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Sample records for amazon dung beetle

  1. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle ...

  2. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  3. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F Braga

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal, to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics, species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  4. A comparison of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attraction to native and exotic mammal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Sean D; Hoback, W Wyatt

    2012-04-01

    Although the preference of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) for specific types and conditions of dung has been given substantial attention, little has been done to investigate the potential effects of exotic mammal introduction for game farms or rewilding projects. We used pitfall traps baited with various native and exotic herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore dung to evaluate dung beetle preference in the Great Plains of North America. Additionally, we analyzed of the nutrient quality of each dung type. In total, 9,089 dung beetles from 15 species were captured in 2 yr of sampling. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in mean dung beetle capture among omnivore, herbivore, and carnivore dung, as well as differences in individual species preference for dung type. Omnivore dung was the most attractive with chimpanzee and human dung having the highest mean capture (291.1 ± 27.6 and 287.5 ± 28.5 respectively). Carrion also was highly attractive with a mean of 231.9 ± 20.6 beetles per trap (N = 8). Our results suggest definitive local preference of carrion in Phanaeus vindex Macleay and Onthophagus hecate (Panzer), while the congener, O. pennsylvanicus (Harold), was rarely captured in carrion and highly preferred omnivore dung. Preference for a specific bait type does not appear to be correlated with dung quality, mammalian diet, or origin of mammal. Results suggest niche segregation by dung type among dung beetle species.

  5. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  6. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal.

  7. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open...

  8. Got Dung? Resource Selection by Dung Beetles in Neotropical Forest Fragments and Cattle Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, A; Escobar, F; MacGregor-Fors, I; Moreno, C E

    2016-10-01

    Both the impact of habitat modification on the food preferences of species and its impact on ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed food selection by dung beetles in 80 tropical forest fragments and their adjacent cattle pastures in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Ten pitfall traps were placed at each site, half baited with human dung and the other half with fish carrion. We assessed dung beetle food selection and classified any specialization in resource use quantitatively using a multinomial classification model. We collected 15,445 beetles belonging to 42 species, 8747 beetles (38 species) in forest fragments and 6698 beetles (29 species) in cattle pastures. Twenty-five species were present in both habitats. Of all the beetles captured, 76% were caught in dung traps (11,727 individuals) and 24% in carrion traps (3718 individuals). We found 21 species of dung specialists, 7 carrion specialists, 8 generalists, and 6 species too rare to classify. The bait most frequently selected by beetles in this study was dung in both forests and pastures. Specialists tended to remain specialists in both habitats, while generalists tended to change their selection of bait type depending on the habitat. In summary, our results show that replacing forests with cattle pastures modifies the patterns of resource selection by dung beetles and this could affect ecosystem functioning.

  9. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  10. ACTIVIDAD DIARIA DE COLONIZACIÓN DEL RECURSO ALIMENTICIO EN UN ENSAMBLAJE DE ESCARABAJOS COPRÓFAGOS (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE EN LA AMAZONÍA COLOMBIANA Daily colonization of food resourses by Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in the Colombian Amazone Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE ARI NORIEGA A

    Full Text Available Los escarabajos coprófagos pertenecientes a la familia Scarabaeidae presentan una fuerte competencia por el recurso alimenticio, debido a la baja agregación espacial y al carácter efímero del mismo. Un mecanismo que puede contribuir a diluir la competencia es la segregación temporal, conduciendo a una especialización en las horas de actividad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la actividad diaria en un ensamblaje de escarabajos coprófagos en un bosque húmedo tropical en la amazonía colombiana. Se establecieron dos transectos lineales de 225 m y en cada uno se montaron diez tram-pas de caída por 24 horas, cebadas con excremento humano de dos investigadores, colectando su contenido cada hora, en la época de sequía. Se registraron un total de 23 especies, contenidas en diez géneros y cinco tribus. La abundancia del gremio de los cavadores fue mayor que la de los otros grupos. Igualmente, los escarabajos diurnos fueron más abundantes que los crepusculares y los nocturnos. Se presentaron algunas especies con horas de actividad muy específicas, evidenciando el problema de tomar tiempos de captura muy amplios donde se pierde el detalle de la restricción horaria. La riqueza y abundancia de especies en los cebos de los dos investigadores mostró diferencias, insinuando que pueden existir variaciones dentro del excremento humano, como cebo. Finalmente, se propone que la restricción en la actividad diaria puede ser un mecanismo importante de dilución de la competencia inter e intraespecífica, que facilita a las especies la coexistencia y repartición del recurso en el tiempo.Dung beetles belonging to the Scarabaeidae family have strong competition for food resources given the low spatial aggregation and ephemeral character of those resources. Temporal segregation through specialization in hours of activity is a mechanism that can decrease that competition. The objective of this paper is study the daily activity of an assemblage of

  11. Linking functional group richness and ecosystem functions of dung beetles: an experimental quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, Tanja; Quidé, Stijn; Van Loo, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers. Other soil inhabiting fauna were included as a fourth functional group. Dung removal and seed dispersal by each individual functional group and combinations thereof were estimated in exclusion experiments using different dung types. Dwellers were the most diverse and abundant group, but tunnelers were dominant in terms of biomass. All dung beetle functional groups had a clear preference for fresh dung. The ecosystem services in dung removal and secondary seed dispersal provided by dung beetles were significant and differed between functional groups. Although in absolute numbers more dwellers were found, large tunnelers were disproportionally important for dung burial and seed removal. In the absence of dung beetles, other soil inhabiting fauna, such as earthworms, partly took over the dung decomposing role of dung beetles while most dung was processed when all native functional groups were present. Our results, therefore, emphasize the need to conserve functionally complete dung ecosystems to maintain full ecosystem functioning.

  12. A review on the effect of macrocyclic lactones on dung-dwelling insects: Toxicity of macrocyclic lactones to dung beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen T. Jacobs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Avermectins and milbemycins are commonly used in agro-ecosystems for the control of parasites in domestic livestock. As integral members of agro-ecosystems with importance in maintaining pasture health through dung burial behaviour, dung beetles are an excellent nontarget bio-indicator taxon for examining potential detrimental effects of pesticide application. The current review focuses on the relative toxicity of four different anthelmintics (ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin and moxidectin in dung residues using dung beetles as a bioindicator species. One of the implications of this review is that there could be an effect that extends to the entire natural assemblage of insects inhabiting and feeding on the dung of cattle treated with avermectin or milbemycin products. Over time, reduced reproductive rate would result in decreased dung beetle populations and ultimately, a decrease in the rate of dung degradation and dung burial.

  13. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.

  14. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations.

  15. Secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles in an Amazonian forest fragment of Colombia: influence of dung type and edge effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Heredia, Carolina; Andresen, Ellen; Stevenson, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Seeds of many plant species are secondarily dispersed by dung beetles, but the outcome of this interaction is highly context-specific. Little is known about how certain anthropogenic disturbances affect this plant-animal interaction. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of dung type on secondary dispersal by dung beetles in a forest fragment, and to determine whether this interaction is affected by edge effects. Using pitfall traps, we captured dung beetles attracted to dung of 2 frugivorous mammals: woolly monkeys and howler monkeys. We found differences between both dung beetle assemblages, but these differences were not consistent in time. Using seeds surrounded by both dung types, we carried out a field experiment using seeds of 2 plant species. We found that the probability of secondary dispersal by dung beetles was higher for seeds placed in woolly monkey dung. Finally, we carried out a field experiment using plastic beads as seed mimics to assess edge effects. We found that secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles was negatively affected by edges. The disruption of plant-animal interactions along anthropogenic forest edges could have long-term negative effects on forest dynamics by affecting processes of regeneration.

  16. The Effects of the Intensification of Agriculture on Northern Temperate Dung Beetle Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen A. Hutton; Paul S. Giller

    2003-01-01

    .... To assess the impact of farm management on one group of important insects, the dung beetles, their abundance, biomass, diversity and species richness were examined using dung-baited pitfall traps...

  17. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  18. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an Savanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy......-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity...

  19. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  20. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  1. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles.

  2. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasaki, Vanesca; Lopes, José; Gardner Brown, George; Louzada, Julio

    2013-06-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness, abundance, composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the community aspects (abundance, richness, composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat, rotten fish, pig dung and decaying banana). A total of 1 719 individuals were collected, belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes. The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness. The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits. Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment, all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type. Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities, even small ones, can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  4. On the road of dung: hypothetical dispersal routes of dung beetles in the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, M.; Agoglitta, R.; Dawson, H.; Zunino, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analysed dung beetle communities on ten volcanic islands located around Sicily (Italy) to identify the most probable dispersal routes in the colonization of these islands. Assuming two scenarios, we analysed the dung beetle communities through the coefficient of dispersal direction DD2. Our results suggest that dispersal fluxes do not strictly follow the ‘stepping stone’ dynamic. Lipari and Vulcano are the likely core source areas for the north–of–Sicily area. In the Sicily Channel, Linosa appears to have been the main target area with three equivalent fluxes from Tunisia, Sicily, and Malta, while the fauna of Pantelleria resulted from their interchange and proximity to Tunisian fauna. In light of the congruence of our results with the known history of human movements and colonization, we propose a likely human contribution to the genesis of the dung beetle fauna of the circum–Sicilian volcanic islands. (Author)

  5. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  6. Gut microbiota of dung beetles correspond to dietary specializations of adults and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu P; Sanders, Jon G; Byrne, Marcus J; Pierce, Naomi E

    2016-12-01

    Vertebrate dung is central to the dung beetle life cycle, constituting food for adults and a protective and nutritive refuge for their offspring. Adult dung beetles have soft mandibles and feed primarily on nutritionally rich dung particles, while larvae have sclerotized mandibles and consume coarser dung particles with a higher C/N ratio. Here, using the dung beetles Euoniticellus intermedius and E. triangulatus, we show that these morphological adaptations in mandibular structure are also correlated with differences in basic gut structure and gut bacterial communities between dung beetle life stages. Metagenome functional predictions based on 16S rDNA characterization further indicated that larval gut communities are enriched in genes involved in cellulose degradation and nitrogen fixation compared to adult guts. Larval gut communities are more similar to female gut communities than they are to those of males, and bacteria present in maternally provisioned brood balls and maternal 'gifts' (secretions deposited in the brood ball along with the egg) are also more similar to larval gut communities than to those of males. Maternal secretions and maternally provisioned brood balls, as well as dung, were important factors shaping the larval gut community. Differences between gut microbiota in the adults and larvae are likely to contribute to differences in nutrient assimilation from ingested dung at different life history stages.

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  8. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung.

  9. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

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    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  10. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias; Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions...

  11. Stellar performance: mechanisms underlying Milky Way orientation in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James J; El Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Khaldy, Lana; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2017-04-05

    Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way. We determined the beetles' contrast sensitivity for this task in behavioural experiments in the laboratory, and found that the resulting threshold of 13% is sufficient to detect the contrast between the southern and northern arms of the Milky Way under natural conditions. This mechanism should be effective under extremely dim conditions and on nights when the Milky Way forms a near symmetrical band that crosses the zenith. These findings are discussed in the context of studies of stellar orientation in migratory birds and itinerant seals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  13. Quantifying beetle-mediated effects on gas fluxes from dung pats.

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    Atte Penttilä

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment--a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June-July, total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research.

  14. Quantifying Beetle-Mediated Effects on Gas Fluxes from Dung Pats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Atte; Slade, Eleanor M.; Simojoki, Asko; Riutta, Terhi; Minkkinen, Kari; Roslin, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment – a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June–July), total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research. PMID:23940758

  15. Elongated hindguts in desert-living dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) feeding on dry dung pellets or plant litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H

    2013-06-01

    Most adult dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) feed on fresh, wet dung of larger herbivorous or omnivorous mammals. As refractory plant fragments are selected out before ingestion, the food is presumed easily digestible. However, members of the desert-living scarabaeine genus Pachysoma (probably evolved from an ancestor closely related to the wet-dung feeding genus Scarabaeus) select dry dung pellets and/or plant litter. Thus, they ingest a much higher proportion of structural plant material, which nevertheless appears to be digested rather efficiently. This study investigates morphological modifications of the gut for this digestion in adults of eight Pachysoma species, both pellet and litter feeders. To ascertain hypothesized ancestral conditions, four fresh-dung feeding Scarabaeus species were also examined. The latter have the usual dung beetle gut consisting of a long, simple midgut, followed by an equally simple, much shorter hindgut of the same width. Lengths of midguts (M) and hindguts (H) divided by body length (B) for comparison between species of different size are: 4.9-6.3 (M/B) and 0.7-0.8 (H/B), which is normal for dung feeders. In Pachysoma, lengths are 6.3-6.5 (M/B) and 1.0-1.4 (H/B) in pellet feeders, and 4.4-5.0 (M/B) and 2.0-2.5 (H/B) for litter feeders. Hindguts are still morphologically undifferentiated and of midgut width, but clearly longer, particularly in litter feeders. Presumably, plant fragments in the food are digested, at least partly, in the hindgut. If so, the morphological adaptation is unusual: simple elongation rather than the expansion of part of the hindgut, as found in several other plant- or detritus-feeding scarabaeids. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    SHAHABUDDIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2011 Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 177-181. The deforestation of tropical forests and their subsequent conversion to human-dominated land-use systems is one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss. However clear understanding of the links between ecological functions and biodiversity is needed to evaluate and predict the true environmental consequences of human activities. This study provided experimental evidence comparing ecosystem function of dung beetles across a land use gradient ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas in Central Sulawesi. Therefore, standardized dung pats were exposed at each land-use type to assess dung removal and parasite suppression activity by dung beetles. The results showed that ecosystem function of dung beetles especially dung burial activity were remarkably disrupted by land use changes from natural forest to open agricultural area. Dung beetles presence enhanced about 53% of the total dung removed and reduced about 83% and 63% of fly population and species number respectively, indicating a pronounce contribution of dung beetles in our ecosystem.

  17. Field-scale dispersal of Aphodius dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in response to avermectin treatments on pastured cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L; Beaumont, D J; Nager, R G; McCracken, D I

    2010-04-01

    Very few studies have examined, at the field scale, the potential for faecal residues in the dung of avermectin-treated cattle to affect dung-breeding insects. The current study examined populations of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Aphodius) using pitfall traps baited with dung from untreated cattle on 26 fields across eight farms in southwest Scotland. The fields were grazed either by untreated cattle or by cattle treated with an avermectin product, i.e. doramectin or ivermectin. During the two-year study, significantly more beetles were trapped in fields grazed by treated cattle (n=9377 beetles) than in fields where cattle remained untreated (n=2483 beetles). Additional trials showed that beetles preferentially colonised dung of untreated versus doramectin-treated cattle. This may explain the higher captures of beetles in traps baited with dung of untreated cattle, which were located in fields of treated cattle. Given that Aphodius beetles avoided dung of treated cattle in the current study, the potential harmful effects of avermectin residues in cattle dung could be reduced through livestock management practices that maximise the availability of dung from untreated livestock in areas where avermectins are being used.

  18. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

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    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  19. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of ivermectin on north temperate dung beetles, Aphodius ater and Aphodius rufipes (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hea, N. M.; Kirwan, L.; P. S. Giller; J. A. Finn

    2010-01-01

    Ivermectin is an anthelmintic veterinary medicine, and is excreted in the dung of treated livestock in a mainly unmetabolised form. Ivermectin is known to have toxic effects on dung beetles, but most studies to date have been conducted on tropical and sub-tropical species. Relatively few laboratory studies have focused on the specific effects of ivermectin on survival and development of north temperate dung beetles. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of ivermectin concen...

  20. The Effects of Functional Groups of Dung Beetles on Secondary Seed Dispersal and Goat Dung Removal in Semi Steppe Rangelands-Shahrekord

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    M. Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess effect of dung beetles function on dung removal and seeds dispersion in rangeland of University of Sharekord through completely randomized design in summer. Therefore, the meshes consist of both large and small size was used and filled by goat dung in six treatments (presence of all beetles, absent of the beetles, presence of dwellers and tunnelers, absent of rollers- presence of dwellers, absent of tunnelers and roller- presence of dwellers, presence of small rollers and small tunnelers, absent of large tunnelers and large rollers- Presence of dwellers and small rollers, absent of tunnelers, large rollers with six replications. In order to assess the ecological function of these insects in the seeds translocation, three sizes of plastic beads used as seed mimics. Results illustrated that the maximum function of the dung beetles was calculated at the investigated possible treatment of presence of dwellers, absent of large tunneler and large roller beetles and, present of small tuneller and small roller beetles. Total of 34.02% of dungs were removed. The least dung removal was calculated in the control treatment (absent of beetle, 0.040% and possible treatment of dwellers, large and small tunellers and, also absent and present of large rollers and small rollers (25.06% respectively. Seed removal decreased in the order of: small size (24.40% > medium size (3.73% > large size (1.40%. In general, these insects play an important role in the dung removal and secondary seeds dispersal that with regard to the various factors affecting the function of the beetles, further studies would be needed on investigating deeply different seasons and different dung of live stocks feeding on the rangelands.

  1. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

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    Renata C. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung or carcasses (carrion and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19, nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.

  2. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  3. Dung Beetles Associated with Agroecosystems of Southern Brazil: Relationship with Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Menegaz de Farias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller

  4. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

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    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  5. Spatial patterns of movement of dung beetle species in a tropical forest suggest a new trap spacing for dung beetle biodiversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of community ecologists is to understand the processes underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution. Understanding the dispersal process is of great interest in ecology because it is related to several mechanisms driving community structure. We investigated the mobility of dung beetles using mark-release-recapture technique, and tested the usefulness of the current recommendation for interaction distance between baited pitfall traps in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We found differences in mean movement rate between Scarabaeinae species, and between species with different sets of ecological traits. Large-diurnal-tunneler species showed greater mobility than did both large-nocturnal tunneler and roller species. Our results suggest that, based on the analyses of the whole community or the species with the highest number of recaptured individuals, the minimum distance of 50 m between pairs of baited pitfall traps proposed roughly 10 years ago is inadequate. Dung beetle species with different sets of ecological traits may differ in their dispersal ability, so we suggest a new minimum distance of 100 m between pairs of traps to minimize interference between baited pitfall traps for sampling copronecrophagous Scarabaeinae dung beetles.

  6. Spatial patterns of movement of dung beetle species in a tropical forest suggest a new trap spacing for dung beetle biodiversity studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available A primary goal of community ecologists is to understand the processes underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution. Understanding the dispersal process is of great interest in ecology because it is related to several mechanisms driving community structure. We investigated the mobility of dung beetles using mark-release-recapture technique, and tested the usefulness of the current recommendation for interaction distance between baited pitfall traps in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We found differences in mean movement rate between Scarabaeinae species, and between species with different sets of ecological traits. Large-diurnal-tunneler species showed greater mobility than did both large-nocturnal tunneler and roller species. Our results suggest that, based on the analyses of the whole community or the species with the highest number of recaptured individuals, the minimum distance of 50 m between pairs of baited pitfall traps proposed roughly 10 years ago is inadequate. Dung beetle species with different sets of ecological traits may differ in their dispersal ability, so we suggest a new minimum distance of 100 m between pairs of traps to minimize interference between baited pitfall traps for sampling copronecrophagous Scarabaeinae dung beetles.

  7. Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hortal, Joaquín; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F.; Bini, Luis Mauricio;

    2011-01-01

    Current climate and Pleistocene climatic changes are both known to be associated with geographical patterns of diversity. We assess their associations with the European Scarabaeinae dung beetles, a group with high dispersal ability and well-known adaptations to warm environments. By assessing...

  8. A Dung Beetle-like Leg and its Adaptive Neural Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetles show fascinating locomotion abilities. They can use their legs to not only walk but also manipulate objects. Furthermore, they can perform their leg movements at a proper frequency with respect to their biomechanical properties and quickly adapt the movements to deal with external pe...

  9. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the

  10. Factors impacting nanoindentation testing results of the cuticle of dung beetle Copris ochus Motschulsky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jin; SUN Ji-yu; CHEN Dong-hui; ZHANG Shu-jun

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of dung beetle is a layered composite material in micro- or nano-scale. Dung beetle can fly, walk and dig. It can shovel and compact dung of mammals into balls. It use foreleg to walk, midleg and hindleg to hold and impel dung ball.Its two foreleges as digging legs are developed. The factors impacting the nanoindentation testing results of the femur cuticle of forelegs of dung beetle Copris ochus Motschulsky were examined. The nanomechanical test instrument used for the tests was Hysitron nanomechanical system. The results shown that the holding time and loading time are important factors impacting the accuracy of such indentation properties as reduced modulus (Er) and the harness ( H ) of the femur cuticle of the forelegs of dung beetle Copris ochus Motschulsky in nanoscale. There exists a threshold holding time of 20 s for the reduced modulus of the femur cuticle. The tests of nanoindentation creep property and the regression analysis of relationship between the depth increment at the maximum load and the time further confirmed the correction of the above threshold holding time.There exist visco-elastic-plastic behaviour and creep phenomenon in the femur cuticle during indenting. Its creep property during the holding procedure at maximum load can be regressed by a general logarithmic equation. The equation fitted by the testing data is △h = 54.834 52 ln(0.007 23t +1.004 86), where, △h is the depth increment at the maximum load and t is the time.

  11. Dung Beetles along a Tropical Altitudinal Gradient: Environmental Filtering on Taxonomic and Functional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cássio Alencar; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Figueira, José Eugênio Cortes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Mountains provide an interesting context in which to study the many facets of biodiversity in response to macroclimate, since environmental conditions change rapidly due to elevation. Although the decrease in biodiversity with increasing elevation is generally accepted, our understanding of the variation of functional diversity along altitudinal gradients is still poorly known. The partitioning of diversity into spatial components can help to understand the processes that influence the distribution of species, and these studies are urgently needed in face of the increasing threats to mountain environments throughout the world. We describe the distribution of dung beetle diversity along an altitudinal gradient on a tropical mountain in southeastern Brazil, including the spatial partitioning of taxonomic and functional diversities. The altitudinal gradient ranged from 800 up to 1400 m a.s.l. and we collected dung beetles at every 100 m of altitude. We used the Rao Index to calculate γ, α and β diversity for taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles. Climatic, soil and vegetation variables were used to explain variation in community attributes along the altitudinal gradient. Dung beetle richness declined with altitude and was related to climatic and vegetation variables, but functional diversity did not follow the same pattern. Over 50% of γ taxonomic diversity was caused by among altitudes diversity (β), while almost 100% of functional diversity was due to the α component. Contrasting β taxonomic with β functional diversity, we suggest that there is ecological redundancy among communities and that the environment is filtering species in terms of the Grinnellian niche, rather than the Eltonian niche. β taxonomic diversity is caused mainly by the turnover component, reinforcing the hypothesis of environmental filtering. Global warming may have strong effects on mountain communities due to upslope range shifts and extinctions, and these events will

  12. Anti-aging effect and gene expression profiling of dung beetle glycosaminoglycan in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Ban Ji; Kim, Ha Jeong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jung, Yi-Sook; Park, Kun-Koo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-aging effect of a newly prepared insect-derived compound, dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (GAG), given intraperitoneally to old SD rats as part of their diet for 1 month. Insect GAG administration was found to be related to a reduction in oxidative damage, hepato-cellular biomarker levels, protein carbonyl content, and malondialdehyde concentration. The anti-aging-related molecular genetic mechanisms of dung beetle GAG are not yet fully elucidated. Catharsius molossus (a type of dung beetle) GAG (CaG) possessed anti-aging activities; it reduced the serum level of creatinine kinase, had aortic vasorelaxant activities and cardioprotective actions, and maintained a normal glucose level in treated rats. Microarray analysis was performed with a rat 30 K cDNA clone set array to identify the gene-expression profiles of 14-month-old SD rats treated with dung beetle glycosaminoglycan 5 mg/kg (CaG5) over a 1-month period, which was done to investigate its anti-aging effect as compared to that of either Bombus ignitus (a type of bumblebee) queen GAG 5 mg/kg (IQG5) or chondroitin sulfate 10 mg/kg. CaG5 and IQG5 had marked anti-inflammatory effects, bringing about inhibition of free fatty acid, uric acid, sGPT, IL-1 beta, and CK values. In addition, anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects were seen: the concentration of factor 1 (fibrinogen) was increased in CaG- treated rat plasma. The CaG5-treated rat group, compared to the control, displayed upregulation of 131 genes, including lipocalin 2 (Lbp) and a serine peptidase inhibitor, Kaszal type3 (Spink3), and 64 downregulated genes, including lysyl oxidase (Lox), serine dehydratase (sds), and retinol saturase (Retsat). Our data suggest that dung beetle glycosaminoglycan may be a helpful treatment for aged rats, which indicates its potential as a therapeutic biomaterial for aging.

  13. Dung Beetles along a Tropical Altitudinal Gradient: Environmental Filtering on Taxonomic and Functional Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cássio Alencar; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Figueira, José Eugênio Cortes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Mountains provide an interesting context in which to study the many facets of biodiversity in response to macroclimate, since environmental conditions change rapidly due to elevation. Although the decrease in biodiversity with increasing elevation is generally accepted, our understanding of the variation of functional diversity along altitudinal gradients is still poorly known. The partitioning of diversity into spatial components can help to understand the processes that influence the distribution of species, and these studies are urgently needed in face of the increasing threats to mountain environments throughout the world. We describe the distribution of dung beetle diversity along an altitudinal gradient on a tropical mountain in southeastern Brazil, including the spatial partitioning of taxonomic and functional diversities. The altitudinal gradient ranged from 800 up to 1400 m a.s.l. and we collected dung beetles at every 100 m of altitude. We used the Rao Index to calculate γ, α and β diversity for taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles. Climatic, soil and vegetation variables were used to explain variation in community attributes along the altitudinal gradient. Dung beetle richness declined with altitude and was related to climatic and vegetation variables, but functional diversity did not follow the same pattern. Over 50% of γ taxonomic diversity was caused by among altitudes diversity (β), while almost 100% of functional diversity was due to the α component. Contrasting β taxonomic with β functional diversity, we suggest that there is ecological redundancy among communities and that the environment is filtering species in terms of the Grinnellian niche, rather than the Eltonian niche. β taxonomic diversity is caused mainly by the turnover component, reinforcing the hypothesis of environmental filtering. Global warming may have strong effects on mountain communities due to upslope range shifts and extinctions, and these events will

  14. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  15. Multigene phylogenetic analysis redefines dung beetles relationships and classification (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Sergei; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2016-11-29

    Dung beetles (subfamily Scarabaeinae) are popular model organisms in ecology and developmental biology, and for the last two decades they have experienced a systematics renaissance with the adoption of modern phylogenetic approaches. Within this period 16 key phylogenies and numerous additional studies with limited scope have been published, but higher-level relationships of this pivotal group of beetles remain contentious and current classifications contain many unnatural groupings. The present study provides a robust phylogenetic framework and a revised classification of dung beetles. We assembled the so far largest molecular dataset for dung beetles using sequences of 8 gene regions and 547 terminals including the outgroup taxa. This dataset was analyzed using Bayesian, maximum likelihood and parsimony approaches. In order to test the sensitivity of results to different analytical treatments, we evaluated alternative partitioning schemes based on secondary structure, domains and codon position. We assessed substitution models adequacy using Bayesian framework and used these results to exclude partitions where substitution models did not adequately depict the processes that generated the data. We show that exclusion of partitions that failed the model adequacy evaluation has a potential to improve phylogenetic inference, but efficient implementation of this approach on large datasets is problematic and awaits development of new computationally advanced software. In the class Insecta it is uncommon for the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis to lead to substantial changes in classification. However, the results presented here are congruent with recent morphological studies and support the largest change in dung beetle systematics for the last 50 years. Here we propose the revision of the concepts for the tribes Deltochilini (Canthonini), Dichotomiini and Coprini; additionally, we redefine the tribe Sisyphini. We provide and illustrate synapomorphies and

  16. Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  17. Evolutionary constraints in hind wing shape in Chinese dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bai

    Full Text Available This study examines the evolution hindwing shape in Chinese dung beetle species using morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Previous studies have analyzed the evolution of wing shape within a single or very few species, or by comparing only a few wing traits. No study has analyzed wing shape evolution of a large number of species, or quantitatively compared morphological variation of wings with proposed phylogenetic relationships. This study examines the morphological variation of hindwings based on 19 landmarks, 119 morphological characters, and 81 beetle species. Only one most parsimonious tree (MPT was found based on 119 wing and body characters. To better understand the possible role of the hindwing in the evolution of Scarabaeinae, additional phylogenetic analyses were proposed based on the only body features (106 characters, wing characters excluded. Two MPT were found based on 106 body characters, and five nodes were collapsed in a strict consensus. There was a strong correlation between the morphometric tree and all phylogenetic trees (r>0.5. Reconstructions of the ancestral wing forms suggest that Scarabaeinae hindwing morphology has not changed substantially over time, but the morphological changes that do occur are focused at the base of the wing. These results suggest that flight has been important since the origin of Scarabaeinae, and that variation in hindwing morphology has been limited by functional constraints. Comparison of metric disparity values and relative evolutionary sequences among Scarabaeinae tribes suggest that the primitive dung beetles had relatively diverse hindwing morphologies, while advanced dung beetles have relatively similar wing morphologies. The strong correlation between the morphometric tree and phylogenetic trees suggest that hindwing features reflect the evolution of whole body morphology and that wing characters are suitable for the phylogenetic analyses. By integrating morphometric and cladistic

  18. Are ball-rolling (Scarabaeini, Gymnopleurini, Sisyphini) and tunnelling scarabaeine dung beetles equally choosy about the size of ingested dung particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    1. The maximum size of ingested particles was determined in 11 species of ball-rolling, adult dung beetle (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) by mixing small latex or glass balls of known diameter into their food. The tribes Scarabaeini, Gymnopleurini, and Sisyphini (four, four, and three species...... respectively) were represented, with mean body sizes ranging from 0.33 to 4.0 g fresh weight. 2. Only particles with maximum diameters of 4-85 µm were ingested. Hence rollers, like other known beetles feeding on fresh dung, filter out larger, indigestible plant fragments and confine ingestion to small...

