen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com foco na indústria madeireira na região Amazônica do Brasil e com base numa comparação de resultados de uma pesquisa sobre o setor florestal realizada no início dos anos 90 e estudos realizados dez anos depois, este artigo explora várias tendências atuais com potência de mudar a gestão de florestas tropicais na região amazônica. Essas mudanças são relacionadas à a mudanças no suprimento de matéria prima, b globalização e abertura de mercados externos para madeira e outros produtos como a soja, c crescente escassez da madeira, d novos mercados e incentivos para o manejo florestal sustentável e manejo florestal comunitário, e e mudanças nos padrões de posse da terra, incluindo a descentralização da governança florestal e devolução de terras florestais. Concluímos que as mudanças apontam em direções diferentes. Enquanto a expansão dos mercados externos provoca o aumento do desmatamento, a descentralização e democratização da governança florestal e a preocupação global com a perda de serviços ambientais da floresta e de meios de vida para as populações locais criam novos incentivos para a gestão florestal sustentável. O maior desafio é encontrar meios para que a exploração florestal de base familiar e comunitária e as operações das serrarias nas áreas de assentamento sejam mais sustentáveis, por exemplo através de parcerias inovadoras do tipo empresa-comunidade.With a focus on the timber industry in the Brazilian Amazon region and based on a comparison of results of a study of the forestry sector carried out in the early 1990s and studies carried out about ten years later, this article explores various recent tendencies which have the potential to change tropical forest management in the Amazon region. These changes are related to a changes in the supply of roundwood, b globalisation and the opening of external markets for timber and other products like soy, c increasing scarcity of timber, d

  9. Characterizing Temporal and Spatial Changes in Land Surface Temperature across the Amazon Basin using Thermal and Infrared Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cak, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon Basin has faced innumerable pressures in recent years, including logging, mining and resource extraction, agricultural expansion, road building, and urbanization. These changes have drastically altered the landscape, transforming a predominantly forested environment into a mosaic of different types of land cover. The resulting fragmentation has caused dramatic and negative impacts on its structure and function, including on biodiversity and the transfer of water and energy to and from soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere (e.g., evapotranspiration). Because evapotranspiration from forested areas, which is affected by factors including temperature and water availability, plays a significant role in water dynamics in the Amazon Basin, measuring land surface temperature (LST) across the region can provide a dynamic assessment of hydrological, vegetation, and land use and land cover changes. It can also help to identify widespread urban development, which often has a higher LST signal relative to surrounding vegetation. Here, we discuss results from work to measure and identify drivers of change in LST across the entire Amazon Basin through analysis of past and current thermal and infrared satellite imagery. We leverage cloud computing resources in new ways to allow for more efficient analysis of imagery over the Amazon Basin across multiple years and multiple sensors. We also assess potential drivers of change in LST using spatial and multivariate statistical analyses with additional data sources of land cover, urban development, and demographics.

  10. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  11. Effect of smoke on subcanopy shaded light, canopy temperature, and carbon dioxide uptake in an Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, C. E.; Flanner, M. G.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Daytime Net Ecosystem CO2 uptake (NEE) in an Amazon forest has been shown to increase significantly during smoky periods associated with biomass burning. We investigated whether the increase in CO2 uptake is caused by increased irradiance in the lower canopy, which results from increased above-canopy diffuse light, or by decreased canopy temperature, which results from decreased above-canopy net radiation. We used Sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth to find nonsmoky (Aerosol Optic...

  12. Using of the AMS - 14 C technique for dating of soil charcoals, from holocene period, in the amazon forest(Manaus-Brazil region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Tada, M.L. di; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique was used to determine the radiocarbon age of charcoal fragments of soil samples from the Amazon Region near Manaus. The radiocarbon ages are within the 130 - 2400 years range. The interpretation is that these results are evidences of important fire events that occurred mostly during the superior Holocene dry phase. These res had spread out more intensely at the high land areas than at shoals. In this paper there are descriptions of the processes of sample preparation and the procedures for the AMS analysis. (author)

  13. Measuring the level of agreement between a veterinary and a human point-of-care glucometer and a laboratory blood analyzer in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.

  14. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by UV absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC. The Brazilian smoke/haze layers extended to 2–3 km altitude, which is much lower than the 5–6 km observed at the same latitude, time of year, and local time in Africa in 2000. Emission factors (EF were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported such as: nitrous acid, acrylonitrile, pyrrole, methylvinylketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, methylethylketone, methylpropanal, "acetol plus methylacetate," furaldehydes, dimethylsulfide, and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates. Thus, we recommend these EF for all tropical deforestation fires. The NMOC emissions were ~80% reactive, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC. Our EF for PM10 (17.8±4 g/kg is ~25% higher than previously reported for tropical forest fires and may reflect a trend towards, and sampling of, larger fires than in earlier studies. A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The

  15. Is the seasonal forest more vulnerable to drought effects in tropical Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Saatchi, S. S.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have found that the seasonal forests in semi-arid region are more susceptible to severe drought events and the persistent effect of these climate extremes can last for 2 to 4 years. However, the Amazonian forests, where the plant available water is often abundant, seasonal forests are considered more drought-tolerant as water deficits coincide with seasonal peaks of solar radiation. But the interactions between climate and anthropogenic changes have made the scenario of these forests in the "arc of deforestation" complicated. The tight coupling between extreme droughts and fire intensity can cause widespread fire-induced tree mortality across southeastern Amazon forests. The legacy effects of droughts, as well as the frequent revisit of these extremes in the recent decade (e.g. the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts) have made the projection of forest recovery unclear. In this study, we use satellite proxies of canopy structure, skin temperature and water content from observations of MODIS NIR reflectance, land surface temperature and QSCAT radar backscatter to define the seasonality in the Amazonian forests. It is further calibrated using the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT, terrestrial water storage from GRACE, as well as the structural metrics from GLAS waveforms. We delineate the post-drought effects of Amazon forests using seasonality-derived phenological regions. The results are expected to have a better understanding of the inter-annual variation of forest seasonality under the influence of both climate extremes and human-induced changes.

  16. Combining In Situ and Culture-based `Omic and Biogeochemical Measures to Identify the Physiological Ecology of a Blooming Diatom in the Amazon River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H.; Durkin, C. A.; Dyhrman, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Amazon River is the largest riverine fresh water input to the ocean and forms a plume that may extend over 1.3 x 106 km2, providing a significant source of nutrients that contributes to enhanced regional export flux and carbon sequestration. While we know that the enriched nutrient environment of the plume should promote phytoplankton success, it is difficult to discern the physiological basis of one organism's success over another. Characterizing the physiological ecology of individual species is increasingly tractable with the application of `omic approaches in situ. In the spring of 2013, a large centric diatom of the genus Coscinodiscus was observed in a mesohaline region of the Amazon River plume at high abundance relative to other diatoms both in the surface low salinity lens and in sediment traps deployed in this region. Using a combination of physiological, biogeochemical, rate, and `omic measurements, the metabolic state of the blooming Coscinodiscus species was examined in situ and in incubation experiments designed to characterize the physiological response to changes in nutrient supply ratios. In addition to field measurements, an isolate of the blooming Coscinodiscus species was brought into uni-algal culture and used to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly spanning gene sets expressed over a range of physiological conditions. This unique aspect of the research approach provided a reference transcriptome for improved (6 fold) identification of Coscinodiscus metatranscriptome reads. Taken together, the data from this multi-faceted approach, indicate the strong control of nitrogen on Coscinodiscus physiology in this system, as evidenced by cell counts and chlorophyll patterns as well as the modulation of Coscinodiscus marker genes like a nitrogen-regulated nitrate transporter. Future work that uses a similar approach may be a valuable path forward in discerning the physiological ecology of key species in other systems.

  17. Measurement and characteristics of microbial biomass in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    The soil microbial biomass is the primary agent responsible for the breakdown and mineralization of soil organic matter and plays a major role in regulating nutrient availability to plants. In this study, methods for measuring biomass in soil were compared and tested in forest soils ranging in pH from 3.2 to 7.2. A good relationship between biomass C measured using the chloroform fumigation-incubation method and soil ATP or microbial biomass C by direct microscopy was found in soils at or above pH 4.2. The fumigation-incubation method consistently underestimated biomass C in soils below pH 4.2, however. Hypotheses for the breakdown of the fumigation-incubation method in strongly acid soils were tested by using an alterative fumigant, measuring the proportion of added 14 C labelled fungi and bacteria decomposed in fumigated soils (k/sub C/), and by studying the effect of large, non-fumigated soil inocula on the flush of respiration following fumigation. These studies indicated that the failure of the method in strongly acid soils was due to inhibited decomposition of non-microbial soil organic matter by the microbial recolonizing population following fumigation. A modified method for measuring biomass C by fumigation-incubation in acid soils is proposed

  18. Conceptualizing and measuring demand for recreation on national forests: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Garber-Yonts

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the problem of measuring demand for recreation on national forests and other public lands. Current measures of recreation demand in Forest Service resource assessments and planning emphasize population-level participation rates and activity-based economic values for visitor days. Alternative measures and definitions of recreation demand are...

  19. Measuring forest and wild product contributions to household welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Hogarth, Nicholas J.; Bong, Indah Waty

    2017-01-01

    in the lowest bracket. Consumption of forest products and importance as a coping strategy was higher in the most upstream village, where sale of forest products in times of shock was more marked in the most downstream village (where forest coping strategies were also least important). The Forestry Modules......Systematic comparisons of human dependence on forests and environmental resources have been challenging, as a result of heterogeneous methodologies. Specialized Forestry Modules have been developed, with the goal of filling current information gaps concerning the economic importance of forest...... and wild products in household welfare and rural livelihoods. Results from a pilot assessment of the Forestry Modules in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, are presented, showing that the Forestry Modules perform well in extracting the expected information: mean per capita forest and wild product income shifts...

  20. Imaging Laser Altimetry in the Amazon: Mapping Large Areas of Topography, Vegetation Height and Structure, and Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Nelson, B.; dosSantos, J.; Valeriano, D.; Houghton, R.; Hofton, M.; Lutchke, S.; Sun, Q.

    2002-01-01

    A flight mission of NASA GSFC's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is planned for June-August 2003 in the Amazon region of Brazil. The goal of this flight mission is to map the vegetation height and structure and ground topography of a large area of the Amazon. This data will be used to produce maps of true ground topography, vegetation height, and estimated above-ground biomass and for comparison with and potential calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Approximately 15,000 sq. km covering various regions of the Amazon will be mapped. The LVIS sensor has the unique ability to accurately sense the ground topography beneath even the densest of forest canopies. This is achieved by using a high signal-to-noise laser altimeter to detect the very weak reflection from the ground that is available only through small gaps in between leaves and between tree canopies. Often the amount of ground signal is 1% or less of the total returned echo. Once the ground elevation is identified, that is used as the reference surface from which we measure the vertical height and structure of the vegetation. Test data over tropical forests have shown excellent correlation between LVIS measurements and biomass, basal area, stem density, ground topography, and canopy height. Examples of laser altimetry data over forests and the relationships to biophysical parameters will be shown. Also, recent advances in the LVIS instrument will be discussed.

