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Sample records for amazon central brazil

  1. Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

  2. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera, Tabanidae, an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limeira-de-Oliveira Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Anseriformes, Anatidae. The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  3. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedogenetic processes in anthrosols with pretic horizon (Amazonian Dark Earth in Central Amazon, Brazil.

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    Rodrigo S Macedo

    Full Text Available Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon and from a non-anthropic pedon. Physical, chemical, micromorphological and SEM-EDS analyses were performed. The coarse material of the pretic horizons consisted predominantly of quartz, iron nodules, ceramics and charcoal fragments, and the fine material is organo-mineral. There was a direct relationship between the color of pretic horizons and the number of charcoal fragments. The thickness of the ADE results from the redistribution of charcoal at depth through bioturbation, transforming subsurface horizons into anthropic horizons. ADE presents granular microaggregates of geochemical and zoogenetic origin. Degradation of iron nodules is intensified in pretic horizons, promoting a reverse pedogenic process contributing to the xanthization process. Surprisingly the anthropic activities also favor clay dispersion and argilluviation; clay coatings on the ceramic fragments and in the pores demonstrate that this is a current process. Processes identified as contributing to ADE genesis included: i addition of organic residues and ceramic artifacts (cumulization with the use of fire; ii mechanical action of humans, roots and macrofauna (bioturbation; iii melanization of deeper horizons as a result of bioturbation; iv argilluviation and degradation of iron nodules. This study offers new support to archaeological research in respect to ADE formation processes in Central Amazon and confirmed the hypothesis

  5. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  6. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km 2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively

  7. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.

    1981-03-01

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (8 μmad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 μm) from both fire

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  9. Trophic opportunism of central Amazon floodplain fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mortillaro, J. M.; Pouilly, Marc; Wach, M.; Freitas, C. E. C.; Abril, G.; Meziane, T.

    2015-01-01

    The food web of the central Amazon basin displays one of the largest discrepancies in food source utilisation versus availability for consumers. While C-4 macrophytes dominate the primary producing biomass in floodplains, the food web is dominated by the use of C-3 carbon sources. Amazon fish species have wide-ranging diets and show feeding flexibility in response to spatial and temporal patterns in food source availability. Fish are therefore expected to use a range of available resources. F...

  10. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  11. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Central Amazon Region, Manaus, Brazil

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    SGM. Costa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD (Manaus, AM, Brazil. Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913, and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958, Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924. All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  12. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airao, Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ C.P.S. ALVES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botos (Inia geoffrensis are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  13. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  14. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in the basin of the amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, N; Takizawa, Y; Hisamatsu, S; Abe, T; Abe, Y; Motohashi, Y

    1998-01-01

    A wide regional mercury pollution in Amazon, Brazil is closely associated with goldmining that has been carried out in the basin of tributaries of the Amazon since the eighteenth century. Possible involvement has been discussed on atmospheric circulation in distributing the volatile pollutant. We developed a portable air sampler for the collection of mercury compounds and determined atmospheric mercury concentrations at several sites in Brazil including the basin of the Amazon tributaries. The mean concentration of total mercury was between 9.1 and 14.0 ng/m(3) in the basin of the Uatumã River located in the tropical rain forest far from goldmining sites and from urbanized area. These mercury levels exceeded the background level previously reported in rural area and, furthermore, were higher than concentrations observed in Rio de Janeiro and in Manaus that were compatible with the reference values for urban area. Mercury concentrations were also determined in gold refineries in the basin of the Tapajos River, and detected at a significant but not a health deteriorating level. Although only preliminary data were available, the present observations were in favor of the hypothesis that mercury is distributed widely by long distant transport by the atmospheric circulation after released at gold mining sites.

  15. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  16. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000

  17. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins [Fundacao...

  18. Comparações entre as propriedades químicas de solos das regiões da floresta amazônica e do cerrado do Brasil Central Comparisons of chemical properties of forest (Amazon region and savanna soils (central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.I. Demattê

    1993-09-01

    e para os solos argilosos a muito argilosos, o teor de carbono orgânico é sempre mais elevado na região de cerrado. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o teor de carbono orgânico dos solos com vegetação de cerrado e cerradão. Por outro lado, o teor de carbono orgânico dos latossolos da região Amazônica é mais elevado do que dos PVA.Chemical properties were studied in soil samples from two main fisiographic regions of Brazil: the Amazon region represented by the tropical rain forests and the Brazilian central region represented by the savanna (cerrado vegetation. For this study 17 profiles were selected from the Triângulo Mineiro area: 6 profiles from Goias state, and 5 profiles from the south eastern part of the Mato Grosso State. Most of the profiles are oxisols from medium to clayey texture. For the Amazon region 76 profiles were selected (38 oxisols and 38 ultisols located from Para to Acre States. The following depths were selected: 0-10 cm; 10-40 cm; 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm. The litter layer was not studied. The savanna region has soil in a more advanced weathered stage than the Amazon region. The Ki index of savanna soils varies from 6.0 to 1.5 and of Amazon soils the variation is from 1.3 to 2.5 that included Oxisols (Ki from 1.3 to 2.0 and Ultisols (Ki above 2.0. This indicates that the clay mineralogy of savanna soils is represented by an oxidic mineralogy that is more stable than in the Amazon region represented by a caulinitic mineralogy with 2:1 contribution. The Amazon soils are more acid and present exchangeable At in higher amounts than savanna soils with a direct effect on chemical management. Soils pH correction requires more lime in Amazon soils than in the savanna. The are great differences in both regions between base saturation and pH index. In Amazon soils the pH increase follows the base saturation while this does not occur in savanna soils. In sandy soils the organic carbon is higher in Amazon for all depths studied. In

  19. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasturechronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Wick; E. Veldkamp; W. Z. de Mello; M. Keller; P. Crill

    2005-01-01

    We studied nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and soil nitrogen (N) cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N...

  20. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de, P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos, F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 cases annually in the 1990s. Rondônia state was particularly hard hit, with thousands of new immigrants suffering malaria attacks. It is argued that the environmental change caused by deforestation has...

  1. Crop yield, genetic parameter estimation and selection of sacha inchi in central Amazon

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    Mágno Sávio Ferreira Valente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, sacha inchi oil is produced by hand from plant materials with no breeding or detailed information about the chemical composition of seeds. In addition, most of the current information on the agronomic traits of this species originates from research carried out in the Peruvian Amazon. In order to promote the research and cultivation of sacha inchi in the Brazilian territory, this study aimed to analyze, in the central Amazon region, different accessions of this oilseed for characteristics of production and quality of fruits and seeds, as well as to estimate genetic parameters, through mixed models, with identification of superior accessions, for breeding purposes. A total of 37 non-domesticated accessions were evaluated in a randomized block design, with five replications and two plants per plot. The average oil content in seeds was 29.07 % and unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 91.5 % of the total fat content. For the yield traits, the estimates of individual broad-sense heritability were moderate (~0.33, while the heritability based on the average of progenies resulted in a selective accuracy of approximately 0.85. The use of the selection index provided simultaneous gains for yield traits (> 40 % and oil yield. A high genetic variability was observed for the main traits of commercial interest for the species, as well as promising perspectives for the development of superior varieties for agro-industrial use.

  2. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Po...

  3. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange of NOx and O3 in Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, K. T.; Swofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; Rizzo, L. V.; Silva Campos, K.

    2017-12-01

    The primary source of atmospheric OH is the photolysis of O3 in the presence of water vapor. NOx gases are the main precursors of O3 and OH. In NOx-rich environments that have both high humidity and high solar radiation, OH concentrations are enhanced, making tropical forests dominant in global oxidation of long lived gases. The Amazon rain forest has a unique combination of vegetation with diverse characteristics, climate, and a dynamic land use, factors that altogether govern the emission and fate of trace gases, particle formation and atmospheric chemistry. Understanding the interactions among the mechanisms that govern local precursor emissions will lead to a better description of the local atmospheric chemistry and its global impacts. As part of the GoAmazon project, an array of complementary measurements was conducted in a research site in central Amazon, near Santarem (PA, Brazil), inside the Tapajos National Forest. The research site is surrounded by intact rain forest in a 6km radius, and a 45m canopy. The 67m tower was assembled in the site in 2001 for flux measurements (CO2 and H2O). In mid 2014 additional instrumentation were added, measuring NOx, O3, CH4, and SO2 fluxes and profiles. The low concentrations of SO2 (up to 0.1ppb during the peak of the dry season), and a small vertical gradient, suggest the predominance of biogenic sources. O3 show no significant seasonality between the daytime and nighttime vertical profiles, but occasional nighttime high concentrations for levels below canopy were observed. Hourly ozone fluxes suggest a production of O3 under canopy. NO soil emissions are indicated by concentrations in the ppb range for lower profile levels, decreasing to a few hundreds ppt above the canopy, and emission rates of NO from Amazonian soils may be higher than expected from earlier measurements. Daytime data indicate that not all of this NOx escapes to the atmosphere, however. Fluxes of NO average 133x109 molec cm-2 s-1, a factor of 4 higher

  5. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

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    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  6. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events

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    A. G. Affonso

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012, channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012 and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples were applied to the variables in order to: 1 quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2 assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system’s types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system’s types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are

  7. High incidence of diseases endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil, 2001-2006.

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    Penna, Gerson; Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Soranz, Daniel; Glatt, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    In Brazil, reportable diseases are the responsibility of the Secretariat of Health Surveillance of the Brazilian Federal Ministry of Health. During 2001-2006, to determine incidence and hospitalization rates, we analyzed 5 diseases (malaria, leishmaniasis [cutaneous and visceral], dengue fever, leprosy, and tuberculosis) that are endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil. Data were obtained from 773 municipalities in 3 regions. Although incidence rates of malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy are decreasing, persons in lower socioeconomic classes with insufficient formal education are affected more by these diseases and other health inequalities than are other population groups in the region.

  8. High Incidence of Diseases Endemic to the Amazon Region of Brazil, 2001–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Soranz, Daniel; Glatt, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, reportable diseases are the responsibility of the Secretariat of Health Surveillance of the Brazilian Federal Ministry of Health. During 2001–2006, to determine incidence and hospitalization rates, we analyzed 5 diseases (malaria, leishmaniasis [cutaneous and visceral], dengue fever, leprosy, and tuberculosis) that are endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil. Data were obtained from 773 municipalities in 3 regions. Although incidence rates of malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy are decreasing, persons in lower socioeconomic classes with insufficient formal education are affected more by these diseases and other health inequalities than are other population groups in the region. PMID:19331758

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

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    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  10. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil

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    Ise de Goreth Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June and dry (November seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution

  11. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

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    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  12. The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae in the Central Amazon forest

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    Obed G. Barros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau, which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.

  13. Mercury persistence in indoor environments in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Márlon de Freitas; Pinto, Fernando Neves; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas; dos Santos, Sérgio Silva; da Silveira, Ene Glória; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang Christian

    2004-10-01

    We evaluated the indoor atmospheric Hg contamination in gold trade shops in two Brazilian cities of the Legal Amazon area using the Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) as a sentinel species. Plants inside plastic cages were exposed to a controlled atmosphere to evaluate the rate of Hg retention over time and then distributed in several stores with different characteristics to enable a relative comparison. Hg concentrations were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plants exposed in active stores with good air circulation exhibited lower levels. Ex-gold trade shops that were kept closed for long periods exhibited higher values. Stores that have been restored before being transformed into new businesses exhibited lower values than nonrestored ones. Direct measurements suggest that indoor Hg air concentrations were below the threshold limit recommended by the World Health Organization to occupational exposure; nevertheless, restoring ex-gold trade shops could ensure a healthier working environment.

  14. Mercury persistence in indoor environments in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, W.R.; Freitas Fonseca, M. de; Pinto, F.N.; Freitas Rebelo, Mauro de; Silva dos Santos, Sergio; Gloria da Silveira, Ene; Torres, J.P.M.; Malm, Olaf; Pfeiffer, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the indoor atmospheric Hg contamination in gold trade shops in two Brazilian cities of the Legal Amazon area using the Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) as a sentinel species. Plants inside plastic cages were exposed to a controlled atmosphere to evaluate the rate of Hg retention over time and then distributed in several stores with different characteristics to enable a relative comparison. Hg concentrations were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plants exposed in active stores with good air circulation exhibited lower levels. Ex-gold trade shops that were kept closed for long periods exhibited higher values. Stores that have been restored before being transformed into new businesses exhibited lower values than nonrestored ones. Direct measurements suggest that indoor Hg air concentrations were below the threshold limit recommended by the World Health Organization to occupational exposure; nevertheless, restoring ex-gold trade shops could ensure a healthier working environment

  15. The Amazon Hydroelectric Dams, an Internal Geopolitical Issue in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggio, Celine; Droulers, Martine; Pallamar, Juan-Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a geopolitical analysis of dams and hydroelectric plants in the Brazilian Amazon since the mid-2000's. The implementation of these projects has provoked tensions within the federal government under the presidency of the Workers' Party and accelerated the erosion of the ideological and political platform called 'socio-environmentalism', a situation that has led to the break-up of the coalition leading to the political crisis of 2016 and the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff. From a regional point of view, the dispute occurred in very different terms in the case of the Madeira hydroelectric power stations (Santo Antonio and Jirau in Rondonia) and in the case of the Xingu dam (Belo Monte in Para), worldwide covered by the media

  16. Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange of NOx, CH4, and O3 in Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, K. T.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Budney, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Campos, K.; Rocha, H.; Freitas, H.

    2016-12-01

    Oxidation by OH is the dominant pathway for removing important trace gases such as CH4, CO, CH3Br, and HCFCs. The primary source of atmospheric OH is the photolysis of O3 in the presence of water vapor, and NOx are the main precursors of O3 and OH. Thus, in NOx-rich environments that have both high humidity and high solar radiation, OH concentrations are enhanced, and therefore, tropical forests dominate global oxidation of long-lived gases. The Amazon rain forest has a unique combination of vegetation with diverse characteristics, climate, and a dynamic land use, factors that altogether govern the emission and fate of trace-gases and control particle formation and atmospheric chemistry. Understanding the interactions among the mechanisms that govern local precursor emissions will lead to a better description of the local atmospheric chemistry, which have global impacts. As part of the GoAmazon project, an array of complementary measurements was conducted in a research site in central Amazon, southeast of Santarem (PA, Brazil), situated inside the Tapajos National Forest. The site where the measurements were taken is surrounded by intact rain forest in a 6 km radius, and a 45 m closed canopy. In the east side out of this radius (upwind), some settlements are distributed in a stripe along a road, which were cleared for agriculture and are sparsely populated. The 67 m tower was assembled in the site in 2001 for flux measurements (CO2 and H2O), and included CO in order to assess local and regional biomass burning. In mid 2014 additional instrumentation were added, measuring NOx, O3, CH4, and SO2 fluxes and profiles. The SO2 measurements (until early 2015) showed concentrations up to 0.1 ppb during the peak of the dry season, and a small vertical gradient, suggesting the predominance of biogenic sources. Preliminary results show no significant seasonality in the daytime and nighttime O3 vertical profiles. Occasionally, nighttime profiles showed high concentrations for

  17. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  18. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  19. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  1. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

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    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  2. Conversion of land use and cover in northwest Amazon (Brazil

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    Carlos Antonio da Silva Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural resources in a disorderly way has been demanding constant monitoring and ecological-economic zoning. The knowledge on land use and cover allows that measures that guarantee the preservation, maintenance of the environment and space management be appropriate to the reality, since through these factors it is possible to follow the probable environmental impacts and the socioeconomic development of a place in several contexts. The Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques have been applied to land use and land cover mapping. This study aimed to analyze the conversion of land use from different perspectives, concerning geoprocessing techniques, in the southeastern of Roraima State, Brazil, in two distinct periods. In order to verify the land use and cover, two analyses were conducted, using the Spring and TerraView softwares. Great part of the cultivated areas was converted into capoeira, what probably denotes an ending of profitable agriculture, as well as its abandonment caused by the nutritional deficiency of the soil, that became inappropriate for cultivation in the subsequent years. A fuzzy logic would possibly fit well to the types of data analyzed, because the attribute query is overly complex.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

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    Ricardo Ishak

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  4. A new species of Tropidopedia from the Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with a revised phylogenetic overview of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlmann, Thiago; De Oliveira, Marcio L

    2015-10-15

    We describe a new species of the bee tribe Tapinotaspidini, Tropidopedia guaranae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n. from the Amazon rainforest, Amazonas, Brazil. We emend the phylogenetic tree of Aguiar & Melo (2007) to include the new species and comment upon some characters presented by those authors.

  5. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  6. The epidemiology of malaria in Rondonia (Western Amazon region, Brazil): study of a riverine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L M; Noronha, E; Salcedo, J M; Dutra, A P; Krieger, H; Pereira da Silva, L H; Camargo, E P

    1999-01-15

    We report on a longitudinal study concerning the incidence of malaria in a riverine population (Portuchuelo) settled on the riverbanks of Rio Madeira, in the State of Rondonia, Brazil. We found the incidence of malaria to be seasonal, prevailing in the dry months of June and July. The Annual Parasite Index (API) was 292/1000 inhabitants, almost three times that of the state of Rondonia for the same period. In contrast with other studied Rondonian populations, malaria in Portuchuelo was more prevalent in youngsters Amazon region where most of its members were born. Due to the permanent presence of malaria among riverine populations, we are proposing that they may act as perennial reserves of malaria and, therefore, as sources of infection for migrants or eventual settlers at their vicinity. To date, the opposite view has been generally held. Anopheles darlingi, the main vector species in the area, is essentially sylvatic, which contributes to make the control of malaria highly problematic. The only hopes for control rest on permanent surveillance and the prompt treatment of patients, which are also problematic considering the vastness of the Amazon region and the remoteness of some of its riverine settlements.

  7. Time constraint based on zircon dating for the Jacareacanga group (Tapajos province, Amazon craton, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.E.; Ferreira, A.L; Macambira, M.J.B.; Sachett, C.R

    2001-01-01

    During long time the Jacareacanga meta-volcano sedimentary sequence have been interpreted as Archean greenstone belt terrain. However, recent data are indicating younger U-Pb ages about 2.1 Ga. In the Tapajos Province (Amazon Craton), the Cuiu-Cuiu Complex (2.00-2.03 Ga), Creporizao granitoids (1.99-1.96 Ga) and Jacareacanga Group are the oldest rocks. The Jacareancaga Group is composed by quartzmica schists, quartzites, ferruginous quartzite, metachert, and minor talc-tremolite-chlorite schist, actinolite-epidote schist, hornfels, metargilites and metawackes metamorphosed in low to medium-grade conditions. The aim of the present paper is to estabilish the maximum age of Jacareacanga sedimentation and identify probable sources in Espirito Santo region (Espirito Santo muscovite-biotite schist). In this research, similar and new results are obtained by zircon evaporation methodology. This research shows geochronological data about the Espirito Santo muscovite-biotite schist related to Jacareacanga Group (Ferreira et al., 2000) in Tapajos Province (Amazon Craton). The area is located near Amazonas and Para States boundary (Northern Brazil) and the sample was obtained at Espirito Santo (garimpo) small-scale gold mine (06 o 00min.48seg.S,58 o 08min.17seg.W) (au)

  8. Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa infection in musculature of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Joyce Cardim de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Ninety specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus captured using fishing tackle in the Outeiro district, state of Pará, were examined. Fish were placed in plastic bags containing water, under conditions of artificial aeration, and transported live to the Carlos Azevedo Research Laboratory (LPCA, in Belém, Pará. They were anesthetized, euthanized and necropsied; small fragments of the epaxial and hypaxial muscles were removed for examination of fresh histological sections by means of optical microscopy. In 100% of the specimens analyzed, parasitic pseudocysts were seen to be interspersed within and between the skeletal muscle. These contained pseudoquadrate and/or star-shaped spores that presented four valves and four polar capsules, which were identified from their morphology as belonging to the genus Kudoa. This is the first report of Kudoa in P. squamosissimus in the Amazon region, Pará, Brazil.

  9. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  10. LEXICAL STUDY OF VARIATION IN THE PARÁ AMAZON: A LOOK ON THE LINGUISTIC ATLAS OF BRAZIL

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    Sandra Regina FEITEIRO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the semantic-lexical occurrences of speech of residents located in rural Pará Amazon, compared to proposals from the Linguistic Atlas of Brazil (COMITÊ NACIONAL, 2001. Data were collected in situ by applying the Semantic-Lexical Questionnaire (QSL, composed of fourteen semantic fields for four informants that linguistic point. Analyzes were made with the intention of fulfilling the diatopical, diageneric and diageracional dimensions the variation in the speech of informants. This study was also guided by theoretical and methodological assumptions of Sociolinguistics, Dialectology and Linguistic Geography. Therefore, the research appealed to authors like Cardoso and Ferreira (1994, Aguilera (2005, Brandão (2005 and Labov (2008, among others. The results presented in language letters show the importance of dialectologies research to the knowledge of lexical norm of a geographic space, with high productivity variants for the same semantic content and not coincident with the Alib.