  19. Developmental and Ecological Benefits of the Maternally Transmitted Microbiota in a Dung Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniel B; Riggs, Hailey E; Newton, Irene L G; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-12-01

    To complete their development, diverse animal species rely on the presence of communities of symbiotic microbiota that are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. In the dung beetle genus Onthophagus, newly hatched larvae acquire maternal gut symbionts by the consumption of a maternal fecal secretion known as the pedestal. Here, we investigate the role of pedestal symbionts in mediating the normal development of Onthophagus gazella. Through the stepwise removal of environmental and maternal sources of microbial inoculation, we find that pedestal microbiota can enhance both overall growth and developmental rate in O. gazella. Further, we find that the beneficial effects of symbionts on developmental outcomes are amplified in the presence of ecologically relevant temperature and desiccation stressors. Collectively, our results suggest that the pedestal may provide an adaptive function by transmitting beneficial microbiota to developing dung beetle larvae and that the importance of microbiota for developmental and fitness outcomes may be context dependent.

  20. Role of dung beetle feeding mechanisms in limiting the suitability of species as hosts for the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Toit, C. A.; Holter, P.; Lutermann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Various species of dung beetle serve as intermediate hosts after ingesting the embryonated eggs (1115 x 3037 mu m) of Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae) in dog faeces. The feeding mechanisms of coprophagous dung beetles restrict the size of the food particles they can ingest and hence may...... determine which species can be efficient vectors for S. lupi. In this study, we aimed to exclude certain dung beetle species as possible hosts of S. lupi based on whether or not they ingested latex beads of known diameters mixed into fresh cattle dung. We found that the majority (11/14) of species tested...... can potentially serve as intermediate hosts of S. lupi because their mouthparts allow the passage of food particles larger than the minimum size range of the eggs of this parasite....

  1. The impact of logging roads on dung beetle assemblages in a tropical rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Finan, Jessica; Graham, Lucy K; Larsen, Trond H; Wilcove, David S; Hsu, Wayne W; Chey, V K; Hamer, Keith C

    2017-01-01

    The demand for timber products is facilitating the degradation and opening up of large areas of intact habitats rich in biodiversity. Logging creates an extensive network of access roads within the forest, yet these are commonly ignored or excluded when assessing impacts of logging on forest biodiversity. Here we determine the impact of these roads on the overall condition of selectively logged forests in Borneo, Southeast Asia. Focusing on dung beetles along > 40 km logging roads we determine: (i) the magnitude and extent of edge effects alongside logging roads; (ii) whether vegetation characteristics can explain patterns in dung beetle communities, and; (iii) how the inclusion of road edge forest impacts dung beetle assemblages within the overall logged landscape. We found that while vegetation structure was significantly affected up to 34 m from the road edge, impacts on dung beetle communities penetrated much further and were discernible up to 170 m into the forest interior. We found larger species and particularly tunnelling species responded more than other functional groups which were also influenced by micro-habitat variation. We provide important new insights into the long-term ecological impacts of tropical logging. We also support calls for improved logging road design both during and after timber extraction to conserve more effectively biodiversity in production forests, for instance, by considering the minimum volume of timber, per unit length of logging road needed to justify road construction. In particular, we suggest that governments and certification bodies need to highlight more clearly the biodiversity and environmental impacts of logging roads.

  2. Dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabeinae from the Reserva Nacional Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the species of Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae collected in Tambopata National Reserve in 2009. A total of 38 species and 874 individuals were collected. The tribe Canthonini showed the highest diversity and abundance. Coprophagy is clearly preferred over necrophagy by the dung beetle fauna in the area. A comparison of the species collected during the rainy and dry seasons is presented.

  3. Dung-beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) from the Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Talamanca, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mata-Lorenzen, J.; González-Maya, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Dung-beetle species are considered an important focal indicator group in tropical forests. During 2007,eighteen traps were set in two permanent biodiversity plots during one week surveys in Las Tablas Protected Zonewithin La Amistad Biosphere Reserve. The main purpose of this study was to determine the group composition anddiversity as the basis for permanent monitoring and to measure potential impacts of land use change and climate changeon mountain diversity. Pitfall traps were placed rando...

  4. Convergences and divergences between two European mountain dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the altitudinal change in dung beetle species richness and the relative proportion of higher taxa, as well as the turnover in the type of distribution and range size of species in two mountain chains located at the two extremes of Europe (Western Rhodopes Mountains and the Iberian Central System. Both mountain ranges showed a clear substitution among higher taxa (Aphodiinae-Geotrupinae vs. Scarabaeidae and species richness variation with the altitude was similar. We suggest that East European dung beetle assemblages are conditioned by a horizontal colonization process in which mountains had been reached in relatively recent geological time by elements coming from different latitudes. In spite of these convergences, Rhodopes dung beetle assemblages are characterized by a significantly lower proportion of narrowly distributed species and a lower relevance of Aphodiinae species in lowland places. Although these divergences can be partially attributed to the dissimilar sampling effort accomplished in both regions, we suggest that the low number on narrowly distributed species could be due to the different role of these two mountain zones as refuges during glaciar-interglaciar Pleistocene cycles.

  5. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across a habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2010 Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 11: 29-33. Dung beetles are important component of most terrestrial ecosystems and used to assess the effects of habitat disturbance and deforestation. This study aimed at comparing dung beetle assemblages among several habitat types ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, Central Sulawesi (one of Indonesia’s biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, 10 pitfall traps baited with cattle dung were exposed at each habitat type (n = 4 replicate sites per habitat type to collect the dung beetles. The results showed that species richness of dung beetles declined significantly from natural forest to open area. However cacao agroforestry systems seemed to be capable of maintaining a high portion of dung beetle species inhabiting at forest sites. The closer relationship between dung beetle assemblages recorded at forest and agroforestry sites reflects the high similarity of some measured habitat parameters (e.g. vegetation structure and microclimate between both habitat types, while species assemblages at open areas differed significantly from both other habitat groups. These results indicated that habitat type has importance effect on determining the species richness and community structure of dung beetles at the margin of LLNP.

  6. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  7. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos

    Full Text Available The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%, and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus, despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have

  8. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  9. Habitat differences in dung beetle assemblages in an African savanna-forest ecotone: implications for secondary seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta K; Krell, Frank-Thorsten

    2011-06-01

    The probability and pattern of secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) depend on their community structure and composition at the site of primary deposition, which, in turn, seem to be strongly determined by vegetation. Consequently, we expected pronounced differences in secondary seed dispersal between forest and savanna in the northern Ivory Coast, West Africa. We found 99 dung beetle species at experimentally exposed dung piles of the olive baboon (Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)), an important primary seed disperser in West Africa. Seventy-six species belonged to the roller and tunneler guilds, which are relevant for secondary seed dispersal. Most species showed a clear habitat preference. Contrary to the Neotropics, species number and abundance were much higher in the savanna than in the forest. Rollers and tunnelers each accounted for approximately 50% of the individuals in the savanna, but in the forest rollers made up only 4%. Seeds deposited into the savanna by an omnivorous primary disperser generally have a higher overall probability of being more rapidly dispersed secondarily by dung beetles than seeds in the forest. Also, rollers disperse seeds over larger distances. In contrast to other studies, small rollers were active in dispersal of large seeds, which were seemingly mistaken for dung balls. Our results suggest that rollers can remove seeds from any plant dispersed in primate dung in this ecosystem.

  10. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Evangelista, Lucas A.; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. PMID:27620555

  11. Benefits of polyandry: Molecular evidence from field-caught dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Buzatto, Bruno A; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-07-01

    When females mate with multiple males, they set the stage for postcopulatory sexual selection via sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Surprisingly little is known about the rates of multiple mating by females in the wild, despite the importance of this information in understanding the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to drive the evolution of reproductive behaviour, morphology and physiology. Dung beetles in the genus Onthophagus have become a laboratory model for studying pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection, yet we still lack information about the reproductive behaviour of female dung beetles in natural populations. Here, we develop microsatellite markers for Onthophagus taurus and use them to genotype the offspring of wild-caught females and to estimate natural rates of multiple mating and patterns of sperm utilization. We found that O. taurus females are highly polyandrous: 88% of females produced clutches sired by at least two males, and 5% produced clutches with as many as five sires. Several females (23%) produced clutches with significant paternity skew, indicating the potential for strong postcopulatory sexual selection in natural populations. There were also strong positive correlations between the number of offspring produced and both number of fathers and paternity skew, which suggests that females benefit from mating polyandrously by inciting postcopulatory mechanisms that bias paternity towards males that can sire more viable offspring. This study evaluates the fitness consequences of polyandry for an insect in the wild and provides strong evidence that female dung beetles benefit from multiple mating under natural conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest area to the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae assemblage?

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    Fábio C. Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50% of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.

  13. Innovative Bayesian and Parsimony Phylogeny of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) Enhanced by Ontology-Based Partitioning of Morphological Characters

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    Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François

    2015-01-01

    Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a

  14. Innovative Bayesian and parsimony phylogeny of dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeidae, scarabaeinae) enhanced by ontology-based partitioning of morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François

    2015-01-01

    Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a

  15. If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?

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    Nicole L Gunter

    Full Text Available The evolutionary success of beetles and numerous other terrestrial insects is generally attributed to co-radiation with flowering plants but most studies have focused on herbivorous or pollinating insects. Non-herbivores represent a significant proportion of beetle diversity yet potential factors that influence their diversification have been largely unexamined. In the present study, we examine the factors driving diversification within the Scarabaeidae, a speciose beetle family with a range of both herbivorous and non-herbivorous ecologies. In particular, it has been long debated whether the key event in the evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae was an adaptation to feeding on dinosaur or mammalian dung. Here we present molecular evidence to show that the origin of dung beetles occurred in the middle of the Cretaceous, likely in association with dinosaur dung, but more surprisingly the timing is consistent with the rise of the angiosperms. We hypothesize that the switch in dinosaur diet to incorporate more nutritious and less fibrous angiosperm foliage provided a palatable dung source that ultimately created a new niche for diversification. Given the well-accepted mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, we examine a potential co-extinction of dung beetles due to the loss of an important evolutionary resource, i.e., dinosaur dung. The biogeography of dung beetles is also examined to explore the previously proposed "out of Africa" hypothesis. Given the inferred age of Scarabaeinae as originating in the Lower Cretaceous, the major radiation of dung feeders prior to the Cenomanian, and the early divergence of both African and Gondwanan lineages, we hypothesise that that faunal exchange between Africa and Gondwanaland occurred during the earliest evolution of the Scarabaeinae. Therefore we propose that both Gondwanan vicariance and dispersal of African lineages is responsible for present day

  16. If Dung Beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) Arose in Association with Dinosaurs, Did They Also Suffer a Mass Co-Extinction at the K-Pg Boundary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Nicole L.; Weir, Tom A.; Cameron, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of beetles and numerous other terrestrial insects is generally attributed to co-radiation with flowering plants but most studies have focused on herbivorous or pollinating insects. Non-herbivores represent a significant proportion of beetle diversity yet potential factors that influence their diversification have been largely unexamined. In the present study, we examine the factors driving diversification within the Scarabaeidae, a speciose beetle family with a range of both herbivorous and non-herbivorous ecologies. In particular, it has been long debated whether the key event in the evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was an adaptation to feeding on dinosaur or mammalian dung. Here we present molecular evidence to show that the origin of dung beetles occurred in the middle of the Cretaceous, likely in association with dinosaur dung, but more surprisingly the timing is consistent with the rise of the angiosperms. We hypothesize that the switch in dinosaur diet to incorporate more nutritious and less fibrous angiosperm foliage provided a palatable dung source that ultimately created a new niche for diversification. Given the well-accepted mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, we examine a potential co-extinction of dung beetles due to the loss of an important evolutionary resource, i.e., dinosaur dung. The biogeography of dung beetles is also examined to explore the previously proposed “out of Africa” hypothesis. Given the inferred age of Scarabaeinae as originating in the Lower Cretaceous, the major radiation of dung feeders prior to the Cenomanian, and the early divergence of both African and Gondwanan lineages, we hypothesise that that faunal exchange between Africa and Gondwanaland occurred during the earliest evolution of the Scarabaeinae. Therefore we propose that both Gondwanan vicariance and dispersal of African lineages is responsible for present day distribution of

  17. [Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects.

  18. Morphology and contact mechanics influence adhesive characteristics of Dung Beetle's bristle and Gecko's setae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Geckos (Gekko gecko) use their hairy setae to adhere on various solid surfaces and dung beetles ( Copris ochus Motschulsky) use their hairy bristles to anti-adhere in sticky environments. We study why two hairy systems express a conflict in functions by using SEM, histological approaches and functional experiments. Adhesion models and various parameters were collected and analyzed. Based on the morphological data and functional experimental results carried out by natural and denatured gecko setae and beetle bristles, we first demonstrated that the stiffness along the hair is 1000 to 30000 times that perpendicular to the hair. This stiffness difference is the key factor leading to the two hairy systems' functional differences. Slope of gecko setae reduces contact stiffness, increases contact points and real contact area that results in amazing adhesive abilities. On the other hand, stiff bristles in a beetle have higher contact stiffness, which reduces the real contact area and decreases the adhesion between two contact surfaces. Deformation of gecko setae destroys the hierarchical structure, increases the contact stiffness and results in a decrease of adhesion forces. Similarly, deformation of beetle bristles destroys the erect structure of the hair, interconnects the separated bristles and thus decreases the anti-adhesive functions. These observations inspire us in designing anti-adhesive and adhesive biomimetic systems.

  19. Dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae assemblage of a highly fragmented landscape of Atlantic forest: from small to the largest fragments of northeastern Brazilian region

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    Renato P. Salomão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities in tropical forests are the main causes of forest fragmentation. According to historical factor in deforestation processes, forest remnants exhibit different sizes and shapes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dung beetle assemblage on fragments of different degree of sizes. Sampling was performed during rainy and dry season of 2010 in six fragments of Atlantic forest, using pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion. Also, we used two larger fragments as control. We used General Linear Models to determine whether the fragments presented distinguished dung beetle abundance and richness. Analysis of Similarities and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling were used to determine whether the dung beetle assemblage was grouped according to species composition. A total of 3352 individuals were collected and 19 species were identified in the six fragments sampled. Dung beetle abundance exhibited a shift according to fragment size; however, richness did not change among fragments evaluated. Also, fragments sampled and the two controls exhibited distinct species composition. The distinction on abundance of dung beetles among fragments may be related to different amount of resource available in each one. It is likely that the dung beetle richness did not distinguish among the different fragments due to the even distribution of the mammal communities in these patches, and consequent equal dung diversity. We conclude that larger fragments encompass higher abundance of dung beetle and distinct species. However, for a clearer understanding of effects of fragmentation on dung beetles in Atlantic forest, studies evaluating narrower variations of larger fragments should be conducted.

  20. Ecological functions provided by dung beetles are interlinked across space and time: evidence from (15) N isotope tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervo, Beatrice; Caprio, Enrico; Celi, Luisella; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Falsone, Gloria; Iussig, Gabriele; Palestrini, Claudia; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Rolando, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Maintaining multiple ecological functions ("multifunctionality") is crucial to sustain viable ecosystems. To date most studies on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) have focused on single or few ecological functions and services. However, there is a critical need to evaluate how species and species assemblages affect multiple processes at the same time, and how these functions are interconnected. Dung beetles represent excellent model organisms because they are key contributors to several ecosystem functions. Using a novel method based on the application of (15) N-enriched dung in a mesocosm field experiment, we assessed the role of dung beetles in regulating multiple aspects of nutrient cycling in alpine pastures over appropriate spatial (up to a soil depth of 20 cm) and temporal (up to 1 yr after dung application) scales. (15) N isotope tracing allowed the evaluation of multiple interrelated ecosystem functions responsible for the cycling of dung-derived nitrogen (DDN) in the soil and vegetation. We also resolved the role of functional group identity and the importance of interactions among co-occurring species for sustaining multiple functions by focusing on two different dung beetle nesting strategies (tunnelers and dwellers). Species interactions were studied by contrasting mixed-species to single-species assemblages, and asking whether the former performed multiple functions better than the latter. Dung beetles influenced at least seven ecological functions by facilitating dung removal, transport of DDN into the soil, microbial ammonification and nitrification processes, uptake of DDN by plants, herbage growth, and changes in botanical composition. Tunnelers and dwellers were found to be similarly efficient for most functions, with differences based on the spatial and temporal scales over which the functions operated. Although mixed-species assemblages seemed to perform better than single-species, this outcome may be dependent on the context. Most

  1. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Valentina; Hernández, Malva I M; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2017-01-01

    The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied. Specimens were repeatedly subjected to heating trials under simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation using a halogen neodymium bulb light with a balanced daylight spectrum and a ceramic infrared heat emitter. The volume of exoskeleton and its weight per volume unit were significantly more important for the heating rate at the beginning of the heating process than for the asymptotic maximum temperature reached at the end of the trials: larger beetles with relatively thicker exoskeletons heated more slowly. The source of radiation greatly influences the asymptotic temperature reached, but has a negligible effect in determining the rate of heat gain by beetles: they reached higher temperatures under artificial sunlight than under infrared radiation. Interspecific differences were negligible in the heating rate but had a large magnitude effect on the asymptotic temperature, only detectable under simulated sun irradiance. The fact that sun irradiance is differentially absorbed dorsally and transformed into heat among species opens the possibility that differences in dorsal exoskeleton would facilitate the heat gain under restrictive environmental temperatures below the preferred ones. The findings provided by this study support the important role played by the exoskeleton in the heating process of beetles, a cuticle able to act passively in the thermal control of body

  2. Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil.

  3. The role of dung beetles as a secondary seed disperser after dispersal by frugivore mammals in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Hideto; Kozakai, Chinatsu; Arimoto, Isao; Soga, Masashi; Yamazaki, Koji; Koganezawa, Masaaki

    2012-05-01

    We studied the effects of dung beetles on the fates of endozoochorous seeds of five species (Prunus jamasakura, Prunus verecunda, Prunus grayana, Swida controversa, and Vitis coignetiae) in a temperate deciduous forest in Japan during 2004-2006. In field experiments using dung of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), we investigated the depths that dung beetles (Onthophagus atripennis, Onthophagus lenzii, and Phelotrupes auratus) buried seeds (4.8-6.8 mm diameter) and plastic markers (2 or 5 mm diameter), the levels of predation on buried and unburied seeds, and germination rates of seeds buried to different depths. All three species buried the 2-mm markers, but only P. auratus buried the seeds and 5-mm markers. There were seasonal differences in mean seed burial rates (range, 27-51%) and depths (range, 1-27 mm). Significantly more seeds were buried in June, July, and September than in August or October, and the mean burial depth was significantly deeper in June and July. Most seeds and markers were buried to a 3-6 cm depth. Germination of seeds that were positioned at depths of 1-4 cm was significantly greater than that of seeds left on the surface or buried at greater depths. Buried seeds were less likely to disappear than seeds at the surface, which may reflect differential predation. These results suggested that dung beetles, especially P. auratus, acted as a secondary seed disperser that affected the survival and distribution of seeds dispersed by a frugivore.

  4. [Habitat heterogeneity, richness and structure of assemblages of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in areas of cerrado in the Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.

  5. Elevational distribution and conservation biogeography of phanaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K; Hamel-Leigue, A Caroli; Larsen, Trond H; Mann, Darren J; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W; Gill, Bruce D; Edmonds, W D; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann's and Rapoport's rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann's rule. Rapoport's rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport's and refutation of Bergmann's rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for identifying

  6. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  7. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

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    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites. We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal

  8. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

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    Felipe Barragán

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha. Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  9. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Felipe; Moreno, Claudia E; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; Navarrete, Dario

    2011-03-23

    The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (20 ha). Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed.

  10. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

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    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  11. A review and phylogeny of Scarabaeine dung beetle fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae, with the description of two Canthochilum species from Dominican amber

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    Sergei Tarasov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae, their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.. We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France, which shifts the minimum age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma. We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene–mid Miocene.

  12. Ancient origin of endemic Iberian earth-boring dung beetles (Geotrupidae).

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    Cunha, Regina L; Verdú, José R; Lobo, Jorge M; Zardoya, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    The earth-boring dung beetles belong to the family Geotrupidae that includes more than 350 species classified into three subfamilies Geotrupinae, Lethrinae, and Taurocerastinae, mainly distributed across temperate regions. Phylogenetic relationships within the family are based exclusively on morphology and remain controversial. In the Iberian Peninsula there are 33 species, 20 of them endemic, which suggests that these lineages might have experienced a radiation event. The evolution of morphological adaptations to the Iberian semi-arid environments such as the loss of wings (apterism) or the ability to exploit alternative food resources is thought to have promoted diversification. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Geotrupidae, 17 endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, and the remaining from southeastern Europe, Morocco, and Austral South America based on partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence data. The reconstructed maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies recovered Geotrupinae and Lethrinae as sister groups to the exclusion of Taurocerastinae. Monophyly of the analyzed geotrupid genera was supported but phylogenetic relationships among genera were poorly resolved. Ancestral character-state reconstruction of wing loss evolution, dating, and diversification tests altogether showed neither evidence of a burst of cladogenesis of the Iberian Peninsula group nor an association between apterism and higher diversification rates. Loss of flight did not accelerate speciation rates but it was likely responsible for the high levels of endemism of Iberian geotrupids by preventing their expansion to central Europe. These Iberian flightless beetle lineages are probably paleoendemics that have survived since the Tertiary in this refuge area during Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations by evolving adaptations to arid and semi-arid environments.

  13. ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES/PROTEINS FROM DUNG BEETLE, ONTHOPHAGUS TAURUS IMMUNE HEMOLYMPH

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    Vasanth Patil H.B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes & not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application.

  14. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the dung beetle genus Onthophagus inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

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    Breeschoten, Thijmen; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Tarasov, Sergei; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of dung beetles in the tribe Onthophagini, including the species-rich, cosmopolitan genus Onthophagus, were inferred using whole mitochondrial genomes. Data were generated by shotgun sequencing of mixed genomic DNA from >100 individuals on 50% of an Illumina MiSeq flow cell. Genome assembly of the mixed reads produced contigs of 74 (nearly) complete mitogenomes. The final dataset included representatives of Onthophagus from all biogeographic regions, closely related genera of Onthophagini, and the related tribes Onitini and Oniticellini. The analysis defined four major clades of Onthophagini, which was paraphyletic for Oniticellini, with Onitini as sister group to all others. Several (sub)genera considered as members of Onthophagus in the older literature formed separate deep lineages. All New World species of Onthophagus formed a monophyletic group, and the Australian taxa are confined to a single or two closely related clades, one of which forms the sister group of the New World species. Dating the tree by constraining the basal splits with existing calibrations of Scarabaeoidea suggests an origin of Onthophagini sensu lato in the Eocene and a rapid spread from an African ancestral stock into the Oriental region, and secondarily to Australia and the Americas at about 20-24 Mya. The successful assembly of mitogenomes and the well-supported tree obtained from these sequences demonstrates the power of shotgun sequencing from total genomic DNA of species pools as an efficient tool in genus-level phylogenetics.

  15. Dung-beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae from the Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Talamanca, Costa Rica

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    Mata-Lorenzen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dung-beetle species are considered an important focal indicator group in tropical forests. During 2007,eighteen traps were set in two permanent biodiversity plots during one week surveys in Las Tablas Protected Zonewithin La Amistad Biosphere Reserve. The main purpose of this study was to determine the group composition anddiversity as the basis for permanent monitoring and to measure potential impacts of land use change and climate changeon mountain diversity. Pitfall traps were placed randomly within the plots with human feces as bait. A total of 26species distributed in 13 genera and six tribes were collected. The composition of species includes eight endemicspecies, seven for Costa Rica (CR and Panama and one only for CR. The diversity found in this study was typical ofprevious studies in the region. Further sampling is needed to obtain the total number of species for the area. This studyis part of an on-going research project about climate change impacts and biodiversity monitoring in this important ecoregionof Mesoamerica.

  16. Intralocus tactical conflict: genetic correlations between fighters and sneakers of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

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    Buzatto, B A; Kotiaho, J S; Tomkins, J L; Simmons, L W

    2015-03-01

    Males and females differ in their phenotypic optima for many traits, and as the majority of genes are expressed in both sexes, some alleles can be beneficial to one sex but harmful to the other (intralocus sexual conflict; ISC). ISC theory has recently been extended to intrasexual dimorphisms, where certain alleles may have opposite effects on the fitness of males of different morphs that employ alternative reproductive tactics (intralocus tactical conflict; ITC). Here, we use a half-sib breeding design to investigate the genetic basis for ISC and ITC in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found positive heritabilities and intersexual genetic correlations for almost all traits investigated. Next, we calculated the intrasexual genetic correlation between males of different morphs for horn length, a sexually selected trait, and compared it to intrasexual correlations for naturally selected traits in both sexes. Intrasexual genetic correlations did not differ significantly between the sexes or between naturally and sexually selected traits, failing to support the hypothesis that horns present a reduction of intrasexual genetic correlations due to ITC. We discuss the implications for the idea of developmental reprogramming between male morphs and emphasize the importance of genetic correlations as constraints for the evolution of dimorphisms.

  17. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CPM-2) with fibrinolytic activity from the dung beetles.

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    Ahn, Mi Young; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Ryu, Kang Sun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-07-01

    Catharsius protease-2 (CPM-2) was isolated from the body of dung beetles, Catharsius molossus, using a three step purification process (ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60, and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue). The purified CPM-2, having a molecular weight of 24 kDa, was assessed homogeneously by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CPM-2 was composed of X Val Gln Asp Phe Val Glu Glu Ile Leu. CPM-2 was inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by typical serine proteinase inhibitors such as TLCK, soybean trypsin inhibitor, aprotinin, benzamidine, and alpha1-antitrypsin. However, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, E64, and elastatinal had little effect on enzyme activity. In addition, antiplasmin and antithrombin III were not sensitive to CPM-2. Based on the results of a fibrinolytic activity test, CPM-2 readily cleaved Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and fibrin, and gamma-chain of fibrinogen more slowly. The nonspecific action of the enzyme resulted in extensive hydrolysis, releasing a variety of fibrinopeptides of fibrinogen and fibrin. Polyclonal antibodies of CPM-2 were reactive to the native form of antigen. The ELISA was applied to detect quantities, in nanograms, of the antigen in CPM-2 protein.