  1. Wind Disturbance Produced Changes in Tree Species Assemblage in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.

    2010-12-01

    Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass tree mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing tree blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between tree mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass tree mortality events result in changes in the tree species assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary tree species assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the species. Stem density of trees with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and tree height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP

  2. Measuring the Level of Agreement Between Cloacal Gram's Stains and Bacterial Cultures in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Mitchell, Mark A; Whittington, Julia K; Roy, Alma; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-12-01

    Cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Although cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. To investigate the level of agreement between results from Gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples from psittacine birds, samples were taken from 21 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) and tested by Gram's stain cytology and bacterial culture. Most bacteria (97.2%) identified by Gram's stain were gram positive. However, gram-negative organisms were identified in 7 of 21 (33.3%; 95% confidence interval: 13.3%-53.3%) birds. Escherichia coli was the only gram-negative organism identified on culture. Agreement between results of Gram's stain and culture was fair (weighted κ = 0.27). The results of this study suggest that Gram's stains and bacterial culture may need to be performed with a parallel testing strategy to limit the likelihood of misclassifying the microbial flora of psittacine patients.

  3. Simulating the cumulative effects of multiple forest management strategies on landscape measures of forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; David E. Lytle; Randy Swaty; Craig Loehle

    2007-01-01

    While the cumulative effects of the actions of multiple owners have long been recognized as critically relevant to efforts to maintain sustainable forests at the landscape scale, few studies have addressed these effects. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to predict the cumulative effects of four owner groups (two paper companies, a state forest and non-...

  4. An overview of sustainablility measures for Nigeria's forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes by making some policy recommendations such as upward review of chargeable fees and royalties, that the proceeds should be recycled within the local people to ensure their loyalty and protection of the forest resources, increase in the forest area under reserves (from 10% to 20%), introduction of ...

  5. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  6. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  7. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  8. Estimativa do balanço de radiação por sensoriamento remoto de diferentes usos de solo no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira / Estimative of radiation balance by remote sensing of different soil uses in the brazilian southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use have motivated research on the dynamics of radiative and energy exchange in the Brazilian Amazon, which in turn cause demand for such data on the surface in spatial and temporal scales. While measuring these changes in micrometeorological towers provides punctual results, remote sensing provides accurate and low cost results to estimate them on a regional scale. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of estimates of net radiation and biophysical parameters from remote sensing in different land uses in southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Four sites were selected with soil covers by natural Amazon forest, Amazon managed forest, pasture and silvopastoral system. The net radiation and biophysical parameters (NDVI, leaf area index, albedo and radiometric temperature were estimated by the SEBAL algorithm, using images from the Landsat TM sensor 5 in July of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The NDVI, LAI, albedo and net radiation were higher in natural forest, followed by managed forest, grassland and silvopastoral system. Radiometric surface temperature were higher in the silvopastoral system followed by pasture, natural forest and managed forest.

  9. Integrating Stand and Soil Properties to Understand Foliar Nutrient Dynamics during Forest Succession Following Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Eben N.; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B.; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ13C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ13C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ15N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, – most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil 15N and 13C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession. PMID:24516525

  10. Methane emissions from northern Amazon savanna wetlands and Balbina Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemenes, A.; Belger, L.; Forsberg, B.; Melack, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    To improve estimates of methane emission for the Amazon basin requires information from aquatic environments not represented in the central basin near the Solimoes River, where most of the current data were obtained. We have combined intensive, year-long measurements of methane emission and water levels made in interfluvial wetlands located in the upper Negro basin with calculations of inundation based on a time series of Radarsat synthetic aperature radar images. These grass-dominated savannas emitted methane at an average rate of 18 mg C per m squared per day, a low rate compared to the habitats with floating grasses the occur in the Solimoes floodplains. Reservoirs constructed in the Amazon typically flood forested landscapes and lead to conditions conducive for methane production. The methane is released to the atmosphere from the reservoir and as the water exits the turbines and from the downstream river. Balbina Reservoir near Manaus covers about 2400 km squared along the Uatuma River. Annual averages of measurements of methane emission from the various habitats in the reservoir range from 23 to 64 mg C per m squared per day. Total annual emission from the reservoir is about 58 Gg C. In addition, about 39 Gg C per year are released below the dam, about 50 percent of which is released as the water passes through the turbines. On an annual areal basis, Balbina Reservoir emits 40 Mg C km squared, in contrast to 30 Mg km squared for the Solimoes mainstem floodplain

  11. Measurements of the potential ozone production rate in a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, L.; Sklaveniti, S.; Kramer, L.; Bloss, W.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Dusanter, S.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Millet, D. B.; Alwe, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a significant source of organic compounds globally and alongside NOx play a key role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Understanding how changes in NOx concentrations feed through to altered ozone production in BVOC dominated environments will aid our understanding of future atmospheric composition, notably as developing nations transition from NOx dominated to NOx limited chemistry as a result of mitigation strategies. Here we empirically investigate this ambient ozone formation potential. We report deployment of a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ chemical ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for a sampled ambient air mixture, including full VOC complexity, i.e. independent of characterization of individual organic compounds. Ground level measurements were performed as part of the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 field campaign, at a site located within a Northern Michigan forest that has typically low NOx abundance, but high isoprene and terpenoid loadings. As the ambient NOx concentrations were low during the campaign, experiments were performed in which NO was artificially added to the sampled ambient air mixture, to quantify changes in the potential ozone production rate as a function of NOx, and hence the ozone forming characteristics of the ambient air. Preliminarily results from these experiments are presented, and indicate that while ozone production increases with added NO, significant variation was observed for a given NO addition, reflecting differences in the ambient VOC chemical reactivity and ozone formation tendency.

  12. The impact of forest structure and light utilization on carbon cycling in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Longo, M.; Leitold, V.; Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Light competition is a fundamental organizing principle of forest ecosystems, and interactions between forest structure and light availability provide an important constraint on forest productivity. Tropical forests maintain a dense, multi-layered canopy, based in part on abundant diffuse light reaching the forest understory. Climate-driven changes in light availability, such as more direct illumination during drought conditions, therefore alter the potential productivity of forest ecosystems during such events. Here, we used multi-temporal airborne lidar data over a range of Amazon forest conditions to explore the influence of forest structure on gross primary productivity (GPP). Our analysis combined lidar-based observations of canopy illumination and turnover in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED, version 2.2). The ED model was updated to specifically account for regional differences in canopy and understory illumination using lidar-derived measures of canopy light environments. Model simulations considered the influence of forest structure on GPP over seasonal to decadal time scales, including feedbacks from differential productivity between illuminated and shaded canopy trees on mortality rates and forest composition. Finally, we constructed simple scenarios with varying diffuse and direct illumination to evaluate the potential for novel plant-climate interactions under scenarios of climate change. Collectively, the lidar observations and model simulations underscore the need to account for spatial heterogeneity in the vertical structure of tropical forests to constrain estimates of tropical forest productivity under current and future climate conditions.

  13. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months, through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators, including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  14. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marco Antonio; Vieira, Ruhan Saldanha; Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Sousa, Samantha Oliveira E; Farias, Tayse; Sousa, Alanna Grazieli; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months), through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators), including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  15. Evapotranspiration estimation using a parameter-parsimonious energy partition model over Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Agee, E.; Wang, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of droughts in the Amazon region have emphasized the potential vulnerability of the rainforests to heat and drought-induced stresses, highlighting the need to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of regional evapotranspiration (ET) and quantify resilience of the forest. Ground-based observations for estimating ET are resource intensive, making methods based on remotely sensed observations an attractive alternative. Several methodologies have been developed to estimate ET from satellite data, but challenges remained in model parameterization and satellite limited coverage reducing their utility for monitoring biodiverse regions. In this work, we apply a novel surface energy partition method (Maximum Entropy Production; MEP) based on Bayesian probability theory and nonequilibrium thermodynamics to derive ET time series using satellite data for Amazon basin. For a large, sparsely monitored region such as the Amazon, this approach has the advantage methods of only using single level measurements of net radiation, temperature, and specific humidity data. Furthermore, it is not sensitive to the uncertainty of the input data and model parameters. In this first application of MEP theory for a tropical forest biome, we assess its performance at various spatiotemporal scales against a diverse field data sets. Specifically, the objective of this work is to test this method using eddy flux data for several locations across the Amazonia at sub-daily, monthly, and annual scales and compare the new estimates with those using traditional methods. Analyses of the derived ET time series will contribute to reducing the current knowledge gap surrounding the much debated response of the Amazon Basin region to droughts and offer a template for monitoring the long-term changes in global hydrologic cycle due to anthropogenic and natural causes.

  16. Evaluating sustainability options in an agricultural frontier of the Amazon using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Debortoli, N.; Lindoso, D.; Nesheim, I.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are driven by a complex interaction between economic and demographic drivers and institutional constraints. Land use policies such as Conservation Units and the Forest Code law should conserve biodiversity and other environmental

  17. LBA-ECO LC-15 Amazon Basin Aboveground Live Biomass Distribution Map: 1990-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a single raster image containing the spatial distribution of aboveground live forest biomass of the Amazon basin. This product was derived...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  2. Evapotranspiration and heat fluxes over a patchy forest - studied using modelling and measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest (Klaassen et al. 2002, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 72, 231-243). Because such flux measurements are very often used for calibration of forest parameters or model constants, further...... using these parameters without a proper interpretation in mesoscale or global circulation models can results in serious bias of estimates of modelled evapotranspiration or heat fluxes from given area. Since representative measurements focused on heterogeneous effects are scarce numerical modelling can...... be used to interpret the measurements. Recently, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model SCADIS (Sogachev et al., 2002, Tellus 54B, 784-819) has been successfully applied to analyze the mechanisms of CO2 flux formation near a forest edge for neutrally stratified conditions (Sogachev et al., 2008...