  11. State, socioenvironmental conflict and violence in the Amazon border of Brazil, Colombia and Perú

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    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian border region of Brazil, Colombia and Peru has been place or stage to extraction, trade and transport of a wide variety of forest and aquatic resources, including those associated with activities considered illegal like drug or some types of mining. Aditionally the borders have also been converted in areas of conflict, violence and insecurity, and these, at the same time, are produced and exacerbated by state and institutional weakness of the three states, trying substitute it increasing the military presence, with little and contested results, on the one hand, by different public policies or the existence of rules and laws also different and incompatible. In a historical and current perspective, the article shows the relationship between the state, extractive economies of natural resources and conflict in the brazilian, colombian and peruvian amazon border, taking into account the limitations and possibilities of agreements recently signed between the government Colombian Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrillas.

  12. Spatial and seasonal contrasts of sedimentary organic matter in floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrinho, R. L.; Bernardes, M. C.; Abril, G.; Kim, J. H.; Zell, C. I.; Mortillaro, J. M.; Meziane, T.; Moreira Turcq, Patricia; Damste, J. S. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the seasonal and spatial pattern of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in five floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin (Cabaliana, Janauaca, Canaçari, Miratuba, and Curuai) which have different morphologies, hydrodynamics and vegetation coverages. Surface sediments were collected in four hydrological seasons: low water (LW), rising water (RW), high water (HW) and falling water (FW) in 2009 and 2010. We investigated commonly used bulk geochem...

  13. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

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    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  14. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  15. Aerobic and facultative microorganisms isolated from corroded metallic structures in a hydroeletric power unit in the amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Amabel Fernandes; Segoviae, Jorge Federico Orellana; Bezerra, Roberto Messias; Gonçalves, Magda Celeste Alvares; Ornelas, Sócrates Souza; Silveira, Dâmaris; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Diniz, Sérgio Paulo Severo de Souza; Kanzaki, Luis Isamu Barros

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic and facultative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Corynebacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae families have been isolated from corroded metallic structures of a hydroelectric power unit in the Amazon region of Brazil. In addition to anamorphic dematiaceous and moniliaceous fungi, members of the archeobacteria kingdom were also detected in the same samples. Scanning electron micrographs of metal bars cultivated with consortia of the isolated micro...

  16. Larval and adult density of the porcellanid crab Petrolisthes armatus (Anomura: Porcellanidae) in an Amazon estuary, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Danielly Brito de; Silva, Dalila Costa; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara Moretto

    2013-01-01

    Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) is a porcellanid crab with a wide geographical distribution. In the present study we analyzed variations in the abundance of P. armatus adults and larvae over an annual cycle in the Marapanim estuary of the Amazon coastal zone, in the northeastern portion of the state of Pará, Brazil. Particularly, we focused on the presence of ovigerous females and timing of larval release, with the aim of elucidating reproductive patterns in a tropical estuarine system. T...

  17. 14C AMS dating of fires in the central Amazon rain forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Di Tada, M.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    Soil samples were collected in tierra firme upland and lowland areas of the Km 41 reserve near Manaus (20 deg. 30'S and 60 deg. W), in Central Brazilian Amazon, within a 1700 m transect, at eight different depth ranges, from surface to 100 cm. The highest charcoal concentrations were found at the depth range of 20-50 cm. AMS radiocarbon dating of 31 samples were performed at the ANU. The ages of the charcoals were found to vary within the 130 to 2400 years BP range, mostly between 1200 and 1400 years BP, one of the known Holocene dry periods of the Amazon region. The results show that the fires have regional dimensions and are associated with climate regional changes

  18. Identification of Plasmodium spp. in Neotropical primates of Maranhense Amazon in Northeast Brazil.

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    Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Amazon region, malaria caused by Plasmodium malariae is considered to be a zoonosis because of cross-transfer of the parasite between humans and Neotropical primates. To contribute information on this issue, we investigated occurrences of natural infection with Plasmodium sp. among Neotropical primates in the Maranhense Amazon (Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, in the northeastern region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 161 Neotropical primates of six species that were caught in an environmental reserve (Sítio Aguahy and from captive primates (CETAS-Wildlife Screening Center, municipality of São Luís, in Maranhão. Plasmodium sp. was diagnosed based on light microscopy, PCR, qPCR and LAMP for amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Serum samples were also assayed by means of indirect immunofluorescence for IgG antibodies against P. malariae/P. brasilianum, P. falciparum and P. berghei. Parasites were detected through light microscopy on five slides from captive primates (four Sapajus spp. and one Callithrix jacchus. In the molecular tests, 34.16% (55/161 and 29.81% (48/161 of the animals sampled were positive in the qPCR and PCR assays, respectively. In the PCR, 47/48 animals were positive for P. malariae/P. brasilianum; of these, eight were free-living primates and 39 from CETAS, São Luís. One sample showed a band in the genus-specific reaction, but not in the second PCR reaction. Anti-P. malariae/P. brasilianum IgG antibodies were detected in four serum samples from Sapajus spp. in captivity. In this study, circulation of P. malariae/P. brasilianum in Neotropical primates was confirmed, with low levels of parasitemia and low levels of antibodies. The importance of these animals as reservoirs of human malaria in the region studied is still unknown. This scenario has an impact on control and elimination of malaria in this region.

  19. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupá vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carolina T; Shepard, Glenn H; Piedade, Maria T F

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  20. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupá vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T de Freitas

    Full Text Available Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas. The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  1. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  2. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby J; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B; Fontes, Clarissa G; Zorzanelli, Raquel F; Meyers, Kimberly T; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O; Piva, Luani R de O; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O

    2015-09-15

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C₅ and C₆ GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C₆ GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

  3. Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

  4. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.

  5. Risk factors associated with diabesity in primary school students in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Maria Virgínia Filgueiras de Assis Mello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identifying risk factors for diabesity (diabetes plus obesity in primary students in the Brazilian Amazon. Methodology. Descriptive study carried out in 2009 with the participation of 1218 students. A questionnaire from the Ministry of Health of Brazil was employed with the question ''How is your diet?'' and a form was created to record the socio-demographic, clinical, anthropometric and food variables. Results. The mean age was 12 years and 57% were female. 64% of respondents reported no health problems, 37% had a family history of diabetes mellitus and 29% of students were overweight (17% overweight and 12% obese. A sedentary lifestyle was prevalent in the study group (70%. The dietary guidelines for consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and complex carbohydrates are not properly fulfilled. Fast foods or 'junk' food was consumed by 43.5% of students. Conclusion. Most of the identified risk factors were related to unhealthy lifestyles that can lead to diabesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. Identifying these factors allows planning nursing interventions for students, teachers and families.

  6. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  7. In Search of the Amazon - Brazil, the United States and the Nature of a Region

    OpenAIRE

    Garfield, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Chronicling the dramatic history of the Brazilian Amazon during the Second World War, Seth Garfield provides fresh perspectives on contemporary environmental debates. His multifaceted analysis explains how the Amazon became the object of geopolitical rivalries, state planning, media coverage, popular fascination, and social conflict. In need of rubber, a vital war material, the United States spent millions of dollars to revive the Amazon's rubber trade. In the name of development and national...

  8. Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE. Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury.

  9. Vulnerability of Amazon forests to storm-driven tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Holm, Jennifer A.; Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Rifai, Sami W.; Riley, William J.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Koven, Charles D.; Knox, Ryan G.; McGroddy, Megan E.; Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Urquiza-Muñoz, Jose; Tello-Espinoza, Rodil; Alegria Muñoz, Waldemar; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; Higuchi, Niro

    2018-05-01

    Tree mortality is a key driver of forest community composition and carbon dynamics. Strong winds associated with severe convective storms are dominant natural drivers of tree mortality in the Amazon. Why forests vary with respect to their vulnerability to wind events and how the predicted increase in storm events might affect forest ecosystems within the Amazon are not well understood. We found that windthrows are common in the Amazon region extending from northwest (Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, and west Brazil) to central Brazil, with the highest occurrence of windthrows in the northwest Amazon. More frequent winds, produced by more frequent severe convective systems, in combination with well-known processes that limit the anchoring of trees in the soil, help to explain the higher vulnerability of the northwest Amazon forests to winds. Projected increases in the frequency and intensity of convective storms in the Amazon have the potential to increase wind-related tree mortality. A forest demographic model calibrated for the northwestern and the central Amazon showed that northwestern forests are more resilient to increased wind-related tree mortality than forests in the central Amazon. Our study emphasizes the importance of including wind-related tree mortality in model simulations for reliable predictions of the future of tropical forests and their effects on the Earth’ system.

  10. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  11. Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria in the state of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil

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    Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the State of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil, has reported the highest annual parasite incidence (API of malaria among the Brazilian states. This study examines malaria incidence in Acre using spatial and spatio-temporal analysis based on an ecological time series study analyzing malaria cases and deaths for the time period 1992- 2014 and using secondary data. API indexes were calculated by age, sex, parasite species, ratio of Plasmodium vivax to P. falciparum malaria, malaria mortality rate and case fatality rate. SaTScan was used to detect spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of malaria cases and data were represented in the form of choropleth maps. A high-risk cluster of malaria was detected in Vale do Juruá and three low-risk clusters in Vale do Acre for both parasite species. Those younger than 19 years of age and females showed a high incidence of malaria in Vale do Juruá, but working-age males were the most affected in Vale do Acre. The malaria mortality rate showed a decreasing trend across the state, while the case fatality rate increased only in the micro-region of Rio Branco during the study period. We conclude that malaria is a focal disease in Acre showing different spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of cases and deaths that vary by age, sex, and parasite species. Malaria incidence is thought to be influenced by factors related to regional characteristics; therefore, appropriate disease and vector control strategies must be implemented at each locality.

  12. Kinship and Social Behavior of Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in a Central Amazon Landscape

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    Pinho, Gabriela M.; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Hrbek, Tomas; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Farias, Izeni P.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that tapirs tolerate individuals from adjacent and overlapping home ranges if they are related. We obtained genetic data from fecal samples collected in the Balbina reservoir landscape, central Amazon. Samples were genotyped at 14 microsatellite loci, of which five produced high quality informative genotypes. Based on an analysis of 32 individuals, we inferred a single panmictic population with high levels of heterozygosity. Kinship analysis identified 10 pairs of full siblings or parent-offspring, 10 pairs of half siblings and 25 unrelated pairs. In 10 cases, the related individuals were situated on opposite margins of the reservoir, suggesting that tapirs are capable of crossing the main river, even after damming. The polygamous model was the most likely mating system for Tapirus terrestris. Moran's I index of allele sharing between pairs of individuals geographically close (3 km). Confirming this result, the related individuals were not geographically closer than unrelated ones (W = 188.5; p = 0.339). Thus, we found no evidence of a preference for being close to relatives and observed a tendency for dispersal. The small importance of relatedness in determining spatial distribution of individuals is unusual in mammals, but not unheard of. Finally, non-invasive sampling allowed efficient access to the genetic data, despite the warm and humid climate of the Amazon, which accelerates DNA degradation. PMID:24671057

  13. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This paper examines the spatial and temporal variation of limnological characteristics of floodplain lakes in the Solimões and Japurá confluence, an undisturbed region - the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR; METHODS: We analyzed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and transparency, and surface water samples were collected for determination of suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon, in two phases of the hydrograph stage, 2009 high water phase, 2008, 2009 and 2010 low water phases; RESULTS: The results showed that the studied water bodies have high variability in all measured variables: a between hydrograph phases; b among main rivers; and c between opposite margins of Japurá River; CONCLUSIONS: This shows the remarkable influence of the flood pulse and the primary water source on the limnology of this system. The monitoring of physical and chemical limnological variables in Mamirauá will serve as future reference for comparison with disturbed areas, such as the Lower Amazon, and as a baseline for modeling the effects of climate change and anthropogenic influences on Amazon aquatic ecosystem.OBJETIVO: Esse trabalho investiga a variação temporal e espacial de algumas características limnológicas dos lagos da planície de inundação da região de confluência dos Rios Japurá e Solimões, onde está localizada a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá (RDSM; MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se temperatura, condutividade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez e transparência da água em três profundidades (superfície, Secchi e no limite da zona fótica e coletadas amostras de água na superfície para a determinação de material orgânico e inorgânico em suspensão, clorofila-a, feofitina, nitrogênio e fósforo total, carbono orgânico e inorgânico dissolvido, em duas fases da hidrógrafa, água alta

  14. Use of morphometric soil aggregates parameters to evaluate the reclamation process in mined areas located at amazon forest - Brazil

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    Ribeiro, A. I.; Fengler, F. H.; Longo, R. M.; Mello, G. F.; Damame, D. B.; Crowley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has a high mineral potential that have been explored over the years. A large fraction of these mineral resources are located in Amazon region, which is known for its large biodiversity and world climate importance. As the policies that control the Amazon preservation are relatively new, several mining activities have been exploring the Amazon territory, promoting a large process of degradation. Once the mining activities have a high potential of environmental changes the government created polices to restrain the mining in Amazon forests and obligate mining companies to reclaim theirs minded areas. However, the measurement of reclamation development still is a challenging task for the Professionals involved. The volume and complexity of the variables, allied to the difficulty in identifying the reclamation of ecosystem functionalities are still lack to ensure the reclamation success. In this sense this work aims to investigate the representativeness of morphometric soil aggregates parameters in the understanding of reclamation development. The study area is located in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondônia. In the past mining companies explored the region producing eight closed mines that are now in reclamation process. The soil aggregates morphometric measurements: geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate circularity index, and aggregate roundness, were choose based in its obtaining facility, and their association to biological activity. To achieve the proposed objective the aggregates of eight sites in reclamation, from different closed mines, where chosen and compared to Amazon forest and open mine soil aggregates. The results were analyzed to one way ANOVA to identifying differences between areas in reclamation, natural ecosystem, and open mine. It was obtained differences for GMD and circularity index. However, only the circularity index allowed to identifying differences between the reclamation sites. The results allowed concluding: (1

  15. New records of tick-associated spotted fever group Rickettsia in an Amazon-Savannah ecotone, Brazil.

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    Aguirre, A A R; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Costa, Ivaneide Nunes da; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Rodrigues, Vinícius da Silva; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Andreotti, Renato

    2018-05-01

    Human rickettsiosis has been recorded in the Amazon Biome. However, the epidemiological cycle of causative rickettsiae has not been fully accounted for in the Amazon region. This study investigates the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in free-living unfed ticks of the Amblyomma genus. The study was conducted in seven municipalities in Rondonia State, Brazil, where the main biomes are Amazon forest, Brazilian Savannah and their ecotones (areas of ecological tension between open ombrophilous forest and savannah). The following tick species were collected: Amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) s.l., A. cajennense (sensu stricto) s.s., A. coelebs, A. naponense, A. oblongoguttatum, A. romitii, A. scalpturatum and A. sculptum. A total of 167 adults, 248 nymphs and 1004 larvae were subjected to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of SFG Rickettsia spp. PCR-positive samples included: one A. cajennense s.s. female and one A. cajennense s.l. male from a rural area in Vilhena Municipality; 10 nymphs and a sample of larvae of A. cajennense s.l. from a peri-urban area in Cacoal Municipality; and an A. oblongoguttatum adult male from a rural area of Pimenta Bueno Municipality. All sequences obtained exhibited 100% identity with Rickettsia amblyommatis sequences. This is the first confirmation of SFG Rickettsia in an A. oblongoguttatum tick. Furthermore, this is the first record of SFG Rickettsia in the municipalities targeted by this study. These results warn that SFG Rickettsia circulation poses a threat in Rondonia State (among Amazon-Savannah ecotones), and that this threat is increased by the fact that SFG Rickettsia infect a human-biting tick species hitherto unconfirmed as a vector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal near miss among women using the public health system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil.

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    Cecatti, José G; Souza, Renato T; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Leal, Maria C; Moura, Erly C; Santos, Leonor M P

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of pregnancy complications identified as maternal near miss (MNM) and associated factors among women using the public health care system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil. A secondary analysis of a population-based survey conducted in 2010 was performed focusing on women self-reporting maternal complications. The main outcome was MNM, pragmatically defined as intensive care unit admission, eclampsia, hysterectomy, or blood transfusion. In addition, the risk of MNM was estimated for certain sociodemographics and characteristics of care received. Poisson regression was performed, generating adjusted prevalence ratios (PRadj) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 13 044 women (77%) who had given birth during the prior year using the public health system were interviewed. At least one complication was reported by 37.5%, with hemorrhage (28.4%) and infection (8.3%) being the most frequent. The overall MNM ratio was 31.5 per 1 000 live births, higher for the Amazon region than for the Northeast. Factors with a higher risk for developing MNM were: indigenous ethnicity (PRadj 2.77; 95% CI: 1.50-5.14), more than one hour to reach the hospital (PRadj 1.55; 95%CI: 1.06-2.25), being refused by a full hospital and having to find another one (PRadj 1.49; 95%CI: 1.03-2.16), cesarean section (PRadj 2.56; 95%CI: 1.90-3.44), and public prenatal care (PRadj 1.95; 95%CI: 1.06-3.61). Users of public health system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil have high MNM rates. Some characteristics of the women and of the care they received represent inequalities associated with higher risk for MNM. Specific actions are required to improve maternal health programs in these expansive areas of the country.

  17. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae from central Amazon

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    Carlos Eduardo Faresin e Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River and REMAN (Manaus, and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.

  18. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.

  19. Seasonality of Central Amazon Forest Leaf Flush Using Tower-Mounted RGB Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Nelson, B. W.; Tavares, J. V.; Valeriano, D. M.; Lopes, A. P.; Marostica, S. F.; Martins, G.; Prohaska, N.; Albert, L.; De Araujo, A. C.; Manzi, A. O.; Saleska, S. R.; Huete, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tower-mounted RGB cameras can contribute data to the debate on seasonality of photosynthesis in Amazon upland forests and to improved modelling of forest response to climate change. In late 2010 we began monitoring upper crown surfaces of ~65 living trees or vines from a 54m tall eddy-flux tower on a well-drained clay-soil plateau. This Central Amazon site (60.2091 W, 2.6092 S) is in a large forest reserve. We deployed a Stardot Netcam XL RGB camera with a 1024 x 768 resolution CMOS sensor, 66o HFOV lens, fixed oblique south view, fixed iris, fixed white balance and auto-exposure. Images were logged every 15 seconds to a passively cooled FitPC2i with heat-tolerant SSD drive. Camera and PC automatically rebooted after power outages. Here we report results for two full years, from 1 Dec 2011 through 30 Nov 2013. Images in six day intervals were selected near local noon for homogeneous diffuse lighting under cloudy sky and for a standard reflected radiance (± 10%). Crowns showing two easily recognized phenophases were tallied: (1) massive flushing of new light-green leaves and (2) complete or nearly complete leaf loss. On average, 60% of live crowns flushed a massive amount of new leaves each year. Each crown flush was completed within 30 days. During the five driest months (Jun-Oct), 44% of all live crowns, on average, exhibited such massive leaf flush. In the five wettest months (Dec-Apr) only 11% of live crowns mass-flushed new leaves. In each year 23% of all live crowns became deciduous, usually a brief (1-2 week) preamble to flushing. Additional crowns lost old dark-green leaves partially and more gradually, becoming semi-deciduous prior to flushing. From these two years of camera data we infer that highly efficient leaves of 2-6 months age (high maximum carboxylation rate) are most abundant from the late dry season (October) through the mid wet season (March). This coincides with peak annual photosynthesis (Gross Ecosystem Productivity) reported for this same

  20. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

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    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  1. Serological and molecular typing of HIV type 1 infection in the Tiriyo tribe, a native Indian community of the Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Machado, Luiz F A; Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Souza, Maria I M; Azevedo, Vania N; Ishak, Marluisa O G; Ishak, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    The seroprevalence and the occurrence of an HIV-1 subtype was assessed in blood samples of the Tiriyo tribe. Antibody was found in 0.6% and the molecular analysis of the pro region detected the emergence of a subtype B for the first time in a native Indian tribe of the Amazon region of Brazil.