  18. How habitat change and rainfall affect dung beetle diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian semi-arid ecosystem.

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    Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated "land use area" and "undisturbed area." Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities.

  19. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

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    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.

  20. Seasonality in the Dung Beetle Community in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest: Do Small Changes Make a Difference?

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    Medina, Anderson Matos; Lopes, Priscila Paixão

    2014-01-01

    Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeinae) activity is influenced by rainfall seasonality. We hypothesized that rainfall might also play a major role in regulating the community structure of this group. In this study, we describe seasonal changes in the richness, composition, and structure of the Scarabaeinae community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. A fragment of arboreal Caatinga was sampled using baited pitfall traps during the early dry season (EDS), late dry season (LDS), early wet season (EWS), and middle wet season (MWS). We compared the dung beetle community in each season in relationship to species richness, rank-dominance, curves, and composition. We collected 1352 Scarabaeinae individuals , belonging to 15 species. Dichotomius aff. laevicollis Felsche (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was the dominant species, representing 73.89% of the individuals. There were no seasonal changes in the rank dominance curves; all had a single dominant species and a few species with low abundance, typical for arid areas. Estimated richness was highest in MWS, followed by EWS. Dry-season samples (EDS and LDS) had lower richness, with no significant difference between the dry seasons. Although species richness increased as the habitat became wetter, the difference between the wet and dry seasons was small, which differs completely from the findings of other studies in Neotropical dry forests, where almost all species cease activities in the dry season. Species composition changes were found in non-metric multidimensional scaling and sustained by analysis of similarity. All the seasons had pairwise differences in composition, with the exception of EDS and MWS, which indicates that the dung beetle community in this fragment requires more than three months of drought to trigger changes in species composition; this is probably due to small changes in the forest canopy. There was no difference in composition between EDS and MWS. As in other tropical dry forests, although

  1. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

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    Mattia Tonelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy. Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0 and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant than the main effects (each factor separately for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and

  2. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Mattia; Zunino, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate) and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs) on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0) and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant) than the main effects (each factor separately) for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and the rational

  3. [Estimation of the sampling cover for dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabacinae) in Colombia].

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    Noriega, Jorge Ari; Camero, Edgar R; Arias-Buriticá, Jorge; Pardo-Locarno, Luis Carlos; Mauricio Montes, José; Acevedo, Aldemar A; Esparza, Andrea; Murcia Ordóñez, Betselene; Garcia, Hector; Solís, Cesil

    2015-03-01

    The promotion of biodiversity conservation strategies must address the lack of information and the difficulty of identifying knowledge gaps that may facilitate our knowledge of different taxonomic groups. Dung beetles constitute one of those groups, despite having been proposed as an efficient bioindicator of environmental disturbance processes. In this work, we aimed to prepare a diagnosis on the state of knowledge of the subfamily Scarabaeinae, focusing on the cover sampling degree of this group in Colombia, with the purpose of identifying high-priority areas that will allow the completion of a national inventory. The work consisted of a bibliographical compilation using 12 referential databases and the examination of specimens deposited in 26 national collections. A total of 16 940 individuals were examined, finding registers for 232 species from 386 localities. The respective distribution cover maps were presented, and the cover at a national level was 10.62%. A historical analysis demonstrated a proliferation in the number of studies for the last three decades; nevertheless, a great proportion of unpublished works persists, resulting in only 64 sampled localities with published records. The localities with the greatest sampling efforts were RN La Planada, Lloro, AUN Los Estoraques, PNN Tinigua and Mariquita. Registries for all departments were available, and the best sampled ones were Cundinamarca, Antioquia, Valle del Cauca and Boyaca. The ecosystems with the greatest number of publications are the Andean pre mountain humid forest, followed by the Andean mountain humid forest and the Pacific humid forest. Other ecosystems with few studies included mangroves, desert zones, natural savannahs, palm swamps, paramos, flooding forests and agroforestry systems. The biogeographic region with the greatest number of localities was the Andean region, followed by Choco-Magdalenense and Amazonia. Our results showed that high levels of subsampling persist and that some

  4. Seasonal Dynamic of Dung Beetle Assemblage in Horse Dung in Hohhot,Inner Mongolia%呼和浩特市粪金龟子群落动态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿拉腾巴根; 刘新民

    2011-01-01

    The species composition, biodiversity and seasonal dynamic of dung beetle assemblage in horse dung were investigated in Hohhot by the method of hand-sorting from June to October 2010. 3 294 dung beetles were captured and identified, which belong to 2 families,2 genus, 18 species. Dominant species were Aphodius sp. 1,A. Rectus and A. Praeustus. The percentage of their individual number were 41. 14%, 29. 48% and 10. 53%,respectively. Shannon-Weiner index(H') and Margalef richness index(DM?) of dung, beetle assemblage were higher in September than that of in other month. And Pielou evenness index (E) was higher in June. Because of the changes of habitats and food resources in urban environment, the species composition and biodiversity of dung beetle assemblage had obviously alteration. For main aim of tourism, raising some large livestock in urban would benefit to conservation of dung beetle diversity.%2010年6~10月,采用手拣法收集呼和浩特市赛马场马粪中的粪金龟子标本,分析其种类组成、多样性和季节动态特征.共捕获粪金龟子3 294头,隶属于2科2属18种,优势种为蜉金龟科一种Aphodius sp.1、直蜉金龟A.rectus和甫拉蜉金龟A.praeustus,分别占总捕获量的41.14%、29.48%和10.53%;粪金龟子群落的Shannon-Weiner多样性指数和物种丰富度9月最高,群落均匀性6月最高.城市环境中,由于生境和食物条件的剧烈变化,粪金龟子群落的物种组成和群落多样性均有较大变化,饲养以旅游和观光为目的的少量大型哺乳动物有利于粪金龟子多样性的保护.

  5. Sperm competition and the coevolution of pre- and postcopulatory traits: Weapons evolve faster than testes among onthophagine dung beetles.

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    Simmons, Leigh W; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive competition generates episodes of both pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Theoretical models of sperm competition predict that as the fitness gains from expenditure on the weapons of male combat increase, males should increase their expenditure on weapons and decrease their expenditure on traits that contribute to competitive fertilization success. Although traits subject to sexual selection are known to have accelerated evolutionary rates of phenotypic divergence, it is not known whether the competing demands of investment into pre- and postcopulatory traits affect their relative rates of evolutionary divergence. We use a comparative approach to estimate the rates of divergence in pre- and postcopulatory traits among onthophagine dung beetles. Weapons evolved faster than body size while testes mass and sperm length evolved more slowly than body size, suggesting that precopulatory competition is the stronger episode of sexual selection acting on these beetles. Although horns evolved faster than testes, evolutionary increases in horn length were not associated with evolutionary reductions in testes mass. Our data for onthophagines support the notion that in taxa where males are unable to monopolize paternity, expenditure on both weapons and testes should both be favored.

  6. Contribution of Alpha and Beta Diversity Across Land-Use Type to the Regional Diversity of Dung Beetles in Central Sulawesi

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    SHAHABUDDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of spatial scale has been acknowledged as one of determining factors of species diversity in local and regional diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate contribution of alpha ( and beta ( diversity across land-use type to gamma ( diversity at the margins of tropical forest in Central Sulawesi using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae as a focal group. Baited pitfall traps set in four land-use types ranging from natural forest through cacao agroforestry systems to open areas during two years of sampling (2009 and 2012. A total of 28 dung beetle species belonging to four genera were captured during the study period. The results showed that contribution of  diversity was higher than that of  diversity of dung beetles. Each land-use type contributed about 56.5 to 62.5% of the total species richness ( diversity. The similar pattern of biodiversity between each spatial scale and during the two sampling years emphasized the large contribution of each land-use type to maintaining a high portion of the regional species richness. It suggests the importance of managing other land-use types, such as secondary forest and agroforestry as well as protecting the remaining natural forests.

  7. Suppression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae using the lowbush blueberry agroecosystem as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Jones

    Full Text Available Wildlife as a source of microbial contamination is a food safety concern. Deer feces (scat have been determined as a point source for Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh produce. The ecological role of the scooped scarab (Onthophagus hecate (Panzer, a generalist dung beetle species common in Maine blueberry fields, was explored as a biological control agent and alternatively as a pathogen vector between deer scat and food. A large-scale field survey of wildlife scat indicated that pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 was present, albeit at a low prevalence (1.9% of samples, n = 318, in the Maine lowbush blueberry agroecosystem. A manipulative field experiment verified that, should contact occur between deer scat and blueberry plants and fruit during the summer, contamination with E. coli O157:H7 can occur and persist for more than 72 h. For both the positive control and an experimental scat inoculation treatment, the levels of the bacterial population decreased over time, but at different rates (treatment x time interaction: F (1.9,18.8 = 358.486, P < 0.0001. The positive control inoculation, which resulted in a higher initial E. coli level on fruit, decayed at a faster rate than inoculation of fruit via scat in the experimental treatment. We conducted 2 laboratory studies to elucidate aspects of dung beetle feeding ecology as it relates to suppression of E. coli O157:H7 from deer scat to lowbush blueberry fruit. In both experiments, dung beetles buried the same amount of scat whether or not the scat was inoculated with the pathogen (F(1,6 = 0.001; P = 0.999 and (F (2,17 = 4.10, P = 0.147. Beetles feeding on E. coli inoculated deer scat were not found to vector the pathogen to fruit. In two studies, beetles lowered the amount of pathogenic E. coli persisting in soils compared to soils without beetles (F (2,9 = 7.757; P = 0.05 and F (2,17 = 8.0621, P = 0.004. Our study suggests that the dung beetle species, Onthophagus hecate, has the potential

  8. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae associated with semi-urban fragmented agricultural land in the Malabar coast in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Venugopal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the diversity and community structure of dung beetles associated with semiurban agricultural land in the Malabar coast of southern India revealed that urbanization has led to decreased diversity compared to regional forests, and has affected the community status of dung beetles. However, contrary to expectations, species richness was observed to be equivalent to rural agricultural fields in the region. Low abundance of prominent agricultural habitat species indicates that the study area has changed as a result of habitat modification/urbanization, and the prevailing conditions are not ideal for the establishment of the most common species in agriculture belts. Prominence of two less common species, Tiniocellus spinipes and Caccobius vulcanus, indicates these generalist urban adaptable (synanthropic species have become increasingly widespread and locally abundant. The low abundance of tunnelers and rollers is attributed to fragmentation of the urban agricultural belt, low mammalian diversity and dung availability, and the hard nature of the laterite soil in the Malabar coast region.

  9. The genetics of maternal care: direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W

    2002-05-14

    While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation can evolve because of the heritable environmental variation that indirect genetic effects provide. In the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, females provide care to offspring by provisioning a brood mass. The size of the brood mass has pronounced effects on offspring phenotype. Using a half-sib breeding design we show that the weight of the brood mass females produce exhibits significant levels of additive genetic variance due to sires. However, variance caused by dams is considerably larger, demonstrating that maternal effects are also important. Body size exhibited low additive genetic variance. However, body size exerts a strong maternal influence on the weight of brood masses produced, accounting for 22% of the nongenetic variance in offspring body size. Maternal body size also influenced the number of offspring produced but there was no genetic variance for this trait. Offspring body size and brood mass weight exhibited positive genetic and phenotypic correlations. We conclude that both indirect genetic effects, via maternal care, and nongenetic maternal effects, via female size, play important roles in the evolution of phenotype in this species.

  10. Dung decomposition and associated beetles in a fragmented temperate forest Descomposición de heces y sus coleópteros asociados en un bosque templado fragmentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA A. BUSTAMANTE-SÁNCHEZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation may result in changes in species number and population abundance among habitats that differ in area, structure, or edge characteristics. These changes, in turn, may result in alterations in ecosystem process such as decomposition of organic matter. Through an experimental approach, we compared the beetles assemblages associated with dung and decomposition of cow feces in a continuous portion of Maulino forest, forest fragments and in pine plantations that surround this forest and forest remnants. Abundance and richness of dung-associated beetles were lower in forest fragments compared to the continuous forest and pine plantations. However, dung decomposition was similar in these three habitats. Beetle abundance, species richness and decomposition did not vary along edges of forest fragments and pine plantations, but beetle abundance and decomposition rate varied on the border compared to the interior of the continuous forest. Thus, although beetle assemblage changes across the fragmented landscape, these variations in species richness and abundance did not translate into alterations of an ecosystem process such as dung-decomposition, as occurs in tropical forests. The beetle assemblage at pine plantations comprises only native species and dung decomposition was similar in both fragments and continuous forest. Therefore, pine plantations maintain at least partially the structural and functional biodiversity of the native fauna, connecting the native remnants throughout the landscape, a crucial factor in biodiversity conservationLa fragmentación del hábitat puede cambiar el número de especies y la abundancia poblacional entre hábitats que difieren en área, estructura o en las características del borde. Estos cambios, a su vez, pueden alterar procesos ecosistémicos como la descomposición de la materia orgánica. A través de una aproximación experimental, comparamos un ensamble de coleópteros asociados a heces y la

  11. Novel urease-negative basidiomycetous yeast, Trichosporon heliocopridis sp. nov., associated with dung beetles (Heliocopris bucephalus Fabricius) in the north of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunthiphun, Sineenath; Endoh, Rikiya; Takashima, Masako; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Akaracharanya, Ancharida

    2015-12-16

    Ninety six yeastisolates associated with dung beetles (Heliocopris bucephalus Fabricius) were examined based on culture-dependent method. A comparison of the colony morphology and PCR fingerprints obtained by (GTG)5microsatellite-primed PCR indicated that 84 of these isolates belonged to one group. Five strains (DD1-1,DD2-33, DD4-11, DD5-15 and DD6-1) were selected as the representatives of this main group, whereeach of the five selectedstrains had been derivedfrom a different dung beetle collected innorthern Thailand. A comparison of the D1/D2 domain sequence of the large subunit rRNA gene (LSU D1/D2) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencesrevealed that these five strains were the same and wererelated to the genus Trichosporon. Phylogenetic analysis based on the LSU D1/D2 plusITSsequences placed this group within the Trichosporonbrassicae clade, but it was clearly separated from any known species. In addition, physiological tests showed that this group had the unusual property of the inability to hydrolyze urea, which was distinctly different from the related taxon. Therefore, Trichosporon heliocopridis sp. nov. (ex-type strainDD1-1T = TISTR 5946T = JCM 30786T = CBS 14168T) is proposed as a novel yeast species. The MycoBank number is MB812098.

  12. Experiment of Beauveria bassiana Against Dung Beetles in Sugarcane%白僵菌防治甘蔗金龟子试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶; 张会华; 杨晓丽; 何文志; 罗志明

    2012-01-01

    Experiment of Beauveria bassiana was conducted to control Dung beetles in sugarcane. The results indicated that con- trol effect could be 75% to 85% while applying Beauveria bassiana mixed up with 3.6% of Bisultap granular, which is obviously or significant greatly superior to this agent alone or other pesticides use.%试验结果表明,白僵菌与3.6%广谱型杀虫双颗粒剂混合施用,能有效控制金龟子幼虫对蔗根的危害,相对防效迭75%~85%,显著或极显著优于单独使用白僵菌或农药处理。

  13. Regional and local influence of grazing activity on the diversity of a semi-arid dung beetle community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Jorge M.; Hortal, Joaquín; Cabrero-Sañudo, Francisco J.

    2006-01-01

    municipality were sampled for the local analysis. Spatial and environmental characteristics of sampling sites were also compiled at both scales, including measures of grazing activity (livestock density at regional scale, and two counts of rabbit and sheep dung at local scale). At a regional scale, any...... environmental or spatial variable can help to explain the variation in abundance. However, species richness was related to summer precipitation and composition was related to elevation. At local scale, abundance is not significantly related to any of the environmental variables, but species richness was related...... to the local amount of sheep dung (27% of variance). The amount of dung in a 2-km buffer around the site accounts for 27-32% of variance in abundance and 60-65% of variance in species richness. The presence of the flock with the highest sheep density explains 53% of abundance variability and 73% of species...

  14. Susceptibilidade do besouro rola-bosta africano a reguladores de crescimento de insetos Susceptibility of African dung beetle to insect growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Domingues

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ação dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos (IGR, diflubenzuron e methoprene, sobre o besouro rola-bosta africano, Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, um inimigo natural da mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus. Casais de besouros foram colocados em baldes contendo terra úmida e alimentados com fezes bovinas contendo 1, 0,5 ou 0,2ppm de diflubenzuron e 0,2ppm de methoprene. Os insetos e sua prole foram recuperados com o auxílio de armadilhas pitfall. Diflubenzuron e methoprene não afetaram a sobrevivência dos adultos inicialmente expostos, mas interferiram na produção de descendentes. Diflubenzuron, nas concentrações de 1 e 0,5ppm, também afetou a duração do ciclo de vida dos besouros. Nenhum dos IGRs alterou a razão sexual dos descendentes obtidos. As concentrações testadas de diflubenzuron mostraram-se moderadamente nocivas ao besouro enquanto methoprene a 0,2ppm mostrou ser pouco nocivo, segundo os critérios da International Organization for Biological Control.The effects of insect growth regulators (IGR, diflubenzuron and methoprene, on African dung beetle, Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, a natural enemy of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus, was studied. Beetles were placed in buckets partially filled with humid soil and were fed bovine feces containing 1, 0.5, or 0.2ppm diflubenzuron and 0.2ppm methoprene. Insects and their progenies were recovered by pitfall traps. Diflubenzuron and methoprene did not affect the survival of the adults but reduced their progenies. Diflubenzuron 1 and 0.5ppm also affected the life cicle of the beetles. None of the IGR modified the gender ratio of the progenies. According to the IOBC criteria, diflubenzuron tested concentrations showed to be moderately harmful to the beetles, whereas methoprene 0.2ppm was slightly harmful.

  15. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Antonio J; Cortez, Vieyle; Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Verdú, José R

    2017-01-01

    A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues) using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS). Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g-1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng g-1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the "dung community". Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests.

  16. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Antonio J.; Cortez, Vieyle; Azzouz, Abdelmonaim

    2017-01-01

    A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues) using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+–MS/MS). Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g–1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng g–1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the “dung community”. Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests. PMID:28207908

  17. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects and oxidative potentials of commercial edible dung beetles (Onitis sp.), grasshopper (Caelifera sp.) and mole crickets (Gryllotalpa sp.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Kubra; Incekara, Umit; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    In this investigation, the genotoxic and oxidative effects of water soluble extracts of dung beetles, flying grasshopper and mole crickets have been assessed on cultured human blood cells. The extracts were added to the culture tubes at 12 different concentrations (0-2000 ppm). Micronucleus test was used to monitor the DNA and the chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. In addition, to assess the oxidative effects, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured. Our results indicated that these extracts did not show genotoxic effects at the tested concentrations. However, the extracts caused dose-dependent alterations in both TAC and TOS levels. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the studied insects can be consumed safely, but it is necessary to consider the cellular damages which are likely to appear depending on oxidative stress at higher concentrations. It has also been suggested that this in vitro approach for oxidative and genotoxicity assessments may be useful to evaluate the potential health risks of edible insects.

  18. Does your preservative preserve? A comparison of the efficacy of some pitfall trap solutions in preserving the internal reproductive organs of dung beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Aristophanous

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight pitfall trap preservatives, brine, saturated borax solution, propylene glycol (33%, 50%, 75%, white vinegar, 100% ethylene glycol, FAACC (Formaldehyde 4%, Acetic acid 5%, Calcium chloride 1.3%, 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde and 96% ethanol, were compared for their ability to preserve the internal reproductive organs of the dung beetle Liatongus militaris (Laporte (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae for up to 28 days in the field. Relative evaporation rates of the preservatives in riparian vine thicket and low open woodland environments were also compared. 96% ethanol, FAACC and 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde were the only solutions found to preserve all of the internal reproductive organs. Evaporation rates were lower in the vine thicket and some preservatives such as ethanol completely evaporated within seven days. 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde is recommended as a preservative for pitfall traps left in the field for periods longer than one week. Possible ways to prevent trap interference by mammals and risks to the environment due to overspill are also discussed.

  19. The beetle Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) in Eucalyptus plantations in transition area of Amazon and Cerrado Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, T K R; Pires, E M; Souza, A P; Tanaka, A A; Monteiro, E B; Wilcken, C F

    2017-05-25

    Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) attacks Eucalyptus plants causing severe damage through netting of the leaves. Recently, this Coleoptera has been reported attacking Myrtaceae in Mato Grosso State and, studies about the occurrence of this beetle in commercial plantations of eucalypts has been the subject of researchers through monitoring programmes in the forest protection area. With the beginning of the rainy season, adults were observed causing damage in eucalypt plantations in four cities that are part of the transition region of Amazon and Cerrado Biomes. The spots where these insects were observed are located in Feliz Natal, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Vera. The purpose of this study was to report the new occurrences and to characterize the attack period of the beetle C. ferruginea in Eucalyptus plantations in Middle-North region of Mato Grosso State, region of Biomes Transition.

  20. Escarabajos estercoleros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae de ranchos ganaderos de Yucatán, México Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae from cattle ranches of Yucatán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Basto-Estrella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la fauna de escarabajos estercoleros (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae en ranchos ganaderos del trópico subhúmedo. De enero a diciembre de 2010 se recolectaron 93 274 escarabajos estercoleros pertenecientes a 17 especies de la subfamilia Scarabaeinae con trampas de caída libre cebadas con excremento de ganado bovino en 4 ranchos ganaderos del oriente del estado de Yucatán, México. Las especies más abundantes fueron Onthophagus landolti, seguida por Canthon indigaceus chevrolati, Digitonthophagus gazella, C. leechi y Pseudocanthon perplexus. Se observó que las especies cavadoras tuvieron mayor abundancia y riqueza; las diurnas de talla pequeña tuvieron menor riqueza pero fueron más abundantes en todo el estudio. El conocimiento de la composición faunística de escarabajos estercoleros de la región es un punto de partida para desarrollar estudios del impacto de las actividades humanas y las prácticas de producción ganadera sobre la diversidad de estos insectos.This study describes the fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in tropical sub-humid cattle ranches. Insects were collected with pitfall traps baited with cattle manure from January to December 2010 in four cattle ranches of eastern state of Yucatán, Mexico. 93 274 dung beetles were collected from 17 species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae. The most abundant species were Onthophagus landolti, followed by Canthon indigaceus chevrolati, Digitonthophagus gazella, C. leechi y Pseudocanthon perplexus. Observations showed that burrowing species had greater abundance and species richness. Diurnal species of small size had lower richness, but were more abundant. Knowledge of the composition of dung beetle fauna of the region is a starting point to develop studies of the impact of human activities and livestock production practices on the diversity of these insects.

  1. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  2. Ecological Significance of BANBU in Nature and Husbandry on Mongolian Plateau:An Entomological Research on Dung Beetles in Minority Areas%“班布”在蒙古高原自然环境和牧业经济形态下的生态学意义——关于蜣螂的民族昆虫学研究之一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    特古斯巴雅尔

    2011-01-01

    以蒙古族本土知识和笔者实践观察为依据,阐述了昆虫"班布"(蜣螂)在蒙古高原自然生态和牧业经济形态下,所能够发挥的环境保护功能与生态链作用,即蜣螂洞的"小水库"功能与"草物——(通过牛吃)——牛粪——(通过虫推)——肥料——(通过虫洞)——草物"的生态链循环过程。%Based on the indigenous knowledge of the Mongolian and the author's observations,the present study is to make explanations of the role of an insect BANBU(Dung Beetle) as environmental features and ecological chains in the ecological and animal husbandry economic form of Mongolian Plateau,ie the holes of dung beetles as "small reservoirs" and the eco-chain loop of "grasses-(by cattle grazing)-cow dung-(by dung beetles' push)-fertilizer-(in dung beetle holes)-grasses.

  3. NOTAS SOBRE LOS ESCARABAJOS COPRÓFAGOS (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEINAE EN AMBIENTES SECOS DE LA REGIÓN DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Notes on Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae in Dry Habits of Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARRY JIMÉNEZ-FERBANS

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer la fauna de escarabajos coprófagos (Scarabaeinae en cuatro tipos de hábitats con predominio del régimen seco. El método de colecta consistió en transectos de trampas de caída cebadas con excremento humano. Se hallaron en total 26 especies, incluidas en 12 géneros. La riqueza más alta se presentó en el bosque seco con un menor impacto de las actividades humanas (18 especies y la más baja (siete especies en relictos de bosque seco ubicados en ambientes urbanos. El número de especies resultó mayor que el registrado para otros bosques secos del país y se detectó un alto recambio de especies en comparación con otros estudios.A survey of the dung beetle (Scarabaeinae fauna of four types of dry habitats is shown; the collect method was transects of pitfall fatten with human excrement, a total of 26 species and 12 genera were found (beta diversity. The highest diversity (alpha diversity is present in the dry forest with the lower impact of human activity (18 species while the lowest diversity (7 species is found in the patches of dry forest located in urban zones. The species number is higher than the registered to other dry forest of the country, and an elevated species turnover compared with other studies was detected.

  4. Topsoil as Affected by Dung Deposition Under Resting Places of Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. POUVELLE; F. FEER; J. F. PONGE

    2008-01-01

    The short-term influence of dung deposition and the further redistribution of dung by dung beetles were studied under a resting place of the red howler monkey (Alouatta senieulus) living in tropical rainforests of South America. Monkey dung was experimentally clumped on the field in a place used by troops of howler monkeys for resting in the Nouragues Reserve Station, French Guiana. Dung-treated plots were sampled serially over three weeks and compared with controls located in their immediate vicinity. The composition of the soil matrix (top 10 cm) was studied in successive microlayers using an optical method. Under the influence of dung beetle activity, the topsoil became more homogeneous by losing its litter, its content in earthworm aeces increased in the course of time, and surface mineral deposits were penetrated by roots. The results were interpreted in the light of present knowledge on the effects of soil animal activity on plant growth and survival of seedlings.

  5. Effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in Huangfuchuan watershed, Inner Mongolia of North China%内蒙古皇甫川流域不同水土治理措施对粪金龟子群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王润润; 刘新民

    2013-01-01

    By using pitfall trap method, and taking the croplands and natural grasslands under different soil and water loss control measures as sampling plots, an investigation was conducted on the dung beetle assemblages in the Huangfuchuan watershed of Inner Mongolia from September 2007 to September 2008, aimed to understand the effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed.A total of 6169 dung beetles were captured, belonging to 15 species, 5 genus, and 2 families.The dominant species were Aphodius rectus and Onthophagus gibbulus, accounting for 66.54% and 13.26% of the total captured beetles, respectively.A lack of the species suitable for living in woodland habitats was the basic feature of the dung beetle assemblages.As compared with the control, all test soil and water loss control measures did not cause an obvious increase of species richness, biomass, and abundance of the dung beetle assemblages.The biomass and species richness of the assemblages as well as the abundance of the functional groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ had a significant negative correlation with the average tree (grass) height.Under the effects of long-term agricultural cultivation and the lack of large herbivores, the species richness and abundance of the functional group Ⅰ (larger paracoprids and telocoprids) were lower than those of the functional groups Ⅱ ( relatively smaller paracoprids) and Ⅲ ( en- docoprids) , the main components of the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed.The faeces of the residents and livestock in the study region provided abundant foods for the dung beetle assemblages , inducing the relatively high abundance and spices richness of the assemblages occurred in the croplands nearby the villages.Our results suggested that natural grasslands were the suitable habitats for the dung beetles in Huangfuchuan watershed.At regional scale, to popularize the successful experiences of comprehensive soil and water loss control

  6. A new orange emitting luciferase from the Southern-Amazon Pyrophorus angustus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) click-beetle: structure and bioluminescence color relationship, evolutional and ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Danilo T; Oliveira, Gabriela; Silva, Jaqueline R; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-09-31

    Bioluminescent click-beetles display a wide variation of bioluminescence colors ranging from green to orange, including an unusual intra-specific color variation in the Jamaican Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus. Recently, we collected individuals of the Pyrophorus angustus species from the Southern Amazon forest, in Brazil, which displays an orange light emitting abdominal lantern. This species was also previously described from Central America, but displaying a bioluminescence spectrum from 536 nm (dorsal) to 578 nm (ventral). The biogeographic variation of the bioluminescence color in this species could be an adaptation to environmental reflectance and inter/intraspecific sexual competition. Here, we cloned, sequenced, characterized and performed site-direct mutagenesis of this new orange emitting luciferase. The in vitro luciferase spectrum displayed a peak at 594 nm, KM values for ATP and d-luciferin of 160 μM and 17 μM, respectively, and an optimum pH of approximately 8.5. Comparative multialignment and site-directed mutagenesis using different color emitting click-beetle luciferases from P. angustus, Fulgeochlizus bruchi and Pyrearinus termitilluminans luciferases cloned by our group showed an integral role of residue 247 in bioluminescence color modulation.