  3. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  4. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  5. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  6. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  7. Amazon rainforest responses to elevated CO2: Deriving model-based hypotheses for the AmazonFACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, A.; Fleischer, K.; Lapola, D.; Holm, J.; Hoosbeek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is assumed to have a stimulating effect ("CO2 fertilization effect") on forest growth and resilience. Empirical evidence, however, for the existence and strength of such a tropical CO2 fertilization effect is scarce and thus a major impediment for constraining the uncertainties in Earth System Model projections. The implications of the tropical CO2 effect are far-reaching, as it strongly influences the global carbon and water cycle, and hence future global climate. In the scope of the Amazon Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, we addressed these uncertainties by assessing the CO2 fertilization effect at ecosystem scale. AmazonFACE is the first FACE experiment in an old-growth, highly diverse tropical rainforest. Here, we present a priori model-based hypotheses for the experiment derived from a set of 12 ecosystem models. Model simulations identified key uncertainties in our understanding of limiting processes and derived model-based hypotheses of expected ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 that can directly be tested during the experiment. Ambient model simulations compared satisfactorily with in-situ measurements of ecosystem carbon fluxes, as well as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stocks. Models consistently predicted an increase in photosynthesis with elevated CO2, which declined over time due to developing limitations. The conversion of enhanced photosynthesis into biomass, and hence ecosystem carbon sequestration, varied strongly among the models due to different assumptions on nutrient limitation. Models with flexible allocation schemes consistently predicted an increased investment in belowground structures to alleviate nutrient limitation, in turn accelerating turnover rates of soil organic matter. The models diverged on the prediction for carbon accumulation after 10 years of elevated CO2, mainly due to contrasting assumptions in their phosphorus cycle representation. These differences define the expected

  8. Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devol, Allan H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Wayne A.; King, Stagg L.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    1988-02-01

    Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon River floodplain have been determined. In total, 94 individual flux measurements were made along a 1,700-km stretch of the river during the early falling water period of the flood cycle (July-August 1985). The overall average rate of CH4 emission from wetlands was 390 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Water surfaces covered by aquatic macrophytes had the highest emissions, 590 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, while emissions from flooded forests were 110 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and open lake areas averaged 120 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Ebullition was the dominant mechanism of emission, accounting for 85% of the total. Surface water dissolved oxygen was always undersaturated, while dissolved CO2 concentrations were significantly supersaturated with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. Surface water CH4 concentrations were highly supersaturated, averaging 6.4 μM. The δ13C of the CH4 varied from -42‰ to -73‰ with an apparent trend toward heavier values downstream. Extrapolation to the entire Amazon floodplain results in estimated annual emissions in the troposphere of 10 Tg yr-1 and indicates the importance of the area in the global atmospheric CH4 cycle.

  9. Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange of NOx and O3 in Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, K. T.; Swofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; Rizzo, L. V.; Silva Campos, K.

    2017-12-01

    The primary source of atmospheric OH is the photolysis of O3 in the presence of water vapor. NOx gases are the main precursors of O3 and OH. In NOx-rich environments that have both high humidity and high solar radiation, OH concentrations are enhanced, making tropical forests dominant in global oxidation of long lived gases. The Amazon rain forest has a unique combination of vegetation with diverse characteristics, climate, and a dynamic land use, factors that altogether govern the emission and fate of trace gases, particle formation and atmospheric chemistry. Understanding the interactions among the mechanisms that govern local precursor emissions will lead to a better description of the local atmospheric chemistry and its global impacts. As part of the GoAmazon project, an array of complementary measurements was conducted in a research site in central Amazon, near Santarem (PA, Brazil), inside the Tapajos National Forest. The research site is surrounded by intact rain forest in a 6km radius, and a 45m canopy. The 67m tower was assembled in the site in 2001 for flux measurements (CO2 and H2O). In mid 2014 additional instrumentation were added, measuring NOx, O3, CH4, and SO2 fluxes and profiles. The low concentrations of SO2 (up to 0.1ppb during the peak of the dry season), and a small vertical gradient, suggest the predominance of biogenic sources. O3 show no significant seasonality between the daytime and nighttime vertical profiles, but occasional nighttime high concentrations for levels below canopy were observed. Hourly ozone fluxes suggest a production of O3 under canopy. NO soil emissions are indicated by concentrations in the ppb range for lower profile levels, decreasing to a few hundreds ppt above the canopy, and emission rates of NO from Amazonian soils may be higher than expected from earlier measurements. Daytime data indicate that not all of this NOx escapes to the atmosphere, however. Fluxes of NO average 133x109 molec cm-2 s-1, a factor of 4 higher

  10. Linking terrace geomorphology and canopy characteristics in the Peruvian Amazon using high resolution airborne remote sensing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, K.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to over half a million square kilometers of forest, nearly three quarters of which is supported by terrace landforms with variable histories. Characteristics of these terrace ecosystems have been contrasted with neighboring floodplain systems along riverine transportation corridors, but the ecological complexity within these terrace landscapes has remained largely unexplored. Airborne remote measurements provide an opportunity to consider the relationship between forest canopy characteristics and geomorphic gradients at high resolution over large spatial extents. In 2011 the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to map a large section of intact lowland humid tropical forest in the southwestern Peruvian Amazon, including over nine thousand hectares of terrace forest. The CAO collected high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data with its Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) and digital elevation and canopy structure data with its high-resolution dual waveform LiDAR. These data, supplemented with field data collection, were used to quantify relationships between forest canopy traits and geomorphic gradients. Results suggest that both spectral properties of the canopy with known relationships to canopy chemistry, including pigment and nutrient concentrations, and canopy structural traits, including vegetation height and leaf area, are associated with geomorphic characteristics of this terrace landscape.

  11. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  12. Carbon dioxide flux measurements from a coastal Douglas-fir forest floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewitt, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examined the process that affects the exchange of carbon between the soil and the atmosphere with particular attention to the large amounts of carbon stored in soils in the form of decaying organic matter. This forest floor measuring study was conducted in 2000 at a micro-meteorological tower flux site in a coastal temperature Douglas-fir forest. The measuring study involved half hourly measurements of both carbon dioxide and below-ground carbon dioxide storage. Measurements were taken at 6 locations between April and December to include a large portion of the growing season. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide flux above the forest floor over a two month period in the summer and the autumn were compared with forest floor measurements. Below-ground carbon dioxide mixing ratios of soil air were measured at 6 depths between 0.02 to 1 m using gas diffusion probes and a syringe sampling method. Maximum carbon dioxide fluxes measured by the soil chambers varied by a factor of 3 and a high spatial variability in soil carbon dioxide flux was noted. Forest floor carbon dioxide fluxes measured by each of the chambers indicated different sensitivities to soil temperature. Hysteresis in the flux temperature relationship over the year was evident. Reliable below-canopy EC measurements of the forest floor carbon dioxide flux were difficult to obtain because of the every low wind speeds below the forest canopy. The amount of carbon dioxde present in the soil increased rapidly with depth near the surface but less rapidly deeper in the soil. It was suggested that approximately half of the carbon dioxide produced below-ground comes from between the soil surface and the first 0.15 m of depth. Carbon dioxide fluxes from the floor of a Douglas-fir forest were found to be large compared to other, less productive ecosystems

  13. Using Atmosphere-Forest Measurements To Examine The Potential For Reduced Downwind Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-13

    A 2-D dispersion model was developed to address how airborne plumes interact with the forest at Savannah River Site. Parameters describing turbulence and mixing of the atmosphere within and just above the forest were estimated using measurements of water vapor or carbon dioxide concentration made at the Aiken AmeriFlux tower for a range of stability and seasonal conditions. Stability periods when the greatest amount of mixing of an airborne plume into the forest were found for 1) very unstable environments, when atmospheric turbulence is usually at a maximum, and 2) very stable environments, when the plume concentration at the forest top is at a maximum and small amounts of turbulent mixing can move a substantial portion of the plume into the forest. Plume interactions with the forest during stable periods are of particular importance because these conditions are usually considered the worst-case scenario for downwind effects from a plume. The pattern of plume mixing into the forest was similar during the year except during summer when the amount of plume mixed into the forest was nearly negligible for all but stable periods. If the model results indicating increased deposition into the forest during stable conditions can be confirmed, it would allow for a reduction in the limitations that restrict facility operations while maintaining conservative estimates for downwind effects. Continuing work is planned to confirm these results as well as estimate specific deposition velocity values for use in toolbox models used in regulatory roles.

  14. Forest evapotranspiration: measurements and modeling at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; J-C. Domec; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional engineering hydrology, forest hydrology has a relatively long history of studying the effects of vegetation in regulating streamflow through evapotranspiration (Hewlett, 1982; Swank and Crossley, 1988; Andreassian, 2004; Brown et al., 2005; Amatya et al., 2011, 2015, 2016; Sun et al., 2011b; Vose et al., 2011). It is estimated that more than...

  15. Measurement of sub-canopy evaporation in a flooded forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration is the dominant water efflux in many forested wetlands, but few studies have quantified the contribution of subcanopy evaporation. The goal of this study is to investigate the subcanopy energy balance to more fully understand physical controls over evaporation. We used Bowen ratio...

  16. Regionalization of Methane Emissions in the Amazon Basin with Multi-temporal Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; Hess, L. L.; Forsberg, B. R.; Hamilton, S. K.; Novo, E. M.

    2002-12-01

    Remote sensing of the Amazon basin with passive and active microwave techniques were applied to determine the temporally varying extent of inundation and associated vegetation, and used in conjunction with field measurements to calculate regional rates of methane emission from wetlands to the atmosphere. Monthly inundation areas were derived from analysis of the 37-GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (1979 -87) for the mainstem Amazon floodplain in Brazil, the Llanos de Moxos (Beni and Mamore rivers) in Bolivia, the Bananal Island (Araguaia River) and Roraima savannas. Data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1, L-band synthetic aperture radar were used to determine inundation and wetland vegetation for Amazon basin less than 500 m above sea level at high water (May-June 1996) and low water (October 1995). Although all the measurements of methane emission from aquatic habitats have been performed in the deeply inundated, central basin in open water, flooded forests or floating macrophytes, our basin-wide remote sensing has revealed large areas of seasonally flooded savannas. Therefore, improvements in basin-wide estimates of methane emission will require field studies in wetlands such as those in Bolivia, Roraima and the Bananal.

  17. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  18. CMS: Forest Inventory and Biophysical Measurements, Para, Brazil, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements for diameter at breast height (DBH), commercial tree height, and total tree height for forest inventories taken at the Fazenda...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-14 Biophysical Measurements, Rainfall Exclusion, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports forest biophysical measurements from a rainfall exclusion experiment conducted at the km 67 Seca Floresta site, Tapajos National...

  20. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  1. Can RADARSAT improve methane emission estimations in the tropical floodplains and reservoirs: Tucurui reservoir and Lago Grande, Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, V.; Moraes Novo, E.M.L. de; Farias Costa, M.P. de; Mantovini, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Methane fluxes in three different environments in the floodplains and reservoirs in the Amazon Basin - open water, macrophyte beds and flooded forests - were measured to quantify their contribution to the global carbon budget. To produce accurate numbers on the proportion of each habitat multitemporal RADARSAT data have been used for the measurements. This paper describes the methodology developed for integrating radar data and methane ground measurements and to assess the usefulness of RADARSAT imagery in estimating methane emissions for these ecosystems. Preliminary results indicate that the RADARSAT data was crucial, given the cloud cover and the seasonal variability of these environments

  2. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  3. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical

  4. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Poulter, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21. Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990's mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990's and early 2000's to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) PgCyear-1 in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP=-0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) PgCyear -1 ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. (authors)

  5. Spectral Properties of Coniferous Forests: A Review of In Situ and Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Rautiainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous species are present in almost all major vegetation biomes on Earth, though they are the most abundant in the northern hemisphere, where they form the northern tree and forest lines close to the Arctic Circle. Monitoring coniferous forests with satellite and airborne remote sensing is active, due to the forests’ great ecological and economic importance. We review the current understanding of spectral behavior of different components forming coniferous forests. We look at the spatial, directional, and seasonal variations in needle, shoot, woody element, and understory spectra in coniferous forests, based on measurements. Through selected case studies, we also demonstrate how coniferous canopy spectra vary at different spatial scales, and in different viewing angles and seasons. Finally, we provide a synthesis of gaps in the current knowledge on spectra of elements forming coniferous forests that could also serve as a recommendation for planning scientific efforts in the future.