  2. Efficiency of boron application in an Oxisol cultivated with banana in the Central Amazon.

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    Moreira, Adônis; de Castro, César; Fageria, Nand K

    2010-12-01

    In the Amazon region, there is no information on the fertilization of banana plants with boron (B). Besides this, the extractant (hot water) currently used to test B concentrations has many limitations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of B on the fruit yield and quality of banana plants of the Cavendish (AAA) sub-group, grown in dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol or Xanthic Ferralsol), in the Amazonas State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, composed of four B rates (0, 4, 8 and 12 kg ha-1) and two harvest cycles (sub-treatments), with four replicates. The B availability in the soil was determined by three extractants: Mehlich 3, hot water and KCl 1.0 mol L-1. The application of B influences the fruit yield, pulp/peel ratio, pulp resistance and B content in the leaves and fruits. The KCl 1.0 mol L-1 extractant was similar to the hot water in the evaluation of available B. To obtain maximum yield, it is necessary to apply 4.1 and 6.1 kg ha-1 of B in the first and second cycles, respectively.

  3. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk patterns of an Indian tribe living in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

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    Tavares, Edelweiss F; Vieira-Filho, João P B; Andriolo, Adagmar; Sañudo, Adriana; Gimeno, Suely G A; Franco, Laércio J

    2003-02-01

    The Parkatêjê Indians, belonging to the Jê group and inhabiting the Mãe Maria Reservation in the southeast of the state of Pará in the Amazon Region of Brazil, have suffered rapid and intensive cultural changes in recent years. This survey was designed to characterize the metabolic profile and the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in this community. Ninety subjects (90.0% of the adult population without admixture) were investigated. Anthropometric measurements were performed and the following clinical characteristics measured: glycemia, serum insulin and proinsulin (fasting and 2-hr post 75 g of glucose load), beta-cell function (%B) and insulin sensitivity (%S) estimated by HOMA, HbA1c, GAD65 antibody, serum lipids, uric acid, creatinine, leptin, and blood pressure. Information about alcohol use, smoking, and medical history was obtained through individual interviews. The prevalences were: overweight, 67.8%; obesity, 14.4%; central obesity, 72.2%; hypertension, 4.4%; dyslipidemia, 44.4%; hyperuricemia, 5.6%; GAD65 antibody positivity, 4.4%; smoking, 25.6%; chronic alcohol use, 0.0%. One case of impaired glucose tolerance (1.1%) and one case of impaired fasting glycemia (1.1%) were diagnosed during this study and one case of diabetes (1.1%) was diagnosed previously. The diabetic woman was excluded from the analyses involving HbA1c, glycemia, insulin, proinsulin, %B, and %S. All creatinine values were normal. Blood pressure did not correlate with age, anthropometric measurements, insulin, proinsulin, and natural logarithm (ln) transformed %S. After adjustment for age and sex, there were positive correlations between total cholesterol and body mass index (BMI; r = 0.24), triglycerides and BMI (r = 0.44), triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; r = 0.52), In leptin and BMI (r = 0.41), In leptin and WHR (r = 0.29), uric acid and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.34), uric acid and triglycerides (r = 0.22). Systolic (r = 0.04; r = 0.70) and diastolic (r = 0

  4. Biogenic cloud nuclei in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season

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    J. D. Whitehead

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin is a vast continental area in which atmospheric composition is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic aerosol particles. Understanding the properties of the natural biogenic aerosol particles over the Amazon rainforest is key to understanding their influence on regional and global climate. While there have been a number of studies during the wet season, and of biomass burning particles in the dry season, there has been relatively little work on the transition period – the start of the dry season in the absence of biomass burning. As part of the Brazil–UK Network for Investigation of Amazonian Atmospheric Composition and Impacts on Climate (BUNIAACIC project, aerosol measurements, focussing on unpolluted biogenic air masses, were conducted at a remote rainforest site in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season in July 2013. This period marks the start of the dry season but before significant biomass burning occurs in the region. Median particle number concentrations were 266 cm−3, with size distributions dominated by an accumulation mode of 130–150 nm. During periods of low particle counts, a smaller Aitken mode could also be seen around 80 nm. While the concentrations were similar in magnitude to those seen during the wet season, the size distributions suggest an enhancement in the accumulation mode compared to the wet season, but not yet to the extent seen later in the dry season, when significant biomass burning takes place. Submicron nonrefractory aerosol composition, as measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, was dominated by organic material (around 81 %. Aerosol hygroscopicity was probed using measurements from a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, and a quasi-monodisperse cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc. The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, was found to be low, ranging from 0.12 for Aitken-mode particles to 0.18 for accumulation

  5. Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Paulo Rufalco; Gil, Luis Herman Soares; Cruz, Rafael Bastos; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2011-06-24

    Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi.

  6. A seroprevalence and descriptive epidemiological study of malaria among Indian tribes of the Amazon basin of Brazil.

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    de Arruda, M E; Aragaki, C; Gagliardi, F; Haile, R W

    1996-04-01

    Data on the seroprevalences of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae in four isolated Indian tribes of the Amazon basin in Brazil, as determined by IFAT, were re-analysed. Age-, sex- and tribe-specific geometric mean antibody titres and externally standardized prevalence ratios were calculated for each parasite species. Correlation coefficients and prevalence odds ratios were also calculated for multiple infections with different combinations of the three Plasmodium species. Titres of all but one of the antibodies studied were similar in males and females; titres of antibodies to the blood stages of P. malariae were slightly higher in females than in males. Titres of antibodies to all three Plasmodium species increased with subject age, and this age effect was not confounded by sex or tribal differences. There were striking differences between tribes, with the Parakana tribe having relatively low titres of antibodies against P. falciparum and P. malariae; these tribal effects were not confounded by sex or age differences between tribes. The results indicate that conditions conductive to the transmission of P. malariae exist in this region of the Amazon. The potential for zoonotic transmission of P. brasilianum, a parasite of monkeys which is morphologically similar to P. malarie, and the generally high rates of seropositivity to all three species of Plasmodium indicate that control measures which are adequate and applicable to the region studied need to be developed.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

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    Vasconcelos, P F; Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Rosa, E S; Monteiro, H A; Cruz, A C; Barros, V L; Souza, M R; Rosa, J F

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

  9. Records of new localities and hosts for crustacean parasites in fish from the eastern Amazon in northern Brazil.

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    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Neves, Lígia Rigor; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parasites crustacean fauna in Arapaima gigas , Cichla monoculus , Cichla ocellaris , Cichla jariina , Satanoperca jurupari , Leporinus friderici , Leporinus fasciatus , Hoplias malabaricus , Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , Serrasalmus altispinis , Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and Potamotrygon motoro of the State Amapá and Pará, in northern Brazil. A total of 242 parasites, including Argulus elongatus , Argulus multicolor, Argulus juparanaensis , Argulus nattereri , Dolops discoidalis , Dolops longicauda , Braga patagonica , Braga fluviatilis , Livoneca guianensis and undetermined Lernaeidae, were collected from these hosts. The Argulus species had the greatest richness among the community of parasitic crustaceans. There was a low abundance of parasites among the hosts, other than D. discoidalis , was most abundant in the integument of A. gigas and P. tigrinum . Finally, the present study reported nine new hosts for the crustacean parasite species and expanded knowledge of the occurrence of some parasite species in the Jari River basin, in eastern Amazon.

  10. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.A morfo-anatomia do micro-predador Huttonella bicollor (Hutton, 1838 é investigada em detalhe. A espécie é um caracol micro-predador que está se espalhando pelas áreas tropicais e subtropicais pelo mundo, sendo este o primeiro registro para a Floresta Amazônica, região Norte do Brasil. A concha é muito longa, com complexos dentes no perístoma. A rádula possui dentes pontiagudos. A cabeça carece de tentáculos, possuindo somente omatóforos. A cavidade palial carece de vasos bem desenvolvidos

  11. Farmers’ Perceptions on the Agricultural use of Human Urine in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT provides a technological alternative for the challenging environments found in Amazonia, and has the advantage of not consuming water. To verify its viability, however, it is necessary to understand user behavior in relation to the use of the toilet’s byproducts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate farmer’s perceptions of the use of human urine as a fertilizer for agricultural crops in the Central Amazon. We interviewed 73 smallholder farmers from a rural village in Tefé County and in the municipal farmers market of Tefé. It was verified that 12% of farmers have knowledge of the use of human urine in agriculture, and that more than a third consider it possible to use urine in their gardens and fields. However, more than half did not consider the possibility of using urine, manifesting concerns about crop development and doubts regarding the efficacy of its use as a fertilizer. The informants believed that crops watered with urine would be adequate for human consumption. It is possible to conclude that human urine has the potential to be used in agriculture in the study region and we understand that dry toilets should not be taken as the only alternative for sanitation in Amazonia.

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for 14 C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: robertohm@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for {sup 14}C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  14. Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentation of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the tributaries Negro and Madeira, Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Senna Gonçalves Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the scope of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the Negro and Madeira tributaries, three levels of Quaternary fluvial terraces overlie the Alter do Chão and Novo Remanso formations further than 100 km southward its current main channel. Smooth undulated topography presenting low drainages density formed by sparse secondary plain channels and rounded lakes characterizes these deposits. Internally, they show point bars morphology constituted by intercalated layers of mud (silt and clay and sand forming an inclined heterolithic stratification. The asymmetric distribution of fluvial terraces allied to the records of old scroll-bars features and paleochannels in many extensions of the Solimões River suggests the predominance of a meander pattern between 240 to 6 kyears. On the other hand, the development of the current anabranching pattern took place in the last six kyears due to the Holocene sea-level rise, besides the action of neotectonics and rainforest establishment related to the increase of humidity in Amazonia.

  15. Diurnal bird visiting of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    MELO, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nectar of nocturnal flowers may be used by diurnal species that occasionally accomplish secondary pollination. Thirteen bird species visited Caryocar brasiliense flowers in central Brazil. There is a temporal separation between nectarivores and non-nectarivores species. Nectarivores birds visited flowers late in the morning, while other species appear earlier. C. brasiliense nectar may be an alternative resource to birds visitors during the dry season. O néctar de flores noturnas pode ser ...

  16. Stormflow influence on nutrient dynamics in micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Cerrado and Amazon Biomes, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Katharina; Nóbrega, Rodolfo L. B.; Gerold, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon and Cerrado biomes in Brazil have been under intense land-use change during the past few decades. The conversion of native vegetation to pastures and croplands has caused impacts on hydrological processes in these biomes, resulting in increased streamflow and nutrient fluxes. Our aim was to compare the nutrient dynamics during stormflow events in two pairs of adjacent micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics under contrasting land use, i.e. native vegetation (rainforest or cerrado) and pasture. One pair of catchments was located in the Amazon and the other in the Cerrado, both on the Amazon Agricultural Frontier in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. We collected hydrological and hydrochemical data on 50 stormflow events on a sub-hourly resolution during the wet seasons of 2013 and 2014. We compared the dynamics of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) in different hydrograph parts, i.e. rising limb, peak and recession limb, between the catchments within the same biome. For the Cerrado biome, our findings show that the nutrient concentrations in the stormflows were higher in the pasture catchment than in the cerrado catchment. In the Amazon biome, we found an inverse relationship with higher concentrations in the forest catchment than in the pasture catchment, except for TIC and K. Most nutrients in the cerrado catchment had the highest concentrations in the rising limb. Mg, however, reached highest concentrations during peak discharge, and lowest in the recession limb. In the adjacent pasture catchment, in contrast, the highest nutrient concentrations were observed during the peak discharge (TIC, TOC, Ca) or the recession limb (DOC, NO3, K, Mg) with lowest in the rising limb, except for NO3, which showed the lowest concentrations during peak discharge. In the Amazon forest catchment, the peak discharge showed the

  17. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  18. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo; all...

  20. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  1. Timing of mafic magmatism in the Tapajós Province (Brazil) and implications for the evolution of the Amazon Craton: evidence from baddeleyite and zircon U Pb SHRIMP geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Orestes Schneider; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; McNaughton, Neal Jesse; Fletcher, Ian Robert

    2002-09-01

    The precise timing and possible sources of the mafic rocks in the Amazon craton are critical for reconstruction of the Atlantica supercontinent and correlation of mafic magmatism worldwide. New SHRIMP U-Pb baddeleyite and zircon ages and the reinterpretation of 207 existing dates indicate one orogenic (Ingarana) and four postorogenic (Crepori, Cachoeira Seca, Piranhas, and Periquito) basaltic events in the Tapajós Province, south central Amazon craton. Orogenic gabbro dikes that host gold mineralization are 1893 Ma and interpreted as associated with the Ingarana gabbro intrusions of the bimodal calk-alkalic Parauari intrusive suite. The age of 1893 Ma can be used as a guide to discriminate older and mineralized orogenic dikes from younger and nonmineralized Crepori- and Cachoeira Seca-related mafic dikes. The baddeleyite U-Pb age of the postorogenic Crepori dolerite (gabbro-dolerite sills and dikes) is 1780±9 Ma, ˜150 my older than the ages provided by K-Ar. This value correlates well with the Avanavero tholeiitic intrusions in the Roraima group, in the northern part of the craton in Guyana, Venezuela, and Roraima in Brazil. Early Statherian tholeiitic magmatism was widespread not only in the Amazon craton, but also in the La Plata craton of southern South America, where it is known as the giant Piedra Alta swarm of Uruguay and the post-Trans-Amazonian dikes of Tandil in Argentina. The Cachoeira Seca troctolite represents laccoliths, Feixes, and São Domingos, whose baddeleyite U-Pb age is 1186±12 Ma, 120-150 my older than the known K-Ar ages. This age is comparable to other Stenian gabbroic rocks with alkalic affinity in the craton, such as the Seringa Formation in NE Amazonas and the basaltic flows of the Nova Floresta formation in Rondônia. Dolerite from the giant Piranhas dike swarm in the western Tapajós Province has a Middle Cambrian age (507±4 Ma, baddeleyite) and inherited zircons in the 2238-1229 Ma range. The Piranhas dikes fill extensional NNE and

  2. Geography of Food and the Urban Network in the Tri-Border Brazil-Peru-Colombia: The Case of Production and Commercialization of Poultry in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Schor, Tatiana; da Costa Avelino, Francisco Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, a strong transformation of eating habits has been identified. An important element of this transformation is the replacement of locally obtained protein by "frozen" chicken meat. This transformation of eating habits occurs differently depending on the market structure, production and commerce. We sought to analyze the Tri-Border region of Brazil-Colombia-Peru from the perspective of the production and trade ofchicken. We identified the importance of the city ...

  3. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  4. Topographic separation of two sympatric palms in the central Amazon - does dispersal play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Freitas, Cintia; Capellotto Costa, Flávia Regina; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Balslev, Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Despite broadly overlapping geographic distributions in the central Amazon basin, two congeneric palm species (Attalea attaleoides and Attalea microcarpa) have topographically separated distributions on a local scale in Reserva Ducke near Manaus. Our aim here was to determine if this local scale separation can be linked to (1) seedling stage specialization to different habitat conditions of the two species, and/or (2) environmentally-controlled seed dispersal. We assessed the role of these potential drivers by mapping the local distribution of the two species over a 25-km2 grid and testing for correlation to seed removal and seed germination patterns using seed sowing experiments. 360 seeds of each species were sown in 30 uniformly distributed plots (12 seeds of each species in each plot), and seed removal and germination were subsequently monitored. Adult populations of the two species showed opposite distribution patterns linked to topography. However, there was little evidence for specialization to different habitat conditions at the seedling stage: after 11 months, 26.1% of seeds of A. microcarpa had germinated along the entire topographic gradient, albeit with a tendency toward higher germination in more inclined areas. For A. attaleoides, only 2.2% seeds had germinated, and again along the entire topographic gradient. In contrast, there was evidence for environmentally-controlled seed dispersal: for both species, seed removal was higher in flat areas. Presence of adults did not affect germination or seed removal. Our results suggest that topographically differentiated distributions of A. attaleoides and A. microcarpa may be reinforced by steep slope avoidance by their seed dispersers. A direct environmental control mechanism remains to be identified to explain the consistent topographic associations, but our results show that this mechanism does not work at the seed germination stage.

  5. DIVERSITY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN THE LOWER AMAZON RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Maia Zacardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated (i the taxonomic composition of the larval fish fauna of the lower Amazon River, (ii the structure of the larval assemblage, and (iii the relationship between the abundance of the ichthyoplankton and environmental variables, in order to evaluate the importance of this river sector as spawning and nursery grounds for the region’s fish species. Data were collected monthly between January and December 2013 during the day and at night sampling cycles. A total of 2,295 fish eggs and 46,298 larvae were collected, quantified and classified larvae in 63 taxa. These larvae belonged to species with a variety of reproductive strategies. Individuals at a very early stage of development made up 92% of the specimens collected. High densities of larvae were recorded between January and March, corresponding to the breeding season of most of the species exploited by local fisheries. This peak in density was associated with the period in which rainfall, river water levels, and dissolved oxygen concentrations all peaked, while pH and electrical conductivity reached their lowest levels. The results of the present study confirmed that a number of different fish species use the margins of the lower Amazon river as spawning grounds and nurseries, as well as dispersal routes. This emphasizes the importance of these areas for the reproduction of local fish species and the maintenance of their populations, and highlights the need for the preservation of these areas and the more effective regulation of the closed season. Keywords: Amazon; distribution; fish eggs and larvae; environmental variables; conservation.

  6. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  7. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Luiz, Tatiane; Roquetti Velludo, Marcela; Carvalho Peret, Alberto; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Moldenhauer Peret, André

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the ...

  8. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain forest sigma deg data. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, I. J.; Bracalente, E. M.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Ocean Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT-1 scatterometer system show the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which is insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence may be adequately modeled as sigma deg (dB) = alpha theta + beta with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 dB deg to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum likelihood estimation algorithms are presented which permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  9. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous abrupt shifts in hydrology and fish assemblage structure in a floodplain lake in the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Cristhiana P; Amadio, Sidinéia; Zuanon, Jansen; Ferreira, Efrem J G; Deus, Cláudia Pereira de; Pires, Tiago H S; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-10

    Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers. After an intense drought in 2005, the assemblage assumed a different and fairly persistent taxonomic composition and functional structure. Declines in abundance after 2005 were more pronounced for species of all sizes having equilibrium life history strategy, large species with periodic life history strategy, and for all trophic levels except primary consumers. Our results suggest that the extreme drought triggered changes in the fish assemblage and subsequent anomalous hydrological conditions have hampered assemblage recovery. These findings stress the need to account for climatic-driven hydrological changes in conservation efforts addressing aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources in the central Amazon.

  11. Gold, iron and manganese in central Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Scarpelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Greenstone belts with deposits of gold, iron and manganese are common in the Paleoproterozoic Maroni-Itacaiunas Tectonic Province of the Guiana Shield. In Brazil, in the State of Amapá and northwest of Pará, they are represented by the Vila Nova Group, constituted by a basal unit of metabasalts, covered by metasediments of clastic and chemical origin. The basal metasediments, the Serra do Navio Formation, are made of a cyclothem with lenses of manganese marbles at the top of each cycle. Under the intense weathering of the Amazon, these lenses were oxidized to large deposits of high-grade manganese oxides. The exploitation of these oxides left behind the manganese carbonates and low-grade oxides. The overlaying Serra da Canga Formation presents a calcium and magnesium domain grading to an iron domain with banded silicate and oxide iron formations, mined for iron ores. Overlapping structures and superposed metamorphic crystallizations indicate two phases of dynamothermal metamorphism, the first one with axis to north-northeast and the second one to northwest, with an intermediate phase of thermal metamorphism related to syntectonic granitic intrusions. Shears oriented north-south, possibly formed during the first dynamothermal metamorphism and reactivated in the second, are ideal sites for hydrothermalism and gold mineralization, which is greater when occurs in iron formation and carbonate-bearing rocks, as it happened at the Tucano mine. Layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the greenstones represent a potential for chromite and platinum group elements. Pegmatites are source of cassiterite and tantalite exploited from alluvial deposits.

  12. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... on both approaches are applied to an actual case with the conditions in Germany. This case is also analyzed under the conditions of Rio de Janeiro. The effects of tropical environmental conditions on water transport in unsaturated soils are also discussed....

  13. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive

  14. Institutional stakeholders’ views on jaguar conservation issues in central Brazil

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    Yennie K. Bredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carnivore management is typically a source of heated controversy worldwide and, in the Americas, jaguars (Panthera onca are at the centre of many human–wildlife conflicts. Although findings suggest that social, rather than economic, factors are important reasons for why humans kill jaguars, few studies focus on stakeholder attitudes towards jaguar conservation beyond quantifying livestock depredation. Yet insights from other large carnivore conflicts demonstrate the importance of the political landscape and stakeholder attitudes in carnivore conservation. To explore the extent to which stakeholder views about jaguar conservation aligned with institutional arrangements, we conducted a stakeholder analysis among personnel working for key institutions in central Brazil. Using Q methodology, we identified three stakeholder perspectives focusing on: A jaguars’ intrinsic right to exist; B wider ecocentric values; and C contesting jaguar-focused conservation. The three institutional stakeholder groups all accepted the jaguar’s fundamental right to exist and agreed that it was important to establish protected areas for jaguars. Yet, institutional stakeholder views diverged regarding the desired distribution of jaguars in Brazil, hunting policies, and the effects of hunting and development projects on jaguar conservation. These differences and their underlying motivations are important to consider for successful jaguar conservation strategies in Brazil.