  7. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  8. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  9. Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana Variaciones de las agregaciones de escarabajos coprófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae en dos hábitats del bosque tropical en la Guayana Francesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role.Es conocido que la estructura de las comunidades de escarabajos coprófagos que habitan los bosques tropicales es sensible a diferentes tipos de cambios ambientales tales como el

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  11. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles − a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses − to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  12. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters...

  13. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  14. Successional studied of fungi on mammalian dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dung samples of nine animals were collected from different places at Gorakhpur (U.P. and incubated for 50 days. A total of 79 fungal species comprising Phycomycetes (22, Ascomycetes (23, Basidiomycetes (6. Deuteromycetes (21, Mycelia sterilla (4 and Myxomycetes(3 were isolated from the dung these animals. Among difTcrcnt species isolated, some were found in dung of several animals while others were restricted only to the dung of a particular animal dung. During the succession, the fruitbodies of Phycomycetes appeared first, closely followed by Deuteromycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidlomycetes. Mycelia sterilia and Myxomycetes, appeared carly as well as late but persisted for a much longer time.

  15. Bark Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan S.; McAvoy, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles are one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. They are different than the larger longhorned and roundheaded/metallic woodboring beetles commonly infesting the inner wood of trees. The largest bark beetle, the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens), reaches only 8.3 mm in length. Because of their tiny size, bark beetles are not effective tree killers as individuals.

  16. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  17. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

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    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  18. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran.Methods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key Results: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorariusThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. Conclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  19. Revisiting the life cycle of dung fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Newcombe; Jason Campbell; David Griffith; Melissa Baynes; Karen Launchbaugh; Rosemary Pendleton

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem...

  20. Dermestid Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Coats, Katherine; Roe, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    Dermestid beetles are in the family Dermestidae and order Coleoptera. These beetles are sometimes called larder beetles or carpet beetles. Adults range from 1 to 12 mm in length and have variable body coloration. In general, they are hairy, dark-colored, elongated, and have clubbed antennae. The larvae are light brown and can be up to 13 mm long. Many larvae have spines, called setae, on the back of the abdomen that are helpful with identification. Dermestid larvae and adults have chewing mou...

  1. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  2. The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Nansen, Peter; Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner;

    1988-01-01

    Madsen, M., J. Gr¢nvold, P. Nansen, J.B. Jespersen, K.-M. Vagn Jensen, P. Holter and B. Overgaard Nielsen, 1988: The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition. Programme and Abstracts of the Vth European Multicolloqui¬um of Parasitology, September 4-9, 1988...

  3. The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Nansen, Peter; Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner

    1988-01-01

    Madsen, M., J. Gr¢nvold, P. Nansen, J.B. Jespersen, K.-M. Vagn Jensen, P. Holter and B. Overgaard Nielsen, 1988: The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition. Programme and Abstracts of the Vth European Multicolloqui¬um of Parasitology, September 4-9, 1988...

  4. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  5. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  6. COW DUNG- A BOON FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSHMITA SHRIVASTAVA*, ALKA MISHRA ARTI PAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is an agricultural country having variety of plants and animals. Among the animals, cattle like cow has a prominent place in our country. It is considered as go-mata and worshipped by every hindu of India. The five products of cow called “Panchgavya” is a precious gift of this holy animal to our society, which consist of milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Among these, cow dung also called cow pad, is a component having crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose and minerals. It is an efficient organic manure used to increase plant yield in fields. Cow dung slurry is also used by people of our country for plastering the floors and walls of their houses. Considering this custom of our society, a study had been done to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal properties of cow dung extract in distil water, ethanol and n- hexane against Candida, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus and found it highly effective against these microbes. The study revealed that cow dung extract possess antimicrobial properties, which can be used to fight against certain pathogenic diseases and other ailments.

  7. The materiality of dung: the manipulation of dung in Neolithic Mediterranean caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formation of layers of burnt herbivore dung in Neolithic, Eneolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean caves. While these layers are clearly connected with transhumant pastoralism and the practice of keeping herds in the caves, their formation should not be seen as the result of purely practical and ‘rational’ reasons. In this paper, I develop an argument that they are remnants of a complex manipulation of substances which includes burning dung to make white ash. Thus instead of seeing dung as a culturally neutral refuse which has to be disposed of, we might see its burning and deposition as the cultural manipulation of potent substance.

  8. The effect of faecally excreted ivermectin and fenbendazole on the insect colonisation of cattle dung following the oral administration of sustained-release boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L; Wall, R; Woolford, A; Djeddour, D

    1996-04-01

    The effects of faecal drug residues following the administration of anthelmintics in the form of sustained-release boluses, on dung-colonising Coleoptera and Diptera are reported. In blind field trials, pats of standard weight and size were prepared from the dung of cattle treated with an ivermectin (Ivomec SR Bolus, MSD Agvet) or a fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus, Hoechst) sustained-release bolus, and from a third control group of cattle that received no treatment. Pats were recovered after 7, 14, 21 and 42 days in the field and searched for invertebrates. There were no differences in the numbers of adult beetles found in the pats from the three treatment groups. Pats made from the dung of ivermectin-treated animals contained no larval Diptera Cyclorrhapha and significantly fewer larval Scarabaeidae than pats made from the dung of the other two groups. Furthermore, larval Scarabaeidae in the ivermectin pats were inhibited in their development. The pats from fenbendazole-treated animals contained similar numbers of larval Scarabaeidae and Diptera to the pats from untreated animals throughout the trial. At 42 days, the solid matter of the control and fenbendazole-containing cow pats were reduced to a crumbling, granular texture, while the pats from the ivermectin-treated animals were solid and compacted. Pitfall trapping, using traps baited with dung from the three groups, showed no significant difference between the numbers of adult Scarabaeidae attracted, though a trend towards higher numbers attracted to the dung of both anthelmintic-treated groups was evident. The results provide evidence of the toxic effects of excreted ivermectin on key dung-colonising families of insects, and show that fenbendazole lacks such toxic effects.

  9. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  10. 甲壳虫是怎么得到颜色的%How Beetle Got Her Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Long ago in the Amazon rain forest Beetle was just plain brown.In this same forest there lived a rat that used to tease other small animals and insects that lived there.Best of all she liked to torment the beetle.Rat had a gang of other small animals who followed her,and laughed at her mean jokes.

  11. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Newcombe

    Full Text Available Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  12. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung. PMID:26839959

  13. Revisiting the Life Cycle of Dung Fungi, Including Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, George; Campbell, Jason; Griffith, David; Baynes, Melissa; Launchbaugh, Karen; Pendleton, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Dung fungi, such as Sordaria fimicola, generally reproduce sexually with ascospores discharged from mammalian dung after passage through herbivores. Their life cycle is thought to be obligate to dung, and thus their ascospores in Quaternary sediments have been interpreted as evidence of past mammalian herbivore activity. Reports of dung fungi as endophytes would seem to challenge the view that they are obligate to dung. However, endophyte status is controversial because surface-sterilization protocols could fail to kill dung fungus ascospores stuck to the plant surface. Thus, we first tested the ability of representative isolates of three common genera of dung fungi to affect plant growth and fecundity given that significant effects on plant fitness could not result from ascospores merely stuck to the plant surface. Isolates of S. fimicola, Preussia sp., and Sporormiella sp. reduced growth and fecundity of two of three populations of Bromus tectorum, the host from which they had been isolated. In further work with S. fimicola we showed that inoculations of roots of B. tectorum led to some colonization of aboveground tissues. The same isolate of S. fimicola reproduced sexually on inoculated host plant tissues as well as in dung after passage through sheep, thus demonstrating a facultative rather than an obligate life cycle. Finally, plants inoculated with S. fimicola were not preferred by sheep; preference had been expected if the fungus were obligate to dung. Overall, these findings make us question the assumption that these fungi are obligate to dung.

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  15. Water beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, G. N.; Nelson, B H; O'Connor, Á.

    2009-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Based on ca 37,000 records for Ireland, 244 taxa of beetle are evaluated for their conservation status using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) regional criteria. Of the wetland species, eight are considered to be regionally extinct, eight critically endangered, eleven endangered, twenty two vulnerable, twenty four near threatened, and the rest at lower risk, of least concern or data‐deficient. Ninety‐three taxa are mapped. The importance of h...

  16. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  17. Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Novelo, Enrique; Delfín-González, Hugo; Angel Morón, Miguel

    2007-03-01

    Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroeco-system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover.

  18. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001 and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20, gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  19. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  20. Dung of Mammuthus in the arid Southwest, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Davis, Owen K.; Martin, Paul S.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of a unique organic deposit in a dry cave on the Colorado Plateau, southern Utah, permits the first comparison of the physical characteristics and the diet of the dung of the extinct mammoths from the arid Southwest, North America, with that of mammoths from Siberia and northern China, the only other known locations of such remains. The deposit buried beneath sand and rockfall is composed primarily of mammoth dung, estimated at over 300 m 3. Radiocarbon dates on dung boluses indicate that the mammoths frequented the cave between approximately 14,700 and 11,000 yr B.P. (the range of ages at 2σ). The desiccated boluses, measuring approximately 230 × 170 × 85 mm, are nearly identical in size to dung from extant elephants. The largest contents in the dung are stalks measuring 60 × 4.5 mm. Grasses and sedges dominated the diet, although woody species were commonly eaten.

  1. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  2. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  3. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ... Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in West and ... food production (Kamara and Sanginga, 2001). Of.

  4. Study of fungi on dung of different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dung samples of four animals viz., rabbit. rat, fowl and pigeon both in captivity and wild conditions were collected aseptically in sterilized bottles from different places at Gorakhpur (U. P.. These were then transfer red to Petri dish moist chambers and incubated Tor 50 days. The observations were madę on the 3rd, 5th, lOth, 15tth, 20th, 30th, 40th and 50th day of incubation. The number of fungi on dung of different animals was larger in wild condition than in captivity. Some species were common to both the conditions; a few were recorded from more animals dungs in captivity but from less animals in wild conditions and there were some confined either to the captivity or to the wild condition on Iv. In addition to these. there were still others which were found on one animal dung in captivity and on more animals dungs in wild condition. With a few exceptions in dung samples from captivity, feces of all the animals in both the conditions exhibited a similar pattern of the succession of fungi.

  5. Kinetic model development for biogas production from cattle dung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Manjula Das; Mahanta, P.

    2017-07-01

    Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of numerous trace of elements. It is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matters including cattle dung which depend upon various factors affecting the population and activity of microorganisms producing biogas. Among the various factors temperature is one of them which play a significant role in biogas production from cattle dung. Biogas production from cattle dung was studied at temperatures 35°C to 55°C at a step of 5°C to study the effect of temperature on biogas production from cattle dung. In this work a mathematical model is developed for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of biogas production from cattle dung. The new mathematical model is derived by adding the effect of temperature on the modified Gompertz model. The new model is found to be suitable for predicting the biogas production from cattle dung in the temperature range 35°C to 55°C. The results from the new model are found to be highly correlated to the experimental data of present study.

  6. Bark beetle management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is designed to provide a background to bark beetle management practices consistent with the British Columbia Forest Practices Code, as well as specific practices for managing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), and Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). It describes their general biology and distribution in British Columbia, their life cycles and population dynamics, and symptoms of bark beetle attack. General management strategies presented include prevention (a long-term approach), suppression, holding actions, and salvage. Strategies appropriate to specific bark beetles include aerial surveys, ground detection, baiting, harvesting, and use of insecticides. The guidebook includes brief mention of other bark beetles (Scolytids and other Dendroctonus species) and a glossary.

  7. The evolution of scarab beetles tracks the sequential rise of angiosperms and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Dirk; Schwarzer, Julia; Vogler, Alfried P

    2014-09-22

    Extant terrestrial biodiversity arguably is driven by the evolutionary success of angiosperm plants, but the evolutionary mechanisms and timescales of angiosperm-dependent radiations remain poorly understood. The Scarabaeoidea is a diverse lineage of predominantly plant- and dung-feeding beetles. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Scarabaeoidea based on four DNA markers for a taxonomically comprehensive set of specimens and link it to recently described fossil evidence. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple origins of coprophagy, phytophagy and anthophagy. The ingroup-based fossil calibration of the tree widely confirmed a Jurassic origin of the Scarabaeoidea crown group. The crown groups of phytophagous lineages began to radiate first (Pleurostict scarabs: 108 Ma; Glaphyridae between 101 Ma), followed by the later diversification of coprophagous lineages (crown-group age Scarabaeinae: 76 Ma; Aphodiinae: 50 Ma). Pollen feeding arose even later, at maximally 62 Ma in the oldest anthophagous lineage. The clear time lag between the origins of herbivores and coprophages suggests an evolutionary path driven by the angiosperms that first favoured the herbivore fauna (mammals and insects) followed by the secondary radiation of the dung feeders. This finding makes it less likely that extant dung beetle lineages initially fed on dinosaur excrements, as often hypothesized. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  9. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  10. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  11. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  12. A generalization of Dung's Abstract Framework for Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Parsons, Simon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most widely studied systems of argumentation is the one described by Dung in a paper from 1995. Unfortunately, this framework does not allow for joint attacks on arguments, which we argue must be required of any truly abstract argumentation framework. A few frameworks can be said...... to allow for such interactions among arguments, but for various reasons we believe that these are inadequate for modelling argumentation systems with joint attacks. In this paper we propose a generalization of the framework of Dung, which allows for sets of arguments to attack other arguments. We extend...

  13. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  14. Dungeness NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Avian Shoreline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Coast Guard determined that Dungeness Spit is one of the top five high-risk areas in the U.S. for oil spill events due, in part, to its prominent location...

  15. Annotated checklist of dung-associated beetles of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Endrody-Younga, S

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available is likely to increase the list of known species substantially. The geographic distribution, habitat and food preferences, and seasonal activity of the 78 identified species are given....

  16. Revision and biogeography of the Neotropical dung beetle genus Scybalophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Carlos OCAMPO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El género suramericano Scybalophagus Martínez es revisado exhaustivamente. El género ahora incluye cinco especies distribuidas en Argentina, Chile, Bolivia y Perú. Se redescriben todas las especies y se proveen caracteres diagnósticos junto con ilustraciones para cada especie. Se designan lectotipos para Canthon lacordairei Laporte, 1840 (ahora Scybalophagus lacordairei y Canthon rugosus Blanchard, 1845 (ahora S. rugosus. Scybalophagus zumpti (Frey 1963 (=Epirinus zumpti Frey es ahora considerado un sinónimo junior de S. rugosus (Blanchard. La Biogeografía del género y cada especie es discutida y se presentan distribuciones potenciales, basadas en modelos de nicho ecológico, para todas las especies. Se discute la información sobre la biología e historia natural de las especies de Scybalophagus.

  17. Compound microstructures and wax layer of beetle elytral surfaces and their influence on wetting properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Sun

    Full Text Available A beetles' first line of defense against environmental hazards is their mesothoracic elytra--rigid, protective forewings. In order to study the interaction of these wings with water, the surface microstructures of various beetles' elytra were observed by Environment Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Chemistry components were ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. All the beetles of various habitats (including desert, plant, dung, land and water exhibited compound microstructures on their elytra. The wetting properties of these elytra were identified using an optical contact angle meter. In general the native elytra exhibited hydrophilic or weak hydrophobic properties with contact angles (CAs ranging from 47.5° to 109.1°. After treatment with chloroform, the CAs all increased on the rougher elytral surfaces. The presence of wax is not the only determinant of hydrophobic properties, but rather a combination with microscopic structures found on the surfaces. Irregularities and the presence or absence of tiny cracks, hairs (or setae, pores and protrusions are important factors which influence the wetting properties. Rougher elytral surfaces tended to present a stronger hydrophobicity. Effects on hydrophobicity, such as surface microstructures, chemistry, environment and aging (referring to the time after emergence, are also included and discussed. Our results also provide insights into the motion of water droplets when in contact with beetle elytra.

  18. The Beetle comparator implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beuzekom, M G

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the comparator thresholds on a Beetle 1.1 chip show large variations. The width of the threshold distribution is several tenths of a MIP signal for a 300 µm silicon detector, which is more than can be corrected for by individual threshold settings. Monte Carlo simulations of the production-process parameters have been performed to track the cause of this large offset spread. The main cause of the offset variation is the spread in the threshold voltage of the MOSFETs. Since this cannot easily be solved by a change in the design of the comparator as such, the solution is to increase the range of the individual threshold settings while maintaining the same resolution. This implies an increase in the number of bits for the individual thresholds. The note describes measurements and simulations for the Beetle versions 1.1 and 1.2, and the changes in the design for the Beetle 1.3.

  19. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  20. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  1. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Cow Dung Based Biodynamic Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Radha, T. K.; RAO, D. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and ‘Cow pat pit’ (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (109 ml−1) and yeasts (104 ml−1). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (104 ml−1) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysi...

  2. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  3. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (elephants as dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  4. Dung biomass smoke activates inflammatory signaling pathways in human small airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Gelein, Robert; Thatcher, Thomas H; Elder, Alison; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4,000,000 deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries. Yet, few studies have examined the mechanisms of dung biomass smoke-induced inflammatory responses in human lung cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dung biomass smoke causes inflammatory responses in human lung cells through signaling pathways involved in acute and chronic lung inflammation. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were exposed to dung smoke at the air-liquid interface using a newly developed, automated, and reproducible dung biomass smoke generation system. The examination of inflammatory signaling showed that dung biomass smoke increased the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in SAECs through activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. We propose that the inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed to dung biomass smoke contribute to the development of respiratory diseases.

  5. Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.

  6. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluremi Solomon Osunlola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha, cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha, horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha, goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha, organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha, and carbofuran (3 kg a.i/ha in the management of M. incognita on sweet potato using a randomized complete block design. The unamended plots served as control. Data were analysed using ANOVA (p≤0.05. All organic materials and carbofuran significantly (p≤0.05 reduced nematode reproduction and root damage compared with control. Poultry dung (10 and 20 t/ha and carbofuran were, however, more efficient in nematode control than other organic materials. Sweet potato plants that were grown on soil treated with organomineral fertilizer had the highest mean number of vines and fresh shoot weight, while poultry dung improved sweet potato quality and yield. It is therefore recommended that the use of poultry dung be employed in combination with other nematode control strategies to achieve sustainable, economic, and environment-friendly nematode management.

  7. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  8. Beetle Exoskeleton May Facilitate Body Heat Acting Differentially across the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M; Ruiz, Yolanda Jiménez; Lobo, Jorge M

    Exoskeletons of beetles and their associated morphological characteristics can serve many different functions, including thermoregulation. We study the thermal role of the exoskeleton in 13 Geotrupidae dung beetle species using heating experiments under controlled conditions. The main purpose was to measure the influence of heating sources (solar radiance vs. infrared), animal position (dorsal exposure vs. ventral exposure), species identity, and phylogenetic relationships on internal asymptotic temperatures and heating rates. The thermal response was significantly influenced by phylogenetic relatedness, although it was not affected by the apterous condition. The asymptotic internal temperature of specimens was not affected by the thoracic volume but was significantly higher under simulated sunlight conditions than under infrared radiation and when exposed dorsally as opposed to ventrally. There was thus a significant interaction between heating source and body position. Heating rate was negatively and significantly influenced by thoracic volume, and, although insignificantly slower under simulated sunlight, it was significantly affected by body position, being faster under dorsal exposure. The results constitute the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that the beetle exoskeleton acts differentially across the electromagnetic spectrum determining internal body temperatures. This interesting finding suggests the existence of a kind of passive physiology imposed by the exoskeleton and body size, where interspecific relationships play a minor role.

  9. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A Warren

    Full Text Available Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  10. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  11. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  12. A summary of the dungeness crab research program 1974-1980

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    In 1974, the State Legislature directed the Department of Fish and Game to investigate causes of a long-term decline in Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, commercial fishery landings in central California. The Department established the Dungeness Crab Research Program which conducted investigations on crab life history, pollution, and oceanography. Genetic studies to determine if there were different stocks along the coast were inconclusive. Early larval stages (zoeae) drifted progressive...

  13. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Cow Dung Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das; Mahapatra; Pradhan; Das; Thakur

    2000-12-15

    Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous medium by using activated cow dung carbon was studied. Cow dung was carbonized and activated by treating with concentrated H(2)SO(4) followed by heating for 24 h at 120 degrees C. The extent of adsorption was studied as a function of pH, contact time, amount of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, and temperature. At lower pH (Press.

  14. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Dungeness Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    analyze some of the original data in this report was provided by Washington Sea Grant. vii 1 II ’ 1 . w. Figure 1. Dungeness crab. - DUNGENESS CRAB 5 -4...Lough Poole 1967). After 1 year of growth 1976; Armstrong 1983). beyond hatching, most crabs in Bodega Bay, California, are in their 8th, Juveniles...Stevens 1982). Grays Harbor, while the range is 63-94 After molting, the juveniles are mm in Bodega Bay (Poole 1967; Stevens found in shallow coastal

  15. Auramine-o (Synthetic Yellow Cow Dung Powder) Poisoning: Rare but Fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadke, Shubhangi; Dhadke, Vitthal; Giram, Abhijit

    2017-07-01

    Cow dung known since long ago for its germicidal properties, used by Indian villagers to clean the house premises. As cow dung is not available easily, nowadays people have started using synthetic yellow coloured powder (Auramine-o) available easily in grocery shops locally known as "Morechap powder" in districts of Maharashtra. As the poisoning is rare, very few literatures are available mentioning the detailed mechanism of action, clinical presentation and complications. To study the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning. 25 patients presenting with confirmed H/O consumption of (Auramine-o) synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning were studied. Patient's routine investigations BSL, RFT, LFT were done. CT brain was done whenever indicated. Synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning was common in young age group and females. Vomiting, respiratory depression were common symptoms. Synthetic yellow cow dung powder poisoning was needed only symptomatic treatment. It was very rare and mortality is low when treated promptly.

  16. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  17. Estimating Population Size from Dung-based DNA Capture–Recapture Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Lukacs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive samples of animal dung are being collected for use with DNA-based capture–recapture analysis to estimate the abundance of the species. A typical sampling strategy involves repeated sampling of transects or grids to search for dung. Searches performed on different transects or on different occasions are often considered the capture sessions for capture–recapture analysis. It is possible that multiple samples of dung from the same individual are found within an occasion. Most current capture–recapture models do not account for this additional data. We present a generalization of the geographically and demographically closed population capture–recapture models that use the numbers of dung found for each individual during each sampling occasion to help estimate heterogeneity in capture probability. We demonstrate that in the face of heterogeneity caused by unequal amounts of dung available per individual, the estimator developed here out performs standard capture–recapture abundance estimation. The estimator allows the benefit of using all data collected while not adding additional costs to the study. We present an example using dung-based capture–recapture data from African elephants to demonstrate the method.

  18. Biogas production enhancement by soya sludge amendment in cattle dung digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayan, Shanta; Ramakant; Shivayogi [WWT Division, NEERI, Nagpur 400 020 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Biogas energy production from cattle dung is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. But dependence only on cattle dung is a limiting factor. Rich nitrogen containing substrate addition to extra carbohydrate digester like cattle dung could improve the biogas production. Detailed performance of the digesters at different ratios of cattle dung and soya sludge has been discussed in this paper considering the cold countries climate. Soya sludge substrate not only has high nitrogen content of 4.0-4.8% but it also has high percentage of volatile solids content in the range of 97.8-98.8%. Soya sludge addition also improved the manurial value of the digested slurry and also improved the dewater-ability of the sludge. Results indicated an increment of 27.0% gas production at 25.0% amendment of soya sludge in non-homogenized cattle dung (NCD) digester. The amount of gas production increased to 46.4% in case of homogenized cattle dung (HCD) with respect to NCD feed at the same amendment. (author)

  19. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  20. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  1. The Amazon basin in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  2. Rethinking IR from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Picq

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes Amazonia as a site to think world politics. The Amazon is invisible in the study International Relations (IR, yet its experiences are deeply global. I present the international dynamics at play in Amazonia at different historical moments to posit that this periphery has contributed to forging the political-economy of what is refer to as the core. The Amazon's absence from the study of IR speaks about the larger inequality in processes of knowledge production. Serious engagements with Amazonia are one way to invite a plurality of worlds in the production of theories, disrupting global divisions of labor in knowledge production ally.

  3. A shoreline sand wave formation event at Dungeness, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falqués, A.; Arriaga, J.; Francesca, R.; Eddie, C.

    2016-12-01

    Alongshore rhythmic morphological patterns at different length scales are quite common along sandy beaches. Well known examples are megacusps and crescentic bars/rip channel systems with alongshore wavelengths ˜ 100-1000 m. At larger scales (˜ 1-10 km or more) there are the km-scale shoreline sand waves. During the last two decades there has been much research to unravel the origin of such intriguing patterns and to get insight into their dynamics. The hypothesis that they emerge out of positive feedbacks between hydrodynamics and morphology has been amply confirmed by mathematical modelling. In particular, the potential role of high-angle waves (large incidence angles with respect to shore) in driving km-scale shoreline sand waves has been investigated (Ashton et al., 2001, van den Berg et al., 2012). However, direct tests with nature are very difficult and are inexistent to our knowledge. This is so because these tests would require detailed measurements of the bathymetry and the wave conditions at the moment of their formation from a featureless morphology. Dungeness beach is located at the English shore of the Dover straight facing northeast part of a cuspate foreland. It is a gravel beach (D50=6-10 mm) quite steep until 1 m depth (β≈0.13) and gentle until 3 m depth (β≈0.005) without shore-parallel bars. Bathymetric maps of this beach are available since 2007 and the wave conditions are also known from a wave buoy in 43 m depth. The shorelines from 2007 until 2013 show some subtle and evolving undulations. But remarkably, in 2014 a series of two undulations develop with a wavelength of about 0.5 km. They persist until 2016 and migrate to the N. This is a clear formation event that provides a unique opportunity to compare observations with the outputs of morphodynamic models for the initial formation of such features. Therefore, the objectives are: 1) Characterize the bathymetric evolution and the wave conditions prior/during the formation event, 2) run

  4. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  5. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  6. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  7. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Mixed Kitchen Wastes and Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip B. Acharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available also generates organic wastes which are generally dumped. On the other hand many people felt shortage of animal dung for biogas production. This study is an attempt to find out the way between these situations by finding the suitability of kitchen wastes addition for biogas production. The experiment was performed in 5 L glass bottles with two treatments i.e. buffalo dung alone and mixture of dung with kitchen wastes. The bottles were filled on daily feeding basis by the feeding material at 5.3% total solids for the experimentation period of 80 days. On first day 12 mL fresh digested biogas slurry from running biogas plant was also added in all the digesters as inoculum. Daily biogas production was measured by water displacement method. Results show that co-digestion of dung and kitchen wastes produces 85.71 to 195.12% higher biogas than dung alone. Overall it produces 2.69% higher total biogas for the experimentation period of 80 days.

  8. Chemometric analysis of cow dung ash as an adsorbent for purifying biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, A; Murugesan, A

    2017-08-25

    Taraditionally, the water-soluble contaminants of biodiesel are treated by water wash method. However, water wash method ends up in an aqueous effluent, which might then cause a harmful environmental impact. As a consequence, waterless purification of biodiesel has triggered primary interest in biodiesel manufacturing process. To address this issue, an endeavour has been made in this work to investigate the waterless purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using cow dung ash at different concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt/wt %. The optimum concentration of cow dung ash for biodiesel purification was found through chemometric analysis by comparing the Fourier transform infrared transmission (FTIR) spectral characteristics of cow dung ash with the water treated FTIR. It was observed from the experimental study that 1 wt/wt % of cow dung ash exhibited similar structural characteristics as that of traditional water treated method of biodiesel purification. Therefore, bio-waste cow dung ash is an effective adsorbent in purifying biodiesel analogous to traditional water washing technology.