  6. Community Forest Management in the Brazilian Amazon Scenario: Regulations for Wood Extraction by Traditional Populations Under Perspective of Justice in Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica dos Santos Pacheco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the text of all rules regarding logging performed by traditional populations within the community and family forest management policy in order to determine whether, besides the search for income generation, differentiated socio-cultural conditions of the group are considered in that policy. The work is developed from the perspective of the theory of justice advocated by political philosopher Nancy Fraser through the work "From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of justice in a "post-socialist"", and it analyses national and international related legislation is analyzed, and conducted literature to build the theoretical framework of the current reality of community forest management. We conclude that, although it seeks to ensure access to income to traditionalpopulations through logging, the main standards of community forestry are marked by traits and requirements that despise differentiated culture of those groups, which have made impossible economic guarantees by activity. This way, the traditional populations are identified as bivalent collectives that require redistribution of economic and social wealth, while simultaneously recognizing their cultural identity to assure fair policies, which requires, in such a way, the current model of community forestry.

  7. [Vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a primary non-flooded forest of the Central Amazon, Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Lima, Artur; Bermudez, Eloy Castellón; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes de; Sherlock, Italo

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna were conducted in a non-flooded primary forest at a Tropical Forest Experimental Station of the National Institute of Amazonian Research from October 1998 to March 1999. CDC light traps were placed at one, 10, and 20 meters above ground. A total of 2,859 sandflies were captured, belonging to the Lutzomyia (99.93%) and Brumtomyia (0.07%) genera, represented by 38 species. In the Lutzomyia gender, the most frequent sub-gender was Nyssomyia (43.4%), followed by Psychodopygus (22.8%). Lutzomyia umbratilis, L. anduzei, L. rorotaensis, L. trichopyga, and L. olmeca nociva predominated at one meter above ground, while L. davisi, L. infraspinosa, L. umbratilis, L. trichopyga, and L. anduzei predominated at 10 meters. L. anduzei, L. tuberculata, L. dendrophyla, and L. dreisbachi were the most abundant species at 20 meters. L. umbratilis, which appeared at all three levels of vertical stratification, has great epidemic significance as a vector of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis.

  8. Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo DS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.

  9. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronza, Amanda Lee

    2010-01-01

    TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests,

  10. Two-color, Polarimetric Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, P.; Yu, A. W.; Harding, D. J.; Valett, S. R.; Hicks, E.; Shuman, C. A.; Vasilyev, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decade lidar remote sensing has proven to be a highly effective method for characterization of forest canopy structure and estimation of biomass stocks. However, traditional measurements only provide information on the vertical distribution of surfaces without ability to differentiate surface types. Also, an unresolved aspect of traditional measurements is the contribution of within-canopy multiple scattering to the lidar profiles of canopy structure. Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) data was acquired in July and August, 2010 for three sites with well-characterized forest structure in order to address these issues. SIMPL is an airborne, four-beam laser altimeter developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program. It acquires single-photon laser ranging data at 532 and 1064 nm, recording range-resolved measurements of reflected energy parallel and perpendicular to the transmit pulse polarization plane. Prior work with a non-ranging, multi-wavelength laser polarimetry demonstrated differentiation of tree species types based on depolarization differences related to surface and volume multiple scattering at the leaf scale. By adding the ranging component, SIMPL provides a means to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution of optical scattering properties to better understand the interaction of pulsed laser energy with the foliage, stem and branch components of forest canopies. Data were acquired for the deciduous forest cover at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Maryland and mixed deciduous and pine cover in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, two sites being used by the ICESat-2 project to assess micropulse, single-photon measurements of forest canopies. A third site, in the Huron National Forest in Michigan, has had diverse forest silviculture management practices applied to pine stands. The contrasts in forest stands between these sites will be used to illustrate

  11. LBA-ECO CD-10 Tree DBH Measurements at the km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data sets reports diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements in the old-growth upland forest at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower...

  12. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  13. Decoupling of Deforestation and Soy Production in the Southern Amazon During the Late 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2011-01-01

    From 2006-2010 deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) while agricultural production reached an all time high, achieving the oft-cited objective of increasing production while maintaining forest cover. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001-2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006-2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10% to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels while deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that anti-deforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso or forests in neighboring Amazon states during the late 2000s, although leakage to more distant regions is possible. This study provides empirical evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers through productive use of already cleared lands. It remains uncertain whether government and industry-led policies can contain deforestation when market conditions again favor a boom in agricultural expansion.

  14. Canopy spectral and chemical diversity from lowland to tree line in the Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests. Results from one lowland site in the Peruvian Amazon suggests both an environmental and an evolutionary component of canopy trait development however, the degree to which larger environmental differences influence diversity in canopy traits and their respective spectroscopic signatures across remains poorly understood. The spectranomics approach explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies providing the basis for analysis, while high-fidelity, airborne remote sensing measurements extend plot-level data to landscape-scale, achieving a comprehensive view of the region. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to sample a large region of the Western Amazon Basin in southeastern Peru, extending from lowlands to tree line in the Andean mountains. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between environmental gradients and canopy chemical and spectral diversity. Results suggest strong environmental control with additional phylogenetic influence over canopy spectral and chemical properties, particularly those related to structure, defense and metabolic function. Data from CAO-VSWIR extends the large range in canopy chemical and spectral diversity related to environmental factors across the Western Amazon Basin.

  15. A Simulation Model of Carbon Cycling and Methane Emissions in Amazon Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Melack, J.; Hess, L.; Forsberg, B.; Novo, E. M.; Klooster, S.

    2004-12-01

    An integrative carbon study is investigating the hypothesis that measured fluxes of methane from wetlands in the Amazon region can be predicted accurately using a combination of process modeling of ecosystem carbon cycles and remote sensing of regional floodplain dynamics. A new simulation model has been build using the NASA-CASA concept for predicting methane production and emission fluxes in Amazon river and floodplain ecosystems. Numerous innovations area being made to model Amazon wetland ecosystems, including: (1) prediction of wetland net primary production (NPP) as the source for plant litter decomposition and accumulation of sediment organic matter in two major vegetation classes -- flooded forests (varzea or igapo) and floating macrophytes, (2) representation of controls on carbon processing and methane evasion at the diffusive boundary layer, through the lake water column, and in wetland sediments as a function of changes in floodplain water level, (3) inclusion of surface emissions controls on wetland methane fluxes, including variations in daily surface temperature and of hydrostatic pressure linked to water level fluctuations. A model design overview and early simulation results are presented.

  16. A Simulation Model of Carbon Cycling and Methane Emissions in Amazon Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Melack, John; Hess, Laura; Forsberg, Bruce; Novo, Evlyn Moraes; Klooster, Steven

    2004-01-01

    An integrative carbon study is investigating the hypothesis that measured fluxes of methane from wetlands in the Amazon region can be predicted accurately using a combination of process modeling of ecosystem carbon cycles and remote sensing of regional floodplain dynamics. A new simulation model has been build using the NASA- CASA concept for predicting methane production and emission fluxes in Amazon river and floodplain ecosystems. Numerous innovations area being made to model Amazon wetland ecosystems, including: (1) prediction of wetland net primary production (NPP) as the source for plant litter decomposition and accumulation of sediment organic matter in two major vegetation classes - flooded forests (varzea or igapo) and floating macrophytes, (2) representation of controls on carbon processing and methane evasion at the diffusive boundary layer, through the lake water column, and in wetland sediments as a function of changes in floodplain water level, (3) inclusion of surface emissions controls on wetland methane fluxes, including variations in daily surface temperature and of hydrostatic pressure linked to water level fluctuations. A model design overview and early simulation results are presented.

  17. Bacteria diversity and microbial biomass in forest, pasture and fallow soils in the southwestern Amazon basin Diversidade de bacteria e biomassa microbiana em solos sob floresta, pastagem e capoeira no sudoeste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cenciani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that Amazon tropical forest soils contain high microbial biodiversity. However, anthropogenic actions of slash and burn, mainly for pasture establishment, induce profound changes in the well-balanced biogeochemical cycles. After a few years the grass yield usually declines, the pasture is abandoned and is transformed into a secondary vegetation called "capoeira" or fallow. The aim of this study was to examine how the clearing of Amazon rainforest for pasture affects: (1 the diversity of the Bacteria domain evaluated by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, (2 microbial biomass and some soil chemical properties (pH, moisture, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H + Al, and BS, and (3 the influence of environmental variables on the genetic structure of bacterial community. In the pasture soil, total carbon (C was between 30 to 42 % higher than in the fallow, and almost 47 % higher than in the forest soil over a year. The same pattern was observed for N. Microbial biomass in the pasture was about 38 and 26 % higher than at fallow and forest sites, respectively, in the rainy season. DGGE profiling revealed a lower number of bands per area in the dry season, but differences in the structure of bacterial communities among sites were better defined than in the wet season. The bacterial DNA fingerprints in the forest were stronger related to Al content and the Cmic:Ctot and Nmic:Ntot ratios. For pasture and fallow sites, the structure of the Bacteria domain was more associated with pH, sum of bases, moisture, total C and N and the microbial biomass. In general microbial biomass in the soils was influenced by total C and N, which were associated with the Bacteria domain, since the bacterial community is a component and active fraction of the microbial biomass. Results show that the genetic composition of bacterial communities in Amazonian soils changed along the sequence forest-pasture-fallow.Os solos da floresta

  18. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alisson F; Carr, David L

    2005-07-01

    engagement in on-farm work, increasing resource scarcity-measured by higher population density at the farm and reduction in farm land on forest and crops-and increase in pasture land are more associated with male out-migration to rural areas. On the other hand, increasing resource scarcity, higher population density and weaker migration networks are more associated with female out-migration to urban areas. Thus, a "vicious cycle" is created: Pressure over land leads to deforestation in most or all farm forest areas and reduces the possibilities for further agricultural extensification (deforestation); out-migration, especially male out-migration, occurs to other rural or forest areas in the Amazon (with women being more likely to choose urban destinations); and, giving continuing population growth and pressures in the new settled areas, new pressures promote further out-migration to rural destinations and unabated deforestation.