  15. Study of the sodalite Bayer synthesis process from reject of kaolin of the Amazon region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, A.A.B.; Neves, R.F.; Angelica, R.S.; Pöllmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an application for the kaolin rejects from Amazonia through the synthesis of sodalite, in addition, the series of sodalites was synthesized with the same conditions of the Bayer process to understand and control their formation when necessary. These tailings are generated by companies located in the state of Para and are mainly composed of kaolinite, thus forming an excellent starting material for the production of zeolites. The synthesis process was carried out in autoclaves and two synthesis temperatures, 150 and 200 deg C, were evaluated, the same ones used in the Bayer process. The anions used in the reaction mixture to obtain the sodalite series were: carbonate chloride and sulfate, and NaOH solution was used as the sodium source. Sodalite was produced in all the synthesis conditions, showing that through the kaolin rejects from the Amazon it was possible to study the sodalite synthesis process.

  16. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians. Keywords: Amazon, Tambaqui, Parasite, Myxozoa, Myxosporidians

  17. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  18. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  19. Larval and adult density of the porcellanid crab Petrolisthes armatus (Anomura: Porcellanidae in an Amazon estuary, northern Brazil

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    Danielly Brito de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850 is a porcellanid crab with a wide geographical distribution. In the present study we analyzed variations in the abundance of P. armatus adults and larvae over an annual cycle in the Marapanim estuary of the Amazon coastal zone, in the northeastern portion of the state of Pará, Brazil. Particularly, we focused on the presence of ovigerous females and timing of larval release, with the aim of elucidating reproductive patterns in a tropical estuarine system. The mean density of P. armatus larvae (zoea I and II correlated positively with the salinity of the shallow waters of the estuary, whereas the abundance of adults correlated with the salinity registered in water samples collected from the benthic environment. There was also a significant positive correlation between larval density (zoea I and II and water temperature. Ovigerous females were captured throughout the study period, from August 2006 to July 2007, but were more abundant in June and less abundant during the rainy months, between February and May. Larvae were only present during the dry season and transition months (June to January, and were absent during the rainy season (February to May. Petrolisthes armatus reproduces throughout the year in the Marapanim estuary and all developmental stages of this species (zoeal stages I and II, megalopae and adults are found in the estuary. The results indicate that the study area is an important environment for the reproduction of this decapod.

  20. Structure of parasites community in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Cichlidae), a host from the Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

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    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. In 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithrum geophagi, Posthodiplostomum sp., Clinostomum marginatum, Echinorhynchus paranensis, Neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and Dolops longicauda. I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant parasite species. The ectoparasites presented aggregate dispersion, but the endoparasites showed random dispersion pattern. Mean species richness was 4.0 ± 1.5 parasites, mean Brillouin diversity (HB) was 0.33 ± 0.28, mean evenness was 0.15 ± 0.13, and Berger-Parker dominance (d) was 0.85 ± 0.17. The species richness of parasites and HB were positively correlated with the length of hosts. There was positive correlation between the abundance of P. pillulare and length and weight, between the abundance of I. multifiliis and weight, as well as between the abundance of E. paranensis and N. pterodoridis and the length of hosts. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. orbicularis is a host with low position in the food web. This is the first record of all these parasites for C. orbicularis.

  1. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil.

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    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Serafini, Patrícia Pereira; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Meurer, Rafael; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Araújo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Ometto, Tatiana; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficiency of boron application in an Oxisol cultivated with banana in the Central Amazon

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    Adônis Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon region, there is no information on the fertilization of banana plants with boron (B. Besides this, the extractant (hot water currently used to test B concentrations has many limitations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of B on the fruit yield and quality of banana plants of the Cavendish (AAA sub-group, grown in dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol or Xanthic Ferralsol, in the Amazonas State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, composed of four B rates (0, 4, 8 and 12 kg ha-1 and two harvest cycles (sub-treatments, with four replicates. The B availability in the soil was determined by three extractants: Mehlich 3, hot water and KCl 1.0 mol L-1. The application of B influences the fruit yield, pulp/peel ratio, pulp resistance and B content in the leaves and fruits. The KCl 1.0 mol L-1 extractant was similar to the hot water in the evaluation of available B. To obtain maximum yield, it is necessary to apply 4.1 and 6.1 kg ha-1 of B in the first and second cycles, respectively.Na Amazônia não existem informações sobre adubação com boro (B na bananeira, além disso, o extrator água quente, que é atualmente o mais utilizado, apresenta inúmeras limitações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do B sobre a produção e qualidade dos frutos da bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish (AAA, cultivada em Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcela subdividida em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, constituído por quatro doses de B (0, 4, 8 e 12 kg ha-1 e dois ciclos de colheita - sub-parcelas (primeiro e segundo ciclo, com quatro repetições. A disponibilidade de B no solo foi determinada pelos extratores Mehlich 3, água quente e KCl 1,0 mol L-1. A aplicação de B influenciou a produção, relação polpa e casca, resistência da polpa e o teor de B nas folhas e nos

  3. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. An Object-Based Machine Learning Classification Procedure for Mapping Impoundments in Brazil's Amazon-Cerrado Agricultural Frontier

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    Solvik, K.; Macedo, M.; Graesser, J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale agriculture and cattle ranching in Brazil has driving the creation of tens of thousands of small stream impoundments to provide water for crops and livestock. These impoundments are a source of methane emissions and have significant impacts on stream temperature, connectivity, and water use over a large region. Due to their large numbers and small size, they are difficult to map using conventional methods. Here, we present a two-stage object-based supervised classification methodology for identifying man-made impoundments in Brazil. First, in Google Earth Engine pixels are classified as water or non-water using satellite data and HydroSHEDS products as predictors. Second, using Python's scikit-learn and scikit-image modules the water objects are classified as man-made or natural based on a variety of shape and spectral properties. Both classifications are performed by a random forest classifier. Training data is acquired by visually identifying impoundments and natural water bodies using high resolution satellite imagery from Google Earth.This methodology was applied to the state of Mato Grosso using a cloud-free mosaic of Sentinel 1 (10m resolution) radar and Sentinel 2 (10-20m) multispectral data acquired during the 2016 dry season. Independent test accuracy was estimated at 95% for the first stage and 93% for the second. We identified 54,294 man-made impoundments in Mato Grosso in 2016. The methodology is generalizable to other high resolution satellite data and has been tested on Landsat 5 and 8 imagery. Applying the same approach to Landsat 8 images (30 m), we identified 35,707 impoundments in the 2015 dry season. The difference in number is likely because the coarser-scale imagery fails to detect small (work will apply this approach to satellite time series for the entire Amazon-Cerrado frontier, allowing us to track changes in the number, size, and distribution of man-made impoundments. Automated impoundment mapping over large areas may help with

  5. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic for malaria in Extra-Amazon Region, Brazil

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    de Oliveira Maria Regina F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for malaria have been demonstrated to be effective and they should replace microscopy in certain areas. Method The cost-effectiveness of five RDT and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, laboratory suppliers and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2010. Two costing methods were produced, based on exclusive-use microscopy or shared-use microscopy. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2010 U.S. dollars. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the cost-effectiveness analysis with exclusive-use microscopy, the RDT CareStart™ was the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy. Microscopy was the most expensive and most effective, with an additional case adequately diagnosed by microscopy costing US$ 35,550.00 in relation to CareStart™. In opposite, in the cost-effectiveness analysis with shared-use microscopy, the thick smear was extremely cost-effective. Introducing into the analytic model with shared-use microscopy a probability for individual access to the diagnosis, assuming a probability of 100% of access for a public health system user to any RDT and, hypothetically, of 85% of access to microscopy, this test saw its effectiveness reduced and was dominated by the RDT CareStart™. Conclusion The analysis of cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnosis technologies in the Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region depends on the exclusive or shared use of the microscopy. Following the assumptions of this study, shared-use microscopy would be

  6. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Canutama Municipality in Western Amazon, Brazil

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    Marcel Gonçalves Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease. In the northern region of Brazil, a human parasite infection has been reported through a coprological survey. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in fecal samples of 11 individuals. Knowledge of the infection in animals or the presence of snails is necessary to address the possibility of the parasite cycle occurrence in that region. The aim of this study was to describe the transmission of human fascioliasis in Canutama, Amazonas, in Western Amazonia, Brazil. Methods. Serological (ELISA and Western Blot, WB and parasitological analyses were carried out in humans. In addition, the presence of the intermediate snail host within the community was examined. Results. A total of 434 human samples were included in the study, of which 36 (8.3% were reactive by ELISA and 8 (1.8% were reactive by WB. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in one human sample. The occurrence of the intermediated host was recorded and 31/43 specimens were identified as Lymnaea columella. Conclusion. Canutama constitutes a focus of transmission of human fascioliasis. This study describes the first serological survey for human fascioliasis, as well as its simultaneous occurrence in human hosts and possible intermediates performed in northern Brazil.

  7. The herpetological collection of Integrated colleges of Tapajós/College of Amazon, Santarém, Pará, Brazil: 1 - Reptiles

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    Brito I.A.S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It shows the collection of the herpetological collection of the Tapajos Integrated Colleges/College Amazon, with complete list of species of reptiles and amphibians deposited in the collection. The herpetological collection currently houses 3.349 specimens, has scientific and didactic collection. The entire collection is properly tumbled and packaged as minimum requirements for collections. He represents an excellent database for the study of amazon herpetofauna. The cities with the most representative specimens of deposits in the collection are Santarem and Belterra, Pará, Brazil; most copies come from scientific expeditions and be can considered a regional dynamic collection because it is to the community. However, greater investments are needed structural, for the maintenance and growth of, the collection so that it continues in of continue with the performance of their duties.

  8. Ecosystem-scale compensation points of formic and acetic acid in the central Amazon

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    K. Jardine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, central to terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric photochemistry, are ubiquitous in the troposphere in the gas, particle, and aqueous phases. As the dominant organic acids in the atmosphere, formic acid (FA, HCOOH and acetic acid (AA, CH3COOH control precipitation acidity in remote regions and may represent a critical link between the terrestrial carbon and water cycles by acting as key intermediates in plant carbon and energy metabolism and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. However, our understanding of the exchange of these acids between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is limited by a lack of field observations, the existence of biogenic and anthropogenic primary and secondary sources whose relative importance is unclear, and the fact that vegetation can act as both a source and a sink. Here, we first present data obtained from the tropical rainforest mesocosm at Biosphere 2 which isolates primary vegetation sources. Strong light and temperature dependent emissions enriched in FA relative to AA were simultaneously observed from individual branches (FA/AA = 3.0 ± 0.7 and mesocosm ambient air (FA/AA = 1.4 ± 0.3. We also present long-term observations of vertical concentration gradients of FA and AA within and above a primary rainforest canopy in the central Amazon during the 2010 dry and 2011 wet seasons. We observed a seasonal switch from net ecosystem-scale deposition during the dry season to net emissions during the wet season. This switch was associated with reduced ambient concentrations in the wet season (FA < 1.3 nmol mol−1, AA < 2.0 nmol mol−1 relative to the dry season (FA up to 3.3 nmol mol−1, AA up to 6.0 nmol mol−1, and a simultaneous increase in the FA/AA ambient concentration ratios from 0.3–0.8 in the dry season to 1.0–2.1 in the wet season. These observations are consistent with a switch between a biomass burning dominated

  9. HEPATITIS B IN RONDÔNIA (WESTERN AMAZON REGION, BRAZIL: descriptive analysis and spatial distribution

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    Gabriel de Deus VIEIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The Amazon is one of the regions who have the highest rates of infection by the hepatitis B virus in the world. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological data and spatial distribution of hepatitis B cases reported between 2002 and 2012 in the Brazilian State of Rondônia. Methods Social and clinical data of these individuals were studied through the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, including the following variables: gender, age group, vaccination, contact with a known patient with HBV, exposure to risk factors, source of infection, and clinical status. Results There were 7,132 cases reported in Rondônia, with an average incidence rate of 42/100,000 inhabitants per year. The municipalities with the highest incidence rates were Monte Negro (187.6/100,000 inhabitants and Ariquemes (157.2/100,000 inhabitants. The 20-39 year-old age group had the highest number of cases (n = 3,834, and 69.9% of patients were likely infected via sexual contact. Regarding the clinical disease status, most of the patients (80.7% were in the chronic phase. Conclusions There was a recent 402% increase in the diagnosis of hepatitis B, which is likely owing to the improvements in the public diagnostic system. This highlights the need for public policies to prevent and control the disease.

  10. Limits to Knowledge: Indigenous Peoples, NGOs, and the Moral Economy in the Eastern Amazon of Brazil

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    Janet Chernela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread recognition of the importance of community-conservation partnerships, problems continue to emerge. In this paper we examine one such interaction to propose that outside organisations have wrongly associated the delimitations of the habitational space with the extent of community allegiances and moral economies. Such oversights can lead to project withdrawal, as they did in one case of an ecotourism proposal among the indigenous Kayapσ of the southeastern Amazon. The case study points to the challenges in the processes of partnering with local villages where histories of fissioning and factioning contain within them their own processual relations and moral obligations. These models, by which people group themselves into communities of loyalty, affectivity, and belonging, may be elusive to outsiders and account for many challenges in local-international collaborations. Western planners are often unprepared for the long reach of relationships relevant to project planning and benefit sharing. We suggest that in order to move forward with effective multi-participant community-based projects, project planners should take into account supra-spatial, and dynamic, moral economies.

  11. Seasonal variation in the distribution and isotopic composition of phytoplankton in an amazon floodplain lake, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalao, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ"13C and δ"15N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 μm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant. The fraction <10 μm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ3 13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1% -34.0%), whereas the δ"15N values showed strong variability (15.6% 2.4%), which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level.

  12. Self education and the production of indigenous children in the Northwest Amazon (Brazil

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    Rita de Cácia Oenning da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supported by ethnographic documentation, by the anthropological literature and by data collected in the field, this article relates the process by which indigenous peoples in the northwest Amazon learn and teach children with the rich dialogue about the production of persons. The techniques and the meaning of «producing people» are transmitted in day to day life, in the interaction between generations, and in the narratives of specialists and family members (especially grandparents. At the same time, this process is intertwined with ritual and mythic knowledge transmission, which is, if not always explicit, always present in the indigenous groups of the region. Children also play active roles in this process of formation and self- formation; in this article, I lay out this social agency my means of a careful description of the day in the life of children in the multiethnic village of Tabocal do uneiuxi, santa Isabel do Rio negro. In this narrative, I point of the ways that children are agents in their own education and self-production, emphasizing their protagonism in the process of «producing people», as they incorporate and transform knowledge.

  13. Morphology and modern sedimentary deposits of the macrotidal Marapanim Estuary (Amazon, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo da Silva, Cléa; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.

    2009-03-01

    The northern Brazilian coast, east of the Amazon River is characterized by several macrotidal estuarine systems that harbor large mangrove areas with approximately 7600 km 2. The Marapanim Estuary is influenced by macrotidal regime with moderate waves influence. Morphologic units were investigated by using remote sensing images (i.e., Landsat-7 ETM+, RADARSAT- 1 Wide and SRTM) integrated with bathymetric data. The modern sedimentary deposits were analyzed from 67 cores collected by Vibracore and Rammkersonde systems. Analysis of morphology and surface sedimentary deposits of the Marapanim River reveal they are strongly influenced by the interaction of tidal, wave and fluvial currents. Based on these processes it was possible to recognize three distinct longitudinal facies zonation that revels the geological filling of a macrotidal estuary. The estuary mouth contain fine to medium marine sands strongly influenced by waves and tides, responsible for macrotidal sandy beaches and estuarine channel development, which are characterized by wave-ripple bedding and longitudinal cross-bedding sands. The estuary funnel is mainly influenced by tides that form wide tidal mudflats, colonized by mangroves, along the estuarine margin, with parallel laminations, lenticular bedding, root fragments and organic matter lenses. The upstream estuary contains coarse sand to gravel of fluvial origin. Massive mud with organic matter lenses, marks and roots fragments occur in the floodplain accumulates during seasonal flooding providing a slowly aggrading in the alluvial plain. This morphologic and depositional pattern show easily a tripartite zonation of a macrotidal estuary, that are in the final stage of filling.

  14. Airborne and spaceborne radar images for geologic and environmental mapping in the Amazon rain forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John P.; Hurtak, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Spaceborne and airborne radar image of portions of the Middle and Upper Amazon basin in the state of Amazonas and the Territory of Roraima are compared for purposes of geological and environmental mapping. The contrasted illumination geometries and imaging parameters are related to terrain slope and surface roughness characteristics for corresponding areas that were covered by each of the radar imaging systems. Landforms range from deeply dissected mountain and plateau with relief up to 500 m in Roraima, revealing ancient layered rocks through folded residual mountains to deeply beveled pediplain in Amazonas. Geomorphic features provide distinct textural signatures that are characteristic of different rock associations. The principle drainages in the areas covered are the Rio Negro, Rio Branco, and the Rio Japura. Shadowing effects and low radar sensitivity to subtle linear fractures that are aligned parallel or nearly parallel to the direction of radar illumination illustrate the need to obtain multiple coverage with viewing directions about 90 degrees. Perception of standing water and alluvial forest in floodplains varies with incident angle and with season. Multitemporal data sets acquired over periods of years provide an ideal method of monitoring environmental changes.

  15. [Hepatitis B and C virus infection and the hepatocellular carcinoma in the East Amazon, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Esther Castello Branco Mello; Moia, Lizomar de Jesus Pereira; Amaral, Ivanete do Socorro Abraçado; Barbosa, Maria Silvia de Brito; Conde, Simone Regina Souza da Silva; de Araújo, Marialva Tereza Ferreira; da Cruz, Ermelinda do Rosário Moutinho; Demachki, Samia; Bensabath, Gilberta; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better understanding of the possible role of hepatits B and C in the etiopathogenis of HCC in the East Amazon, there were studied 36 patients in Belém/PA. Serological hepatitis markers were evaluated and polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA. Alcohol abuse was observed in 33.3% and cirrhosis in 83.3%. In 88.9% of the sample, one or more hepatitis B markers were positive. Also, 8.3% those patients had anti-HCV simultaneously positive. The HBsAg serological test was positive in 58.3%; anti-HBc in 86%; anti-HBe in 85.7%; anti-HBe in 9.5%; IgM anti-HBc in 57.1%. The HBV DNA was found in 37.7% and in 65% of the HBsAg positive. The HCV RNA was detected in 8.5% and in 100% of the patients positive to anti-HCV. The AFP was above the normal value in 88.9% of patients, with levels up to 400ng/ml in 75% of them. In conclusion, hepatitis B virus infection seems to be important in the etiology of HCC and improving measures such immunization and screening in the risk population should be emphasyzed.

  16. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  17. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria ...

  18. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  19. Gravity anomalies and flexure of the lithosphere at the Middle Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Aires, Jose R.

    1988-01-01

    The Middle Amazon Basin is a large Paleozoic sedimentary basin on the Amazonian craton in South America. It contains up to 7 km of mainly shallow water sediments. A chain of Bouguer gravity highs of approximately +40 to +90 mGals transects the basin roughly coincident with the axis of maximum thickness of sediment. The gravity highs are flanked on either side by gravity lows of approximately -40 mGals. The observed gravity anomalies can be explained by a steeply sided zone of high density in the lower crust varying in width from 100 to 200 km wide. Within this region, the continental crust has been intruded/replaced by more dense material to more than half its original thickness of 45-50 km. The much wider sedimentary basin results from regional compensation of the subsurface load and the subsequent load of accumulated sediments by flexure of the lithosphere. The observed geometry of the basin is consistent with an elastic lithosphere model with a mechanical thickness of 15-20 km. Although this value is lower than expected for a stable cratonic region of Early Proterozoic age, it is within the accepted range of effective elastic thicknesses for the earth. Rapid subsidence during the late Paleozoic may be evidence of a second tectonic event or lithospheric relaxation which could lower the effective mechanical thickness of the lithosphere. The high-density zone in the lower crust, as delineated by gravity and flexural modeling, has a complex sinuous geometry which is narrow and south of the axis of maximum sediment thickness on the east and west margins and wide and offset to the north in the center of the basin. The linear trough geometry of the basin itself is a result of smoothing by regional compensation of the load in the lower crust.