  9. Microbial safety control of compost material with cow dung by heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Various kinds of pathogenic bacteria derived from the intestinal tract of animals exist in compost material like cow dung. In order to sterilize the pathogenic bacteria completely in compost material, the cow dung was put into a heat treatment machine in pilot plan, and harmless condition in short time was examined. The results indicated, pathogenic indicator bacteria such as coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and salmonella were all 106 cfu/g dw at the beginning, died rapidly when cow dung temperature rose to above 50℃, and not detected at 54-68℃ for 6-24 h heat treatment. Coliform bacteria and salmonella in heated cow dung were not detected by re-growth culture and enrichment culture examination. Moreover, it was hardly influenced on the fermentation ability of composting microbe, organic decomposition bacteria. During heat treatment, the mesophile decreased rapidly and the thermophile stabilized or increased, and the most of composting microbe were bacillus in cow dung by fluorescence microscope, it was indicated that bacillus was dominator and composting microbe in composting process.

  10. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  11. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    2001-01-01

    Dung from calves treated with synthetic pyrethroids negatively influenced, in varying degrees, survival, reproduction and size of the common dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius). This was documented in assays where the coprophagous larvae and adults of N. cornicina were exposed to dung collected...

  12. Anaerobic Digestion of Buffalo Dung: Simulation of Process Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of kinetic of AD (Anaerobic Digestion is a beneficial practice to forecast the performance of the process. It is helpful in the design of AD vessels, substrate feeding and digestate exit systems. The aim of this work was to assess the kinetics of anaerobically digested buffalo dung at different quantities of water added. It comprises the assessment of the specific methane production on the basis of VS (Volatile Solids added in each reactor by using three first order models, i.e. the modified Gompertz model, the Cone model and the Exponential Curve Factor model. The analysis was tested by using the three statistical parameters, i.e. the coefficient of multiple determinations, the standard deviation of residuals and the Akaike?s Information Criteria. The result reveals that the Exponential Curve Factor model was the best model that described the experimental data well. Moreover, there was not a direct or indirect relation between the kinetic coefficients of the AD process with the varying total or volatile solid content

  13. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  14. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  15. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bo eWang; Haichun eZhang; Edmund eJarzembowski

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoide...

  16. Hyperprolinaemia caused by novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides isolated from corpora cardiaca of onitine beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G

    1997-01-01

    Two novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides were identified in dung beetles of the genus Onitis using heterologous (measuring lipid and carbohydrate mobilization in locusts and cockroaches) and a homologous (measuring proline increase in the haemolymph) bioassay(s). Isolation of the peptides was achieved by single-step reverse-phase HPLC of corpora cardiaca extracts. The primary structure was elucidated by automated Edman degradation and by electrospray MS. Both peptides are blocked octapeptides containing three aromatic amino acids. Peptide 1, designated Ona-CC-I, is pGlu-Tyr-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp-NH2, and peptide 2, designated Ona-CC-II, is pGlu-Phe-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2. The synthetic peptides were chromatographically indistinguishable from the natural compounds. They both had a hyperprolinaemic effect in the dung beetle. Moreover, flight experiments established that proline is an important fuel to power flight metabolism in Onitis species. Therefore, it is concluded that these novel and unique peptides are involved in regulating proline-based flight metabolism.

  17. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  18. The influence of feeding strategy on growth and rejection of herbage around dung pats and their decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Hoekstra, N.J.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fresh cattle dung from four farms with different feeding strategies was used to create artificial dung pats in a continuously grazed pasture in order to compare the rejection of herbage growing around the pats, the effect on undisturbed herbage growth under cages and pat decomposition. The first far

  19. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting.

  20. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  1. Plant growth promoting bacteria from cow dung based biodynamic preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, T K; Rao, D L N

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and 'Cow pat pit' (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (10(9) ml(-1)) and yeasts (10(4) ml(-1)). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (10(4) ml(-1)) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources-dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8-3.7 μg ml(-1) culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by ~21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains.

  2. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    da Amazonia (Brazilian Regional Commander of Amazon), about Ŕ Exercito na Amazonia " ("The Army in the Amazon) . Manaus, AM, 1996. 3 Instituto...accessed 23 Dec 97. 6 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 205. 7 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 8 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 9...Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. 10 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 98. 11 Gelio Fregapani, Amazonia 1996 - Soberania Ameacada (Amazon

  3. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  4. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IF. Lopes

    Full Text Available Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species - the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica, and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060 differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively. This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.

  5. Attractivity of omnivore, carnivore and herbivore mammalian dung to Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in a tropical Atlantic rainforest remnant Atratividade de Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae por fezes de mamíferos onívoros, carnívoros e herbívoros em um remanescente de Floresta Tropical Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in a remnant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest, three types of dung from animals with distinct alimentary habits were utilized, in order to verify possible differences of attractivity of these dungs to the Scarabaeinae and the influence of seasonality in the attractivity. Three habitats were sampled: edge, clearing and forest core, each with 40 pitfall traps. A total of 2,137 beetles were collected from August 2005 to July 2006. Canthidium sp. 1 (43% and Dichotomius sericeus (41% were the most abundant species. From the total number of beetles collected, 80.5% were attracted to human dung, 11% to jaguar dung, 7.8% to waterbuck dung and 0.7% to the control. The species Canthidium sp.1, Canthidium sp. 2, Ateuchus sp., Canthon nigripenne, Canthonella sp. and D. sericeus came to all three bait types. Eight species were found in the baits with human dung, where Canthidium sp.1 (49% and D. sericeus (39% were the most common. A significant difference in attractiveness of the different baits was observed; the highest abundance found in traps baited with human dung (F = 36.59; g.l. = 3; p Nesse estudo, realizado em um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica Brasileira, três tipos de fezes de animais com distintos hábitos alimentares foram utilizados para verificar possíveis diferenças de atratividade dessas fezes por Scarabaeinae e a influência da sazonalidade nessa atratividade. Três habitats foram amostrados: borda, clareira e núcleo da floresta, cada um com 40 armadilhas de queda ("pitfall". Um total de 2137 besouros foi coletado de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006. Canthidium sp. 1 (43% e Dichotomius sericeus (41% foram as espécies mais abundantes. Do número total de besouros coletados, 80,5% foram atraídos para fezes humanas, 11% para fezes de jaguar, 7,8% para fezes de cobo e 0,7% para o controle. As espécies Canthidium sp.1, Canthidium sp. 2, Ateuchus sp., Canthon nigripenne, Canthonella sp. e D. sericeus foram aos tr

  6. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, B.P.; Buitenwerf, R.; Desouza, O.; Olff, H.

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of termi

  7. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Buitenwerf, Robert; Desouza, Og; Olff, Han

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of termi

  8. 76 FR 61378 - Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... lagoon, salt marsh, natural and constructed freshwater wetlands, and mixed conifer forests. At 5.5- miles...

  9. 77 FR 71011 - Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce...

  10. The Induction of Root Formation by Urea, IBA and Sheep Dung in Young Apple Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-qiang; JIE Yu-ling; HUANG Tian-dong; SHU Huai-rui

    2002-01-01

    The effect of plant growth substance and fertilizer on root formation was studied in a newly planted apple tree (Malus pumila Mill / Malus hupenensis Rhed). The results indicated that urea and IBA (indole butyric acid) and sheep dung all increased the total number and activity of new roots and changed the ratio of absorbing root to extensive roots obviously. Urea increased the number of extensive root and decreased the ratio of the root to shoot mostly. IBA lengthened the extensive root and increased the ratio of root to shoot obviously. Sheep dung increased the nu mber of absorbing root and increased the ratio of absorbing root to ex-tensive root, divided new root into many branches, increased the fresh weight of the root and thickened the extensive root. The fresh weight of root increased and the ratio of root to shoot declined after urea was added to sheep dung. Both the ratio of absorbing root to extensive root and root fresh weight was increased after IBA was added to sheep dung, then the ratio of root to shoot had no change obviously.

  11. Biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cow dung using gelatin as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Sikder, Md Asif R.; Islam, Majedul

    2017-06-01

    A research work was conducted to investigate the enhanced production ability of biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestions of cow dung (CD) using gelatin as additive. Five laboratory scale digesters were constructed to digest cow dung, where one set up was used for digestion of cow dung without additive and the other set up were used for digestion with additive. Gelatin additive was added in the slurry of amount 0.29, 0,57, 0.85 and 1.14% (wt.). The digesters were made of glass conical flask of 1-liter capacity each. Cow dung was used 335 gm and water was used 365 gm in each experiment. In the slurry, total solid content was maintained 8% (wt.) for all the observations. The digesters were fed on batch basis. The digesters were operated at ambient temperatures of 26 - 35°C. The total gas yield was obtained about 14.4 L/kg CD for digestion without additive and about 65% more biogas for digestion with 0.29% gelatin additive. The retention time for digestion without additive was 38 days and with additive retention time varied between 24 and 52 days.

  12. Biogas from mesophilic digestion of cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2017-06-01

    Biogas, a source of renewable energy is produced from bacteria in the process of biodegradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. A research work was performed to find out the production of biogas from cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives. Five laboatory scale experimental set-up were constructed using 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% gelatin with cow dung as additive to perform the research work. For all the set-up 0.5% charcoal was also added. All the set-ups were made from 1-liter capacity conical flask. The amount of water and cow dung was used respectively 382 gm. and 318 gm. in every set-up. Total solid content was maintained 8% throughout all set-ups. The digesters were operated at ambient temperature of 26°-32°C. The total gas yield without using gelatin additive was found to be 12 L/kg cow dung. The maximum gas yield was found from 0.2% gelatin additive and 23% more as compared to without gelatin gas production. The retention time varied from 28 to 79 days for the experiments.

  13. Benzene bioremediation using cow dung microflora in two phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dipty [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India); Fulekar, M.H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bioremediation of benzene has been carried out using cow dung microflora in a bioreactor. The bioremediation of benzene under the influence of cow dung microflora was found to be 100% and 67.5%, at initial concentrations of 100 mg/l and 250 mg/l within 72 h and 168 h respectively; where as at higher concentration (500 mg/l), benzene was found to be inhibitory. Hence the two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has been designed and developed to carryout biodegradation at higher concentration. In TPPB 5000 mg/l benzene was biodegraded up to 50.17% over a period of 168 h. Further the Pseudomonas putida MHF 7109 was isolated from cow dung microflora as potential benzene degrader and its ability to degrade benzene at various concentrations was evaluated. The data indicates 100%, 81% and 65% degradation at the concentrations of 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 250 mg/l within the time period of 24 h, 96 h and 168 h respectively. The GC-MS data also shows the presence of catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which confirms the established pathway of benzene biodegradation. The present research proves the potential of cow dung microflora as a source of biomass for benzene biodegradation in TPPB.

  14. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Buitenwerf, Robert; Desouza, Og; Olff, Han

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of

  15. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, B.P.; Buitenwerf, R.; Desouza, O.; Olff, H.

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of

  16. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  17. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  18. Modelling the Kinetics of Biogas Production from Mesophilic Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Plantain Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo; Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of plantain peels as co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of cow dung for efficient and high biogas production. The biogas experiments were carried out in two different 5 L anaerobic digesters and incubated for 40 days at ambient mesophilic temperatures (28 oC to 34 °C). The results showed that co-digestion of cow dung with plantain peels as co-substrate reduced start-up time for biogas generation and increased biogas yield by 18% as compared to cow dung a...

  19. Cow Dung Substrate for the Potential Production of Alkaline Proteases by Pseudomonas putida Strain AT in Solid-State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan; Sreekumar Saranya; Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Cow dung and agroresidues were used as the substrates for the production of alkaline proteases by Pseudomonas putida strain AT in solid-state fermentation. Among the various substrates evaluated, cow dung supported maximum (1351±217 U/g) protease production. The optimum conditions for the production of alkaline proteases were a fermentation period of 48 h, 120% (v/w) moisture, pH 9, and the addition of 6% (v/w) inoculum, 1.5% (w/w) trehalose, and 2.0% (w/w) yeast extract to the cow dung subst...

  20. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

  1. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  2. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  3. Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Reyes Novelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroecosystem of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 83-99. Epub 2007 March. 31.Este estudio describe y compara la estructura de la comunidad de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Scarabaeinae en tres zonas con diferente manejo al interior de un agroecosistema localizado en el norte de la Península de Yucatán. A lo largo de un año de muestreo sistemático se encontraron 17 especies de los géneros Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus y Ateuchus

  4. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed.

  5. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  6. A comparison of the inflammatory and proteolytic effects of dung biomass and cigarette smoke exposure in the lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehra, Divya; Geraghty, Patrick M; Hardigan, Andrew A; Foronjy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    .... We exposed human small airway epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice to dung biomass smoke or cigarette smoke to compare how these exposures impacted lung signaling and inflammatory and proteolytic...

  7. From the turtle to the beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Romagosa Carrasquer, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    Beetle Blocks is a visual, blocks-based programming language/environment for 3D design and fabrication, implemented on top of Berkeley Snap! and the ThreeJS 3D graphics library. Beetle Blocks programs move a graphical beetle around a 3D world, where it can place 3D shapes, extrude its path as a tube and generate geometry in other ways. The resulting 3D geometry can be exported as a 3D-printable file. Beetle Blocks also aims to offer a cloud system and social platform meant to provide the comm...

  8. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  9. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  10. Amazon SimpleDB LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.

  11. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  12. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889 ml/day. However, the highest methane composition was 52.82% which resulted on the hydrothermal treatment of 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung. Thus, the optimum of methane yield obtained at hydrothermal pretreatment for 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung is 2856 ml/day. The hydrothermal pretreatment increases the rate production of biogas 102% and the methane yield 51% relative to untreated water hyacinth. The ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung has a great impact on biogas production rate and compositions for hydrothermal pretreated substrates.

  14. Reduced germination success of temperate grassland seeds sown in dung: consequences for post-dispersal seed fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, T; Hoffmann, M

    2016-11-01

    Endozoochory is one of the main drivers shaping temperate grassland communities by maintaining plant populations of its constituents and enabling plants to colonize new habitats. Successful endozoochorous dispersal implies that seeds not only get consumed and survive the digestive tract but are also able to develop into viable seedlings in a dung environment. We experimentally assessed the germination probability and timing of 15 annual and perennial temperate European grassland species in cattle and horse dung and in different climatic conditions (greenhouse and outdoor conditions). Interspecific variation in germinability and germination timing are found, while life strategy had only an effect on germination timing. We found adverse effects of both cattle and horse dung on the germination characteristics of all tested grassland species, but the effects of cattle dung were more pronounced. In comparison with the control treatment, fewer seeds emerged in dung and more time was needed to germinate. Also, germination metrics clearly differed between the artificial greenhouse and outdoor conditions, with generally a lower germinability in outdoor conditions. According to our results, a large cost seems to be associated with endozoochorous dispersal in this stage of the life cycle, as seed dispersal effectiveness strongly depends on the quality of the deposition site with a lowered survival and germination probability when seeds are deposited in dung.

  15. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean;

    2016-01-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veteri...... and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project.......The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process...... for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research...

  16. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D J [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Berg, N G van der [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Prinsloo, L C [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Hodgkinson, I J [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2007-04-07

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  17. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, D. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Hodgkinson, I. J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  18. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; A. O. Manzi; SOUZA, R. A. F. de; SCHUMACHER, C.; J. Wang; ANDREAE, M.O.; H. M. J. Barbosa; Fan, J.; G. Fisch; Goldstein, A.H.; Guenther, A.; J. L. Jimenez; Pöschl, U.

    2015-01-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and ...

  19. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  20. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  1. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine...... the influence of dung-pat N on N-2 fixation in a grass/clover mixture and the uptake of dung N in grass and clover. The proportion of N in clover derived from N-2 fixation (%Ndfa) varied between 88-99% during the 16 weeks following application of the dung. There was no effect of dung on the %Ndfa in clover...... grown in mixture, whereas the %Ndfa in clover grown in pure stand decreased (nominal 2-3%) after dung application. Dung did not influence the amount of N-2 fixed, and the uptake of dung N in grass and clover proceeded at an almost constant rate. After 16 weeks, 10% of the applied dung N was taken up...

  2. Ivermectin excreted in cattle dung after subcutaneous injection or pour-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Steffansen, B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    Heifers were treated with the recommended doses of ivermectin: 0.2 mg/kg bw by subcutaneous injection or 0.5 mg/kg bw by pour-on. An analytic procedure is described and used for the detection of ivermectin residues excreted in dung. A large amount of the higher pour-on dose was excreted during...... the first five days after dosing due to a more rapid distribution to intestinal contents. Later faecal concentrations after the pour-on treatment were lower than those found after subcutaneous injection. No degradation of ivermectin was detected in pats exposed in the field for up to 45 days. Ivermectin......-29 days after subcutaneous injection treatment, but only inhibited in dung deposited up to 13-14 days after pour-on treatment. The numbers of Nematocera larvae were not affected. In a laboratory bioassay the Diptera Musca autumnalis DeGeer and Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) suffered higher mortality...

  3. Multiresistance of Bacteria to Veterinary Antibiotics in Dung and Manure Samples of Farm Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Danilova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used in animal husbandry for treating and preventing diseases and as growth stimulators. Being disposed in the environment with dung and manure, they contribute to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. In this study, the level of contamination of cattle manure and poultry dung by genes resistant to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides (erythromycin has been investigated based on 19 samples. The polymerase chain reaction with specific primers for tet(X, sul1, and ereA genes has been used to reveal the resistance genes. It has been found that 18 samples contained genes encoding for the resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, four samples have turned out to be simultaneously contaminated by all three genes. It has been revealed that gene tet(X encoding tetracycline resistance is the most abundant one.

  4. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a Cellulolytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain SS35 from Rhinoceros Dung

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose hydrolyzing bacteria were isolated from rhinoceros dung and tested for clear zone formation around the colonies on the agar plates containing the medium amended with carboxymethylcellulose as a sole carbon source. Isolates were further screened on the basis of carboxymethylcellulase production in liquid medium. Out of 36 isolates, isolate no. 35 exhibited maximum enzyme activity of 0.079 U/mL and was selected for further identification by using conventional biochemical tests and phy...

  5. The effect of gastrointestinal nematode infection level on grazing distance from dung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi Lua Sarti Seó

    Full Text Available Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315; Medium (FEC = 130-160; and Low (FEC = 40-70. To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03. Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05 but had lower levels (P < 0.0001 of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01 for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior.

  6. Appraisal of Biogas Potential of Biogas from Animal Dung in Saeedabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMJAD ALISHAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is facing energy scarcity. The biogas is one of the renewable substitutes. It does not only overcome the energy scarcity but also harness the energy from animal dung which causes the CO2 emissions. The present study was done on the appraisal of potential of biogas from the dung of animals (Buffaloes, Cows, Goats and Sheep within the villages surrounded by Taluka Saeedabad. The purpose of the study was the energy potential of the biogas and the selection of the most suitable design and size of the biogas plant for the villagers. The present study also includes the domestic biogas plant economics. As per the estimation, total quantity of animal dung generated was about 129 tons/day, which can produce 3859 m3 of biogas per day. On the contrary, for cooking villagers require only 2748 m3 of biogas per day. Moreover, the surplus biogas of 1111 m3 per day can be used to produce electricity of 6666 kWh per day, which can fulfill the demand of about half of the population of villages under study. People are using firewood, cotton stalks, kerosene oil and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas for cooking. Converting animal dung into the biogas not only reduces the consumption of the traditional fuels used (Firewood, Cotton Stalks, Kerosene Oil and LPG, but also prevents about 900 thousand tons of CO2 emissions into the environment. Additionally, a fixed dome biogas plant of 8-10 m3 size was recommended for each of the houses under study.

  7. The Effect of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Level on Grazing Distance from Dung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seó, Hizumi Lua Sarti; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; da Silva, Bruna Fernanda; do Amarante, Alessandro Fernando Talamini; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315); Medium (FEC = 130–160); and Low (FEC = 40–70). To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03). Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior. PMID:26039729

  8. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  9. The vulnerability of Amazon freshwater ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castello, Leandro; McGrath, David G; Hess, Laura L; Coe, Michael T; Lefebvre, Paul A; Petry, Paulo; Macedo, Marcia N; Renó, Vivian F; Arantes, Caroline C

    2013-01-01

    ... at local and distant locations. Amazon freshwater ecosystems are suffering escalating impacts caused by expansions in deforestation, pollution, construction of dams and waterways, and overharvesting of animal and plant species...

  10. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  11. Horse dung waste utilization as a household energy resource and estimation of biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbara, Rian F.; Sumaryatie, Erni D.; Kirom, M. R.; Iskandar, Reza F.

    2013-09-01

    Horses are still used as traditional transportation in Soreang, West Java. About 6-7 horses can produce 25-30 kg of dung every day. Horse dung can produce biogas that can be used as an energy resource. A biogas reactor with capacity of 4 m3 has been built in Soreang. The reactor is filled with a mixture of 50 kg of horse dung and 100 liters of water every two days. This research was conducted to observe the quality of biogas produced from the reactor and to estimate the volume of biogas produced per day. The observation of daily biogas production conducted in 22 days. Laboratory tests showed that the composition of gases contained in the produced biogas consists of 56.53% of CH4, 26.98% of CO2, 12.35% of N2, 4.13% of O2, and 0.007% of H2. Daily biogas production data indicate a stationary trend. A moving average time series model is used to model the data. Using the model, it is estimated that the reactor can produce 0.240112 m3 of biogas per day, which is sufficient to meet the energy needs of a household.

  12. Production of biogas from poultry litter mixed with the co-substrate cow dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Roman Miah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter (a mixture of rice hulls, sawdust and chicken excreta of broilers mixed with the co-substrate cow dung and poultry droppings was evaluated under anaerobic conditions for the production of biogas (methane. Four laboratory scale reactors, R1, R2, R3 and R4, were set up with different proportions of waste poultry litter, cow dung and poultry droppings and had a 6% total solid concentration. Digestion was carried out for 50 days at room temperature, 32 ± 3 °C. Volatile solid degradation and specific gas production in the four reactors was 46%, 51.99%, 51.96%, 43% and 0.263, 0.469, 0.419, 0.221 l/g, respectively, based on the volatile solid (VS feed. The methane yields were 71%, 72.5%, 72.6% and 70%, respectively. The COD reductions were 46.1%, 50.76%, 48.23% and 45.12%, respectively. A kinetic analysis showed that the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter with a co-substrate followed first order kinetics. Among the experimental reactors, R2 (25% cow dung, 75% poultry litter gave the optimum results: a VS reduction of 51.99%, a specific gas yield of 0.469 l/g and a methane yield of 72.5%.

  13. Study on rapid bio-drying technology of cow dung with CaO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaotian; Qu, Guangfei; Liu, Shugen; Xie, Ruosong; He, Yanhua

    2017-05-01

    Effect of CaO2 on cow dung rapid bio-drying technology was researched. A static aerobic composting system was applied to this experiment which combining natural ventilation with Turing in the process of composting. The physical characteristics of cow dung was observed and the compost temperature, moisture content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium content was determined which in order to study the effect of CaO2 on rapid drying of cattle in the compost. In the initial stage of compost, adding CaO2 groups compared with the control group, the temperature rise faster, 4-6 days in advance to the thermophilic phase; at the end of composting, the CaO2 composition and moisture content decreased significantly to below 30%. The addition of CaO2 in fertilizer was shorten the composting time, extend the thermophilic phase, to provide sufficient oxygen meeting the growth needs of aerobic microorganisms. It convinced that the rapid bio-drying of dairy manure has a good effect and provided a new idea for the effective treatment of cow dung.

  14. Dung as a potential medium for inter-sexual chemical signaling in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Seshagiri, P B; Sukumar, R

    2012-09-01

    Chemical signaling is a prominent mode of male-female communication among elephants, especially during their sexually active periods. Studies on the Asian elephant in zoos have shown the significance of a urinary pheromone (Z7-12:Ac) in conveying the reproductive status of a female toward the opposite sex. We investigated the additional possibility of an inter-sexual chemical signal being conveyed through dung. Sixteen semi-captive adult male elephants were presented with dung samples of three female elephants in different reproductive phases. Each male was tested in 3 separate trials, within an interval of 1-3 days. The trials followed a double-blind pattern as the male and female elephants used in the trials were strangers, and the observer was not aware of the reproductive status of females during the period of bioassays. Males responded preferentially (Pelephants were able to distinguish the reproductive phase of the female by possibly detecting a pre-ovulatory pheromone released in dung.

  15. Analysis of biogas production through anaerobics digestion using cow dung and various co-substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanapal Thamilselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable waste is a sustainable energy resource. In coming years biogas technology can be very useful worldwide, since biogas can be obtained from biodegradable waste material. This technology is based on waste reduction and also is helpful in the clean-up process of India. In this experiment, we have made single-phase biogas set-ups by using two-liter bottles. The fermentation time of the anaerobic digestion for the efficient use of gas as a fuel is about sixteen days. In our biogas digester set-ups for waste decomposion anaerobic co-digestion process is utilized. The primary feed stock is cow dung, whereas the grass, fruit, and vegetable waste are used as co-subtracts. The pH value was maintained at the range level of 6.5 to 6.9. The output biogas yield was 1.59 ml, 1.28 ml, 1.03 ml, and 0.95 ml, within an approximate period of sixteen days. Biogas obtained from cow dung and grass waste is almost identical as biogas obtained from the experimental set-up 1 (pure cow dung. Main performance characteristics of biogas formation were presented in this paper. In order to analyze a daily biogas formation, the pH value, temperature, and hydraulic retention time were changed in this experiment.

  16. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Helen M. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: helen.west@nottingham.ac.uk; Tracy, Saoirse R. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg{sup -1} ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage.

  17. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  18. Differentiation of ovarian development and the evolution of fecundity in rapidly diverging exotic beetle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagno, Anna L M; Beckers, Oliver M; Moczek, Armin P

    2015-11-01

    Fecundity is a fundamental determinant of fitness, yet the proximate developmental and physiological mechanisms that enable its often rapid evolution in natural populations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated two populations of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus that were established in exotic ranges in the early 1970s. These populations are subject to drastically different levels of resource competition in the field, and have diverged dramatically in female fecundity. Specifically, Western Australian O. taurus experience high levels of resource competition, and exhibit greatly elevated reproductive output compared to beetles from the Eastern US, where resource competition is minimal and female fecundity is low. We compared patterns of ovarian maturation, relative investment into and timing of egg production, and potential trade-offs between ovarian investment and the duration of larval development and adult body size between populations representative of both exotic ranges. We found that the rapid divergence in fecundity between exotic populations is associated with striking differences in several aspects of ovarian development: (1) Western Australian females exhibit accelerated ovarian development, (2) produce more eggs, (3) bigger eggs, and (4) start laying eggs earlier compared to their Eastern US counterparts. At the same time, divergence in ovarian maturation patterns occurred alongside changes in (5) larval developmental time, and (6) adult body size, and (7) mass. Western Australian females take longer to complete larval development and, surprisingly, emerge into smaller yet heavier adults than size-matched Eastern US females. We discuss our results in the context of the evolutionary developmental biology of fecundity in exotic populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Methods for the examination of cattle, sheep and goat dung in prehistoric wetland settlements with examples of the sites Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen and Alleshausen-Grundwiesen (around cal 2900 BC) at Lake Federsee, south-west Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Marlu; Maier, Ursula; Herbig, Christoph; Ismail-Meyer, Kristin; Le Bailly,Matthieu; Wick, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    There has been evidence of dung in lakeside and moorland settlements since the beginning of wetland archaeology in the 19th century. While evidence has been found for the easily discernible faecal pellets of sheep and goats, recognition of cattle dung has proven to be considerably more difficult. In this study, we give an overview of evidence for dung remains in prehistoric wetland settlements in Germany, Switzerland and eastern France. Various methods for the analysis of uncharred dung remai...