  19. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  20. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Christopher [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa [California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA (United States); Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos, E-mail: chris.potter@nasa.gov [Planetary Skin Institute, Silicon Valley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO{sub 2} uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  1. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO 2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO 2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  2. Effects of Measurement Errors on Individual Tree Stem Volume Estimates for the Austrian National Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros Berger; Thomas Gschwantner; Ronald E. McRoberts; Klemens. Schadauer

    2014-01-01

    National forest inventories typically estimate individual tree volumes using models that rely on measurements of predictor variables such as tree height and diameter, both of which are subject to measurement error. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of these measurement errors on the uncertainty of the model-based tree stem volume estimates. The impacts...

  3. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Trebs

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, nitrite (NO2-, chloride (Cl- and sulfate (SO42-, and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil. This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate. Sampling was performed from 12 September to 14 November 2002, extending from the dry season (extensive biomass burning activity, through the transition period to the wet season (background conditions. Measurements were made continuously using a wet-annular denuder (WAD in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC followed by suitable on-line analysis. A detailed description and verification of the inlet system for simultaneous sampling of soluble gases and aerosol compounds is presented. Overall measurement uncertainties of the ambient mixing ratios usually remained below 15%. The limit of detection (LOD was determined for each single data point measured during the field experiment. Median LOD values (3σ-definition were ≤0.015ppb for acidic trace gases and aerosol anions and ≤0.118ppb for NH3 and aerosol NH4+. Mixing ratios of acidic trace gases remained below 1ppb throughout the measurement period, while NH3 levels were an order of magnitude higher. Accordingly, mixing ratios of NH4+ exceeded those of other inorganic aerosol contributors by a factor of 4 to 10. During the wet season, mixing ratios decreased by nearly a factor of 3 for all compounds compared to those observed when intensive biomass burning took place. Additionally, N-containing gas and aerosol species featured pronounced diel variations. This is attributed to strong

  4. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  5. Energy Budget of A Subalpine Forest Measured By A Suspended Bowen-ratio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Werner; Cattin, René

    Energy budget measurements performed during the BOREAS project in North Amer- ica revealed that evapotranspiration from boreal coniferous forests were significantly below the rates previously assumed by regional climate and weather forecast mod- els. Since the subalpine forests in the Alps and other mountain regions of the world are believed to be the corresponding ecosystem type within an altitudinal gradient we attempted to measure the energy budget of a subalpine spruce (Picea abies) forest in comparison with a nearby meadow at an elevation of 1400 m in the Swiss Alps. For the measurements over the forest a new concept was tested to use a suspended Bowen-ratio system that was attached to a cable crossing a gully to be placed over a 10-year old tree canopy. This installation was developed because of the geological conditions at the research site which did not allow the construction of a solid tower (apart from the costs that such a tower would cost) in this torrent catchment that be- longs to the Natural Hazard Investigation Area of the University of Bern. The setup over the meadow was a standard setup attached to a 5 m tower. This paper addresses the experience gained with the two setups. The results from this comparison indicate that due to the difference in topographical conditions (a north- facing slope compared to the relatively flat BOREAS landscapes) the conditions found during BOREAS cannot be translated to coniferous forests in such subalpine areas of the Alps. Our measurements suggest that the energy budget of the selected forest type is similar to an oasis condition and should be regarded as a gully forest effect with a significant contribution of downward sensible heat flux to provide energy for evapotranspiration of the forest.

  6. Using Lidar and Radar measurements to constrain predictions of forest ecosystem structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Alexander S; Saatchi, Sassan S; Chazdon, Robin L; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2011-06-01

    Insights into vegetation and aboveground biomass dynamics within terrestrial ecosystems have come almost exclusively from ground-based forest inventories that are limited in their spatial extent. Lidar and synthetic-aperture Radar are promising remote-sensing-based techniques for obtaining comprehensive measurements of forest structure at regional to global scales. In this study we investigate how Lidar-derived forest heights and Radar-derived aboveground biomass can be used to constrain the dynamics of the ED2 terrestrial biosphere model. Four-year simulations initialized with Lidar and Radar structure variables were compared against simulations initialized from forest-inventory data and output from a long-term potential-vegtation simulation. Both height and biomass initializations from Lidar and Radar measurements significantly improved the representation of forest structure within the model, eliminating the bias of too many large trees that arose in the potential-vegtation-initialized simulation. The Lidar and Radar initializations decreased the proportion of larger trees estimated by the potential vegetation by approximately 20-30%, matching the forest inventory. This resulted in improved predictions of ecosystem-scale carbon fluxes and structural dynamics compared to predictions from the potential-vegtation simulation. The Radar initialization produced biomass values that were 75% closer to the forest inventory, with Lidar initializations producing canopy height values closest to the forest inventory. Net primary production values for the Radar and Lidar initializations were around 6-8% closer to the forest inventory. Correcting the Lidar and Radar initializations for forest composition resulted in improved biomass and basal-area dynamics as well as leaf-area index. Correcting the Lidar and Radar initializations for forest composition and fine-scale structure by combining the remote-sensing measurements with ground-based inventory data further improved

  7. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  8. Biomass equations for forest regrowth in the eastern Amazon using randomized branch sampling Equações alométricas para estimativa de biomassa de floresta secundária na Amazônia Oriental usando amostragem aleatória de ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jonathan Ducey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest regrowth occupies an extensive and increasing area in the Amazon basin, but accurate assessment of the impact of regrowth on carbon and nutrient cycles has been hampered by a paucity of available allometric equations. We develop pooled and species-specific equations for total aboveground biomass for a study site in the eastern Amazon that had been abandoned for 15 years. Field work was conducted using randomized branch sampling, a rapid technique that has seen little use in tropical forests. High consistency of sample paths in randomized branch sampling, as measured by the standard error of individual paths (14%, suggests the method may provide substantial efficiencies when compared to traditional procedures. The best fitting equations in this study used the traditional form Y=a×DBHb, where Y is biomass, DBH is diameter at breast height, and a and b are both species-specific parameters. Species-specific equations of the form Y=a(BA×H, where Y is biomass, BA is tree basal area, H is tree height, and a is a species-specific parameter, fit almost as well. Comparison with previously published equations indicated errors from -33% to +29% would have occurred using off-site relationships. We also present equations for stemwood, twigs, and foliage as biomass components.Florestas secundárias ocupam uma área extensa e crescente na bacia Amazônica, porém determinações acuradas do impacto dessas florestas nos ciclos de carbono e nutrientes têm sido dificultadas pelo número reduzido de equações alométricas. Neste estudo, nós desenvolvemos equações em nível de comunidade e espécies individuais para estimar a biomassa total da parte aérea de uma floresta secundária com 15 anos de idade na Amazônia oriental. O trabalho de campo utilizou amostragem aleatória de ramos, que é uma técnica rápida, porém pouco utilizada em florestas tropicais. Baseada no erro padrão da série de segmentos individuais (14%, a consistência da s

  9. Improved Forest Biomass and Carbon Estimations Using Texture Measures from WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Eckert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stock has gained importance in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. In order to develop improved forest stratum–specific aboveground biomass and carbon estimation models for humid rainforest in northeast Madagascar, this study analyzed texture measures derived from WorldView-2 satellite data. A forest inventory was conducted to develop stratum-specific allometric equations for dry biomass. On this basis, carbon was calculated by applying a conversion factor. After satellite data preprocessing, vegetation indices, principal components, and texture measures were calculated. The strength of their relationships with the stratum-specific plot data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation. Biomass and carbon estimation models were developed by performing stepwise multiple linear regression. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that (a texture measures correlated more with biomass and carbon than spectral parameters, and (b correlations were stronger for degraded forest than for non-degraded forest. For degraded forest, the texture measures of Correlation, Angular Second Moment, and Contrast, derived from the red band, contributed to the best estimation model, which explained 84% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 6.8%. For non-degraded forest, the vegetation index EVI and the texture measures of Variance, Mean, and Correlation, derived from the newly introduced coastal blue band, both NIR bands, and the red band, contributed to the best model, which explained 81% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 11.8%. These results indicate that estimation of tropical rainforest biomass/carbon, based on very high resolution satellite data, can be improved by (a developing and applying forest stratum–specific models, and (b including textural information in addition to spectral information.

  10. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

    2009-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

  11. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  12. Comparing i-Tree modeled ozone deposition with field measurements in a periurban Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Morani; D. Nowak; S. Hirabayashi; G. Guidolotti; M. Medori; V. Muzzini; S. Fares; G. Scarascia Mugnozza; C. Calfapietra

    2014-01-01

    Ozone flux estimates from the i-Tree model were compared with ozone flux measurements using the Eddy Covariance technique in a periurban Mediterranean forest near Rome (Castelporziano). For the first time i-Tree model outputs were compared with field measurements in relation to dry deposition estimates. Results showed generally a...

  13. Relasphone—Mobile and Participative In Situ Forest Biomass Measurements Supporting Satellite Image Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Molinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of traditional forest plot measurements, the availability of up-to-date in situ forest inventory data has been a bottleneck for remote sensing image analysis in support of the important global forest biomass mapping. Capitalizing on the proliferation of smartphones, citizen science is a promising approach to increase spatial and temporal coverages of in situ forest observations in a cost-effective way. Digital cameras can be used as a relascope device to measure basal area, a forest density variable that is closely related to biomass. In this paper, we present the Relasphone mobile application with extensive accuracy assessment in two mixed forest sites from different biomes. Basal area measurements in Finland (boreal zone were in good agreement with reference forest inventory plot data on pine ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 5 . 33 m 2 /ha, spruce ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 6 . 73 m 2 /ha and birch ( R 2 = 0 . 71 , R M S E = 4 . 98 m 2 /ha, with total relative R M S E ( % = 29 . 66 % . In Durango, Mexico (temperate zone, Relasphone stem volume measurements were best for pine ( R 2 = 0 . 88 , R M S E = 32 . 46 m 3 /ha and total stem volume ( R 2 = 0 . 87 , R M S E = 35 . 21 m 3 /ha. Relasphone data were then successfully utilized as the only reference data in combination with optical satellite images to produce biomass maps. The Relasphone concept has been validated for future use by citizens in other locations.

  14. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  15. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  16. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  17. Transpiration of A Mixed Forest Stand: Field Measurements and Model Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltchev, A.; Cermak, J.; Nadezhdina, N.; Tatarinov, F.; Gravenhorst, G.