  20. Metal and metalloid distribution in different environmental compartments of the middle Xingu River in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Regina Gomes; Faccin, Henrique; Molin, Thaís Ramos Dal; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Amado, Lílian Lund

    2017-12-15

    Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water. PERMANOVA showed that the metals behaved differently in the water throughout the monitored season and between sampling points. The sites with mining activity were the regions that were the most contaminated by metals. Samples of sediment (Ni>18mg/kg and Cr>37.30mg/kg) and soil (Pb>72mg/kg, Cr>75mg/kg and Ni>30mg/Kg) showed concentrations above the recommended by local legislation. Metal values in the muscle of both fish species were relatively low at all sampling points and in both monitored seasons. Concentrations in water, sediment, and soil showed that some points of the Xingu River, Fresco River and mining pits are contaminated by trace elements, mainly As, Hg, Cr, Pb, and Ni. This was the first study about trace elements in the Middle Xingu River, which leads us to conclude that rainfall and cassiterite mining activities strongly influence the mobilization of metals, especially in abiotic compartments. However, the fish analyzed did not exhibit relevant levels of contamination. This indicates low risk for human consumption. Additionally, results highlight the need to establish local criteria to define contamination limits for different metals while taking into account local geochemistry particularities and biome diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of a community intervention to improve cervical cancer screening uptake in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Von Zuben

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the northern region of Brazil, cervical cancer is the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. There is considerable likelihood, however, that official incidence and mortality figures are greatly underestimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the repercussions from improvement in cervical cancer screening programs on the incidence of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in a municipality in this region. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a quasi-experimental study that assessed process dimensions relevant to the program objectives. The study comprised a sample of 2,226 women seen at primary healthcare units in Cruzeiro do Sul, a small city in the Brazilian Amazon region, from April 2003 to July 2004. METHODS: Women were recruited through local radio advertisements and by oral communication from the investigators. The women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent pelvic examination, which included Papanicolaou (Pap smears and naked-eye inspection of the cervix after applying diluted acetic acid. Women with positive Pap smears or abnormal gynecological examination were referred for colposcopy and possible biopsy, diathermic large loop excision of the transformation zone or conization. RESULTS: The results obtained were compared with historical official data retrieved from the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s database. Intervention resulted in a 40% increase in positive Pap smears and detection of cancer was nine times higher than had been observed in routine screening. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in the intervention group was remarkably higher than among women seen during routine screening.

  2. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Divino, Jose Angelo; McAleer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of the world's greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world's environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the upper Amazon) and Para (the lower Amazon), which together account for around 73% of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and are the only states that are serviced by international airports in Brazil's North region. Th...

  3. Weight-length relationship, condition factor and blood parameters of farmed Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Cichlidae in central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    Full Text Available Farming of native carnivore fish species has drawn attention due to their promising use in aquaculture. Among these species, tucunaré of the genus Cichla stand out, them being of high economical interest for sport fishing and Amazon's industry of ornamental fish. The present study describes the weight-length relationship (WLR, relative condition factor (Kn, red blood cell parameters, thrombocytes and leukocytes count of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, farmed in central Amazon. Fish that underwent food training during fingerling culture received extruded ration containing 45% of crude protein during fattening, and had Kn with values from 0.925-1.199, which indicated good health condition during the culture. The equation obtained from the WLR was W = 0.0073Lt3.1435, indicating an isometric growth, which is the desirable for fish of fish farm. Red blood cell counts, total thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had intra-specific variation. A significant (p<0.001 positive correlation of the red blood cells number with the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit was found. These are the first sets of blood parameters for C. temensis and could be used as reference for comparison in further studies to evaluate the health status of this fish in different environments, because assessment of these parameters may be used as quick tool for diagnosing diseases, stress and malnutrition.

  4. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima

    2000-01-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863± 97 Ma and e Nd (T) of +4.1 T D M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 ± 77 Ma and e Nd (T) of +2.9. T DM values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 ± 120 Ma and initial e Nd value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  5. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  6. Four years of ozone measurements in the Central Amazon - Absorption mechanisms and reactions within the rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Stefan; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Saturno, Jorge; Souza, Rodrigo; Trebs, Ivonne; Sörgel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W) is located in the remote Amazon rainforest, allowing atmospheric and forest studies away from nearby anthropogenic emission sources. Starting with continuous measurements of vertical mixing ratio profiles of H2O, CO2 and O3 in April 2012 at 8 heights between 0.05 m and 80 m above ground, the longest continuous record of near surface O3 in the Amazon rainforest was established. Black carbon (BC), CO and micrometeorological measurements are available for the same period. During intensive campaigns, NOx was measured as well using the same profile system, and therefore several month of parallel NOx measurements are available. This data allows the analyses of diverse patterns regarding emission, deposition, turbulence and chemical reactions of trace gases within and above the rainforest for several rainy and dry seasons. The remote Amazon generally serves as a sink for O3 which is mainly deposited to the canopy. The deposition depends to a large extent on the aperture of the leaf stomata, which is correlated to temperature, humidity, solar radiation and water availability. Comparing these parameters with the in-canopy and above canopy gradients of O3, considering the turbulent conditions and further chemical reactions of O3 with NOx and VOC molecules, we estimated the role of the forest for the removal of ozone from the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. We applied the Multi-Layer Canopy Chemical Exchange Model - MLC-CHEM to support the analysis of the observed profiles of NOx and O3. Under pristine conditions, the forest soil is the major source for NO emissions, which are directly reacting with O3 molecules, affecting the O3 gradient within the sub-canopy. We have analyzed differences between model and measurements in sub-canopy NO and O3 mixing ratios by the application of different NO soil emission scenarios and by the performance of several sensitivity analyses to

  7. Seasonal Variation in the Distribution and Isotopic Composition of Phytoplankton in an Amazon Floodplain Lake, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caraballo Gracia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalão, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ13C and δ15N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 µm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant.  The fraction <10 µm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1‰ ~ -34.0‰, whereas the δ15N values showed strong variability (15.6‰ ~ 2.4‰, which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level. VARIACIÓN ESTACIONAL DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN ISOTÓPICA DEL FITOPLANCTON EN UN LAGO DE INUNDACIÓN EN LA AMAZONIA, BRASIL.   Con el propósito de evaluar la variación estacional de la abundancia isotópica (δ13C e δ15N del fitoplancton, muestreos mensuales fueron realizados entre octubre de 2007 y noviembre de 2008 en el lago Catalão, un lago de inundación en la zona de confluencia de los ríos Negro y Solimões, ubicado frente a la ciudad de Manaus (AM, Brasil. Análisis de la clorofila total y evaluaciones de la abundancia natural de δ13C y δ15N fueron realizados en las fracciones partículadas de 30-60, 10

  8. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  9. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  10. The steady-state mosaic of disturbance and succession across an old-growth Central Amazon forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Negron-Juarez, Robinson I; Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Di Vittorio, Alan; Tews, Joerg; Roberts, Dar; Ribeiro, Gabriel H P M; Trumbore, Susan E; Higuchi, Niro

    2013-03-05

    Old-growth forest ecosystems comprise a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the fraction of the landscape in any particular state relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. The size distribution and return frequency of disturbance events, and subsequent recovery processes, determine to a large extent the spatial scale over which this old-growth steady state develops. Here, we characterize this mosaic for a Central Amazon forest by integrating field plot data, remote sensing disturbance probability distribution functions, and individual-based simulation modeling. Results demonstrate that a steady state of patches of varying successional age occurs over a relatively large spatial scale, with important implications for detecting temporal trends on plots that sample a small fraction of the landscape. Long highly significant stochastic runs averaging 1.0 Mg biomass⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1) were often punctuated by episodic disturbance events, resulting in a sawtooth time series of hectare-scale tree biomass. To maximize the detection of temporal trends for this Central Amazon site (e.g., driven by CO2 fertilization), plots larger than 10 ha would provide the greatest sensitivity. A model-based analysis of fractional mortality across all gap sizes demonstrated that 9.1-16.9% of tree mortality was missing from plot-based approaches, underscoring the need to combine plot and remote-sensing methods for estimating net landscape carbon balance. Old-growth tropical forests can exhibit complex large-scale structure driven by disturbance and recovery cycles, with ecosystem and community attributes of hectare-scale plots exhibiting continuous dynamic departures from a steady-state condition.

  11. The role of spatial mobility in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of Porto Velho municipality, Rondônia, Brazil (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rafael Angelo

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region.This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil. Our dataset was obtained from the official health database, the population census and an environmental database. During 2000-2007 and 2007-2010, the Porto Velho municipality had an annual population growth of 1.42% and 5.07%, respectively. This population growth can be attributed to migration, which was driven by the construction of the Madeira River hydroelectric complex. From 2010 to 2012, 63,899 malaria-positive slides were reported for residents of Porto Velho municipality; 92% of the identified samples were autochthonous, and 8% were allochthonous. The flow map of patients' movements between residential areas and areas of suspected infection showed two patterns of malaria transmission: 1 commuting between residential areas and the Jirau hydropower dam reservoir, and 2 movements between urban areas and farms and resorts in rural areas. It was also observed that areas with greater occurrences of malaria were characterized by a low rate of deforestation.The Porto Velho municipality exhibits high malaria endemicity and plays an important role in disseminating the parasite to other municipalities in the Amazon and even to non-endemic areas of the country. Migration remains an important factor for the occurrence of malaria. However, due to recent changes in human occupation of the Brazilian Amazon, characterized by intense expansion of transportation networks, commuting has also become an important factor in malaria transmission. The magnitude of this change necessitates a new model to explain malaria transmission in the Brazilian

  12. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  13. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Thomas

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an

  14. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Soil Carbon Stock and Particle Size Fractions in the Central Amazon Predicted from Remotely Sensed Relief, Multispectral and Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos B. Ceddia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils from the remote areas of the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil are poorly mapped due to the presence of dense forest and lack of access routes. The use of covariates derived from multispectral and radar remote sensors allows mapping large areas and has the potential to improve the accuracy of soil attribute maps. The objectives of this study were to: (a evaluate the addition of relief, and vegetation covariates derived from multispectral images with distinct spatial and spectral resolutions (Landsat 8 and RapidEye and L-band radar (ALOS PALSAR for the prediction of soil organic carbon stock (CS and particle size fractions; and (b evaluate the performance of four geostatistical methods to map these soil properties. Overall, the results show that, even under forest coverage, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and ALOS PALSAR backscattering coefficient improved the accuracy of CS and subsurface clay content predictions. The NDVI derived from RapidEye sensor improved the prediction of CS using isotopic cokriging, while the NDVI derived from Landsat 8 and backscattering coefficient were selected to predict clay content at the subsurface using regression kriging (RK. The relative improvement of applying cokriging and RK over ordinary kriging were lower than 10%, indicating that further analyses are necessary to connect soil proxies (vegetation and relief types with soil attributes.

  16. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  17. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-06-17

    Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS

  18. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

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    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  20. Long seismic activity in the Porto dos Gaúchos Seismic Zone(PGSZ) - Amazon Craton Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L. V.; Bowen, B. M. D.; Schmidt, K.

    2017-12-01

    The largest earthquake ever observed in the stable continental interior of the South American plate occurred in Serra do Tombador (ST), Mato Grosso state - Brazil, on January 31, 1955 with magnitude 6.2 m b . Since then no other earthquake has been located near the 1955 epicenter. However, in Porto dos Gaúchos (PG), 100 km northeast of ST, a recurrent seismicity has been observed since 1959. Both ST and PG are located in the Phanerozoic Parecis basin whose sediments overlies the crystalline basement of Amazon craton. Two magnitude 5 earthquakes occurred in PG, in 1998 and 2005 with intensities up to VI and V, respectively. These two main shocks were followed by aftershock sequences, studied by local seismic networks, last up today, almost 30 years later, period in which it was detected more than seven thousand of seismic events. Both sequences occurred in the same WSW-ENE oriented fault zone with right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms. The epicentral zone is near the northern border of Parecis basin, where there are buried grabens, generally trending WNW-ESE, such as the deep Mesoproterozoic Caiabis graben which lies partly beneath the Parecis basin. The seismogenic fault is located in a basement high, which is probably related with the same seismogenic feature responsible for the earthquakes in PGSZ. The 1955 earthquake, despite the uncertainty in its epicenter, does not seem to be directly related to any buried graben either. The seismicity in the PGSZ, therefore, is not directly related to rifted crust.Not considering the possibility of miss location in the ST earthquake, its isolated occurrence - from the perspective of new studies on intraplate seismicity - lead us to think that the PGSZ was activated by stresses released by the earthquake of 1955 and that the seismogenic fault of ST would have closed a cycle of activity. This would explain its seismic quiescence. However, other studies are necessary to prove this hypothesis, such as the measurement of the

  1. Export of nutrients and major ionic solutes from a rain forest catchment in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesack, Lance F. W.

    1993-03-01

    The relative roles of base flow runoff versus storm flow runoff versus subsurface outflow in controlling total export of solutes from a 23.4-ha catchment of undisturbed rain forest in the central Amazon Basin were evaluated from water and solute flux measurements performed over a 1 year period. Solutes exported via 173 storms during the study were estimated from stream water samples collected during base flow conditions and during eight storms, and by utilizing a hydrograph separation technique in combination with a mixing model to partition storm flow from base flow fluxes. Solutes exported by subsurface outflow were estimated from groundwater samples from three nests of piezometers installed into the streambed, and concurrent measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head gradients. Base flow discharge represented 92% of water outflow from the basin and was the dominant pathway of solute export. Although storm flow discharge represented only 5% of total water outflow, storm flow solute fluxes represented up to 25% of the total annual export flux, though for many solutes the portion was less. Subsurface outflow represented only 2.5% of total water outflow, and subsurface solute fluxes never represented more than 5% of the total annual export flux. Measurement errors were relatively high for storm flow and subsurface outflow fluxes, but cumulative measurement errors associated with the total solute fluxes exported from the catchment, in most cases, ranged from only ±7% to 14% because base flow fluxes were measured relatively well. The export fluxes of most solutes are substantially less than previously reported for comparable small catchments in the Amazon basin, and these differences cannot be reconciled by the fact that storm flow and subsurface outflows were not appropriately measured in previous studies.

  2. Morphological and molecular identification of ticks infesting Boa constrictor (Squamata, Boidae in Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Leonardo Costa Fiorini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites.

  3. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  4. Hot moments of N2O transformation and emission in tropical soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon (Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liengaard, Lars; Figueiredo, Viviane; Markfoged, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetland soils emit large amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), especially following wetting of drained soil. We investigated seasonally drained wetland soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon, both with a natural high nitrate content and low pH. Here we report the effect of wetting on the produ......Tropical wetland soils emit large amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), especially following wetting of drained soil. We investigated seasonally drained wetland soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon, both with a natural high nitrate content and low pH. Here we report the effect of wetting...

  5. Solar-Aligned Pictographs at the Paleoindian Site of Painel do Pilão along the Lower Amazon River at Monte Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher Sean

    2016-01-01

    The archaeological sites near Monte Alegre, along Brazil's lower Amazon River, provide new information on the little-known activities and symbolism of South American Paleoindians toward the end of the Ice Age. While paleoindian sites like Monte Verde in Chile, or Guitarrero Cave in Peru, are located near the pacific coast, Monte Alegre lies much further inland, 680 km upriver from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Coast. With excavated wood charcoal radiocarbon dated as early as 13,200 calibrated years ago, the hill-as a source of sandstone and quartz lithics-supplied early pioneers with adequate tools needed for colonizing the interior of the continent. Once there, they painted rock art on the landscape, which bears a record of the sun's horizon positions throughout the year. At just 2° south of the equator, Monte Alegre shows no overt seasonal changes beyond fluctuating rainfall amounts, unlike at higher latitudes where temperature, amount of daylight, foliage, and forms of precipitation markedly change. Near the equator, solar and stellar horizon sightings most visibly track the passage of time and seasonal cycles. However, horizons are often hidden behind high forest canopy throughout much of the Amazon Rainforest; but in the Monte Alegre hill ridges looming above the river, paleoindians could hike above the canopy to peer at the horizon, more effectively synchronizing their activities to ecological cycles. This research suggests that Monte Alegre paleoindians delimited the azimuthal range of the sun in a solar year with notational pictographs aligned to horizon sightings at Painel do Pilão, and leaving a painted grid of tally marks that might have served as a rudimentary early calendar. The broad-reaching implication for early Americans is that through the strategic placement of rock art, these ancient artists fostered predictive archaeorecording from which resources could be optimally extracted, ceremonial activities could be consistently

  6. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Emidio da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La región amazónica es una de las más diversas áreas del mundo. Los estudios sobre la gran diversidad de bosques tropicales generan contribuciones relevantes en la comprensión de los mecanismos que originan y apoyan tal diversidad. En el presente estudio se describe la composición de las especies y la diversidad de 15 parcelas de una hectárea en el bosque denso amazónico terra firme en Brasil, y compara la similitud florística de estas parcelas con otras nueve parcelas de una hectárea. Las 15 parcelas estudiadas fueron seleccionadas al azar, en el 2005, de parcelas permanentes en el sitio experimental de Embrapa, Estado de Amazonas. La diversidad fue analizada utilizando la riqueza de especies y el índice de Shannon, así como el índice de Similitud de Sorensen; y como método de agrupación se utilizó el promedio no ponderado por grupo (UPGMA. La prueba de Mantel se llevó a cabo para estudiar si las diferencias en la composición de especies entre los sitios podrían ser explicadas por la distancia geográfica entre ellos. En general, se identificaron 8 771 individuos, 264 especies y 51 familias de plantas. La mayoría de las especies se concentraron en pocas familias y pocas tenían un gran número de individuos. Las familias que presentaron la mayor riqueza de especies fueron: Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp, Mimosoideae: 22spp, Sapotaceae: 22spp, Lecythidaceae: 15 y Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae tuvo el mayor número de individuos con un 11.8% del total. Las diez especies más abundantes fueron: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuos, Eschweilera coriacea (471, Licania oblongifolia (310, Pouteria minima (293, Ocotea cernua (258, Scleronema micranthum (197, Eschweilera collina (176, Licania apelata (172, Naucleopsis caloneura (170 y Psidium araca (152, que representó un 36.5% de todos los individuos. Aproximadamente en el 49% de las especies se encontraron hasta diez individuos, mientras que el 13% de las especies apareció sólo una vez en todas las parcelas de muestreo, lo que demuestra una alta presencia de especies raras. La zona de estudio se encuentra en un bosque con alta diversidad de especies de árboles, con un índice de diversidad de Shannon de 4.49. El dendrograma mostró dos grupos de parcelas con baja similitud entre ellas (menos de 0.25, y entre más cercanas las parcelas, más similares en composición de especies fueron (Mantel R=0.3627, p<0.01. Las 15 parcelas en nuestra área de estudio compartieron más del 50% de su composición de especies y representaron el grupo de parcelas con la menor distancia entre ellas. En general, nuestros resultados ponen de manifiesto la alta heterogeneidad local y regional de los ambientes de los bosques de terra firme, y la gran concurrencia de especies raras, lo cual debe ser considerado en los planes de manejo y conservación de la selva amazónica, con el fin de mantener su estructura a largo plazo.

  7. [Seasonality and landscape use by Tabanidae species (Diptera) in the Central Amazon, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L; Rafael, José A; Guerrero, José C H

    2010-01-01

    Adults of Tabanidae may become serious pests wherever they occur due to their attack to humans and others animals. Tabanids were captured near ground, water surface and at 25 m high on primary forests and forest gaps of anthropogenic origin, to understand their abundance, seasonality, diversity and similarity on such environments. Collections were carried out in the Base II of the War Instruction Center in the Jungle (CIGS) located at 54 km from Manaus municipality, Amazonas state. Two Malaise flight interception traps and four attraction traps (two suspended at 25 m high and two above the water surface of igarapé) were installed in forest gap and primary forest, areas for 10 consecutive days, during 15 months. A total of 2,643 specimens of 66 species were captured. Diachlorini (35 species /11 genera) was the most abundant tribe, followed by Tabanini (19 species /three genera), Chrysopsini (seven species /one genus) and Scionini (five species /two genera). Seventeen species were captured only in the primary forest, 11 in the anthropic clearing, and 38 species were common to both environments. The most abundant species were Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann), Tabanus occidentalis L, Chrysops laetus Fabricius and Tabanus angustifrons Macquart. The greatest richness was found in drier months (September/October) in both areas. Theforest gap showed higher abundance of specimens (1,827) than the primary forest (816). Traps suspended above the water surface were the most efficient (1,723 specimens) probably due to the dispersion of horseflies over small streams.