  20. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  1. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  2. Modelling the Kinetics of Biogas Production from Mesophilic Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cow Dung with Plantain Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of plantain peels as co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of cow dung for efficient and high biogas production. The biogas experiments were carried out in two different 5 L anaerobic digesters and incubated for 40 days at ambient mesophilic temperatures (28 oC to 34 °C. The results showed that co-digestion of cow dung with plantain peels as co-substrate reduced start-up time for biogas generation and increased biogas yield by 18% as compared to cow dung alone. Peak biogas production was obtained for both digesters at pH of 6.7 and 6.9 as well as temperature of 29 and 30oC, respectively. Modelling study revealed that exponential plot simulated better in both ascending and descending limb than the linear plot the biogas production rates in biogas production from cow dung co-digested with plantain peels and cow dung alone, respectively. Logistic growth model and modified Gompertz plot showed better correlation of cumulative biogas production than exponential rise to maximum plot. These results show that biogas production can be enhanced efficiently through co-digestion process.

  3. A four-country ring test of nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on the function of coprophilous communities of arthropods in breaking down livestock dung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tixier, Thomas; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Lahr, Joost; Floate, Kevin; Scheffczyk, Adam; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Lumaret, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    By degrading the dung of livestock that graze on pastures, coprophilous arthropods accelerate the cycling of nutrients to maintain pasture quality. Many veterinary medicinal products, such as ivermectin, are excreted unchanged in the dung of treated livestock. These residues can be insecticidal a

  4. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  5. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  6. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  7. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-09-19

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production.

  8. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  9. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  10. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  11. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  12. APPROACHES TO ENGINEER STABILITY OF BEETLE LUCIFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  13. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  14. The Boron Isotopic Composition of Elephant Dung: Inputs to the Global Boron Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. B.; Hervig, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    A survey of boron in kerogen showed isotopically light δ11B values (0 to -50%) that are distinctly different from most mineral and natural water B reservoirs. Diagenesis releases this isotopically light B into pore fluids when hydrocarbons are generated, thus enriching oilfield brines in 10B. This observation suggests that borated biomolecules (BM) are primarily tetrahedral favoring 10B, whereas 11B is preferred in trigonal coordination. Plants, with optimal concentrations up to 100ppm, contribute more B than animal remains to sediment. Elephants are one of the largest herbivores on earth, consuming 200 - 250 kg of plant material/day and producing 50 kg of manure/day. They are inefficient at digestion, thus the manure contains >50% undigested plant material. Dung samples are therefore ideal for studying the δ11B of both the food input and digested output of a significant B supply to sedimentary systems. Horse and rabbit manure were studied for comparison to evaluate B isotope variations in the food supply and potential vital effects on the output. B-content and isotopic composition of dung plant material and digested fractions were measured in the solid state by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The digests were rinsed in 1.8% mannitol, a B-complexing agent, to remove surface adsorbed-B, then air dried and Au-coated for charge compensation. Results showed that the elephant diet contains 3-13 ppm B, with an average δ11B of -20 ± 0.8% (1σ), while rabbit food had 88 ppm B with a δ11B of -50 ± 1.3 %. The digested fraction of the elephant dung contains 4-10ppm B with average δ11B values of -12 ± 1.2%. In comparison, horse manure with 11-21 ppm B has a δ11B of -10.7 ± 0.5% and rabbit manure contains 2-3 ppm B with a δ11B of -8.8 ± 1%. Boron isotope compositions of these manures are indistinguishable (within error). Clearly plant material is a major contributor of isotopically light B to sediments. The herbivores studied fractionate their total B intake in

  15. Longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Majumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of longhorned beetles of Chhattisgarh state has been attempted for the first time resulting in the enumeration of 10 species belonging to 8 genera and 6 tribes under 2 subfamilies. The descriptions of these species and distribution in Chhattisgarh and India are provided. Being economically important, the present account on longhorned beetles is important as it might help the state forest authorities to adopt control measures to minimize damage caused by these insects.

  16. New longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent data (Ilić, 2005 indicate the presence of 245 longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Serbia. Not included in the mentioned publication, the following five species should be added to the list: Cortodera discolor Fairmaire, 1866; Stenopterus similatus Holzschuh 1979; Chlorophorus aegyptiacus (Fabricius, 1775; Agapanthia osmanlis (Reiche, 1858; Agapanthia maculicornis (Gyllenhal, 1817 (Pil and Stojanović in press. A total number of 250 species are presently known for the Serbian longhorn beetle fauna.

  17. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; A. O. Manzi; SOUZA, R. A. F. de; SCHUMACHER, C.; Wang, J.; ANDREAE, M.O.; H. M. J. Barbosa; Fan, J.; G. Fisch; Goldstein, A.H.; Guenther, A.; J. L. Jimenez; Pöschl, U.

    2016-01-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and ...

  18. A study on the electricity generation from cow dung using microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv K Bharadwaj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs use bacteria as biocatalyst to convert biodegradable substrates into electricity.  The natural cow dung was found more suitable as it generated 150.9 mV Open Circuit Voltage (OCV against 3.2 mV OCV generated by the sterile cow dung in       the H-shaped MFC.  On configuration, a MFC with 50 % cow dung and a salt bridge (5 cm × 2 cm containing a mixture of 10 % sodium chloride and 5 % agar, electrodes of 32.20 cm2 surface area and phenol red (0.1 % as exogenous mediator was found ideal. Furthermore, five electrogenic bacteria were isolated from the cow dung and individually studied for their electrogenic properties.  The bacterial isolate CD64 was found best among the isolates, as it generated 710.7 mV OCV at 37 ºC, pH 7.0 with LB medium as anolyte against vinegar as catholyte.  Based on the phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing, isolate CD64 was identified as Bacillus sp. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  20. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  1. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S. R.; Brown, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    BeetleBase () is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software component...

  2. Standardized laboratory tests with 21 species of temperate and tropical sepsid flies confirm their suitability as bioassays of pharmaceutical residues (ivermectin) in cattle dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals excreted in the dung of treated livestock can have strong non-target effects on the dung organism community. We report results of ecotoxicological tests with ivermectin for 21 species of temperate (Europe, North America) and tropical (Asia, Central America) black scavenger flies (Diptera: Sepsidae), using standardized methods developed previously for the yellow dung fly and the face fly. Our study documents great variation in ivermectin sensitivity of more than two orders of magnitude among species and even populations within species: estimated lethal effect concentrations LC(50) (at which 50% of the flies died) ranged from 0.05 to 18.55 μg/kg dung fresh weight (equivalent to 0.33-132.22 μg/kg dung dry weight). We also show that controlled laboratory tests can--within reasonable limits-be extended to the field or to laboratory settings without climate control, as obtained LC(50) were roughly similar. In addition to lethal effects, our study revealed relevant sub-lethal effects at lower ivermectin concentrations in terms of prolonged development, smaller body size and reduced juvenile growth rate. Finally, oviposition choice experiments showed that females generally do not discriminate against dung containing ivermectin residues. We conclude that sepsid flies are well suited test organisms for pharmaceutical residues in the dung of livestock due to their ease and speed of rearing and handling, particularly in the tropics, where high-tech laboratory equipment is often not available.

  3. Process optimization of biogas energy production from cow dung with alkali pre-treated coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvankumar, T; Sudhakar, C; Govindaraju, M; Selvam, K; Aroulmoji, V; Sivakumar, N; Govarthanan, M

    2017-08-01

    Biogas production from cow dung with co-substrate agricultural waste is one of the most demanding technologies for generating energy in a sustainable approach considering eco-friendly. In the present study, coffee pulp (CP) was pre-treated with 1% NaOH and combined with various proportions of cow dung (CD) to explore its biogas producing potentiality. The optimization of the process was studied using Response surface methodology. Statistics based on 3-D plots were generated to evaluate the changes in the response surface and to understand the relationship between the biogas yield and other parameters. The highest methane production (144 mL/kg) was achieved after 90 h of incubation with 1:3 of CP and CD at 40 °C. Gas chromatography analyzes the chemical compositions of the generated biogas and its post combustion emissions. The chemical composition of the substrates before digestion and after fermentation (biogas spent sludge) were measured in terms of fiber content and the values were noted as, total solids (0.53%), ash content (9.2%), volatile fatty acid (100 mg/L), organic carbon (46%) and a total carbohydrate (179 mg/g). The results of the optimization of biogas production presented in this work found to have significance with the process parameters. The outcome of the study has supported the fact of conventional combustion technology that has to be upgraded to prevent these hazardous emissions into the atmosphere.

  4. Composting of cow dung and crop residues using termite mounds as bulking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Das, Sampa; Boruah, R K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports the suitability of termite mounds as a bulking agent for composting with crop residues and cow dung in pit method. Use of 50 kg termite mound with the crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65 kg; soybean: 354.59 kg; potato: 357.67 kg and mustard: 373.19 kg) and cow dung (84.90 kg) formed a good quality compost within 70 days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 20.19, 3.78 and 32.77 g kg(-1) respectively with a bulk density of 0.85 g cm(-3). Other physico-chemical and germination parameters of the compost were within Indian standard, which had been confirmed by the application of multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate contrast analysis. Principal component analysis was applied in order to gain insight into the characteristic variables. Four composting treatments formed two different groups when hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fermentative bio-hydrogen production from cellulose by cow dung compost enriched cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Xu, Ji-Fei; Gao, Ling-Fang; Xin, Liang; Qiu, Jie; Su, Dong-Xia [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The performance of hydrogen production from cellulose by the cow dung compost enriched continuously in defined medium containing cellulose was investigated. In the initial experiments, batch-fermentation was carried out to observe the effects of different substrate concentration conditions on the rate of cellulose-degrading, growth of bacteria and the capability of hydrogen-producing from cellulose. The result showed that the cellulose degradation decreased from 55% at 5 g/l to 22% at 30 g/l. The maximum cumulative hydrogen production and the rate of hydrogen production first increased from 828 ml/l at 5 g/l to 1251 ml/l at 10 g/l then remained constant beyond 10 g/l. The maximum hydrogen production potential, the rate of hydrogen production and the yield of hydrogen was 1525 ml/l, 33 ml/l.h, and 272 ml/g-cellulose (2.09 mol/mol-hexose) was obtained at substrate concentration 10 g/l, the hydrogen concentration in biogas was 47-50%(v/v) and there was no methane observed. During the conversion of cellulose into hydrogen, acetate and butyrate were main liquid end-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. These results proposed that cow dung compost enriched cultures were ideal microflora for hydrogen production from cellulose. (author)

  6. Dividing the pie: differential dung pat size utilization by sympatric Haematobia irritans and Musca autumnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, F E; Mullens, B A

    2016-06-01

    Horn flies [Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) (L.)] and face flies [Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) De Geer] use the same larval resource, but their interactions are poorly studied. Dung pats (n = 350) were core sampled in the summers of 2012 and 2013 from irrigated pastures in Pomona, California, U.S.A. (34°03'N, 117°48'W) and held for face fly and horn fly emergence. Surface areas and estimated weights were recorded for each whole pat. Almost half (42.0%) of the pat cores yielded neither fly, 29.7% yielded horn flies only, 12.9% yielded face flies only and 15.4% yielded both flies. Of the fly-positive pats, surface area and mass were larger for face fly-occupied pats, whereas horn fly-occupied pats were smaller. Pats shared by the two species were intermediate. Horn flies per positive core were unaffected by the absence/presence of face flies, but half as many face flies emerged when pats were co-inhabited by horn flies. Face flies inhabited larger pats, which might better resist heating and drying, to which they are susceptible; horn flies inhabited a broad pat size range. Horn fly tolerance of lower dung moisture probably allows horn flies to colonize and survive in a wide range of pats in dry areas like southern California.

  7. Biohydrogen Production from Xylose by Aanaerobic Mixed Cultures in Elephant Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha FIALA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylose was used to produce hydrogen by anaerobic mixed cultures in elephant dung. The elephant dung was subjected to heat shock (90 ºC for 3 h and acid (pH 3.0 - 4.0 for 24 h followed by neutralization pretreatments before using it as a seed inoculum. The results showed that the seed inoculum pretreatment by heat shock produced higher hydrogen gas than acid seed inoculum pretreatment, while untreated seed inoculum gave the lowest hydrogen production. Therefore, seed inoculum by heat shock was suitable for hydrogen production from xylose, arabinose and glucose. It was found that xylose was a preferred pentose sugar for hydrogen production, in which the results were comparable to those of glucose. The initial pH of 8.0 was found to be optimal for hydrogen production from xylose, in which a maximum hydrogen production of 371 mL H2/g VSS and a yield of 1.62 mol H2/mol xylose were obtained. Microbial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed that, under the optimum initial pH of 8.0, the predominant hydrogen producers were Clostridium acetobutylicum and Ethanoligenens sp. In addition, lactic acid bacteria i.e. Bifidobacterium minimum and Bifidobacterium sp. were observed, which coincided with the small amount of lactic acid detected at this optimum initial pH.

  8. Anaerobic Biodegradability and Methane Potential of Crop Residue Co-Digested with Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System. The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids, ultimate analysis (CHONS, pH and TA (Total Alkalinity. The BMPobserved during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37±0.2°C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVSadd for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH4/gVSadd for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH4/gVSadd for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane

  9. Aquatic beetle species and their distributions in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; JIA Feng-long; Tursun Dilbar; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2009-01-01

    The species of aquatic beetles and their distributions in lotic and lentic habitats were investigated during July to August of 2005 and 2006 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. A total of 66 species belonging to 7 beetle families (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Noteridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae) are recorded, of which 16 are new records of aquatic beetles for China.

  10. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  11. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  12. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  13. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  14. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  15. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  16. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

    2015-03-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

  17. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  18. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Todd

    This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

  19. Compositional and functional features of humic acid-like fractions from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing Meiyan, E-mail: xmy5000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yang Jian; Huang Zhidong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The chemical changes occurring in five different substrates of sewage sludge spiked with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 90 days were investigated. Their humic acid-like (HAL) fractions were isolated to determine the elemental and functional composition, and structural and functional characteristics using ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and fluorescence spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. After vermicomposting, the total organic C and C/N ratio decreased, and the total extractable C and humic acid (HA) C increased in all substrates. In the HAL fractions, the C and H contents, C/N and C/O and aliphatic structures, proteinaceous components and carbohydrates decreased, while the O and N and acidic functional group contents and C/H ratio, aromaticity and polycondensation structures increased. Further, the results suggest that the addition of cow dung to sewage sludge could improve the quality of organic matter humification of the substrates. The structures of HAL fractions in vermicomposts resembled those typical of soil HA, especially the vermicompost of cow dung alone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of HAL fraction in final product became close-grained and lumpy. Overall results indicate that vermicomposting was an efficient technology for promoting organic matter (OM) humification in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, improving their quality and environmental safety as a soil OM resource for utilization as soil amendments.

  20. Dung-inhabiting fungi: a potential reservoir of novel secondary metabolites for the control of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrocco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Coprophilous fungi are a large group of saprotrophic fungi mostly found in herbivore dung. The number of these fungi undergoing investigation is continually increasing, and new species and genera continue to be described. Dung-inhabiting fungi play an important ecological role in decomposing and recycling nutrients from animal dung. They produce a large array of bioactive secondary metabolites and have a potent enzymatic arsenal able to utilise even complex molecules. Bioactive secondary metabolites are actively involved in interaction with and defence against other organisms whose growth can be inhibited, resulting in an enhanced ecological fitness of producer strains. Currently, these antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites are of interest in medicine in particular, while very little information is available concerning their potential use in agriculture. This review introduces the ecology of dung-inhabiting fungi, with particular emphasis on the production of antibiotic compounds as a means to compete with other microorganisms. Owing to the fast pace of technological progress, new approaches to predicting the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites are proposed. Coprophilous fungi should be considered as elite candidate organisms for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, above all in view of their exploitation for crop protection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on earthworms and springtails dwelling beneath dung of treated cattle in four countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffczyk, Adam; Floate, Kevin D.; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Klockner, Andrea; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Salamon, Jörg Alfred; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The authorization of veterinary medicinal products requires that they be assessed for nontarget effects in the environment. Numerous field studies have assessed these effects on dung organisms. However, few studies have examined effects on soil-dwelling organisms, which might be exposed to veteri

  2. Functions of extensive animal dung ‘‘pavements’’ around the nests of the Black Lark (Melanocorypha yeltoniensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijen, T.P.M.; Lameris, T.; Kamp, van der J.; Pulikova, G.; Urazaliev, R.; Kleijn, D.; Donald, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to assess the possible functional significance of the often extensive ‘‘pavements’’ of livestock dung constructed by female Black Larks (Melanocorypha yeltoniensis) around their nests. These pavements are conspicuous to human observers, suggesting th

  3. Cow dung extract: a medium for the growth of pseudomonads enhancing their efficiency as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Aragno, Michel; Sharma, A K

    2010-09-01

    Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like King's B and used for inoculation on seeds/soil drench with talcum or charcoal as carrier material. Cow dung is being used for different purposes from the ancient time and has a significant role in crop growth because of the content in humic compounds and fertilizing bioelements available in it. Here, cow dung extract was tested as a growth medium for strains LHRE62 and HHRE81, in comparison with growth in King's B medium. The log phase was delayed by 2 h as compared to growth in King's B medium. The bacterial growth yield, lower in plain cow dung extract as compared to King's B medium, was improved upon addition of different carbon substrates. Growth of rice var. Pant Dhan 4 in pot cultures was increased using liquid formulation of cow dung extract and bacteria as foliar spray, compared to their respective controls. Biocontrol efficacy of the bioagents was assessed by challenging rice crop with Rhizoctonia solani, a sheath blight pathogen. The growth promotion and biocontrol efficiencies were more pronounced in the case of mixed inocula of strains LHRE62 and HHRE81.

  4. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  5. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  6. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  7. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  8. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleska, Scott R; Didan, Kamel; Huete, Alfredo R; da Rocha, Humberto R

    2007-10-26

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models suggest that Amazon forests are vulnerable to both long- and short-term droughts, but satellite observations showed a large-scale photosynthetic green-up in intact evergreen forests of the Amazon in response to a short, intense drought in 2005. These findings suggest that Amazon forests, although threatened by human-caused deforestation and fire and possibly by more severe long-term droughts, may be more resilient to climate changes than ecosystem models assume.

  9. Changes with time after treatment in the concentrations of ivermectin in fresh cow dung and in cow pats aged in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C; Steffansen, B

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure for detection of ivermectin in plasma samples was modified and used for measuring ivermectin concentrations in dung samples. The residues were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection after extraction, purification, and derivatization...

  10. Microbe inhibition by Tribolium flour beetles varies with beetle species, strain, sex, and microbe group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendeville, Holly R; Stevens, Lori

    2002-06-01

    Tribolium flour beetles produce defensive compounds, including quinones, putatively aimed at deterring predators and inhibiting microbes. Here we examine how effective the defensive secretions of Tribolium confusum and T. castaneum are at inhibiting growth of various microbes and how this varies with species, geographic strain, and sex of the beetles. We explore differences at both the kingdom and species level of common flour microbes in their susceptibility to defensive compounds. Beetle species and strains vary in their ability to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, microbes vary in their sensitivity to the beetles' defense compounds. The capability to suppress microbial growth is likely under stabilizing selection with optimum quinone production varying among populations and may be dependent on several environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and predators.

  11. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis spec

  12. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  13. [Pollination ecology of three sympatric species of Oenocarpus (Arecaceae) in the Colombian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez A, Luis Alberto; Isaza, Carolina; Galeano, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of pollination mechanisms is vital for developing management and conservation actions of economically important species. In order to understand the pollination mechanisms of the promising palms in the genus Oenocarpus (Arecaceae), we studied floral morphology and biology, of three sympatric species in the Colombian Amazon: O. bataua, O. balickii and O. minor. During the period 2010-2012 we made direct and continuous observations of inflorescences (visitors, pollinators, and reproductive success) of the three species in every development phase. We determined the association of the palms with their floral visitors through a complex or interaction network, whereas specificity or preference of the insects for each individual palm was assessed through paired similarity analysis, similarity analysis (ANOSIM), and ordering analysis based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMSD). The three species flowered throughout the year; their inflorescences have long rachillae that hang close to each other from a short rachis, and they bear flowers in dyads or triads. Inflorescences are protandrous, thermogenic; anthesis takes place during daytime but pollination is nocturnal. We recorded 79 species of insects, mainly beetles, 33 of which visited O. balickii, 63 visited O. bataua, and 33 visited 0. minor. Although they shared some visitors, their abundance during the pistillate phase, as well as their pollen loads showed that only a few species of Curculionidae and Nitidulidae are the principal pollinators of the three studied species. Differences in network structure between staminate and pistillate phases, as well as difference in abundance found with the ANOSIM and NMSD similarity tests, suggest a high specificity of pollinators, leading to reproductive isolation among.the three species. Because all pollinating beetles were found to develop their life cycles within the inflorescences, we hypothesize the occurrence of a specialized system of mutual dependence

  14. Priming of soil carbon decomposition in two Inner Mongolia grassland soils following sheep dung addition: a study using ¹³C natural abundance approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of sheep dung on soil carbon (C sequestration, a 152 days incubation experiment was conducted with soils from two different Inner Mongolian grasslands, i.e. a Leymus chinensis dominated grassland representing the climax community (2.1% organic matter content and a heavily degraded Artemisia frigida dominated community (1.3% organic matter content. Dung was collected from sheep either fed on L. chinensis (C3 plant with δ¹³C = -26.8‰; dung δ¹³C = -26.2‰ or Cleistogenes squarrosa (C₄ plant with δ¹³C = -14.6‰; dung δ¹³C = -15.7‰. Fresh C₃ and C₄ sheep dung was mixed with the two grassland soils and incubated under controlled conditions for analysis of ¹³C-CO₂ emissions. Soil samples were taken at days 17, 43, 86, 127 and 152 after sheep dung addition to detect the δ¹³C signal in soil and dung components. Analysis revealed that 16.9% and 16.6% of the sheep dung C had decomposed, of which 3.5% and 2.8% was sequestrated in the soils of L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands, respectively, while the remaining decomposed sheep dung was emitted as CO₂. The cumulative amounts of C respired from dung treated soils during 152 days were 7-8 times higher than in the un-amended controls. In both grassland soils, ca. 60% of the evolved CO₂ originated from the decomposing sheep dung and 40% from the native soil C. Priming effects of soil C decomposition were observed in both soils, i.e. 1.4 g and 1.6 g additional soil C kg⁻¹ dry soil had been emitted as CO₂ for the L. chinensis and A. frigida soils, respectively. Hence, the net C losses from L. chinensis and A. frigida soils were 0.6 g and 0.9 g C kg⁻¹ soil, which was 2.6% and 7.0% of the total C in L. chinensis and A. frigida grasslands soils, respectively. Our results suggest that grazing of degraded Inner Mongolian pastures may cause a net soil C loss due to the positive priming effect, thereby accelerating soil

  15. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A [CPTEC, INPE, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil); Subramaniam, Ajit [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Mariotti, Annarita [Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Neelin, J David [Department Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: zeng@atmos.umd.edu

    2008-01-15

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest.

  16. Species of Spalangia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae collected from buffalo dung in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. V. Milhomem

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of determining the species of Spalangia in pupae of muscoid Diptera present in buffalo dung, collected in the municipality of Itumbiara, GO, from May to December 2003. The dipterous pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 2.59%. The prevalences of parasitism presented by the parasitoid species Spalangia cameroni (Perkins, Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead, Spalangia endius (Walker, Spalangia nigra (Letraille and Spalangia nigroaenea (Curtis were 0.53%, 1.37%, 0.15%, 0.04% and 0.49%, respectively.

  17. Biohydrogen-production from beer lees biomass by cow dung compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yao-Ting; Zhang, Gao-Sheng; Xing, Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Guo, Xin-Yong [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475001 (China); Fan, Mao-Hong [Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Efficient conversion of beer lees wastes into biohydrogen gas by microorganisms was reported for the first time. Batch tests were carried out to analyze influences of several environmental factors on yield of H{sub 2} from beer lees wastes. The maximum yield of H{sub 2} 68.6mlH{sub 2}/g TVS was observed, the value is about 10-fold as compared with that of raw beer lees wastes. The hydrogen content in the biogas was more than 45% and there was no significant methane observed in this study. In addition, biodegradation characteristics of the substrate were also discussed. The results indicated that the HCl pretreatment of the substrate plays a key role in the conversion of the beer lees wastes into biohydrogen by the cow dung composts. (author)

  18. Ecology and Population Dynamics of Juvenile Dungeness Crab in Grays Harbor Estuary and Adjacent Nearshore Waters of the Southern Washington Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    132 ii LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1. Temporal range of occurrence of laral Dungeness crab...1986 there was no major crab settlement observed on the outer coast between Bodega Bay, California and Tofino, B.C. From May to July, sustained...Dungeness crab occur nearshore of San Francisco Bay and north to Bodega Bay in early May in accord with evidence of timing of occurrence in the same

  19. Rapid recovery of Dungeness crab within spatial fishery closures declared under indigenous law in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Frid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s constitution grants indigenous people priority access to marine resources, yet indigenous, commercial and recreational fishers target the same species. Avoiding conflict between different users, therefore, requires evidence-based policies that manage fisheries for conservation while respecting indigenous rights. From 2006 to 2015, Canada’s Conservative government demoted the role of science in resource management, stifling research by federal agencies like Fisheries and Oceans Canada. To address ensuing data gaps, during 2014–2015 the Heiltsuk, Kitasoo/Xai’Xais, Nuxalk, and Wuikinuxv First Nations conducted coordinated research on Dungeness crab (Cancer magister, a culturally-significant resource. These indigenous groups are experiencing declining catch rates of Dungeness crab and postulate that commercial and recreational fisheries are primary causes of local declines. Accordingly, they applied indigenous laws and declared spatial fishery closures for commercial and recreational fishers at 10 sites (closed while allowing exploitation by all users to continue at 10 other sites (open. Sampling occurred repeatedly over time and analyses compared temporal trends in population characteristics between closed and open sites. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that fisheries decrease the abundance and size of exploited species, but spatial protection can reverse these effects. The body size and catch-per-unit effort of legal-sized males increased over time at closed sites but declined at open sites. Importantly, fishery status did not affect temporal changes in the relative abundance of unfished classes of crab–sublegal males and females–which is logically consistent with the hypothesis. Our study demonstrates that indigenous governance can create spatial closures for conservation and research when Canada’s government fails to do so. Long-term solutions, however, require collaboration in research and management between

  20. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  1. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  2. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  3. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  4. Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Oliver L.; Aragao, Luiz; Lewis, Simon L.; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, J.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; Malhi, Y; A. Monteagudo; J. Peacock; Quesada, C.A.; Van Der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, S; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed wh...

  5. Levels of Germinable Seed in Topsoil and Yak Dung on an Alpine Meadow on the North-East Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-jun; XU Chang-lin; WANG Fang; SHANG Zhan-huan; LONG Rui-jun

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the interactive mechanism between grazing yak and alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, our study assessed seed density (by species) in the topsoil of alpine meadow with different grazing intensities in the Tianzhu area, north-eastern margins of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and their rates of occurrence in yak dung. Seed density in the topsoil of the lightly grazed, moderately grazed, heavily grazed and extremely grazed alpine meadows in November, 2010 were 1551, 1692, 2660 and 1830 grains m-2,while in the same meadows in April, 2011 densities were 1530, 2404, 2530 and 2692 grains m-2, respectively. In the cold season pasture, mean seed density in yak dung from November to April in the lightly grazed, moderately grazed, heavily grazed and extremely grazed sites were 121, 127, 187, and 120 grains kg-1 of dry yak dung. The proportion of total seed numbers in yak dung to soil seed bank in lightly grazed, moderately grazed, heavily grazed and extremely grazed alpine meadow was 1.40, 2.62, 0.69, and 0.90%. 12 species out of the 47 were not found in topsoil but were found in yak dung, 10 species out of 45 were not found in yak dung but were found in the topsoil. Endozoochorous dispersal by yaks is therefore very important for soil seed bank and plant biodiversity and population dynamics in alpine meadows.