    Transpiration of a mixed spruce-aspen-birch forest stand at the southern part of the Valday Hills in Russia was determined using sap flow measurements and SVAT mod- els. The measurements showed a significant variability of transpiration rates between different species and different trees. Under non-limited soil water conditions broadleaf trees transpired about 10-20% more than spruces trees. Deficit of available water in the upper soil layers had a more pronounced influence on water uptake of spruce than of deciduous tree species due to the shallow spruce root system. Under surplus wa- ter in the upper soil layers the transpiration rates were slightly suppressed both for spruce and for broadleaf tree species. Two one-dimensional multi-layer SVAT mod- els were applied to describe energy and water exchanges between mixed forest stand and the atmosphere. A more simplified MLOD-SVAT model uses averaged biophys- ical properties of different tree species. Estimation of forest water uptake in a more sophisticated EWE-MF model is based on separate description of water uptakes for individual tree species. Comparisons of modelling and measuring results show that under non-limited soil water conditions both modelling approaches allow to describe in a representative way the water uptake and transpiration rates. Under limited soil water conditions more sophisticated model could deduce more representatively the effect of different tree species on forest transpiration. Application of more simplified MLOD-SVAT model can result in an overestimation of daily total forest transpiration up to 50%.

  18. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  19. Disturbance Level Determines the Regeneration of Commercial Tree Species in the Eastern Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, G.; Lopes, J.C.; Kanashiro, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Pena Claros, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reduced-impact logging (RIL) on the regeneration of commercial tree species were investigated, as long-term timber yields depend partly on the availability of seedlings in a managed forest. On four occasions during a 20-month period in the Tapajós National Forest (Eastern Amazon,

  20. How old are large Brazil-nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa in the Amazon? Que idade podem alcançar as castanheiras (Bertholletia excelsa da Amazônia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. de Camargo

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The age of a large Brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa is measured by radiocarbon dating, and a discussion is made about their importance in the Amazon rain-forest ecosystem.A idade de uma castanheira (Bertholletia excelsa grande é medida por datação radiocarbônica e uma discussão é feita a respeito de sua importância no ecosistema da floresta amazônica.

  1. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our

  2. Comportamento de espécies florestais em plantios a pleno sol e em faixas de enriquecimento de capoeira na Amazônia Forest species behavior in plantations at full sun and secondary forest enrichment strips in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Rodrigues de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas espécies florestais nativas e exóticas em duas condições de plantio: a pleno sol e em faixas de enriquecimento de capoeira, a fim de gerar tecnologias para incorporação ao processo produtivo de áreas alteradas na região amazônica para minimizar a pressão do desmatamento sobre a floresta natural. Os dados analisados (DAP, altura, volume por hectare e sobrevivência referem-se à idade de seis anos. No plantio a pleno sol, a espécie que apresentou o melhor desempenho foi Ceiba pentandra, com médias de DAP de 19,6 cm, altura de 10,2 m e volume de 390,9 m³ ha-1. Hymenaea courbaril também apresentou crescimento satisfatório, com médias de 11,5 cm de DAP, 10,8 m de altura e 144,8 m³ ha -1 de volume. Nos plantios de enriquecimento de capoeira, a Carapa guianensis foi a espécie que apresentou o melhor desempenho, com 8,3 cm de DAP, 6,4 m de altura e volume de 54,8 m³ ha -1. Acacia mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum apresentaram crescimento superior, mas as taxas de sobrevivência foram muito baixas nas duas condições de plantio.This work evaluated exotic and native forest species in two plantation conditions: full sun and secondary forest enrichment strips, for generating technologies into incorporate to the productive process of degraded lands in the Amazonian region, to minimize the deforestation pressure on the natural forest. The analyzed data (DBH, height, volume per hectare and survival refers to six years old species. In the full sun plantation, the species that presented the best performance was Ceiba pentandra, with means: DBH of 19.6 cm, height of 10.2 m and volume of 390.9 m³ ha-1. Hymenaea courbaril also presented satisfactory growth, with means: DBH of 11.5 cm, height of 10.8 m and volume of 144.8 m³ ha-1. In the secondary forest enrichment plantation, Carapa guianensis was the species that presented the best performance, with means: DBH of 8.3 cm, height of 6.4 m and volume of 54.8 m³ ha-1. Acacia

  3. Statistical confirmation of indirect land use change in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Eugenio Y; Richards, Peter; Walker, Robert; Caldas, Marcellus M

    2011-01-01

    Expansion of global demand for soy products and biofuel poses threats to food security and the environment. One environmental impact that has raised serious concerns is loss of Amazonian forest through indirect land use change (ILUC), whereby mechanized agriculture encroaches on existing pastures, displacing them to the frontier. This phenomenon has been hypothesized by many researchers and projected on the basis of simulation for the Amazonian forests of Brazil. It has not yet been measured statistically, owing to conceptual difficulties in linking distal land cover drivers to the point of impact. The present article overcomes this impasse with a spatial regression model capable of linking the expansion of mechanized agriculture in settled agricultural areas to pasture conversions on distant, forest frontiers. In an application for a recent period (2003-2008), the model demonstrates that ILUC is significant and of considerable magnitude. Specifically, a 10% reduction of soy in old pasture areas would have decreased deforestation by as much as 40% in heavily forested counties of the Brazilian Amazon. Evidently, the voluntary moratorium on primary forest conversions by Brazilian soy farmers has failed to stop the deforestation effects of expanding soy production. Thus, environmental policy in Brazil must pay attention to ILUC, which can complicate efforts to achieve its REDD targets.

  4. Statistical confirmation of indirect land use change in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Eugenio Y [Department of Geography and the Environment, The University of Texas, GRG 334, Mailcode A3100, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Richards, Peter; Walker, Robert [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 116 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Caldas, Marcellus M, E-mail: arima@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Geography, Kansas State University, 118 Seaton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Expansion of global demand for soy products and biofuel poses threats to food security and the environment. One environmental impact that has raised serious concerns is loss of Amazonian forest through indirect land use change (ILUC), whereby mechanized agriculture encroaches on existing pastures, displacing them to the frontier. This phenomenon has been hypothesized by many researchers and projected on the basis of simulation for the Amazonian forests of Brazil. It has not yet been measured statistically, owing to conceptual difficulties in linking distal land cover drivers to the point of impact. The present article overcomes this impasse with a spatial regression model capable of linking the expansion of mechanized agriculture in settled agricultural areas to pasture conversions on distant, forest frontiers. In an application for a recent period (2003-2008), the model demonstrates that ILUC is significant and of considerable magnitude. Specifically, a 10% reduction of soy in old pasture areas would have decreased deforestation by as much as 40% in heavily forested counties of the Brazilian Amazon. Evidently, the voluntary moratorium on primary forest conversions by Brazilian soy farmers has failed to stop the deforestation effects of expanding soy production. Thus, environmental policy in Brazil must pay attention to ILUC, which can complicate efforts to achieve its REDD targets.

  5. Particle growth kinetics over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinterich, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Kuang, C.; Longo, K.; Machado, L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Mei, F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Poeschl, U.; Shilling, J. E.; Shiraiwa, M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles larger than 100 nm play a key role in global climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Most of these particles, originated from new particle formation or directly emitted into the atmospheric, are initially too small to serve as CCN. These small particles grow to CCN size mainly through condensation of secondary species. In one extreme, the growth is dictated by kinetic condensation of very low-volatility compounds, favoring the growth of the smallest particles; in the other extreme, the process is driven by Raoult's law-based equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile organic compound, favoring the growth of larger particles. These two mechanisms can lead to very different production rates of CCN. The growth of particles depends on a number of parameters, including the volatility of condensing species, particle phase, and diffusivity inside the particles, and this process is not well understood in part due to lack of ambient data. Here we examine atmospheric particle growth using high-resolution size distributions measured onboard the DOE G-1 aircraft during GoAmazon campaign, which took place from January 2014 to December 2015 near Manaus, Brazil, a city surrounded by natural forest for over 1000 km in every direction. City plumes are clearly identified by the strong enhancement of nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations over the clean background. As the plume traveled downwind, particle growth was observed, and is attributed to condensation of secondary species and coagulation (Fig.1). Observed aerosol growth is modeled using MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry), which dynamically partitions multiple compounds to all particle size bins by taking into account compound volatility, gas-phase diffusion, interfacial mass accommodation, particle-phase diffusion, and particle-phase reaction. The results from both wet and dry seasons will be discussed.

  6. Family Planning and Deforestation: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Despite an abundant body of literature exploring the relationship between population growth and forest cover change, comparatively little research has explored the forest cover impacts of family planning use, which is a key determinant of the rate of population growth in many developing country contexts. Using data from a farm-level panel survey in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, this paper addresses whether family planning use impacts forest cover change. Longitudinal model results show that after controlling for household life cycle and land use variables, family planning use did not have an independent effect on deforestation, reforestation, or net forest loss between 1990 and 2008. Forest cover change patterns appear indicative of farm life cycle effects. However, family planning use is associated with reduced subsequent fertility among households, suggesting that the relationship between population growth from births and forest cover change may be limited in this setting.

  7. Monitoring vegetation dynamics in the Amazon with RapidScat

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron C.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Several studies affiliated diurnal variations in radar backscatter over the Amazon [1,2] with vegetation water stress. Recent studies on tree and corn canopies [3,4] have demonstrated that during periods of low soil moisture availability, the total radar backscatter is primarily sensitive to changes in leaf water content, highlighting the potential of radar for water stress detection. The RapidScat mission (Ku-band, 13.4GHz), mounted on the International Space Station, observes the Earth in a non-sun-synchronous orbit [5]. This unique orbit allows for reconstructing diurnal cycles of radar backscatter. We hypothesize that the state of the canopy is a significant portion of the diurnal variations observed in the radar backscatter. Recent, yet inconclusive, analyses support the theory of the impact of vegetation water content on diurnal variation in RapidScat radar backscatter over the Amazon and Congo. Linking ground measurements of canopy dynamics to radar backscatter will allow further exploration of the possibilities for monitoring vegetation dynamics. Our presentation focuses of two parts. First, we reconstruct diurnal cycles of RapidScat backscatter over the Amazon, and study its variation over time. Second, we analyze the pre-dawn backscatter over time. The water content at this time of day is a measure of water stress, and might therefore be visible in the backscatter time series. References [1] Frolking, S., et al.: "Tropical forest backscatter anomaly evident in SeaWinds scatterometer morning overpass data during 2005 drought in Amazonia", Remote Sensing of Environment, 2011. [2] Jaruwatanadilok, S., and B. Stiles: "Trends and variation in Ku-band backscatter of natural targets on land observed in QuikSCAT data", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing , 2014. [3] Steele-Dunne, S., et al.: "Using diurnal variation in backscatter to detect vegetation water stress", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2012. [4] van Emmerik, T., et

  8. Spectral light absorption by ambient aerosols influenced by biomass burning in the Amazon Basin. I: Comparison and field calibration of absorption measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schmid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral aerosol light absorption is an important parameter for the assessment of the radiation budget of the atmosphere. Although on-line measurement techniques for aerosol light absorption, such as the Aethalometer and the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP, have been available for two decades, they are limited in accuracy and spectral resolution because of the need to deposit the aerosol on a filter substrate before measurement. Recently, a 7-wavelength (λ Aethalometer became commercially available, which covers the visible (VIS to near-infrared (NIR spectral range (λ=450–950 nm, and laboratory calibration studies improved the degree of confidence in these measurement techniques. However, the applicability of the laboratory calibration factors to ambient conditions has not been investigated thoroughly yet. As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia – SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate campaign from September to November 2002 in the Amazon basin we performed an extensive field calibration of a 1-λ PSAP and a 7-λ Aethalometer utilizing a photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS, 532 nm as reference device. Especially during the dry period of the campaign, the aerosol population was dominated by pyrogenic emissions. The most pronounced artifact of integrating-plate type attenuation techniques (e.g. Aethalometer, PSAP is due to multiple scattering effects within the filter matrix. For the PSAP, we essentially confirmed the laboratory calibration factor by Bond et al. (1999. On the other hand, for the Aethalometer we found a multiple scattering enhancement of 5.23 (or 4.55, if corrected for aerosol scattering, which is significantly larger than the factors previously reported (~2 for laboratory calibrations. While the exact reason for this discrepancy is unknown, the available data from the present and previous studies suggest aerosol mixing (internal versus external as a likely cause. For

  9. Short-Range Seismic and Acoustic Signature Measurements Through Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decato, Stephen N; Albert, Donald G; Perron, Frank E., Jr; Carbee, David L

    2005-01-01

    .... In this report, the short-range measurements conducted by ERDC-CRREL are documented. Blast noise waveforms produced by C4 explosions at distances from 30 to 567 m were recorded and are presented in this report...