  8. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children’s conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother’s height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother’s characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  9. Radioanalytical assessment of sedimentation rates in Guajara Bay (Amazon Estuary, N Brazil). A study with unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricia Andrade Neves; Paulo Alves de Lima Ferreira; Marcia Caruso Bicego; Rubens Cesar Lopes Figueira

    2014-01-01

    Guajara Bay is an integral part of the Amazon Estuary system, and functions as the main receiver of urban and industrial wastes from the city of Belem, capital city of PA State (N Brazil). There is a lack of knowledge regarding quantitative measures of sedimentation, such as sedimentation rates, in the literature for this area of the Amazon Estuary. This study aimed the evaluation of recent (time range of 100 years) sedimentation rates in three sediment profiles collected in the coastal system of Guajara Bay with a radioanalytical approach of unsupported 210 Pb and 137 Cs modeling. The mean sedimentation rates for the cores obtained were 0.85 ± 0.12 cm year -1 for Anadim core, 1.02 ± 0.17 cm year -1 for Outeiro core and 0.53 ± 0.04 cm year -1 for Tucunduba core. With the use of three models of sedimentation rate models, it was observed that Anadim and Outeiro core presented constant sedimentation rates for the evaluated time range, but Tucunduba did not. This difference in sedimentation rates was probably due to their different sampling locations that present diverse hydrodynamic regime, with deposition of fine sediments in the upper area of the bay and stronger fluvial currents in the southernmost region. (author)

  10. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  11. Controls over spatial and seasonal variations on isotopic composition of the precipitation along the central and eastern portion of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Didier; Santos, Vinícius; Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Gromboni, João Felipe; Batista, Ludmila Vianna; Miotlinski, Konrad; Chang, Hung Kiang; Govone, José Silvio

    2017-10-01

    Based on Global Network Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) isotopic data set, a review of the spatial and temporal variability of δ 18 O and δ 2 H in precipitation was conducted throughout central and eastern Brazil, indicating that dynamic interactions between Intertropical and South Atlantic Convergence Zones, Amazon rainforest, and Atlantic Ocean determine the variations on the isotopic composition of precipitation over this area. Despite the seasonality and latitude effects observed, a fair correlation with precipitation amount was found. In addition, Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) air mass back trajectories were used to quantify the factors controlling daily variability in stable isotopes in precipitation. Through a linear multiple regression analysis, it was observed that temporal variations were consistent with the meteorological parameters derived from HYSPLIT, particularly precipitation amount along the trajectory and mix depth, but are not dependent on vapour residence time in the atmosphere. These findings also indicate the importance of convective systems to control the isotopic composition of precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions.

  12. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Luciana M.; Taffs, Kathryn; Stokes, Debra; Sanders, Christian J.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo; Marotta, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers). A sediment accumulation rate of ˜ 4 mm yr-1 for the previous ˜ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m-2 yr-1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC) burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer) during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer) during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in the floodplain of the Amazon Basin.

  13. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  14. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  15. Amazon soil charcoal: Pyrogenic carbon stock depends of ignition source distance and forest type in Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Carvalho, Lidiany C; Fearnside, Philip M; Nascimento, Marcelo T; Barbosa, Reinaldo I

    2018-04-18

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) derived from charcoal particles (paleo + modern) deposited in the soil column has been little studied in the Amazon, and our understanding of the factors that control the spatial and vertical distribution of these materials in the region's forest soils is still unclear. The objective of this study was to test the effect of forest type and distance from the ignition source on the PyC stocks contained in macroscopic particles of soil charcoal (≥2 mm; 1 m depth) dispersed in ecotone forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon. Thirty permanent plots were set up near a site that had been occupied by pre-Columbian and by modern populations until the late 1970s. The sampled plots represent seasonal and ombrophilous forests that occur under different hydro-edaphic restrictions. Our results indicate that the largest PyC stock was spatially dependent on distance to the ignition source ( 50 cm) in seasonal forests was limited by hydro-edaphic impediments that restricted the occurrence of charcoal. These results suggest that PyC stocks derived from macroscopic charcoal particles in the soil of this Brazilian Amazon ecotone region are controlled by the distance from the ignition source of the fire, and that forest types with higher hydro-edaphic restrictions can inhibit formation and accumulation of charcoal. Making use of these distinctions reduces uncertainty and improves our ability to understand the variability of PyC stocks in forests with a history of fire in the Amazon. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Increasing seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) with age confirms HHV-8 endemicity in Amazon Amerindians from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A M G; Caterino-de-Araujo, A; Costa, S C B; Santos-Fortuna, E; Boa-Sorte, N C A; Gonçalves, M S; Costa, F F; Galvão-Castro, B

    2005-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalences were determined in two isolated Amazon Amerindian tribes, according to age, gender and familial aggregation. Plasma and serum samples obtained from 982 Amazon Amerindians (664 Tiriyó and 318 Waiampi) were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens by using 'in-house' immunofluorescence assays. Overall, HHV-8 seroprevalence was 56.8 % (57.4 % in the Tiriyó tribe and 55.7 % in the Waiampi tribe). Seroprevalence was independent of gender and increased linearly with age: it was 35.0 % among children aged 2-9 years, 51.4 % in adolescents (10-19 years), 72.9 % in adults and 82.3 % in adults aged >50 years. Interestingly, 44.4 % of children under 2 years of age were HHV-8-seropositive. No significant differences in seroprevalence between tribes and age groups were detected. It is concluded that HHV-8 is hyperendemic in Brazilian Amazon Amerindians, with vertical and horizontal transmission during childhood, familial transmission and sexual contact in adulthood contributing to this high prevalence in these isolated populations.

  17. Child undernutrition in one of the cities with greater nutritional risk in Brazil: population-based study in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Silva-Nunes, Mônica da; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of child undernutrition and associated factors in a municipality with high nutritional risk in Brazil. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with a sample of 478 children aged under 5 years in the city of Jordão, Acre, Brazil. The following indicators were calculated: weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for height (W/H), using the growth curves of the WHO as reference, which adopts a cutoff of -2 z scores for identification of malnourished children. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were obtained using multiple Poisson regression models with robust error estimate (p history of introduction of cow's milk before 30 days of age (PR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0 - 1.8). Children with updated vaccination cards were inversely associated with stunting risk (PR = 0.7; 95%CI 0.5 - 0.9). Child undernutrition remains a serious public health problem in the Amazon, indicating additional difficulties in facing the problem in this region of the country.

  18. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sanders

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers. A sediment accumulation rate of  ∼ 4 mm yr−1 for the previous  ∼ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m−2 yr−1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in

  19. Esterase-D and chromosome patterns in Central Amazon piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 from Lake Catalão

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents additional genetic data on piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 complex previously diagnosed due to the presence of distinct cytotypes 2n = 58 and 2n = 60. Three esterase-D enzyme loci (Est-D1, Est-D2 and Est-D3 were examined and complemented with chromosomal data from 66 piranha specimens collected from Lake Catalão. For all specimens the Est-D1 and Est-D2 loci were monomorphic. In contrast, the Est-D3 locus was polymorphic with genotypes and alleles being differentially distributed in the previously described cytotypes and served as the basis for detecting a new cytotype (2n = 60 B. In cytotype 2n = 58 the Est-D3 locus was also polymorphic and presented Mendelian allelic segregation with four genotypes (Est-D3(11, Est-D3(12, Est-D3(22 and Est-D3(33 out of six theoretically possible genotypes, presumably encoded by alleles Est-D3¹ (frequency = 0.237, EsT-D3² (0.710 and Est-D3³ (0.053. A Chi-squared (chi2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was applied to the Est-D3 locus and revealed a genetic unbalance in cytotype 2n = 58, indicating the probable existence in the surveyed area of different stocks for that karyotypic structure. A silent null allele (Est-D3(0 with a high frequency (0.959 occurred exclusively in the 2n = 60 cytotype. On the other hand, the new cytotype 2n = 60 B described here for the first time was monomorphic for the presumably fixed Est-D3³ allele. The data as a whole should contribute to the better understanding the rhombeus complex taxonomic status definition in the Central Amazon.

  20. Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard de Mérona

    Full Text Available Diets of most of fish species inhabiting a floodplain lake in central Amazonia were studied over a two years and half period. Based on the percentage of relative occurrence of 11 major food categories a classification of species in 11 feeding guilds is proposed. Many species were found to be specialized feeders. Fish, detritus and insects were the most important food resources supporting the fish community in both seasons, but the proportions of fruits, invertebrates and fish were reduced during the low water season. At the community level mean diet overlap between species was low, suggesting efficient resource partitioning within the community. However mean overlap between unspecialized feeders was high. Based on the 23 most abundant species belonging to the different feeding guilds, there was no difference in mean overlap between seasons. Whereas individual species exhibited diet changes between high water and low water seasons, there was no general pattern of seasonal change within feeding guilds.

  1. Soil health assessment and maintenance in Central and South Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil has evolved from a food insecure country in the early 1970´s into one of the most important food producers and exporters in the world. During the past 45 years, a science-based advanced tropical agriculture was developed throughout Brazil. Production has increased steadily and productivity ga...

  2. Biogeography of squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri): South-central Amazon origin and rapid pan-Amazonian diversification of a lowland primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Boubli, Jean P; Paim, Fernanda P; Ribas, Camila C; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Messias, Mariluce R; Röhe, Fabio; Mercês, Michelle P; Silva Júnior, José S; Silva, Claudia R; Pinho, Gabriela M; Koshkarian, Gohar; Nguyen, Mai T T; Harada, Maria L; Rabelo, Rafael M; Queiroz, Helder L; Alfaro, Michael E; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The Rondônia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the "Young Amazon" hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S

  3. Determinação de idade e crescimento do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus na Amazônia Central Age and growth of mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocy Cutrim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa contribuir para a conservação e manejo do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus, um importante recurso pesqueiro de exportação do Amazonas para o qual é necessário conhecer informações essenciais de sua dinâmica de populações. Para contribuir à esta finalidade, o presente trabalho estabeleceu como objetivo identificar o par de otólito mais adequado para leitura de anéis etários, determinar os parâmetros de crescimento do mapará (H. marginatus, Amazônia Central, Amazonas - Brasil. O trabalho foi efetuado através da análise de otólitos coletados no período de dezembro de 1996 á agosto de 1997. Os otólitos escolhidos foram os asteriscus, sendo a leitura efetuada em lupa estereoscópica com monitor acoplado. As marcas de crescimento foram validadas por meio da análise do incremento marginal relativo, sendo encontrado dois anéis/ano. Os valores estimados para os parâmetros no período foram L¥ = 52,63 cm; k = 0,555 ano; to = -0,029 e M = 0,552. O ciclo hidrológico e comportamento reprodutivo estão relacionados com a marcação de anéis etários.The present work seeks to contribute for the conservation and management of the mapará(Hypophthalmus marginatus, an important export fishing resource of Amazonas for which is necessary to know essential information of its population dynamics. To contribute to this purpose, the present work established as objective to identify a structure for reading of age rings, to determine the parameters of growth of the mapará (H. marginatus, Central Amazon, Amazonas - Brazil. The work was made through the otoliths analysis collected in the period of December of 1996 to August of 1997. The otolith chosen for reading was the asteriscus, being the reading made in a stereomicroscope with coupled monitor. The mark structures were validated by means of the analysis of the relative marginal increment, being found two rings. The values estimated for the parameters in the

  4. (210)Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, José Reinaldo Cardoso; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-04-01

    Activity profiles of excess (210)Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapá city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapá State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapá State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na(2)O, K(2)O, CaO, MgO, Al(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Fe(2)O(3) and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm(-2)yr(-1) were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The (210)Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapá State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First Medicolegal Forensic Entomology Case of Central Amazon: A Suicide by Hanging with Incomplete Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Este relato descreve o primeiro caso de entomologia forense médico-legal na Amazônia Central. Um suicídio por enforcamento ocorrido em um platô de “terra firme” em floresta primária. A estimativa de intervalo pós-morte foi calculada com base na biologia da mosca varejeira Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e também pelo padrão de sucessão ecológica do besouro silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm. Este é o primeiro caso onde as informações ecológicas de um besouro foram usadas como indicador forense no Brasil. Estudos preliminares realizados em área urbana na cidade de Manaus e em hábitat semelhante em floresta primária, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, próximo do local onde o caso ocorreu, foram fundamentais para ajudar para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte.

  6. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  7. Isotopic composition of precipitations in Brazil: isothermic models and the influence of evapotranspiration in the Amazonic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Olio, Attilio.

    1976-11-01

    The simplest theoretical models of the isotopic fractionation of water during equilibrium isothermical processes are analized in detail. The theoretical results are applied to the interpretation of the stable isotope concentrations in the precipitations of 11 Brazilian cities that belong to the international network of IAEA/WMO. The analysis shows that the experimental data are fairly consistent with such equilibrium models; no non-equilibrium processes need to be assumed. The study of the stable isotope content of precipitations in the Amazonic Basin suggests some modifications to the models in order that the evapotranspiration contribution to the vapour balance be taken into account [pt

  8. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy; Narvaez Mauro, Jane Beatriz; Roulet, Marc; Meili, Markus; Hylander, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, some new data have brought light on the Hg cycle in the Amazon. Roulet et al (1998 and 1999) found high natural Hg contents in soils and showed that soil erosion, due to agriculture and other human activities, had increased the Hg burdens in aquatic systems. They also showed that, surprisingly, the activity of goldminers on many upstream affluents of the Tapajos river did not result in downstream gradients in dissolved or particulate Hg. Our own data (Malm et al, 1995, 1997) from long term surveys show little or no reduction in fish or human hair Hg levels in different water basins, despite a 3 to 10-fold decrease in goldmining activities since 1990. Regardless of the on-going debate on the relative magnitude of natural and man-made Hg sources in the Amazon, Hg is being transported and increasingly accumulated in productive lakes and floodplains in all the Amazon basin, leading riverine populations to unsafe Hg exposure levels. This Hg transport is done mainly in the particulate form, and the floating vegetation is a very efficient particle trap, besides providing support to an abundant periphyton, features that favor MeHg formation and bio-availability. A high Hg methylation potential in macrophytes is relevant for many reasons. This characteristic tropical aquatic vegetation produces highly bioavailable MeHg, because of its high standing stock (1 kg dw. m -2 , Sioli, 1986) in direct contact with the water column and very high relative area. Because the root zone of these floating aquatic plants is densely populated by a varied fauna of invertebrates and fish and represents an essential carbon source for aquatic food chains, it may constitute a major pathway of MeHg uptake into tropical aquatic food webs. In contrast, the production of MeHg in surface sediments is ∼30 times lower than in macrophyte roots, its bioavailability is probably limited, as well as the sediment-water flux of MeHg. Moreover, the role of floating meadows as important

  9. "Plantas con madre": plants that teach and guide in the shamanic initiation process in the East-Central Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, X; Clavo, Z M; Jovel, E M; Pardo-de-Santayana, M

    2011-04-12

    of the population in the Amazon region. Our research suggests that the system of dietas and the plantas con madre are fundamental components of the everyday practice of traditional medicine, maintenance of cultural continuity and Indigenous cosmovisions in the Amazonian societies in East-Central Peru. This paper contributes to filling the gap in the understanding of the process of initiation among healers in this area of the world. The study offers evidence of the need to collaborate with Indigenous healers to improve the recognition of their medical practices, role in their societies, and the value of their tools and medicines. A respectful attitude and open exchange of ideas and information may contribute to a better understanding of the language used by traditional medical practitioners, their practice, and their worldviews. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE LBA PROJECT: NUTRIENT CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE IN SAVANNAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cerrado of central Brazil is one of the largest savannah regions on Earth. The stressors affecting ecosystems in this region, including deforestation, fire, soil degradation, unwise agricultural practices, climate change, and urbanization, are all experienced in many U. S. ec...

  11. Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae in central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber A. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on diet, activity, habitat use, and anti-predator behavior are presented for a population of Pseudis bolbodactyla in central Brazil. The most common diet items were diurnal plant-associated insects. Pseudis bolbodactyla shows both diurnal and nocturnal activity and uses mainly areas with aquatic vegetation (submerged and emergent. Individuals detect predators Visually and through vibrations in the water.

  12. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  13. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  14. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry on Environmental studies concerning ages of holocene fires in Central amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Anjos, R. M.; Lubian, J.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.; Sifeddine, A.; Di Tada, M.; Cresswell, R. G.; Fifield, L. K.

    1999-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique was used to determine the radiocarbon age of Holocene fires in forests of the Amazon Region. Most of the ages were found to be within the 1000-1500 years range. These disturbances were probably caused by climatic anomalies, and they have modified the structure and dynamics of the region vegetation

  15. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic Land Cover...

  17. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  18. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  19. Evaluation of paleovegetation changes in the northwest part of the Amazon region, Brazil: a carbon isotope approach in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, B.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Aravena, R.

    1995-01-01

    Full text. Numerous studies have focused on the understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the amazon region and its realtion to climate. The research approaches in these studies have involved the use of biological, geomorphologic and botanical tools, (1,2). Our approach involves the use of 13 and 14 C analyses in soil organic mater t infer past vegeation changes in the Amazon region (3). This is based on the distinct composition that characterize the C 3 and C 4 plants, that formed the different vegetation communities that exist in the Amazon region. 14 C used as a dating tool. This paper present data in soils collected in the Rondonia State, located in the northwestern part of the Amazon region. The soils were collected along a transect that include four distinct vegetation communities, ranging from a Cerrado type vegetation (southern part), dominated by C 4 grasses, to a tropical forest (northern part). The soils types are Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo at the Cerrado, Cerrado-transition and forest-transition sites, and Podzolico Vermelho amarelo at the forest site. 14 C data obtained in total soil organic matter, humin fraction and charcoal indicate that the organic matterin these soils is at least Holocene in age. The forest and the forest-transition sites area characterized by typical δ 13 C profiles (-29 to -24 0/00), indicating the predominance of C 3 plants during the past in this region. The Cerrado-transition sites show a significant change in δ 13 C from -27.5 0/00 at the surface to -19 0/00 at 30 cm. This value changed toward more depleted δ 13 C values at the 90-100 cm depth interval, reaching a value of -30 0/00 at 190-200 cm depth interval. This trend has to be associated to a change from a forest type vegetation (190-200 cm to 130-140 cm), to a vegetation community with a mayor influence of C 4 palnts recorded i the interval between 110-120 to 20-23 cm depth. The δ 13 C values at the Cerrado sites are the more enriched ones observed in this study

  20. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as ...

  1. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 634-638 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pseudoproleptus * Macrobrachium * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  2. Uncovering spatial patterns in the natural and human history of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E.; Alcázar Caicedo, C.; McMichael, C.H.; Corvera, R.; Loo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our goal was to test the hypothesis that ancient humans substantially contributed to shaping the current distribution of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an Amazonian tree species that has been important for human livelihoods since pre-Columbian times. We scrutinized the putative association

  3. Swine manure application effects on ammonia volatilization, forage quality, and yield in the Pre-Amazon Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of swine manure as a nutrient source for pastures is increasingly common in Brazil, due to its low cost. However, this practice can cause nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural soil, where ammonia volatilization may be the main drawback, generating undesirable economic and environmental consequ...

  4. Assessment of DDT and Metabolites in Soil and Sediment of Potentially Contaminated Areas of Belém, Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andreia Oliveira; de Souza, Larissa Costa; da Silva Rocha, Cássia Christina; da Costa, Amilton Cesar Gomes; de Alcântara Mendes, Rosivaldo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of DDT and metabolites in surface soils and soil profiles from two areas containing deposits of obsolete pesticides in Belém, Amazon Region, Brazil. DDT and metabolites were extracted by microwave assisted extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of total DDT in surface soil samples ranged from 64.22 mg kg -1 in area 1 (A1) to 447.84 mg kg -1 in area 2 (A2). Lower levels were found in soil profiles than at the surface (6.21-21.17 mg kg -1 in A1 and 36.13-113.66 mg kg -1 in A2). pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD were detected in sediments at levels of 2.01, 0.96 and 0.35 mg kg -1 , respectively. The ratio (DDE + DDD)/ΣDDT was low indicating the recent introduction of DDT to the environment in the two study areas, through the volatilization and atmospheric deposition of the obsolete pesticides.

  5. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve

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    Marco Antonio de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months, through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators, including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  6. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marco Antonio; Vieira, Ruhan Saldanha; Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Sousa, Samantha Oliveira E; Farias, Tayse; Sousa, Alanna Grazieli; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months), through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators), including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  7. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from faeces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P

    2014-12-01

    In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (PLactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera.