  6. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution. Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. The water table can potentially sustain a capillary flux of >2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  7. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  8. Tenebrionid Beetles of the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzi, Giorgio

    1962-01-01

    The present paper deals with the results of my investigations regarding the tenebrionid beetles of the Antilles, north of Trinidad. For this work, use has been made of the magnificent collections assembled by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, of a number of specimens gathered by Dr. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY as

  9. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  10. Isolation of pristionchus nematodes from beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Robbie; Schlager, Benjamin; Sommer, Ralf J

    2008-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn this procedure, nematodes disembark from a beetle carcass and feed on Escherichia coli OP50. The nematodes are then monitored for a few days and identified using simple morphological characteristics. This method is rapid, easy, and biased for Pristionchus species.

  11. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  12. The Japanese jewel beetle : a painter's challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, F.; Wilts, B.D.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible

  13. The Japanese jewel beetle : a painter's challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, F.; Wilts, B.D.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour

  14. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  15. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  16. Finding refuge: the estuarine distribution of the nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans on the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Young, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Parasites can significantly impact ecosystems by altering the distributions and population sizes of their host organisms. Some hosts are thought to find refuge from parasitism by entering habitats where their parasites cannot survive. The nemertean worm Carcinonemertes errans is an egg predator...... that infects the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, throughout the host’s range. To determine if C. magister experiences a refuge from C. errans within estuarine environments, we examined the distribution of C. errans on Dungeness crabs within Oregon’s Coos Bay Estuary. Year-round sampling over a three......-year period also allowed us to test for temporal variation in the parasite’s distribution.We found that parasite prevalence, mean intensity, and parasite density of C. errans infecting C. magister varied along a clear estuarine gradient, with crabs nearest the ocean carrying the heaviest parasite loads...

  17. A comparison of dung beetle assemblage structure (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae between an Atlantic forest fragment and adjacent abandoned pasture in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Mata dos Godoy State Park in Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. Baited pitfall traps were installed in the forest, in adjacent abandoned pasture land, and on the borders between these two environments. Every two weeks, from June 1999 to May 2000, the traps were placed for 24 hours and the material was collected every 12 hours. The 4687 specimens of Scarabaeinae collected belong to 13 genera and 27 species. The most frequent species were Onthophagus catharinensis (Paulian, 1936 (22.1%, Onthophagus hirculus (Mannerhein, 1829 (20.1%, Dichotomius mormon (Ljungh, 1799 (13.1%, Sulcophanaeus menelas (Laporte, 1840 (12.8%, and Eurystemus parallelus (Dalman, 1824 (10.6%. The other species collected amounted to less than 4.7%. The difference in numbers of specimens collected in the three environments was not significant (K(2.72 = 0.63, p = 0.729. The distribution patterns of species composition for the different environments (ANOSIM R = 0.29, p < 0.01 and activity periods (ANOSIM R = 0.18, p < 0.01 were different. Sulcophanaeus menelas, Canthidium aff. trinodosum, O. hirculus, and E. parallelus were the most abundant species, being predominantly diurnal; the first three species were more active on abandoned pasture. Most of the Dichothomius assifer (Eschscholtz, 1822 and D. mormon specimens were captured at night. The latter species was the most abundant in edges, whereas D. assifer, Scybalochantum aff. zischkai, and O. catharinensis can be considered bioindicators because they were either exclusively or highly predominant in the best preserved areas. A larger number of individuals was observed from December 1999 through March 2000, which is the time of the year when adults of Scarabaeinae normally emerge and fly, in the studied region. The highest diversity (88.89% was observed in February.

  18. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  19. Geographical variation in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from stool, cow-dung and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-03-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children's stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18-8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59-8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00-14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39-4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36-7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12-4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06-7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region.

  20. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households and coastal (187 households regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696 to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83. Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01, cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002 and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049 were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002 and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008 as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022 and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036 were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region.

  1. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of 1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. THE EFFECT OF NATURAL WATER WITH COW DUNG AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE RATIO ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaponKeanoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused by energy generation from fossil fuel has accelerated the deployment of renewable fuels such as biogas. In this study, batch fermentation (5L was studied to observe the effect of natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio on the biogas and methane production at ambient temperature (31°C, 7.1-7.4 of pH for 52 days. The five types of co-digestion were 2:1:1:1 (digester A, 1:1:1:1 (digester B, 0.5:1:1:1 (digester C, 1:1:1:0 (digester D and 1:1:0:1 (digester E, respectively. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively with amount of natural water to raw material. The maximum biogas production and methane concentration was 1650 mL/days and 61.47% was obtained at substrate mixture 2:1:1:1 (digester A, which there are suitable of C:N ratio at 31.1:1. Natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth was mixed for biogas production, have been found to improve highest biogas production compared to those of without rice straw and water hyacinth. Therefore, the mixing natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth can improve both biogas production and content of methane in biogas.

  3. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  4. Experimental studies on effect of cow dung ash (pozzolanic binder) and coconut fiber on strengthproperties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, C.; Muthu, D.; Aswini, G.; Nandhini, G.; Muhilini, K.

    2017-07-01

    The studies on durability of concrete have attracted attention in the recent years and its long term strength depends on quality of ingredients used in production of concrete. Now a days, the availability of ingredients is limited and in order to overcome this problem, research studies focuses on some alternate materials in the concrete production process. Also, Incorporation of waste materials consumes less energy leading to reduction of emission of green house gases. The application of fly ash and cow dung ash as a pozzolanic binder instead of cement and coir fibers finds extensive application in the manufacturing process of building materials. In this project an attempt has been made to utilize cow dung ash and coconut fiber as a replacement material of cement in the production of concrete. The cement is partially replaced with cow dung ash by about 2.5, 3 & 3.5 % by weight and with 1% of coconut fiber. The Compressive and Tensile strengths of concrete were found at different curing periods (7,14 & 28 days). From this study, it is inferred that these replacements will have a reasonable improvement in the strength properties of concrete by about 55-70%. The substitution of CDA, CF is economical in terms of cost and this usage eliminates the problem of landfills, reducing the environmental risk, maintaining the ecological balance, which is very much required for our nation.

  5. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment.

  6. Explaining the saproxylic beetle diversity of a protected Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Micó, Estefanía; García López, Alejandra; Brustel, Hervé; Padilla, Ascension; Galante, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Saproxylic beetle diversity is high at the Cabañeros National Park (central Spain), where woodland habitats exhibit remarkable heterogeneity. Our aim was to explain the diversity of saproxylic beetles, focusing on species turnover among mature woodland types. We surveyed five woodland types that represented the heterogeneity of the park’s woodland habitats. Beetles were collected using window traps over a period of 20 months. The Jaccard Similarity Index was used as indirect value of beta div...

  7. Disruption of hydroecological equilibrium in southwest Amazon mediated by drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Kim, Hyungjun; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Oki, Taikan

    2015-09-01

    The impacts of droughts on the Amazon ecosystem have been broadly discussed in recent years, but a comprehensive understanding of the consequences is still missing. In this study, we show evidence of a fragile hydrological equilibrium in the western Amazon. While drainage systems located near the equator and the western Amazon do not show water deficit in years with average climate conditions, this equilibrium can be broken during drought events. More importantly, we show that this effect is persistent, taking years until the normal hydrological patterns are reestablished. We show clear links between persistent changes in forest canopy structure and changes in hydrological patterns, revealing physical evidence of hydrological mechanisms that may lead to permanent changes in parts of the Amazon ecosystem. If prospects of increasing drought frequency are confirmed, a change in the current hydroecological patterns in the western Amazon could take place in less than a decade.

  8. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of har

  9. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (δ 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (δ 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ŧ = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using Δ 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil δ 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and

  10. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles.

  11. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  12. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  13. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N. Avtzis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi. Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava. A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel

  14. Variations in soil properties, species composition, diversity and biomass of herbaceous species due to ruminant dung residue in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Verma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants directly or indirectly influence nutrient cycling and vegetation structure in grassland ecosystems. We assessed the impact of natural cattle dung deposition on soil attributes and the resulting effects on species composition, species diversity and biomass of herbaceous vegetation in a natural grassland in the seasonally dry tropical environment of Banaras Hindu University, India. For this 72 plots of 1 × 1 m [12 locations × 2 treatments (dung residue and control × 3 replicates] were selected in January 2013 and soil and vegetation samples collected. A total of 74 species belonging to 66 genera and 25 families were recorded. Principal Component Analysis (PCA ordination revealed that the dung residue (DP and control (CP plots were distinctly different in terms of soil attributes and species composition. The k-dominance plot showed greater species diversity in DPs than CPs, with higher soil nutrients and moisture and lower soil pH in DPs than CPs. Similarly, DPs showed more herbaceous species and greater biomass than CPs. This trend can be explained by the positive responses of forbs, erect plants, annuals, large-statured, non-native and non-leguminous species to dung residue, while increased biomass can be partly due to cattle preferentially not grazing areas adjacent to a dung pat. Overall, the study showed that deposition of dung during grazing by cattle stimulates growth of pasture species and increases species diversity. Therefore cattle dung could be used as a sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers to manage soil pH, species composition and diversity, and forage production in the seasonally dry tropical grasslands of India, which are nutrient- and moisture-limited.Keywords: Animal manure, herbaceous vegetation, plant functional attributes, soil pH, species change.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3112-128 

  15. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  16. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  17. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Brosius, Tierney R.; Higley, Leon G.

    2013-01-01

    How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and theref...

  18. Green ambrosia for Soil- Dry Cow Dung Powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    "Greener ambrosia for Soil - Dry cow dung powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy" Pedosphere, the soil with its biotic and abiotic component, is produced by lithosphere`s interactions with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The theory of Biorhexistasy proposed by pedologist H. Erhart [1], describes two crucial climatic phases of soil i.e. Biostasy, period of soil formation and Rhexistasy, periods of soil erosion. Humus, the organic matter in soil, permits better aeration, enhances the absorption and releases nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to leaching and erosion [2], thus the agent of soil`s vitality. Mismanagement of soil, leads to the degradation of millions of acres of land through erosion, compaction, salinization and acidification. Among these threats salinity is a major abiotic stress reducing the yield of wide variety of crops all over the world [3]. It is been proved that Humic Acid (HA) treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of salt stress by increasing root growth, altering mineral uptake, and decreasing membrane damage, thus inducing salt tolerance in plants [4]. HA can be inexpensively incorporated into soils via different biowastes. Dry cow dung powder (DCP), is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as HA, Fulvic Acid (FA) etc [5]. The microbial consortium enables DCP with considerable potentials for biodegradation and biotransformation of even saline soil and further contributes to many biogeochemical processes, boosting humus content of soil. Due to unambiguous biological, microbiological as well as chemical inert properties of DCP, it has been successfully utilized as a fertilizer and soil conditioner since ages in India, one of the leading agrarian countries of the world. Thus we summarize that DCP is one of the best contenders for the biostasy and desaliner of soil, aptly, soil

  19. Impacts to Dungeness Crab from the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.

    2005-11-09

    The Benson Beach littoral drift restoration project is a demonstration project that will replenish sand on Benson Beach, the public beach north of the North Jetty at the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR), using material dredged from the river during normal maintenance dredging of the navigational channel. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) proposal involves pumping the material from a sump area on the south side of the jetty to Benson Beach using a cutter suction dredge, also known as a pipeline dredge. If this one-time demonstration project proves feasible and successful, up to a million cubic yards of sediment could be used to replenish the outer coast littoral drift system in successive years by the same process. The primary goal of this study was to assess the potential risk of impacts to Dungeness crab from the proposed Benson Beach littoral drift restoration process of using the cutter suction dredge to move sediment from the proposed sump area on one side of the North Jetty to the beach on the other side of the jetty. Because there are no direct measurements of crab entrainment by pipeline dredge operating outside of the lower Columbia River navigation channel, dredge impacts for the proposed demonstration project were estimated using a modification of the dredge impact model (DIM) of Armstrong et al. (1987). The model estimates adult equivalent loss (AEL) of crabs using crab population density from trawl surveys, dredge project information (gear type, season, location, volume), and an entrainment function relating crab population density to entrainment by the dredge. The input used in applying the DIM to the Benson Beach littoral drift restoration included the specific dredging scenario provided by the Corps, existing data on crab density in previously proposed sump areas, and a series of entrainment functions. A total of fourteen scenarios were modeled and the outcomes compared with six reference scenarios intended to represent realistic to worst cases

  20. Impacts to Dungeness Crab from the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.

    2005-11-09

    The Benson Beach littoral drift restoration project is a demonstration project that will replenish sand on Benson Beach, the public beach north of the North Jetty at the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR), using material dredged from the river during normal maintenance dredging of the navigational channel. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) proposal involves pumping the material from a sump area on the south side of the jetty to Benson Beach using a cutter suction dredge, also known as a pipeline dredge. If this one-time demonstration project proves feasible and successful, up to a million cubic yards of sediment could be used to replenish the outer coast littoral drift system in successive years by the same process. The primary goal of this study was to assess the potential risk of impacts to Dungeness crab from the proposed Benson Beach littoral drift restoration process of using the cutter suction dredge to move sediment from the proposed sump area on one side of the North Jetty to the beach on the other side of the jetty. Because there are no direct measurements of crab entrainment by pipeline dredge operating outside of the lower Columbia River navigation channel, dredge impacts for the proposed demonstration project were estimated using a modification of the dredge impact model (DIM) of Armstrong et al. (1987). The model estimates adult equivalent loss (AEL) of crabs using crab population density from trawl surveys, dredge project information (gear type, season, location, volume), and an entrainment function relating crab population density to entrainment by the dredge. The input used in applying the DIM to the Benson Beach littoral drift restoration included the specific dredging scenario provided by the Corps, existing data on crab density in previously proposed sump areas, and a series of entrainment functions. A total of fourteen scenarios were modeled and the outcomes compared with six reference scenarios intended to represent realistic to worst cases

  1. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  2. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  3. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  4. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera) of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh; TIRGARI, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids ar...

  5. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  6. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  7. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  8. A cost of cryptic female choice in the yellow dung fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul I; Wilson, Alastair J; Reim, Constanze

    2008-09-01

    Female dung flies Scathophaga stercoraria (L.) store sperm from several males in three or four spermathecae. Selection on the number of spermathecae was successful and the morphological intermediate stages in the evolution from three to four spermathecae are illustrated. The genetic quality of a male from a female's perspective depends on an interaction between their genotypes and the microhabitat in which the offspring will grow. Females influence the paternity pattern of their offspring, and do this differently in different microhabitats. Females with four spermathecae are better able to influence paternity than are those with three spermathecae. However, there must be a cost to building and maintaining an extra spermatheca. We estimate, using the animal model on pedigree data, that this cost is approximately five eggs per clutch, i.e. around 8% of the mean clutch size. This is a substantial cost and such costs should not be ignored in discussions of the benefits to females of assessing the genetic qualities of their mating partners. We suggest that the number of spermathecae in the study population is stable because the relative benefits in quality of offspring through cryptic female choice is balanced by the costs in total numbers of offspring.

  9. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Digester Size on Biogas Production from Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental investigation on the effect of digester size on biogas production. Experiments were carried out to produce biogas from different sizes of digester. 1.4 kg of cow dung was used to carry out the experiments. The temperature throughout the period of experimentation was within ambient temperature of 250C to 350C. It was observed that the pH values of the Digesters fluctuate between 5.4 and 7.6. This may be due to the activities of acid. Digesters A, B, C, D and E, with volumes of 250 ml, 500ml, 1000ml, 2000ml and 3000ml, produced a total biogas of 625 cm3 , 715cm3 , 1635cm3 , 2082cm3 and 2154cm3 respectively. Digester size is an important factor which has a direct effect on the quantity of gas produced. For the total biogas produced per litre of digester size, Digesters A, B, C, D and E, produces 2500 cm 3 l -1 , 1430 cm 3 l - 1 , 1635 cm 3 l -1 , 1041 cm 3 l -1 and 718 cm 3 l -1 respectively.

  10. Evolution of composition of dairy manure supernatant in a controlled dung pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, C; García, H; Rico, J L; Fernández, J; Renedo, J

    2009-12-01

    Anaerobic conversion of dairy manure into biogas is an attractive way of managing this waste. It is well known that the hydrolysis of large molecules into small, directly biodegradable ones is the rate limiting step of the overall anaerobic process. The present work studies the development of the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages of dairy manure with different solid concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g VS/L) at ambient temperature (20 degrees C). The purpose was to determine the operational conditions that provide a liquid fraction with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a high volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in manure before the methanogenic stage starts up. At 20 degrees C, the evolution of the studied parameters showed that, in a controlled plug-flow dung pit, the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages progressed moderately in a continuous way during the 25 days that the experimentation lasted, whereas no methanization was observed. Supernatant COD and VFA concentrations increased 30% and 107%, respectively, for the 60 g VS/L samples. Manure was also operated at 35 degrees C with a similar increase in supernatant COD but a higher increase in VFA, 154%. For both operational temperatures, the predominant VFAs were, in this order, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. During the operation at 35 degrees C, the methanogenic stage started between days 20 and 25 for the samples with lower solids content, i.e. 40 and 60 g VS/L.

  11. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Isolation and evaluation of a high H{sub 2}-producing lab isolate from cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Anjana; Sinha, Pallavi [Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India)

    2009-09-15

    Hydrogen producing bacterial strain was isolated from Indian cow dung and identified of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae. This lab isolate was differentiated from Citrobacter Y-19 at molecular level by using RAPD, PCR based technique, and OPO-03{sub 460} and OPO-17{sub 800} RAPD marker for this specific strain (lab isolate) was identified. Fermentative studies were investigated for important parameters, starting with pH of the culture, temperature, inoculum age and inoculum volume, initial substrate concentration and different substrates. Among different substrates, dextrose and sucrose were the preferred substrates for hydrogen production. The optimal starting pH of the culture was found to be 5.0. The H{sub 2} production increased with increase in temperature up to 30 C. The maximum value of H{sub 2} production was recorded when inoculum volume was 12.5% of the culture broth and inoculum age was 14 h. Under batch fermentation conditions, the maximum hydrogen production rate and yield were 355.2 ml l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 2.1 mol/mol glucose (conversion 35%), respectively. These results indicate that this lab isolate is an ideal hydrogen producer. (author)

  13. Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Dredging For The Columbia River Channel Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2002-12-01

    The studies reported here focus on issues regarding the entrainment of Dungeness crab related to the proposed Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and provided direct measurements of crab entrainment rates at three locations (Desdomona Shoals, Upper Sands, and Miller Sands) from RM4 to RM24 during summer 2002. Entrainment rates for all age classes of crabs ranged from zero at Miller Sands to 0.224 crabs per cy at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002. The overall entrainment rate at Desdomona Shoals in September was 0.120 crabs per cy. A modified Dredge Impact Model (DIM) used the summer 2002 entrainment rates to project crab entrainment and adult equivalent loss and loss to the fishery for the Channel Improvement Project. To improve the projections, entrainment data from Flavel Bar is needed. The literature, analyses of salinity intrusion scenarios, and the summer 2002 site-specific data on entrainment and salinity all indicate that bottom salinity influences crab distribution and entrainment, especially at lower salinities. It is now clear from field measurements of entrainment rates and salinity during a period of low river flow (90-150 Kcfs) and high salinity intrusion that entrainment rates are zero where bottom salinity is less than 16 o/oo most of the time. Further, entrainment rates of 2+ and older crab fall with decreasing salinity in a clear and consistent manner. More elaboration of the crab distribution- salinity model, especially concerning salinity and the movements of 1+ crab, is needed.

  14. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-06-30

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively.

  15. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (rainforest.

  16. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  17. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  18. Proceedings from the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Associated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Anthony Cognato; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings provide a synopsis of the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Association Microorganisms, which was held May 20-2, 2006 in Asheville, NC. Twenty- five participants from five countries attended the meeting. The proceedings are structured into four parts: Phylogenetics of Bark Beetles, Population Genetics of Bark Beetles, Bark Beetle Gene...

  19. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  20. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  1. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  2. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  3. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  4. Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

  5. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  6. Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon; Christopher J. Fettig; Wesley G. Page; Barbara J. Bentz

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires are principal drivers of change in western North American forests, and both have increased in severity and extent in recent years. These two agents of disturbance interact in complex ways to shape forest structure and composition. For example, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, epidemics alter forest fuels with...

  7. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  8. Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2003-11-01

    We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including a Pichia stipitis-like yeast associated with wood-ingesting passalid beetles. Clone sequences similar to several ascomycete yeasts and Malassezia restricta, a fastidious basidiomycetous yeast requiring special growth media, however, were not detected by culturing. Unexpectedly, phylogenetic analysis of additional clone sequences discovered from passalid beetles showed similarity to members of the Parabasalia, protists known from other wood-ingesting insects, termites, and wood roaches. Examination of all gut regions of living passalids, however, failed to reveal parabasalids, and it is possible that they were parasites in the gut tissue present in low numbers.

  9. Changes in Soil Chemical Properties and Lettuce Yield Response Following Incorporation of Biochar and Cow Dung to Highly Weathered Acidic Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyei Frimpong, Kwame; Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Osei, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Soil fertility decline is a major biophysical constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, there is an urgent need for sustainable soil fertility replenishment strategies to improve soil quality for enhanced crop production. In a laboratory incubation experiment, biochar (2......% and 5%) and cow dung (20 tons ha-1) were applied singly, and 2% biochar was applied in combination with two rates of cow dung (10 and 20 tons ha-1) in a coastal savanna soil repacked at a bulk density of 1.4 g cm-3 at a constant soil water filled capacity of 60% for 40 days. The same treatments were...... imposed on two highly weathered, acidic soils from the coastal savanna and tropical rainforest agroecological zones of Ghana, respectively, to elucidate their effect on yield of lettuce. The study showed that application of biochar solely or in combination with cow dung increased soil pH, total organic...

  10. Current Characterization at the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2009-04-01

    At the estuary there are several mechanisms that cause turbulence: influence of solid contours (estuary bottom and shores), speed vertical shearing (fluid inside), wind shearing stress (free surface) and surface and internal gravity waves. Turbulence intensity controls vertical distribution of estuary water mass property concentration. As flow into the estuary takes place during the transition or turbulent regimen, produced by small space and time scale movements, entrainment, turbulent scattering and advection are the processes responsible for fresh water mixing up with the sea and for local salinity variation, as well as for concentration of natural properties and man-made ones. According to this focus, we shall describe general circulation, conveyance and mixing characteristics of the Amazon low estuary waters. Amazon estuary shows unusual characteristics: it is of vast length and enormous outflow. It is extremely wide - 150 Km - and its discharge into the Atlantic amounts to 180,000 m3s-1 (Otman, 1968, Figueiredo et al, 1991), which means 18% of all water discharged by rivers into oceans; this is the largest punctual source of fresh water for oceans (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Maximum outflow is 2.5 x 105 m3s-1, and it happens at the end of May. Minimum outflow is 1.2 x 105 m3 s-1, and it takes place in November. At Amazon River, the Mixing Zone occurs where the Coastal Zone usually is. The reason for that is the extension of fresh water plume moves Northeast for over 1000 Km (Gibbs, 1970; Muller-Karger et al 1988). This is the most extensive estuarine plume ever found in the ocean. During low fluvial discharge (June-November) plume reaches 300 Km; however, on high discharge (November-May) plume reaches 500 Km. Plume already is 3 to 10 m thick and 80 to 300 Km wide (Lentz and Limeburner, 1995). From June to January plume moves towards Africa, from whence 70% of it goes east carried by North Brazil Current retroflection and 30% goes towards the Caribbean. From

  11. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  12. Effect of the application of cattle urine with or without the nitrification inhibitor DCD, and dung on greenhouse gas emissions from a UK grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, L M; Misselbrook, T M; Hodgson, C; Donovan, N; Gilhespy, S; Smith, K A; Dhanoa, M S; Chadwick, D

    2016-11-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils from grazed grasslands have large uncertainty due to the great spatial variability of excreta deposition, resulting in heterogeneous distribution of nutrients. The contribution of urine to the labile N pool, much larger than that from dung, is likely to be a major source of emissions so efforts to determine N2O emission factors (EFs) from urine and dung deposition are required to improve the inventory of greenhouse gases from agriculture. We investigated the effect of the application of cattle urine and dung at different times of the grazing season on N2O emissions from a grassland clay loam soil. Methane emissions were also quantified. We assessed the effect of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), on N2O emissions from urine application and also included an artificial urine treatment. There were significant differences in N2O EFs between treatments in the spring (largest from urine and lowest from dung) but not in the summer and autumn applications. We also found that there was a significant effect of season (largest in spring) but not of treatment on the N2O EFs. The resulting EF values were 2.96, 0.56 and 0.11% of applied N for urine for spring, summer and autumn applications, respectively. The N2O EF values for dung were 0.14, 0.39 and 0.10% for spring, summer and autumn applications, respectively. The inhibitor was effective in reducing N2O emissions for the spring application only. Methane emissions were larger from the dung application but there were no significant differences between treatments across season of application.

  13. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  14. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  15. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  16. Lipids of Amazon Caimans: A source of fatty acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ariane

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger (native to the Brazilian Amazon flooded forest) was determined in samples of a ... Alligatoridae and are found in South American countries. Like any kind of fauna ..... functional substance.

  17. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: xingmeiyan@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and

  18. POTENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BUFFALO AND HORSE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ELEPHANT DUNG FOR FEED FIBER DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wahyudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is limiting factor for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in rumen. Isolation andselection bacteria from buffalo and horse gastrointestinal tract and elephant dung could be foundbacteria that have superiority to degrade lignin, xylan, and cellulose. Those animals were chosenbecause they were herbivores that consume low quality crude fiber as their main energy sources.Lignocellulose degrading bacteria were isolated by Hungate selective media, by using lignin (tannicacid, xylan, and cellulose as selective substrates. The morphological identification used an enrichmentmedia by measuring color, colony size, diffusion zone, clear zone, and biochemical identification usingproduction of ligninase, xylanase, and cellulase enzymes. The best lignocellulose degrading bacteriathen was determined by the morphological and biochemical character. This study showed thatlignocellulose degrading bacteria could be found in gastrointestinal tract of buffalo and horse, andelephant dung. Highest number colony was found in samples from buffalo's colon (376, followed byhorse's cecum (203, elephant’s dung (46, buffalo’s cecum (23, buffalo's rumen (9 and horse’s colon(7. The highest isolates activity of lignolytic, xylanolytic, and cellulolytic were reached by buffalo’scecum (7.64, horse's cecum (6.27, and buffalo’s colon (2.48. Meanwhile the highest enzymesproductivities were: buffalo’s cecum (0.0400 µmol, horse’s cecum (1.3912 µmol and buffalo’s colon(0.1971 µmol. Based on morphologycal character and biochemical test, it could be concluded thatlignolytic from buffalo’s cecum, xylanolytic from horse’s cecum, and cellulolytic from buffalo’s colonwere the superior isolates and they were 99% analyzed as Enterococcus casseliflavus/gallinarumspecies.

  19. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  20. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  1. Amazon's Profit Falls, but Beats Expectations,as Company Invests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fpr Amazon.com, down is the new up.The Internet retailer said Tuesday that its second-quarter profit dropped by 8 percent, which might seem like bad news.But the decline was not nearly as much as Amazon, or analysts, had expected, and the profit was being sacrificed for what the company said was a good cause, new investments in technology and warehouses.Revenue continued to be strong, rising 51 percent.

  2. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal...... on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure...

  3. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  4. Cartography of affections in the Bragantine Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This communication synthetically presents some elements of Jerônimo Silva e Silva’s ethnographic research. Actually it is the outlines of his doctoral thesis Cartography of affections in the encantaria: religious masters narratives from Bragantine Amazon. Silva lines out an ethnography via a cartographic flow having in mind to capture its live forces or movers. Using hermeneutics data from these narratives and living with some religious agents in situ – Pajé-Exorcista Cristino, Pajé Edvaldo, Mãe Terezinha, Mãe Lourdes, Rezadeira Luiza, Mãe Ana e Experiente Zé Maria – he unveils a plurality of relationships between people and incantation. Using some local technical concepts like corda (rope, linha (line, viração (breeze he discloses a rich social complexity in this religion of the incantation.