  10. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  11. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J; Galford, Gillian L; Moran, Chris J; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2017-10-18

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km 2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone. Pathways leading to such impacts include mining infrastructure establishment, urban expansion to support a growing workforce, and development of mineral commodity supply chains. Mining-induced deforestation is not unique to Brazil; to mitigate adverse impacts of mining and conserve tropical forests globally, environmental assessments and licensing must considered both on- and off-lease sources of deforestation.

  12. Information for forest process models: a review of NRS-FIA vegetation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Canham; William H. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    The Forest and Analysis Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS-FIA) has re-designed Phase 3 measurements and intensified the sample intensity following a study to balance costs, utility, and sample size. The sampling scheme consists of estimating canopy-cover percent for six vegetation growth habits on 24-foot-radius subplots in four height classes and as an...

  13. Measuring the marketing performances of state forest enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, any enterprise has to consider marketing as important as production. Production and marketing are two complementary activities in enterprises. The increase in marketing effectiveness is achieved through measuring the activity outcomes that can be described as marketing performance. Because marketing is a ...

  14. TRIM timber projections: an evaluation based on forest inventory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    Two consecutive timberland inventories collected from permanent plots in the natural pine type in North Carolina were used to evaluate the timber resource inventory model (TRIM). This study compares model predictions with field measurements and examines the effect of inventory data aggregation on the accuracy of projections. Projections were repeated for two geographic...

  15. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia E Ahmed

    Full Text Available The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  16. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...... the first week of May when the trees were leafing and the soil moisture content was at its highest. If chamber techniques are used to estimate ecosystem level N2O emissions from forest soils, placement of the chambers should be considered carefully to cover the spatial variability in the soil N2O emissions...

  18. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.01, RMSE = 1.1 m). Tree density was found to have the least strong statistical relationship (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.01, RMSE = 160.7 n ha-1). We found significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.76, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.68 number ha-1). Models developed for biomass 1 had a higher r-squared value and lower RMSE than that of biomass2 (biomass1: r2 = 0.7, p < 0.01, RMSE = 28.94 Mg ha-1; biomass2: r2 = 0.67, p < 0.01, RMSE = 40.62 Mg ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of

  19. Reduction of false alarms in forest fire surveillance using water vapour concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; De Leo, L.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of our lidar system in forest fire detection is reported. In particular, a new idea of minimization of false alarm is shown. In a forest fire, in fact, a lot of ashes and in the first stage a large amount of water vapour are emitted. Measurements of water vapour increase with respect to standard humidity in the atmosphere due to a forest fire event, by means of Raman analysis, permit to minimize the false alarm. A simulation of one case of study permits to estimate the maximum range of detection and minimum sensibility of our lidar system. In this paper the theoretical results are shown.

  20. Architecture of the Black Moshannon forest canopy measured by hemispherical photographs and a LI-COR LAI-2000 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. S. Wang; J. Welles; D. R. Miller; D. E. Anderson; G. Heisler; M. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of light penetration were made at 10 heights in the canopy on twelve different sites in the PA oak forest where the Blackmo 88 spray-micrometeorological experiment was conducted. Vertical profiles of Leaf Area Index, LAI, were calculated from these measurements, and the data were used to define the spatial variability of the forest canopy...

  1. In situ soil temperature and heat flux measurements during controlled surface burns at a southern Colorado forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank; W. D. Shepperd; M. J. Platten

    2003-01-01

    This study presents in situ soil temperature measurements at 5-6 depths and heat flux measurements at 2-5 depths obtained during the fall/winter of 2001/ 2002 at seven controlled (surface) fires within a ponderosa pine forest site at the Manitou Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Six of these burns included three different (low, medium, and high) fuel loadings...

  2. Measurements of the horizontal gradient of ammonia over a conifer forest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Andersen, H.V.; Løfstrøm, P.

    1998-01-01

    Horizontal gradients of ammonia have been measured in order to determine the spatial variation of the concentration above a forest as a function of distance from ammonia emitting areas. Measurements were carried out in June 1994 during conditions with winds from north and west. Concentration leve...... concentration gradients, although calculated concentration levels may be higher than measured due to the use of yearly average emissions as input to the model calculations. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... in the forest; in general the percentage decreases were lower during northerly winds (16%) than those obtained during westerly winds (67%). This is probably due to the larger extension of emitting areas towards north than towards the west. Model calculations are comparable with the measured ammonia...

  3. Measuring forest structure along productivity gradients in the Canadian boreal with small-footprint Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Douglas K; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The structure and productivity of boreal forests are key components of the global carbon cycle and impact the resources and habitats available for species. With this research, we characterized the relationship between measurements of forest structure and satellite-derived estimates of gross primary production (GPP) over the Canadian boreal. We acquired stand level indicators of canopy cover, canopy height, and structural complexity from nearly 25,000 km of small-footprint discrete return Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data and compared these attributes to GPP estimates derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While limited in our capacity to control for stand age, we removed recently disturbed and managed forests using information on fire history, roads, and anthropogenic change. We found that MODIS GPP was strongly linked to Lidar-derived canopy cover (r = 0.74, p Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity as these attributes are largely a function of stand age. A relationship was apparent between MODIS GPP and the maximum sampled heights derived from Lidar as growth rates and resource availability likely limit tree height in the prolonged absence of disturbance. The most structurally complex stands, as measured by the coefficient of variation of Lidar return heights, occurred where MODIS GPP was highest as productive boreal stands are expected to contain a wider range of tree heights and transition to uneven-aged structures faster than less productive stands. While MODIS GPP related near-linearly to Lidar-derived canopy cover, the weaker relationships to Lidar-derived canopy height and structural complexity highlight the importance of stand age in determining the structure of boreal forests. We conclude that an improved quantification of how both productivity and disturbance shape stand structure is needed to better understand the current state of boreal forests in Canada and how these forests are changing in

  4. Use of passive UAS imaging to measure biophysical parameters in a southern Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M. K.; Sloan, J.; Mladinich, C. S.; Wessman, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide detailed, fine spatial resolution imagery for ecological uses not otherwise obtainable through standard methods. The use of UAS imagery for ecology is a rapidly -evolving field, where the study of forest landscape ecology can be augmented using UAS imagery to scale and validate biophysical data from field measurements to spaceborne observations. High resolution imagery provided by UAS (30 cm2 pixels) offers detailed canopy cover and forest structure data in a time efficient and inexpensive manner. Using a GoPro Hero2 (2 mm focal length) camera mounted in the nose cone of a Raven unmanned system, we collected aerial and thermal data monthly during the summer 2013, over two subalpine forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado. These forests are dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus ponderosae) and have experienced insect-driven (primarily mountain pine beetle; MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) mortality. Objectives of this study include observations of forest health variables such as canopy water content (CWC) from thermal imagery and leaf area index (LAI), biomass and forest productivity from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from UAS imagery. Observations were, validated with ground measurements. Images were processed using a combination of AgiSoft Photoscan professional software and ENVI remote imaging software. We utilized the software Leaf Area Index Calculator (LAIC) developed by Córcoles et al. (2013) for calculating LAI from digital images and modified to conform to leaf area of needle-leaf trees as in Chen and Cihlar (1996) . LAIC uses a K-means cluster analysis to decipher the RGB levels for each pixel and distinguish between green aboveground vegetation and other materials, and project leaf area per unit of ground surface area (i.e. half total needle surface area per unit area). Preliminary LAIC UAS data shows summer average LAI was 3.8 in the most dense forest stands and 2.95 in less dense

  5. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  6. Evaluation of nine distance-based measures of functional diversity applied to forest communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Tun Zhang; Naiqi Song; Lihong Fan

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for the estimation of functional diversity are employed in plant communities. However, it is hard to select the most suitable measures in practice. This work presents comparisons of nine distance-based measures applied to functional diversity analysis in forest communities (36 plots) along an elevational gradient in the Pangquangou Reserve, China. The employed indices and methods were: functional attribute diversity (FAD), Raos functional diversity (Raos index), single linkage...

  7. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    OpenAIRE

    C. Schunk; B. Ruth; M. Leuchner; C. Wastl; A. Menzel

    2015-01-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g. litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior as well as soil respiration. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring pr...

  8. Forest floor CO2 flux measurements with a dark-light chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Lankreijer, H. J. M.; Lindroth, A.; Strömgren, M.; Kulmala, L.; Pumpanen, J.

    2009-01-01

    An automatic closed chamber system for measuring net carbon flux from the forest floor was equipped with both a transparent and an opaque cover. The system was operated in such way that a measurement session with transparent chamber was followed by a session with dark chamber. This made it possible to estimate besides total daytime respiration and nighttime respiration also the gross assimilation of the vegetation enclosed in the chamber. The chamber was used at two locations, Hyytiäla in Fin...