  8. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

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    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  9. Abbreviated larval development of Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae from an Amazon Basin forest stream, Brazil, reared in the laboratory

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    Célio Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper brings the description and illustrations of the abbreviated larval development of the Amazonian freshwater palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982. The study was based on ovigerous females (mean total body length of 27.0 ± 1.64 mm collected in a small forest stream in the Reserva Florestal Ducke, near Manaus, Brazil, of which four released their larvae in the laboratory. The females carried 8 to 19 eliptical (2.39 ± 0.10 X 1.67 ± 0.08 mm, yolk-rich eggs. The larval period consists of three benthic, lecithotrophic larval stages, and lasts 10-11 days. The newly-hatched larvae bear very advanced morphological features such as antenna with several marginal plumose seta on scaphocerite and long, multi-articulated flagellum; fully developed, functional uniramous pereiopods 3-5 (walking legs and biramous pleopods. The morphology of the carapace, all appendages of the cephalothorax and pleon, and the tail fan are described in detail and illustrated. The larval form was considered to be a decapodid because of the benthic behavior and due to the fact that functional walking legs and pleopods are the main structures for displacement and propulsion. The larval development of M. inpa is compared with those of the so-called "continental" group of the caridean shrimps from the Amazon River basin.

  10. Serum cholinesterase polymorphism (CHE1 and CHE2 loci) among several Indian groups from Amazon region of Brazil, and segregation of the C5 variant in families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, J F; Santos, S E; Aguiar, G F

    1989-04-01

    Eight Indian tribes from the Amazon region of Brazil (Araweté, Arara, Yamamadi, Kararaô, Karitiana, Waiampi, Surui and Cinta Larga) were studied for the distribution of the atypical and C5 variants of serum cholinesterase. None of them presented the CHE1*A allele, but the C5 variant was found in the Araweté (20.4%), Kararaô (15.6%), Karitiana (50.5%), Surui (12.3%) and Cinta Larga (19.6%) tribes. The frequency of the C5+ phenotype in the Karitiana is the highest reported thus far in human populations. Segregation studies considering the C5 variant were made among the Karitiana, and also among the Urubu-Kaapor and Munduruku tribes previously studied by Guerreiro et al [1987a, 1987b]. Most of the data were in agreement with the genetic hypothesis, but they also revealed a significant lack of the C5+ phenotype in offspring from C5+ X C5+ matings, as well as the occurrence of two C5+ children from C5- X C5- unions, in the Urubu-Kaapor tribe.

  11. Braga nasuta (Cymothoidae: an ectoparasite of the Giant Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae fingerlings cultured in the Amazon region in Northern Brazil

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    Elson Cardoso de Jesus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Isopods Cymothoidae are organisms that parasitize several fish species, both marine and freshwater, provoking important physiological alterations and secondary infections. The genus Braga was proposed to harbor three species of parasitic isopods in freshwater fish from South America: B. brasiliensis, B. cichlae and B. nasuta. Posteriorly, other four species were included: B. patagonica, B. amapaensis, B. fluviatilis and B. bachmanni. Regarding the geographical distribution of the genus, there are registers in Brazil, Argentina, Suriname and Paraguay. In this study, 3,625 fingerlings of pirarucu Arapaima gigas were examined from a commercial fish farm in the Amazon region, Pará State, to observe and identify possible parasites. A total of eleven ectoparasitic isopods were carefully removed from the body surface of the hosts and fixed in alcohol 70%. They were processed and identified as Braga nasuta. Parasitological indexes were prevalence of 0.303%, mean intensity of 1.000±0.000 and mean abundance of 0.003±0.055. This is the first report of B. nasuta in pirarucu fingerlings.

  12. A possible correlation between the host genetic background in the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    A. K. C. R. Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region of Brazil is an area of great interest because of the large distribution of hepatitis B virus in specific Western areas. Seven urban communities and 24 Indian groups were visited in a total of 4,244 persons. Each individual was interviewed in order to obtain demographic and familial information. Whole blood was collected for serology and genetic determinations. Eleven genetic markers and three HBV markers were tested. Among the most relevant results it was possible to show that (i there was a large variation of previous exposure to HBV in both urban and non-urban groups ranging from 0 to 59.2%; (ii there was a different pattern of epidemiological distribution of HBV that was present even among a same linguistic Indian group, with mixed patterns of correlation between HBsAg and anti-HBs and (iii the prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg and anti-HBs were significantly higher (P=0.0001 among the Indian population (18.8% than the urban groups (12.5%. Its possible that the host genetic background could influence and modulate the replication of the virus in order to generate HB carrier state.

  13. Hematologic and Total Plasma Protein Values in Free-Living Red-tailed Amazon Parrot Nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Cavalheiro, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacid species that is endemic in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic coastal region. Hematologic evaluation is important to monitor the health of these birds, and information about laboratory values for this species is scarce. Hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for 33 free-living nestling parrots in Paraná state, Brazil. Parrots were temporarily removed from the nest and manually restrained to record body weight and collect blood samples. Mean body weight was 400 g in 20 birds (group 2). Significantly higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, monocytes, and basophils were observed in younger birds (group 1). A stress leukogram (high white blood cell and heterophil count) was found in all nestlings, suggesting stress induced by capture and restraint. Parameters obtained in this study will be essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild parrots, to evaluate the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species.

  14. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  15. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5

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    S. T. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0 upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km. In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1 observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2 also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  16. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  17. Oral health of the Paleoamericans of Lagoa Santa, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Gloria, Pedro; Larsen, Clark Spencer

    2014-05-01

    The peopling, origins, and early prehistory of the Americas are topics of intense debate. However, few studies have used human remains to document and interpret patterns of health and lifestyle of Paleoamericans. This study provides the first investigation to characterize oral health in a series of early Holocene skeletal remains from Lagoa Santa, Brazil, a locality containing the remains of some of the earliest inhabitants of South America (10,000-7,000 BP). The sample is composed of 949 teeth and 1925 alveoli from an estimated 113 individuals excavated from 17 archaeological sites located in the State of Minas Gerais. We compare dental caries and abscess prevalence at Lagoa Santa to a large sample of human skeletons from the Western Hemisphere Project (WHP) database using both individual and tooth/alveolus count methods. In addition, antemortem tooth loss and tooth wear were analyzed in Lagoa Santa by sex and age. The results show that Lagoa Santa dental caries and abscess prevalence are significantly higher than observed among other hunter-gatherers included in the WHP database, except when abscess prevalence is considered by individual count. Adult females have less tooth wear coupled with higher prevalence of dental caries and antemortem tooth loss than adult males. These results point to an unexpected record of poor oral health at Lagoa Santa, especially among females. A diet based on a highly cariogenic combination of wild tubers and fruits is suggested as an explanation for the elevated rate, characterizing an early adaptation to a tropical environment in South America. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anemia and hemoglobin levels among Indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aline Alves; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Souza, July Anne Mendonça de; Welch, James R; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of anemia, mean hemoglobin levels, and the main nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors among Xavante children in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A survey was conducted with children under 10 years of age in two indigenous Xavante communities within the Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve. Hemoglobin concentration levels, anthropometric measurements, and socioeconomic/demographic data were collected by means of clinical measurements and structured interviews. The cut-off points recommended by the World Health Organization were used for anemia classification. Linear regression analyses with hemoglobin as the outcome and Poisson regression with robust variance and with the presence or absence of anemia as outcomes were performed (95%CI). Lower mean hemoglobin values were observed in children under 2 years of age, without a significant difference between sexes. Anemia was observed among 50.8% of children overall, with the highest prevalence among children under 2 years of age (77.8%). Age of the child was inversely associated with the occurrence of anemia (adjusted PR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.38-0.95) and mean hemoglobin values increased significantly with age. Greater height-for-age z-score values reduced the probability of having anemia by 1.8 times (adjusted PR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.34-1.00). Presence of another child with anemia within the household increased the probability of the occurrence of anemia by 52.9% (adjusted PR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.16-3.09). Elevated levels of anemia among Xavante children reveal a disparity between this Indigenous population and the national Brazilian population. Results suggest that anemia is determined by complex and variable relationships between socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and biological factors.

  19. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution.

  20. AMAZON HADOOP FRAMEWORK USED IN BUSINESS FOR BIG DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ankush Verma*, Dr Neelesh Jain

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon MapReduce programming model, introduced by Amazon, a simple and efficient way of performing distributed computation over large data sets on the web especially for e-commerce. Amazon EMR work on Master/Slave Architecture using Amazon EMR for map and reduce big data. Amazon EC2 use cloud computing is a central part of designed web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. Here we also discuss about the Benefit and limitation of using Amazon EMR. Amazon S3 use eas...

  1. Investigation of sewage contamination using steroid indexes in sediments of the Guajará Estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil

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    Heyde Gonçalves Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazonian aquatic systems are usually associated with pristine waters, however, irregular urban occupation of the hydrographic basins and sewerage deficiencies may lead to point and diffuse contamination. Sewage contamination in intertidal surface sediments from the Guajará Estuary, Brazilian Amazon coast, was evaluated using a set of steroids as biomarkers. Sediments collected along the urbanized margin were also analyzed for chlorophyll a, total organic carbon and grain sizes. Coprostanol, the main fecal sterol, was found at concentrations varying from 0.06 to 7.93 µg g-1 dry sediment, following the sequence Tucunduba > Ver-o-Peso > Porto da Palha > Tamandaré > Icoaraci > Miramar. Mixed sources of organic matter and coastal process probably concurred to produce weak correlations among the parameters. Plant derived sterols, including n-C30 alcohol and β-amyrinyl alkanoates, were clearly abundant, but they did not preclude the use of other steroid signals to the assessment of sewage contamination. High values of the steroid indexes involving 5α and 5β stanols and stanones highlighted sewage contamination at the sites with the lowest absolute coprostanol concentrations. The predominance of 5β stanols indicated a chronically sewage contamination of the area.

  2. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  3. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  4. Are there co-occurrence patterns that structure snake communities in Central Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, F G R; Araújo, A F B

    2007-02-01

    The main factors that structure Neotropical animal communities have been the subject of discussion in ecology communities. We used a set of null models to investigate the existence of structure in snake communities from the Cerrado in Central Brazil in relation to the co-occurrence of species and guilds concerning specific resources. We used fragments (conservation units) inside the Distrito Federal and neighbor municipalities. In spite of recent human colonization in the region from the end of the 1950s, intense habitat modification and fragmentation has taken place. Sixty three snake species are present in the Distrito Federal. Co-occurrence analysis of species and guilds associated to snake diets and habitats suggested a lack of organization. The homogeneity of habitats in Central Brazil and the minor importance of ecological effects can lead to random arrangement.

  5. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revêem os aspectos ecoepidemiológicos apresentados pelos virus da encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites equinas Leste (EEE, Oeste (WEE e Venezuelana [subtipos III, Mucambo (MUC e IV, Pixuna (PIX], decorrentes dos estudos realizados em diversas áreas da Região Amazônica brasileira, especialmente ao longo das rodovias e projetos de desenvolvimento. Esses vírus são amplamente distribuídos na Amazônia e pelo menos quatro deles, EEE, WEE, MUC e SLE já demonstraram ser patógenos do homem. O diagnóstico da doença humana foi feito por sorologia, sendo que de MUC e SLE obteve-se também isolamento viral. O vírus PIX, parece ser o menos prevalente e foi isolado em poucas oportunidades. Virtualmente se desconhecem os vetores do PIX e WEE. As aves silvestres constituem os hospedeiros principais de todos esses vírus, exceto do MUC, para o qual constituem os roedores. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes infectados na Amazônia é discutido, comparando-o ao apresentado em outras áreas, especialmente nos EUA, onde periodicamente SLE, EEE e WEE causam surtos de doença humana. Nenhuma epidemia foi até o presente detectada, embora em 1960 uma epizootia em eqüinos causada pelo EEE tenha sido registrada em Bragança, Pará, onde em um rebanho de 500 animais ocorreu uma letalidade de 5%. Quatro outras pequenas epizootias determinadas pelo SLE ocorreram nas florestas adjacentes a Belém, envolvendo aves silvestres e animais sentinelas.An overview of ecological, epidemiological and clinical findings of potential arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses circulating in the Amazon Region of Brazil are discussed. These viruses are the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE, Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE, St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE, Mucambo (MUC and Pixuna (PIX. These last two are subtypes (HI and IV of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. The areas of study were the highways and projects of development, as well as places where

  6. Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in a rocky Cerrado habitat in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Faria,R. G.; Araujo,A. F. B.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the ecology of Tropidurus itambere and T. oreadicus that occur syntopically in rocky habitats of Cerrado vegetation in central Brazil during the dry season (April to September 2000). The two species are ecologically similar, but somewhat differentiated in vertical microhabitat use. The two species preferred rocky surface microhabitat. Both species demonstrated a unimodal activity pattern, with a peak between 10 and 15 h. Their diets were similar in composition and prey size. The mo...

  7. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Higuchi, Niro; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2014-03-01

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949-54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9-17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies.

  8. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan V; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949–54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9–17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies. (paper)

  9. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate residues in the midgut of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) from colony and field populations from Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Davi Marcos Souza; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; de Sena, Chubert Bernardo Castro; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Thiago; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Silva, Edilene Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis are worldwide diseases that occur in 98 countries including Brazil, transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomines during blood feeding. In Brazil it is known that some species of sand flies as Lutzomyia longipalpis sensun latum (vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Lutzomyia antunesi [suspected vector of Leishmania (Viannia) lindenbergi] are incriminated of transmitting the parasite Leishmania for the vertebrate host. The phlebotomine-parasite is mediated by the attachment of the promastigote lipophosphoglycan (LPG) to the midgut epithelium. However, another mechanism that is LPG-independent and mediated by N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) seems to occur in some species of phlebotomines that are classified as permissive. The aim of this study was to characterize the carbohydrate residues that, probably, play a role in parasite attachment to the midgut of phlebotomine from colony and field populations from the Brazilian Amazonian region. We observed the presence of GalNAc, mannose, galactose and GlcNAc in all phlebotomine species. A binding assay between L. (L.) amazonensis and L. i.chagasi to the midguts of different species of phlebotomines was performed. The attachment of both Leishmania and vector species suggests the presence of GalNAc on the midgut surfaces. Thus, these results suggested that GalNAc is a possible binding sites of Leishmania in sand flies from the Brazilian Amazonian region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Damage by Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Pentatomidae) to Upland Rice Cultivated in Amazon Rainforest Region (Brazil) at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, D; Foerster, L A

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the damage caused in the field by Tibraca limbativentris Stål adults at different levels of infestation (0, 1, 2, and 4 stink bugs) per three rice plants during three growth stages (V8, V13, and R4 stages) of upland rice cultivated in southwestern of Pará State, Amazon Rainforest region, Brazil. Heading time (panicle exertion) was affected by T. limbativentris infestations mainly in the vegetative stage and the whiteheads percentage in treatments ranged from 18.2 to 38%. The dead hearts percentages varied between 0 and 21.5%, and the mean number of primary branches (ramifications) ranged from 5.9 ± 0.4 to 12.3 ± 0.2. The number of empty spikelets was only affected in infestations with four insects/three plants, while the quantity of filled grains per panicle was affected only when infestations occurred during the vegetative stage. The total number of spikelets (filled + empty) per panicle decreased significantly in all phenological stages, and the percentage of damage ranged from 17 to 44% among treatments. Based on the proportion of damage observed, we suggest doubling the number of insects presently used as action threshold to 2 and 4 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled for the vegetative stage, and of 1 or 2 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled at the beginning of reproductive stage (R3/R4). Also, the field should be monitored during the entire vegetative stage, since most damage was observed in this phenological stage.

  12. Decentralization and centralization in a federal system: the case of democratic Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the contradictory impulses towards decentralization and centralization in Brazil during the 1990s and early 2000s. After discussing the analytical issues related to the specific nature of decentralization in federal systems, the paper examines two sets of policy issues: those regulating the fiscal relations between national and sub-national governments and those redefining responsibilities for social services provision (basic education, health care, social assistance. Against conventional academic wisdom, it sustains that although there has been some re-centralization of fiscal decisions and of targeted income transfer programs, a clear re-centralization tendency cannot be siad to exist. Decentralization and centralization trends coexist propelled by different forces, with different motives and different outcomes.

  13. Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Maia da Costa de Faro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd levels in blood donors in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010-2011. Mean serum Cd was 0.37µg/L (95%CI: 0.33-0.41. Increased serum Cd was associated with lower schooling; individuals with less than five years of schooling showed a mean Cd of 0.61µg/L (95%CI: 0.34-0.89, compared to 0.34µg/L (95%CI: 0.28-0.40 among those with more than nine years of schooling. Mean serum Cd was three times higher among smokers. Smoking showed a positive association with Cd level, with an OR of 12.36 (95%CI: 7.70-19.84. Meanwhile, serum Cd was lower among individuals that regularly drank tea, as compared to non-tea drinkers. Serum Cd levels were mostly below the reference value (88.3% of participants. Mean serum Cd in the current study indicates that in general the population studied here is not exposed to worrisome Cd levels.

  14. Elemental hydrochemistry and hydro geochemistry of the uranium isotopes in Alter do Chao formation, Manaus (Amazon - Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcio Luiz da; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The water exploitation at Manaus city, Amazonas State, Brazil, takes place from Negro River and tubular wells, being performed by a private company. This paper evaluates the hydrochemistry and geochemical behavior of uranium isotopes ( 238 U and 234 U) in groundwaters from Manaus city, with the aim to characterize the contaminants or pollutants that possibly are affecting the quality of the underground hydrological resources, as well as to evaluate the potential use of the natural U-isotopes as hydrological tracers in the aquifer studied. The U-isotopes analysis allowed to determine 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios of 1.2-4.4, and dissolved uranium concentration of 0.003-1.1 μg.L -1 (ppb). These results and those concerning the others parameters indicated that the waters are appropriate for human consumption, permitting to classify the hydrological system as acid-reducing, and to say that the waters leach minerals in strata containing low U content.(author)

  15. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorneles@biof.ufrj.br; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta [Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul, IBAMA, 88301-700 Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: gibteuthis@yahoo.com.br; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Populacoes Marinhas, UNIRIO, 22290-240 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauloascosta@uol.com.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: azevedo.alex@uol.com.br; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in {mu}g/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 {mu}g/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods.

  16. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in μg/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 μg/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods

  17. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Raggio, Ronir; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the association between pesticide exposure in Brazil (2005-2013) with rates of central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) congenital abnormalities in 2014. An exposure variable was established from data on production and sales of pesticides (kg) per crop area (ha) for 2012 and 2013 years. The Brazilian states were divided into three categories: high, medium, and low pesticide use and rate ratios were estimated for each group of states (CI: 95 %). In 2013 and 2014, the high use group presented a 100 and a 75 % increase, and the medium group a 65 and 23 % increase, respectively, in the risk of CNS and CVS congenital abnormalities at birth, compared to the low use group. These findings suggest that pesticide exposure could be associated with increased risk of congenital malformations at birth in Brazil.

  18. Mercury exposure, malaria, and serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies in amazon populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burek CL

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is an immunotoxic metal that induces autoimmune disease in rodents. Highly susceptible mouse strains such as SJL/N, A.SW, B10.S (H-2s develop multiple autoimmune manifestations after exposure to inorganic mercury, including lymphoproliferation, elevated levels of autoantibodies, overproduction of IgG and IgE, and circulating immune complexes in kidney and vasculature. A few studies have examined relationships between mercury exposures and adverse immunological reactions in humans, but there is little evidence of mercury-associated autoimmunity in humans. Methods To test the immunotoxic effects of mercury in humans, we studied communities in Amazonian Brazil with well-characterized exposures to mercury. Information was collected on diet, mercury exposures, demographic data, and medical history. Antinuclear and antinucleolar autoantibodies (ANA and ANoA were measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Anti-fibrillarin autoantibodies (AFA were measured by immunoblotting. Results In a gold mining site, there was a high prevalence of ANA and ANoA: 40.8% with detectable ANoA at ≥1:10 serum dilution, and 54.1% with detectable ANA (of which 15% had also detectable ANoA. In a riverine town, where the population is exposed to methylmercury by fish consumption, both prevalence and levels of autoantibodies were lower: 18% with detectable ANoA and 10.7% with detectable ANA. In a reference site with lower mercury exposures, both prevalence and levels of autoantibodies were much lower: only 2.0% detectable ANoA, and only 7.1% with detectable ANA. In the gold mining population, we also examined serum for AFA in those subjects with detectable ANoA (≥1:10. There was no evidence for mercury induction of this autoantibody. Conclusions This is the first study to report immunologic changes, indicative of autoimmune dysfunction in persons exposed to mercury, which may also reflect interactions with infectious disease and other factors.

  19. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment.

  20. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer

    2011-06-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish.