  5. The Herodotean »Amazonic« Artemisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Deligiorgis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oeuvre written by Herodotus of Halicarnassus consists of narratives presenting female protagonists. The historian’s interest and curiosity are fascinated and attracted by mysterious queens with masculine attitudes. Perhaps the best-known heroine of that uncommon ‘elite’ is Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus and compatriot of Herodotus. Describing her presence and action during the great Persian War against Greece, the paper attempts to investigate her role by comparing her with the Amazons of myth and legend and their influence on the barbaric Scythian tribe of the Sauromatae. Herodotus interweaves reality and mythology in order to portray an unusual type, a miraculous female figure who commands our admiration.

  6. Hydrological Predictability for the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jamie; Stephens, Elizabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Bazo, Juan; Coughlan, Erin; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Population growth in the Peruvian Amazon has prompted the expansion of livelihoods further into the floodplain and thus increasing vulnerability to the annual rise and fall of the river. This growth has coincided with a period of increasing hydrological extremes with more frequent severe flood events. The anticipation and forecasting of these events is crucial for mitigating vulnerability. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) an initiative of the German Red Cross implements risk reducing actions based on threshold exceedance within hydrometeorological forecasts using the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). However, the lead times required to complete certain actions can be long (e.g. several weeks to months ahead to purchase materials and reinforce houses) and are beyond the current capabilities of GloFAS. Therefore, further calibration of the model is required in addition to understanding the climatic drivers and associated hydrological response for specific flood events, such as those observed in 2009, 2012 and 2015. This review sets out to determine the current capabilities of the GloFAS model while exploring the limits of predictability for the Amazon basin. More specifically, how the temporal patterns of flow within the main coinciding tributaries correspond to the overall Amazonian flood wave under various climatic and meteorological influences. Linking the source areas of flow to predictability within the seasonal forecasting system will develop the ability to expand the limit of predictability of the flood wave. This presentation will focus on the Iquitos region of Peru, while providing an overview of the new techniques and current challenges faced within seasonal flood prediction.

  7. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  8. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  9. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Santos; ALBUQUERQUE, G. R.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Martin, A R; Marvulo,M.F.V.; S.L.P. Souza; Ragozo, A. M. A. [UNESP; Nascimento, C. C.; Gennari,S.M.; Dubey, J. P.; Silva, J. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  11. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  12. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Plasticity in Horned Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Valena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All developmental plasticity arises through epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the nature, origins, and consequences of these mechanisms with a focus on horned beetles, an emerging model system in evolutionary developmental genetics. Specifically, we introduce the biological significance of developmental plasticity and summarize the most important facets of horned beetle biology. We then compare and contrast the epigenetic regulation of plasticity in horned beetles to that of other organisms and discuss how epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated innovation and diversification within and among taxa. We close by highlighting opportunities for future studies on the epigenetic regulation of plastic development in these and other organisms.

  13. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  14. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  15. Toxicity of Monoterpene Structure, Diversity and Concentration to Mountain Pine Beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae: Beetle Traits Matter More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mary L; Sekhon, Jagdeep K; LaFramboise, Lanielle M

    2017-03-03

    A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene. Monoterpene diversity (all qualitative combinations of one to four monoterpenes) did not affect toxicity. Concentration (0 to 1200 ppm) of individual monoterpenes was a strong determinant of toxicity. Beetle body size and body condition index strongly and positively affected survival during monoterpene treatments. Larger beetles in better condition lost proportionally less mass during exposure, where proportion mass loss negatively affected survivorship. Toxicity was much more associated with water loss than with fat loss, suggesting that a main cost of detoxification is excretion, a process that has received little attention. These results provide insight into the determinants of beetle success in historic and novel hosts that differ in monoterpene composition and concentration. We also suggest that water availability will affect beetle success directly through their ability to tolerate detoxification as well as indirectly through host responses to drought.

  16. Determining COD Load of Cattle Dung and Calculating COD Formation Coefficient and Total COD Amount Engendered from Cattle Dung in China%牛粪COD负荷、产污系数及原始产污总量的测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓; 李汉平; 张春光

    2011-01-01

    为得到牛粪COD产污系数及原始产污总量,先采用非水样品COD负荷测定方法,对单位绝干牛粪COD负荷值进行了实验测定:牛粪(含溶解态和非溶解态的全成分样)的COD负荷实测值为1.337 kg·kg-1(绝干牛粪).由排粪系数得到牛粪的COD产污系数典型值为5.35kg·d-1·头-1.根据养牛数,计算得到我国2008年牛粪的COD原始产污总量高达2.06亿t,相当于当年全国工业和生活COD排放总量的15.6倍.需要对牛粪的GOD原始产污总量与可能形成的水环境面源贡献压力及其防范予以充分重视.%Based on the established COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) determination method to non-aqueous samples such as crop straws, several COD load experiments on cattle dung were carried out, in which the samples of cattle dung were firstly dissolved in the solution of 75 % sulphuric acid before using the COD determination method to waste water samples. The results showed that the determination method of COD load on cattle dung was feasible in practice, and were both exact and reliable. According to the experiment, the average COD load was 1.337 kg · kg-1 ( oven dry cattle dung). The COD formation coefficient from cattle dung was 5.35 kg · d-1 · cattle -1. With the statistical data on cattle, total COD amount directly engendered from cattle dung in China was about 206 million tons in 2008, which was 15.6 times to the total COD amount discharged from all industries and urban population in 2008, China. And the COD amount formed from cattle dung in the form of non-point sources had a positive linear relationship with the lost rate of total cattle dung amount emitted into the receiving waters. Therefore, more attentions should be paid on preventing and managing water environmental issues due to the cattle dung in China.

  17. 畜粪能源利用对草地生态系统碳汇的影响%Impacts of Dung Combustion on Carbon Cycle of Grassland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增让; 高利伟; 王灵恩; 成升魁; 张宪洲; 武俊喜

    2012-01-01

    畜粪是广大牧区可稳定获得的主要生活能源。长期、大量地把畜粪移出草地生态系统阻断了物质循环,致使土壤肥力变差、草地初级生产力下降、增加了草地生态系统物质循环紊乱的风险。与畜粪自然分解相比,畜粪燃能利用加速了碳排放,对放牧草地生态系统的碳循环产生了明显影响。本研究依托中科院地理资源所当雄草原生态站,综合运用3S技术、牧户调查、样方调查、实验分析和模型模拟等方法,基于藏北牧区的草地、牲畜、畜粪利用的地带性规律,重点从草地初级生产力、土壤呼吸、畜粪土壤碳回归、畜粪燃烧碳排放等4个关键环节,研究畜粪能源利用对草地生态系统碳循环的影响机制及其碳平衡过程,为畜粪资源优化利用、生态环境保护和增汇减排提供决策支持。%There are two yak dung utilization pattern in north Tibetan,one is all dung remain in rangeland and return to soil to supplement the organic carbon and nutrition in soil and the other is dung removing out of grassland ecosystem and combusting as fuel.Comparing with the dung back to soil situation,dung combustion changes the carbon cycle and carbon balance in the grazing alpine meadow ecosystem.Consideration of dung combusted for energy,the net biome production(NBP)of the energy-grazing alpine meadow ecosystem can be accounted by adding the carbon import(dung production)to,while subtracting carbon export(livestock intake,dung combusted and dung respiration)from NEP(NEP=NPP-Rs).In order to depict the key stage of the carbon cycle of the alpine meadow,indicators were measured by various methods,for examples,with plot survey to get the data of biomass and NPP,the LI-8100 CO2 flux system(LI-COR Inc.,Lincon,NE,USA)used to measure the soil respiration(Rs),and application with household interview to get the data of yak dung(Dt,De).The yak intake(Gi)and dung respiration

  18. Finding refuge: The estuarine distribution of the nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans on the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul H.; Young, Craig M.

    2013-12-01

    Parasites can significantly impact ecosystems by altering the distributions and population sizes of their host organisms. Some hosts are thought to find refuge from parasitism by entering habitats where their parasites cannot survive. The nemertean worm Carcinonemertes errans is an egg predator that infects the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, throughout the host's range. To determine if C. magister experiences a refuge from C. errans within estuarine environments, we examined the distribution of C. errans on Dungeness crabs within Oregon's Coos Bay Estuary. Year-round sampling over a three-year period also allowed us to test for temporal variation in the parasite's distribution. We found that parasite prevalence, mean intensity, and parasite density of C. errans infecting C. magister varied along a clear estuarine gradient, with crabs nearest the ocean carrying the heaviest parasite loads. Larger crabs were more heavily infected with worms, and seasonal infection patterns were observed at some sites within the bay. Crabs sampled from coastal waters near the estuary carried significantly more worms than did crabs from the bay, suggesting that the estuary is acting as a spatiotemporal parasite refuge for this important fishery species.

  19. Cow dung is an ideal fermentation medium for amylase production in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Bacillus cereus IND4 was investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF using cow dung substrate. The SSF conditions were optimized by using one-variable-at-a-time approach and two level full factorial design. Two level full factorial design demonstrated that moisture, pH, fructose, yeast extract and ammonium sulphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (p < 0.05. A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentration of these variables affecting amylase production. Maximal amylase production of 464 units/ml of enzyme was observed in the presence of 100% moisture, 0.1% fructose and 0.01% ammonium sulphate. The enzyme production increased three fold compared to the original medium. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of amylase were found to be 8.0 and 50 °C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0–9.0 and showed 32% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 50 °C for 1 h. This is the first detailed report on the production of amylase by microorganisms using cow dung as the low cost medium.

  20. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest.

  1. The Effect of Decreasing Temperature on Arthropod Diversity and Abundance in Horse Dung Decomposition Communities of Southeastern Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kearns

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dung from large mammalian herbivores provides a concentrated food resource, rich in bacteria, nitrogen, and many forms of carbon that support a diverse community of arthropods. Detrital communities, while essential to nutrient cycling, are poorly studied. From July 2010 to October 2010, we sampled these arthropod assemblages using pitfall traps baited with horse dung at five sites southeast of Boston, MA. A total of 396 samples were collected, resulting in 10,299 arthropod specimens. We found a highly diverse group of arthropods dominated by Coleoptera (n=3696 and Diptera (n=3791 and noted the absence of hymenopterans, a group that was dominant in previous studies on these communities. The community had a high level of evenness (0.93 Shannon evenness and lacked a dominant species, with no one species obtaining more than 7% relative abundance. Species accumulation curves indicate near maximum diversity was reached for each site and the study as a whole (93% maximum calculated Shannon Diversity. A strong effect of seasonality was also observed on the community, as shown by a strong shift in community at the end of August. The community sampled displayed a high similarity to previous studies, indicating a cosmopolitan distribution as well as an opportunistic community.

  2. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth.

  3. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  4. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  5. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  6. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  7. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  8. Flexible Wing Kinematics of a Free-Flying Beetle (Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Doyoung Byun; Hoon Choel Park; Minjun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Detailed 3-Dimensional (3D) wing kinematics was experimentally presented in free flight of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings.The kinematic parameters such as the wing tip trajectory,angle of attack and camber deformation were obtained from a 3D reconstruction technique that involves the use of two synchronized high-speed cameras to digitize various points marked on the wings.Our data showed outstanding characteristics of deformation and flexibility of the beetle's hind wing compared with other measured insects,especially in the chordwise and spanwise directions during flapping motion.The hind wing produced 16% maximum positive camber deformation during the downstroke.It also experienced twisted shape showing large variation of the angle of attack from the root to the tip during the upstroke.

  9. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  10. Cryptic female choice in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P I

    2000-10-01

    Both female choice and male-male competition may take place during reproduction in many species. Female choice tends to be less obvious than male-male competition and consequently has received less attention from researchers. The opportunity for cryptic female choice arises after multiple insemination. Through postcopulatory processes, a female could alter the pattern of paternity among her offspring so that it does not directly reflect the different contributions of sperm made by her mates. To be able to determine if a female alters the relative sperm contributions of her mates, the behaviors and influences of the males must therefore be first taken into account. The interest of each male is to father all the offspring, and the interest of each female is to maximize paternal quality. Female yellow dung flies have complex internal reproductive tracts that may give them considerable control over the fertilization success of stored sperm from different males. In laboratory trials to date, the last male to mate has usually been most successful. In the present study, cryptic choice occurred in Scathophaga stercoraria and the pattern of choice was consistent with previously reported results. The fertilization success of a female's second mate (P2) was substantially larger if a female was kept at constant temperature and if the second male was genetically similar to her at the phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) locus. Females from the field normally have three spermathecae, but some have four. Lines were bred to have either three or four spermathecae. Flies from the different lines were crossed to generate females with similar genetic backgrounds that had either three or four spermathecae. P2 was significantly lower for high-quality females, that is, those that laid larger-than-average-clutches, with four spermathecae than for low-quality females with four spermathecae; female quality had no influence on P2 for females with three spermathecae. The results suggest that only large

  11. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  12. Prioritization or summation of events? Cardiovascular physiology of postprandial Dungeness crabs in low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, Iain J

    2006-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans commonly forage in estuarine environments. The osmoregulatory mechanisms that allow them to cope with periodic episodes of low salinity have been well documented. There is less information on how ventilatory and cardiovascular mechanisms aid survival in low salinity. Prior experiments have shown that most species exhibit a tachycardia coupled with an increase in ventilation rate and oxygen uptake. However, these previous experiments were conducted on animals that were starved before experimentation in order to avoid increases in metabolism associated with digestive processes. This study investigated how the Dungeness crab Cancer magister balances the demands of physiological systems during feeding and digestion in low salinity. Cardiac and ventilatory parameters increased during feeding. When the crabs were subjected to low salinity after feeding, heart rate increased in 25% seawater (SW) but decreased in 50% SW. Instead of an expected increase in ventilation rate during low-salinity exposure, there was a decrease. Feeding was associated with an increase in sternal artery flow, with subsequent decreases in flows through the sternal and anterolateral arteries in low salinity. When low salinity was administered first, a tachycardia occurred, coupled with decreased stroke volume and cardiac output. There was also an increase in ventilation rate. When crabs were fed in low salinity, heart rate decreased in 50% SW but was maintained in 25% SW. Ventilation rate decreased when crabs fed in 50% and 25% SW. Flow through the sternal artery and anterolateral arteries decreased in low salinity, and except for transient increases while feeding, there were further decreases during digestion. Cardiac and ventilatory parameters were rapidly regained when control conditions were restored. The results suggest that events during low salinity are prioritized. Nevertheless, these alterations in physiological parameters may not be beneficial; although digestive

  13. A survey of carrion beetles on Seier National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seier National Wildlife Refuge personnel conducted an inventory of flora and fauna found on the Refuge in 2011. The federally endangered American burying beetle...

  14. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  15. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  16. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  17. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  18. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  19. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Genovese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

  20. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  1. Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. ...

  2. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  3. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  4. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

  5. Enhancing rock phosphate integration rate for fast bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures to organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Siswana, M; Cishe, E N

    2016-01-01

    Rock phosphate (RP) addition in cow-dung waste-paper mixtures at rates above 2% P has been reported to increase the rate of bio-transformation and humification of organic waste mixtures during vermicomposting to produce organic fertilizer for organic farming. However, the optimization of RP for vermicomposting was not established. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal amount of RP integration rates for effective bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. Arrays of RP integration degrees (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4% P as RP) were thoroughly mixed with cow- dung waste-paper mixtures to achieve an optimized C:N ratio of 30 and allowed to vermidegrade following the introduction of earthworms at a stocking mass of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1). The bio-transformation of the waste mixtures was examined by measuring C:N ratios and humification index (HI) and per cent ash and volatile solids. Application of 1% P as RP resulted in fast bio-transformation and maturation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the different vermicomposts affected by rates of RP showing the degree of degradation of initial compacted aggregates of cellulose and protein fibres in the mixtures at maturity. A germination test was used to further determine phytotoxicity of the final composts and microbial biomass assessment. The final vermicompost (organic fertilizer) had a C:N ratio of 7, MBC of 900 mg kg(-1) and HI of 27.1%. The RP incorporation rate of 1% P of RP investigated is therefore, recommended for efficient vermidegradation and humification of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. However, higher rates of RP incorporation should be considered where greater P enrichment of the final vermicompost (organic fertilizer) is desired.

  6. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids are Mylabris impressa, M. guerini, Muzimes iranicus, Alosimus smyrnensis and Epicauta sharpi. Most cases of linear dermatitis in this country occur in areas bordering the Caspian Sea. This problem is caused by beetles of the genus Paederus which are present as adults from mid-April to October with particularly high incidences from May to August. Fars (in southern Iran ranks second in number of cases of insect-induced dermatitis. The third major region in which this type of dermatitis has been recorded is Hamedan Province, in the west of the country. Meloid dermatitis showed its highest severity in 2001, when a considerable number of patients sought medical help in Toyserkan and Nahavand counties. New cases of skin blistering were reported along the Persian Gulf coast and the agent was identified as Epicauta sharpi (Coleoptera: Meloidae. In all these regions, it was observed that recorded cases of lesions coincided precisely with the yearly peaks of the beetles. Paederus fuscipes and P. kalalovae are the predominant species along the Caspian Sea shore. It appears that P. fuscipes is homogeneously distributed throughout the Caspian Sea region while the distribution of the other species is more irregular. Paederus fuscipes is probably the major agent that causes linear dermatitis in northern Iran. Whereas this disease is a rural difficulty in the south, mainly in villages or small towns, it is an urban problem in northern provinces along the Caspian Sea shore

  7. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  8. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  9. Climate drivers of the Amazon forest greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Hilker, Thomas; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Sanchez, Alber; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Wang, Yujie; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2017-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the climate controls on tropical forest seasonality is one of the biggest sources of uncertainty in modeling climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Combining leaf production, litterfall and climate observations from satellite and ground data in the Amazon forest, we show that seasonal variation in leaf production is largely triggered by climate signals, specifically, insolation increase (70.4% of the total area) and precipitation increase (29.6%). Increase of insolation drives leaf growth in the absence of water limitation. For these non-water-limited forests, the simultaneous leaf flush occurs in a sufficient proportion of the trees to be observed from space. While tropical cycles are generally defined in terms of dry or wet season, we show that for a large part of Amazonia the increase in insolation triggers the visible progress of leaf growth, just like during spring in temperate forests. The dependence of leaf growth initiation on climate seasonality may result in a higher sensitivity of these ecosystems to changes in climate than previously thought.

  10. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  11. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  12. Sex chromosome rearrangements in Polyphaga beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, A M; Dutrillaux, B

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a parachute sex chromosome bivalent (Xyp) at metaphase I of male meiosis is a well-known characteristic of Coleoptera, present in almost all families of this order and assumed to represent their ancestral sex chromosome formula. Sex chromosomes appear to be manifold more frequently involved in inter-chromosomal rearrangements than the average of the nine autosomal pairs usually forming their karyotype. This leads to various formulae such as neo-sex, multiple sex and perhaps unique sex chromosomes. These rearrangements alter the intimate association between sex chromosomes and nucleolar proteins, which are usual components of the Xyp. Different situations, selected in a series of 125 mitotic and meiotic cytogenetic studies of Polyphaga beetle species, are reported and discussed, with the aim to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms of sex chromosome rearrangements, the relationships with nucleoli and the consequences on dosage compensation and chromosome segregation.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  14. Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Iswanto, Toto

    2017-05-01

    Coffee is an excellent commodity in Indonesia that has big problem in utilizing its wastes. As the solution, the abundant coffee pulp waste from processing of coffee bean industry has been used as a substrate of biogas production. Coffee pulp waste (CPW) was approximately 48% of total weight, consisting 42% of the coffee pulp and 6% of the seed coat. CPW holds good composition as biogas substrate that is consist of cellulose (63%), hemicellulose (2.3%) and protein (11.5%). Methane production from coffee pulp waste still has much problems because of toxic chemicals content such as caffeine, tannin, and total phenol which can inhibit the biogas production. In this case, CPW was pretreated by ethanol/water (50/50, v/v) at room temperature to remove those inhibitors. This study was to compare the methane production by microbial consortium of cow dung and rumen fluid mixture coffee pulp waste as a substrate with and without pretreatment. The pretreated CPW was fermented with mixture of Cow Dung (CD) and Rumen Fluid (RF) in anaerobic co-digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature (30-40°C) and the pH was maintained from 6.8 to 7.2 on a reactor with working volume of 3.6 liters. There were two reactors with each containing the mixture of CPW without pretreatment, cow dung and rumen fluid (CD+RF+CPW) and then compared with the CPW with pretreatment (CD+RF+PCPW) reactor. The measured parameters included the decreasing of inhibitor compound concentration, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Methane and the Calorific value of gas (heating value) were studied as well. The result showed a decrease in inhibitor component concentration due to methanol pretreatment was 90% of caffeine; 78% of polyphenols (total phenol) and 66% of tannins. The highest methane content in biogas was produced in CD+RF+PCPW digester with concentration amounted of 44.56% with heating value of 27,770 BTU/gal.

  15. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  16. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  17. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  18. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  19. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  20. Status Report for South Dakota Refuges: American Burying Beetle Searches, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the efforts made throughout South Dakota attempting to locate American Burying Beetles. No beetles were found, but plans for a 1996 involve a...

  1. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle was...

  2. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  3. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  4. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  5. Amazon Forests’ Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth’s climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests’ response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation index (VI data to assess Amazon forests’ response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6 MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1 the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; (2 the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3 in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  6. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  7. Population Status of Blister Beetle during Monsoon in Victoria Park Reserved Forest, Bhavnagar, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Gohil; Devendra Solanki

    2013-01-01

    The Blister Beetles are widely distributed in the world. They have serious impacts, whether agronomic, veterinary or medical. The present investigation was carried out to know about population scenario of Blister Beetle in a reserve forest. Blister Beetle has special affinity to some plant species in particular season due to availability of food. In present study density of Blister Beetle was checked in form of density and its affinity towards plant Abutilon theophrastic was measured by RPE i...

  8. Vermicomposting of sugar industry waste (press mud) mixed with cow dung employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, P; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2010-01-01

    In India, millions of tons of press mud (PM) are generated by sugar mills every year. This paper reports the potential of vermitechnology to convert sugar industry waste PM mixed with cow dung (CD) into vermicompost, employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. A total of six different reactors were established having different ratios of PM and CD including one control (CD only). The growth and fecundity of E. fetida was monitored for 13 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 100% CD, but earthworms grew and reproduced favourably up to 1:1 PM and CD feed composition. However, greater percentages of PM in different reactors significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Vermicomposting resulted in a decrease in carbon concentration and an increase in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations of the vermicompost. Investigations indicated that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of PM into useful fertilizing material, if mixed at maximum 50% with CD.

  9. Influence of stocking density on the vermicomposting of an effluent treatment plant sludge amended with cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the effect of earthworm population density on the vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of a bakery industry. Four waste mixtures containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % sludge along with cow dung with five different worm population densities were established for 14 weeks under controlled moisture and temperature conditions. The results showed that average worm biomass, growth and cocoon production were lesser at higher population densities. Sexual maturity was attained in 3rd to 5th week in all waste mixtures. Worm growth was inversely related to worm population density in the waste mixture. Results also indicated that lower worm population is favorable to worm biomass production. On the other hand, mineralization and stabilization of the waste mixtures were more at higher worm populations.

  10. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marques Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the massive water volume of the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by hundreds of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and bacterial abundances with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, phytoplankton abundance and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and bacterial abundances, DOC, pCO2 and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that bacterial abundances increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased viral abundances. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in

  11. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Egleé L.

    2013-03-01

    The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

  12. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  13. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Fusaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster, provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/. More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

  14. Domoic acid toxicokinetics in Dungeness crabs: New insights into mechanisms that regulate bioaccumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R., E-mail: ir_schultz@pnl.gov; Skillman, Ann; Sloan-Evans, Siobhan; Woodruff, Dana

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Domoic acid is retained in the hepatopancreas after oral dosing but not after intravascular dosing. •Localization of domoic acid in the hepatopancreas is extracellular, likely in the lumen of tubules. •Isolated hepatopancreas cells do not absorb domoic acid from culture media. •Domoic acid is eliminated through urinary excretion. -- Abstract: Domoic acid (DA) is an excitatory neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning. Profound differences in the toxicokinetics of DA have been identified in a wide variety of shellfish. We characterized the toxicokinetics of DA in Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister) after oral and intravascular dosing (IV) using a variety of doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 mg/kg. After a 1 mg/kg oral dose, DA disappeared from the foregut within 2 h and largely accumulated in the hepatopancreas, with hemolymph and other tissues having 100–1000 times lower concentrations. After IV dosing, hemolymph concentrations of DA were unexpectedly high and toxicokinetic analysis indicated the steady-state volume of distribution (V{sub ss}) was 123–197 ml/kg, which is well below the hemolymph volume of 350 ml/kg for crabs. This indicated only limited extravascular distribution of DA was occurring after IV injection, which is surprising considering the capacity of the hepatopancreas to sequester DA after oral dosing. Additional studies measured the partitioning of DA in hepatopancreas cellular and subcellular fractions. The subcellular distribution of DA was primarily associated with the S8 fraction and could be filtered through a 30,000 MW cut-off filter, indicating DA was not appreciably bound to macromolecules. Interestingly, very little (<0.4%) of the total hepatopancreas DA tissue content was associated with the cellular fraction isolated after dissociation and separation from tissue fragments. The in vivo and in vitro results led us to hypothesize that DA

  15. Domoic acid toxicokinetics in Dungeness crabs: new insights into mechanisms that regulate bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Sloan-Evans, Siobhan; Woodruff, Dana

    2013-09-15

    Domoic acid (DA) is an excitatory neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning. Profound differences in the toxicokinetics of DA have been identified in a wide variety of shellfish. We characterized the toxicokinetics of DA in Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister) after oral and intravascular dosing (IV) using a variety of doses ranging from 0.1 to 20mg/kg. After a 1mg/kg oral dose, DA disappeared from the foregut within 2h and largely accumulated in the hepatopancreas, with hemolymph and other tissues having 100-1000 times lower concentrations. After IV dosing, hemolymph concentrations of DA were unexpectedly high and toxicokinetic analysis indicated the steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 123-197 ml/kg, which is well below the hemolymph volume of 350 ml/kg for crabs. This indicated only limited extravascular distribution of DA was occurring after IV injection, which is surprising considering the capacity of the hepatopancreas to sequester DA after oral dosing. Additional studies measured the partitioning of DA in hepatopancreas cellular and subcellular fractions. The subcellular distribution of DA was primarily associated with the S8 fraction and could be filtered through a 30,000 MW cut-off filter, indicating DA was not appreciably bound to macromolecules. Interestingly, very little (<0.4%) of the total hepatopancreas DA tissue content was associated with the cellular fraction isolated after dissociation and separation from tissue fragments. The in vivo and in vitro results led us to hypothesize that DA uptake and distribution is regulated by crustacean orthologs of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporters. We tested this hypothesis by co-exposing crabs to DA and known inhibitors of ABC transporters (verapamil, cyclosporine A and MK-571) and through in vitro studies using isolated hepatopancreas tissue and mixed cell suspensions prepared from hepatopancreas tissue. The in

  16. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  17. Combustion of dried animal dung as biofuel results in the generation of highly redox active fine particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Frank J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burning of biomass in the developing world for heating and cooking results in high indoor particle concentrations. Long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM has been associated with increased rates of acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive lung disease and cancer. In this study we determined the oxidative activity of combustion particles derived from the biomass fuel dung cake by examining their capacity to deplete antioxidants from a model human respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF. For comparison, the observed oxidative activity was compared with that of particles derived from industrial and vehicular sources. Results Incubation of the dung cake particle suspensions in the RTLF for 4 h resulted in a mean loss of ascorbate of 72.1 ± 0.7 and 89.7 ± 2.5% at 50 and 100 μg/ml, respectively. Reduced glutathione was depleted by 49.6 ± 4.3 and 63.5 ± 22.4% under the same conditions. The capacity of these samples to deplete ascorbate was in excess of that observed with diesel or gasoline particles, but comparable to that seen with residual oil fly ash and considerably in excess of all three control particles in terms of glutathione depletion. Co-incubation with the metal chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetate inhibited these losses, whilst minimal inhibition was seen with superoxide dismutase and catalase treatment. The majority of the activity observed appeared to be contained within aqueous particle extracts. Conclusion These data demonstrate that biomass derived particles have considerable oxidative activity, largely attributable to their transition metal content.

  18. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  19. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  20. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2006-01-01

    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...