  9. Measuring forest floor evaporation from interception in prescribed burned forests in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Elisabetta; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Greco, Roberto; Ialongo, Gianluca; Esposito, Assunta; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are one of the major environmental issue in the Mediterranean area. Prescribed burning (PB) is increasingly used in Europe as a practice to reduce fire risk, through dead fine fuel reduction. Several studies have focused on fire effects on vegetation and soil microbial community, but very few on ecosystem processes involved in water cycle. This study aims to estimate interception by the litter and fermentation layer and the successive evaporation flux in laboratory conditions, using a water balance and 2H and 18O isotopes mass balance calculation, in order to assess PB effects on the hydrology and ecosystem in pine plantations. PB was carried out in spring 2014 in three pine plantations of Southern Italy, dominated by Pinus halepensis (Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni National Park, CVDANP), P. pinaster (Vesuvio National Park, VNP) and P. pinea (Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, CVNR). A dataset concerning the effects of PB on vegetation structure, floristic composition, microbial biomass and activity in the fermentation layer and 5-cm of soil beneath is available for the same stands. In each plantation, two cores of litter and fermentation layer were sampled in a burned area and in a near unburned area (control), respectively, with a collector to extract an "undisturbed" core. Then, each core was transferred in a lysimeter installed in the Water Lab of Delft University of Technology. In total, three lysimeters were set up and each experiment was carried out in duplicate. The laboratory had constant temperature, and both temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 15 minutes. To simulate rainfall, ~1 litre of tap water was sprinkled uniformly on the lysimeter with a plant spray (equivalent to 32 mm of rain). The precipitation was sprinkled every 3 days for a period of two months. Soil moisture and temperature were measured during the experiment every 15 minutes in the top and bottom of the litter and fermentation layer. Interception water was

  10. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  11. Measurement and modeling of CO2 exchange over forested landscapes in India: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S.; Dadhwal, V.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its potential impact on global climate change is the subject of worldwide studies, political debates and international discussions. The concern led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol to curtail emissions and mitigate the possible global warming. The studies so far suggest that terrestrial biological sinks might be the low cost options for carbon sequestration, which can be used to partially offset the industrial CO2 emissions globally. In past, the effectiveness of terrestrial sink and the quantitative estimates of their sink strengths have relied mainly on the measurements of changes in carbon stocks across the world. Recent developments in flux tower based measurement techniques such as Eddy Covariance for assessing the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes provide tools for quantifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 on a continuous basis. These near real time measurements, when integrated with remote sensing, enable the up-scaling of the carbon fluxes to regional scale. More than 470 towers exist worldwide as of now. Indian subcontinent was not having any tower-based CO2 flux measurement system so far. The Indian Space Research Organization under its Geosphere Biosphere Programme is funding five eddy covariance towers for terrestrial CO2 flux measurements in different ecological regions of the country. The tower sites already planned are: (i) a mixed forest plantation (Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia) at Haldwani in collaboration with DISAFRI, University of Tuscia, Italy and the Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, (ii) a sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Doon valley Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in northern India, (ii) a teak (Tectona grandis) mixed forest at Betul in Madhya Pradesh in central India, (iv) an old teak plantation at Dandeli, and (v) a semi-evergreen forest at Nagarhole in Karnataka state in southern India. The three towers have been

  12. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  13. Taking Stock of Circumboreal Forest Carbon With Ground Measurements, Airborne and Spaceborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Nelson, Ross F.; Ranson, K. Jon; Margolis, Hank A.; Montesano, Paul M.; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, Viacheslav; Naesset, Erik; Wulder, Michael A.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest accounts for one-third of global forests, but remains largely inaccessible to ground-based measurements and monitoring. It contains large quantities of carbon in its vegetation and soils, and research suggests that it will be subject to increasingly severe climate-driven disturbance. We employ a suite of ground-, airborne- and space-based measurement techniques to derive the first satellite LiDAR-based estimates of aboveground carbon for the entire circumboreal forest biome. Incorporating these inventory techniques with uncertainty analysis, we estimate total aboveground carbon of 38 +/- 3.1 Pg. This boreal forest carbon is mostly concentrated from 50 to 55degN in eastern Canada and from 55 to 60degN in eastern Eurasia. Both of these regions are expected to warm >3 C by 2100, and monitoring the effects of warming on these stocks is important to understanding its future carbon balance. Our maps establish a baseline for future quantification of circumboreal carbon and the described technique should provide a robust method for future monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of the aboveground carbon content.

  14. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  15. The organizational learning in the search of the environmental and social sustainability: an applied Brazilian experience in a project of constructions of gas-pipeline in the Amazon Forest; A aprendizagem organizacional na busca da sustentabilidade ambiental e social: uma experiencia brasileira aplicada em um projeto de construcao de gasoduto na Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannarino, Ronaldo P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The experience of PETROBRAS's performance, when the implantation of the province of Urucu, in the City of Coari, state of Amazon, was constructed on empirical bases and it had as a support landmark the lines of direction dictated in 1988 for famous scientists who acted directly in the Amazon Region. The application of these lines of direction gave support to the implantation of essential activities, such as a fishery of changes, the recovery of sanded small rivers, prevention of spills and the opening of chances for research in that further and little known basin of the Urucu River. The convergence was that PETROBRAS made use of the logistic that the scientists needed; and they made use of the knowledge that the company needed. It was just necessary to adjust the language. The results had been very effective and the province of Urucu became the pioneer and the most expressive unit in environmental management in PETROBRAS. In 1999 the Project PIATAM was implanted: Potential Impacts and Risks of the Transport of Oil and Gas in Amazon, taking care of demands of the future transport of the natural gas to Manaus for gas-pipeline, that became possible in 2003 thanks to the support of the research, whose results had fully taken care of the demands of the environmental licensing of the workmanship. The current work synthesizes the bases of knowledge and the results gotten with the application of these bases in a project of construction of a gas-pipeline of 652 kilometers in full Amazonian forest. In the construction phase, one more time the integration with the scientific community was essential to guarantee the application of the concepts of environment in the workmanship of the Gas-pipeline Urucu - Manaus, with advising of teams from the INPA, like Limnology and of combat the tropical illnesses, as the malaria. Another point of support was the partnership with the Secretariat of Sustainable Development of Amazon in an Accord of application of resources, in 135

  16. Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Gower, Stith T.; Amiro, Brian; Ewers, Brent

    2011-01-19

    The effects of changing climate and disturbance on forest water cycling are not well understood. In particular bryophytes contribute significantly to forest evapotranspiration (ET) in poorly-drained boreal forests, but few studies have directly measured this flux and how it changes with stand age and soil drainage. We used large chambers to measure bryophyte evaporation (E) in Canadian Picea mariana forests of varying ages and soil drainages, as well under controlled laboratory conditions, and modeled daily E using site-specific meteorological data to drive a Penman-Monteith-based model. Field measurements of E averaged 0.37 mm day-1, and ranged from 0.03 (Pleurozium schreberii in a 77-year-old dry stand) to 1.43 mm day-1 (Sphagnum riparium in a 43-year-old bog). canopy resistance ranged from ~0 (at 25 °C, some values were <0) to ~1500 s m-1 for dry, cold (5 °C) mosses. In the laboratory, moss canopy resistance was constant until a moss water content of ~6 g g-1 and then climbed sharply with further drying; no difference was observed between the three moss groups (feather mosses, hollow mosses, and hummock mosses) tested. Modeled annual E fluxes from bryophytes ranged from 0.4 mm day-1, in the well-drained stands, to ~1 mm day-1 in the 43-year-old bog, during the growing season. Eddy covariance data imply that bryophytes contributed 18-31% and 49-69% to the total ET flux, at the well- and poorly-drained stands respectively. Bryophyte E was greater in bogs than in upland stands, was driven by low-lying mosses, and did not vary with stand age; this suggests that shifts in forest age due to increasing fire will have little effect on the bryophyte contribution to ET.

  17. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  18. Tropical Forests of Réunion Island Classified from Airborne Full-Waveform LiDAR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From an unprecedented experiment using airborne measurements performed over the rich forests of Réunion Island, this paper aims to present a methodology for the classification of diverse tropical forest biomes as retrieved from vertical profiles measured using a full-waveform LiDAR. This objective is met through the retrieval of both the canopy height and the Leaf Area Index (LAI, obtained as an integral of the foliage profile. The campaign involved sites ranging from coastal to rain forest, including tropical montane cloud forest, as found on the Bélouve plateau. The mean values of estimated LAI retrieved from the apparent foliage profile are between ~5 and 8 m2/m2, and the mean canopy height values are ~15 m for both tropical montane cloud and rain forests. Good agreement is found between LiDAR- and MODIS-derived LAI for moderate LAI (~5 m2/m2, but the LAI retrieved from LiDAR is larger than MODIS on thick rain forest sites (~8 against ~6 m2/m2 from MODIS. Regarding the characterization of tropical forest biomes, we show that the rain and montane tropical forests can be well distinguished from planted forests by the use of the parameters directly retrieved from LiDAR measurements.

  19. The Impacts of Amazon Deforestation on Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Leah

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation are known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent do changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? The Amazon rainforest is threatened by many factors including climate change and clearing for agricultural reasons. Forest fires and dieback are more likely due to increased frequency and intensity of droughts in the region. It is possible that extensive Amazon deforestation can enhance El Nino conditions by weakening the Walker circulation. Correlations between annual rainfall rates over the Amazon and other atmospheric parameters (global precipitation, surface air temperature, low cloud amount, 500 hPa vertical velocity, surface winds, and 200 hPa winds) over the eastern Pacific indicate strong relationships among these fields. Maps of these correlations (teleconnection maps) reveal that when the Amazon is rainy SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific are cold, rainfall is suppressed over the central and eastern Pacific, low clouds are prominent over the eastern and southeastern Pacific, and subsidence over the central and eastern Pacific is enhanced. Precipitation in the Amazon is also consistent with a strong Walker circulation (La Nina conditions), manifest as strong correlations with the easterly surface and westerly 200 hPa zonal winds. Coupling between Amazon rainfall and these fields are seen in observations and model data. Correlations were calculated using data from observations, reanalysis data, two models under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), and an AMIP run with the model used in this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.1.1). Although the correlations between Amazon precipitation and the aforementioned fields are strong, they do not show causality. In order to investigate the impact of tropical South American deforestation on the

  20. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  1. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  2. Testing the Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Measure Forest Canopy Gap Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mark Danson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have the potential to revolutionise measurement of the three-dimensional structure of vegetation canopies for applications in ecology, hydrology and climate change. This potential has been the subject of recent research that has attempted to measure forest biophysical variables from TLS data, and make comparisons with two-dimensional data from hemispherical photography. This research presents a systematic comparison between forest canopy gap fraction estimates derived from TLS measurements and hemispherical photography. The TLS datasets used in the research were obtained between April 2008 and March 2009 at Delamere Forest, Cheshire, UK. The analysis of canopy gap fraction estimates derived from TLS data highlighted the repeatability and consistency of the measurements in comparison with those from coincident hemispherical photographs. The comparison also showed that estimates computed considering only the number of hits and misses registered in the TLS datasets were consistently lower than those estimated from hemispherical photographs. To examine this difference, the potential information available in the intensity values recorded by TLS was investigated and a new method developed to estimate canopy gap fraction proposed. The new approach produced gap fractions closer to those estimated from hemispherical photography, but the research also highlighted the limitations of single return TLS data for this application.

  3. Noise Estimates for Measurements of Weak Lensing from the Lyman-alpha Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, R. Benton; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Lensing changes the apparent separation between pixels in the Lyman-α forest of separate quasars or high redshift objects by changing their observed positions on the sky. This changes the implied correlations in the absorption and in particular makes the Lyman-α