  1. Landscape changes in a neotropical forest-savanna ecotone zone in central Brazil: The role of protected areas in the maintenance of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea S; Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Ballester, Maria Victoria R

    2017-02-01

    In the Amazon-savanna ecotone in northwest Brazil, the understudied Araguaia River Basin contains high biodiversity and seasonal wetlands. The region is representative of tropical humid-dry ecotone zones, which have experienced intense land use and land cover (LULC) conversions. Here we assessed the LULC changes for the last four decades in the central portion of the Araguaia River Basin to understand the temporal changes in the landscape composition and configuration outside and inside protected areas. We conducted these analyzes by LULC mapping and landscape metrics based on patch classes. During this period, native vegetation was reduced by 26%. Forests were the most threatened physiognomy, with significant areal reduction and fragmentation. Native vegetation cover was mainly replaced by croplands and pastures. Such replacement followed spatial and temporal trends related to the implementation of protected areas and increases in population cattle herds. The creation of most protected areas took place between 1996 and 2007, the same period during which the conversion of the landscape matrix from natural vegetation to agriculture occurred. We observed that protected areas mitigate fragmentation, but their roles differ according to their location and level of protection. Still, we argue that landscape characteristics, such as suitability for agriculture, also influence landscape conversions and should be considered when establishing protected areas. The information provided in this study can guide new research on species conservation and landscape planning, as well as improve the understanding of the impacts of landscape composition and configuration changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.

  3. BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima

    2006-11-01

    Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected.

  4. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Ibiapina, Hiochelson Najibe Santos; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Xábregas, Lilyane Amorim; Brasil, Larissa Wanderley; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Almeida, Anne Cristine Gomes; Kuehn, Andrea; Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Siqueira, André Machado; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães; Malheiro, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria) is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon) and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T) genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively). Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001) and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014) were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria. Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C/T variants

  5. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs. The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools.A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively. Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001 and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014 were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria.Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C

  6. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Gondim, Breno Herman Ferreira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Dutra, Valéria; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  7. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Borges da Silva HEINEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dengue virus (DENV, which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV, which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  8. Natural and drought scenarios in an east central Amazon forest: Fidelity of the Community Land Model 3.5 with three biogeochemical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Koichi; Zeng, Xubin; Christoffersen, Bradley J.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R.; Brando, Paulo M.

    2011-03-01

    Recent development of general circulation models involves biogeochemical cycles: flows of carbon and other chemical species that circulate through the Earth system. Such models are valuable tools for future projections of climate, but still bear large uncertainties in the model simulations. One of the regions with especially high uncertainty is the Amazon forest where large-scale dieback associated with the changing climate is predicted by several models. In order to better understand the capability and weakness of global-scale land-biogeochemical models in simulating a tropical ecosystem under the present day as well as significantly drier climates, we analyzed the off-line simulations for an east central Amazon forest by the Community Land Model version 3.5 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and its three independent biogeochemical submodels (CASA', CN, and DGVM). Intense field measurements carried out under Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, including forest response to drought from a throughfall exclusion experiment, are utilized to evaluate the whole spectrum of biogeophysical and biogeochemical aspects of the models. Our analysis shows reasonable correspondence in momentum and energy turbulent fluxes, but it highlights three processes that are not in agreement with observations: (1) inconsistent seasonality in carbon fluxes, (2) biased biomass size and allocation, and (3) overestimation of vegetation stress to short-term drought but underestimation of biomass loss from long-term drought. Without resolving these issues the modeled feedbacks from the biosphere in future climate projections would be questionable. We suggest possible directions for model improvements and also emphasize the necessity of more studies using a variety of in situ data for both driving and evaluating land-biogeochemical models.

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis C Virus infection among hemophiliacs in Central Brazil

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    Adriana P Barbosa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the hepatitis C virus (HCV infection prevalence and risk factors in hemophiliacs in Central Brazil, 90 patients were interviewed and serum samples tested for HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies. An overall prevalence of 63.3% (CI 95%: 53.0-72.7 was found. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that number of blood transfusions was significantly associated with this infection. Most hemophiliacs received locally produced cryoprecipitate. All infected patients were transfused before the screening of blood units for anti-HCV. However, hemophiliacs who received exclusively screened cryoprecipitate were HCV negative. It confirms the expected decline in transfusion-acquired hepatitis C.

  10. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  11. [Health and disease among Panará (Kreen-Akarôre) Indians in Central Brazil after twenty-five years of contact with our world, with an emphasis on tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruzzi, R G; Barros, V L; Rodrigues, D; Souza, A L; Pagliaro, H

    2001-01-01

    The Panará, who had previously lived in isolation from Brazilian national society in the Amazon forest, were first contacted in 1973. Two years later they were moved to another area in Central Brazil. During this same period they were reduced to 82 members, the survivors of a population of 400 to 500 in the mid-1960s. In 1995 they returned to a small area in their old territory still not occupied by outsiders. There, three years later, a health survey showed a presumed diagnosis of tuberculosis in 15 individuals out of a population of 181. Further tests in the town of Colider, based on clinical data and chest X-rays, confirmed the diagnosis in 10 Panará (6 children under 10 years of age and 4 adults from 40 to 50 years old). BCG scars were present in the entire population. The nutritional status of Panará children was better than that of other indigenous groups in the Amazon region. The following measures were introduced for Tb control: a) treatment follow-up in the village, under direct supervision by both a nurse and the local indigenous health worker; b) compliance with defined criteria for ending treatment; c) periodic control of contacts and non-contacts; c) and establishment of a reference system with the health services in Colider.

  12. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

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    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  13. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  14. Seed size influence on germination responses to light and temperature of seven pioneer tree species from the Central Amazon

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    Fabiana F. Aud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Amazon secondary forests are dominated by pioneer species that typically produce large amounts of small and dormant seeds that are able to form a persistent soil seed bank. Seed dormancy in this group of species is overcome by environmental conditions found in open areas, such as high irradiation or alternating temperatures. Nevertheless, a variety of germination responses to environmental factors is known among pioneers; some of them may germinate in diffuse light or in darkness condition at constant temperature. Seed mass can be considered as one of the factors that promotes this variety. Regarding species with very small seeds, it seems that the trigger for germination is light and for larger seeds temperature alternation may be a more important stimulus. In this study we established a relationship between seed mass and germination response to light and alternating temperature for a group of seven woody pioneer species from the Amazon forest. We found that an increase in seed mass was followed by a decrease in the need for light and an increase in the tolerance to alternating temperatures. Understanding germination strategies may contribute with the knowledge of species coexistence in high diverse environments and also may assist those involved in forest management and restoration.Na Amazônia as florestas secundárias são dominadas por espécies pioneiras que, normalmente, produzem grandes quantidades de sementes pequenas, dormentes e capazes de formar bancos de sementes no solo. A dormência neste grupo de espécies é superada pelas condições ambientais de áreas abertas, como alta irradiação ou alternância de temperaturas. No entanto, uma variedade de respostas de germinação aos fatores ambientais é conhecida entre as pioneiras; algumas germinam em luz difusa ou no escuro sob temperatura constante. Um dos fatores promotores desta variedade é a massa das sementes. Parece que para as espécies com sementes muito pequenas, o est

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Brazil occupies an area of about 8.5 million square kilometers -- almost half of the South American continent. The dominant geographic feature is the Amazon basin. The Amazon River and its more than 200 tributaries drain about 60 percent of the country. The basin is a vast tropical rain forest, whereas the remainder of Brazil is made up predominantly of highlands. The Central Highlands, which extends into the Amazon basin, occupies nearly all of southern Brazil and includes major mountain chains such as the Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra do Espinhago. The Guiana Highlands fringe the northern Amazon basin and extend into Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana. Lowland areas other than the Amazon basin are found in western Mato Grosso, and along the Atlantic coast from French Guiana to Uruguay. The geology of Brazil is dominated structurally and areally by three major shields composed of crystalline rocks of Archean and Proterozoic age. Collectively they comprise the Brazilian complex which is probably the largest Precambrian outcrop in the world. The complex is made up of gneisses, granites, mica schists, quartzites, dolomites, skarns, diorites, itabirites and gabbros, many of which are deeply metamorphosed. Faults, quartz veins, and dikes are common. Recurrent granitization has occurred from the Precambrian to Late Tertiary. The area of Brazil is large and its geology is favorable, in places, for every known type of uranium deposit. This is not reflected in the amount of 'known' and 'inferred' reserves -- slightly more than 21,000 tons. Rather, it is an indication of the small amount of exploration done, taking into account the large area to be covered. The speculative potential can only be guessed. It is guessed to be 500,000 tons

  16. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  17. Brazil-USA Collaborative Research: Modifications by Anthropogenic Pollution of the Natural Atmospheric Chemistry and Particle Microphysics of the Tropical Rain Forest During the GoAmazon Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Day, Douglas A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Martin, Scot T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, Saewung [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Souza, Rodrigo [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Barbosa, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Manaus, a city of nearly two million people, represents an isolated urban area having a distinct urban pollution plume within the otherwise pristine Amazon Basin. The plume has high concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, carbon monoxide, particle concentrations, and soot, among other pollutants. Critically, the distinct plume in the setting of the surrounding tropical rain forest serves as a natural laboratory to allow direct comparisons between periods of pollution influence to those of pristine conditions. The funded activity of this report is related to the Brazil-USA collaborative project during the two Intensive Operating Periods (wet season, 1 Feb - 31 Mar 2014; dry season, 15 Aug - 15 Oct 2014) of GoAmazon2014/5. The project addresses key science questions regarding the modification of the natural atmospheric chemistry and particle microphysics of the forest by present and future anthropogenic pollution. The first objective of the project was to understand and quantify the interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions with respect to the production of secondary organic material. In clean conditions in the Amazon basin, secondary organic material dominates the diameter distribution of the submicron particles. How and why is the diameter distribution shifted by pollution? The second objective followed from the first in that, although the diameter distribution is dominated by secondary organic material, the actual source of new particle production remains uncertain (i.e., the number concentration). The second objective was to test the hypothesis that new particles under natural conditions are produced as a result of evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores as well as to investigate any shifts in this mechanism under pollution conditions, e.g., in consequence to the high concentrations of SO2 in the pollution plume. Combined, the number-diameter distribution is the key connection to upscaling to the effects of aerosol

  18. The principal reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the urban areas of Manaus, Central Amazon of Brazil

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    Jorge R. Arias

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one opossums (Didelphis marsupialis from disturbed primary forest in the vicinity of Manaus, and seven from an isolated island of secondary vegetation within the city of Manaus, were examined for the presence of Leishmania. Of the opossums from the primary forests, 13 (61.9% were found to be positive for Leishmania braziliensis guyanenesis. One additional opossum was found to be positive for Le. mexicana amazonensis. A simple and economical trapping technique for opossums is presented here, and a control method in special cases is suggested.Vinte e uma mucuras (Didelphis marsupialis, procedentes de uma floresta primária explorada, e sete de uma vegetação secundária em uma ilha isolada, nas cercanias de Manaus, foram examinadas para detectar a presença de Leishmania. Das mucuras da floresta primária, 13 (61.9% foram detectadas positivas para Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. Somente uma mucura foi dada como positiva para Le.mexicana amozonensis. Apresentamos aqui uma técnica simples e economica para captura de mucuras e e sugerido um método de controle, em casos especiais.

  19. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl. Pers. (Hypericaceae in the central Amazon forest

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    K. J. Jardine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene (Is emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1 under standard leaf temperature (30 °C, isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn. Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  20. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: composition and adult phenology

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    Pitágoras C. Bispo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, is presented as well as data of some factors that could affeet the temporal distribution of the adults. For checking adult phenology, light sources were used in three stations from June 1993 to Jully 1994. The sampled individuais were identified to species or morphospecies, as possible. In this study, 301 individuais belonging to the perlid genera Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909, Kempnyia Klapálek, 1916 and Macrogynoplax Enderlein, 1909 were collected. Adults of most species were collected along the studied period, except for those of Kempnyia that were restricted to the warm-rainy season, the same pattern for this genus in southeastern Brazil. Although adults of most species were collected along most of the studied period, the largest number of adults was collected in the months with larger mean temperatures, showing a clear seasonality in abundance.

  1. Just words?: A quantitative analysis of the communication of the Central Bank of Brazil

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    Carlos Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the informational content of statements issued by the interest-rate setting committee of the Central Bank of Brazil (COPOM, building on the methodology developed by Lucca and Trebbi (2011. Using Google search queries, we measure the extent to which each CO-POM statement is perceived to be associated with more "hawkish" or "dovish" language. This allows us to construct a time-series of the informational content of COPOM statements, which we then use in regressions to explain changes in the term-structure of interest rates around COPOM meetings - together with a market-based measure of interest-rate surprises. We find that, during Governor Tombini's tenure, interest-rate surprises started to be "passed through" one-to-one (or more even at long maturities, as markets seem to have bought into the idea that the interest-rate cuts that began in mid-2011 would lead to lower yields in Brazil into the foreseeable future. Most importantly, changes in the informational content of COPOM statements seem to have meaningful effects on yields at short-to-medium maturities. However, this result only holds for the period prior to Tombini's tenure.

  2. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

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    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  3. Exposure to hepatitis C virus in homeless men in Central Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Priscilla Martins Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people. Participants were tested for anti-HCV markers using rapid tests. Poisson regression analysis was used to verify the risk factors associated with exposure to HCV. Results The prevalence of HCV exposure was 2.5% (95.0% CI: 1.4 to 4.3% and was associated with age, absence of family life, injection drug use, number of sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Participants reported multiple risk behaviors, such as alcohol (78.9%, cocaine (37.1% and/or crack use (53.1%, and inconsistent condom use (82.6%. Injection drug use was reported by 8.7% of participants. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection among homeless men was relatively high. Several risk behaviors were commonly reported, which shows the high vulnerability of this population. These findings emphasize the need for the development of specific strategies to reduce the risk of HCV among homeless men.

  4. Evaluation of sustainability in the use of water within the Amazon deforestation area: a case study in Rondon do Pará, Pará State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto da Gama Rego

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of water in a hydrographic basin within the Amazon deforestation area is evaluated as a case study for the municipality of Rondon do Pará, State of Pará, Brazil. Current investigation takes into account the hydrographic basin as a system, following the Pressure/State/Response concept model, and aims at an analysis of the system’s sustainability. Results show that the use of water within the context of the system under analysis tends towards non-sustainability. Economic growth, especially triggered by the expansion of extensive cattle-raising and industrial activities, has worsened the situation. These conditions do not represent local reality since the above-mentioned activities have produced only scanty employment. Further, the municipality is striving with problems concerning the supply of drinking water, deficiency in sewage treatment and especially the deterioration of surface water resources.  

  5. First description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Melo, Myllena; da Costa-Rego, Taiana Amancio; Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Britto, Constança

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L. (V.) braziliensis was confirmed in five sandflies: one Evandromyia saulensis, three Trichophoromyia auraensis and one Pressatia sp. The finding of L. (Viannia) DNA in two Ev. saulensis corresponds to the first record of possible infection associated with this sandfly. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time in Brazil, Th. auraensis and Pressatia sp. infected by L. (Viannia) parasites. PMID:28076470

  6. Land tenure regimes in Brazil and the social and environmental purpose of rural land possession: land tenure regularization of riverside communities in the Amazon floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rosane Aguiar Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    on the Concessão de Direito Real de Uso (“Concession of Real Right of Use” as one of the instruments that allows the State to ensure the social function of public properties and guarantee legal certainty for rural land possession by Amazon floodplain populations.

  7. Preferences of the central bank of Brazil under the inflation targeting regime: commitment vs. discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Aparecida Palma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate the preferences of the Central Bank of Brazil during the inflation targeting regime, using a standard new keynesian model with forward-looking expectations, as proposed by Givens (2010. The presence of rational expectations in the model makes a distinction between two modes of optimization, commitment and discretion, and thus allows us to evaluate which of these specifications is favored by the data. Using quarterly data for the period from 2000-1 to 2010-4, the obtained results allow us to affirm that the data favor a discretionary policy. Estimates of the loss function show that the monetary authority gives great weight to inflation stabilization, followed by interest rate smoothing and stabilization of the output gap.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Thaís Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Reis, Nádia Rúbia Silva; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; de Andrade, Andreia Alves; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population.

  9. Environmental Behavior of Chlorpyrifos and Endosulfan in a Tropical Soil in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Claudio A; Weber, Oscarlina L S; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Vecchiato, Antonio B; Pinto, Alicio A

    2016-05-25

    The environmental behavior of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in soil was studied in the central-western region of Brazil by means of a field experiment. Sorption was evaluated in laboratory batch experiments. Chlorpyrifos and endosulfan were applied to experimental plots on uncultivated soil and the following processes were studied: leaching, runoff, and dissipation in top soil. Field dissipation of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan was more rapid than reported in temperate climates. Despite the high Koc of the studied pesticides, the two endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate as well as chlorpyrifos were detected in percolated water. In runoff water and sediment, both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate were detected throughout the period of study. Observed losses of endosulfan by leaching (below a depth of 50 cm) and runoff were 0.0013 and 1.04% of the applied amount, whereas chlorpyrifos losses were 0.003 and 0.032%, respectively. Leaching of these highly adsorbed pesticides was attributed to preferential flow.

  10. Passeriformes: nest predators and prey in a Neotropical Savannah in Central Brazil

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    Leonardo F. França

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of predators of birds' nests, crucial to a better understanding of predator-prey interactions, remains poorly known. Here we provide evidence that birds, and especially passerines, may depredate birds' nests in the Cerrado (Neotropical Savannah of Central Brazil. Data was collected primarily in a Conservation Unit (Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas during the breeding season, between 2003 and 2007. We report and discuss details on 14 events of nest predation, 12 of which by passerines, mostly by curl-crested jays - Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823. The results of our study suggest that the role of birds as nest predators in the Cerrado has been underestimated and needs to be further investigated.

  11. REGIONAL CENTRALITIES, ACADEMIC CENTRALITIES: TERRITORIAL RECONFIGURATIONS IN BRAZIL AND THEIR INFLUENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY IN BAHIA (1870-1970

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    André Nunes de Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the connections between regional and academic centralities. The investigations were focused on the changes in Brazilian national territory, contemplating its movements of configuration and reconfiguration. In the article was analyzed the period between 1870 to 1970, because it is known that it held major changes in Brazilian social life and in there definition of its spatial and regional situations. This historical review intents to demonstrate that the academic centrality of Geography in Brazil followed the shift of the political and economic centralities, which moved from the Northeast region to the Southeast region, especially to the state of São Paulo. The article also seeks to bring into light part of the history of Geography that was developed in Bahia and its contributions to the progress of Geography in Brazil considering that it is largely unknown to most of Brazilian geographers.

  12. Rickettsia amblyommatis infecting ticks and exposure of domestic dogs to Rickettsia spp. in an Amazon-Cerrado transition region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; da Costa, Andréa P; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Ramirez, Diego G; Dias, Ricardo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed in Maranhão state, a transition area two Brazilian biomes, Amazon and Cerrado. During 2011-2013, 1,560 domestic dogs were sampled for collection of serum blood samples and ticks in eight counties (3 within the Amazon and 5 within the Cerrado). A total of 959 ticks were collected on 150 dogs (9.6%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the most abundant tick (68% of all collected specimens), followed by Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (s.l.) (12.9%), Amblyomma parvum (9.2%), and Amblyomma ovale (5.2%). Other less abundant species (Rickettsia species: Rickettsia amblyommatis in 1% (1/100) A. cajennense s.l., 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae' in 20.7% (12/58) A. parvum, Rickettsia bellii in 6.8% (3/44) A. ovale and 100% (1/1) A. rotundatum ticks. An additional collection of A. sculptum from horses in a Cerrado area, and A. cajennense s.s. from pigs in an Amazon area revealed R. amblyommatis infecting only the A. cajennense s.s. ticks. Serological analysis of the 1,560 canine blood samples revealed 12.6% canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp., with the highest specific seroreactivity rate (10.2%) for R. amblyommatis. Endpoint titers to R. amblyommatis were significantly higher than those for the other Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that most of the seroreactive dogs were exposed to R. amblyommatis-infected ticks. Highest canine seroreactivity rates per locality (13.1-30.8%) were found in Amazon biome, where A. cajennense s.s. predominated. Lowest seroreactivity rates (1.9-6.5%) were found in Cerrado localities that were further from the Amazon, where A. sculptum predominated. Multivariate analyses revealed that canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. or R. amblyommatis was statistically associated with rural dogs, exposed to Amblyomma ticks.

  13. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  14. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  15. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  16. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  17. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Gisely Carmo de; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista de

    2010-01-01

    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  18. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  19. Climatic and ecological future of the Amazon: likelihood and causes of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B.; Zeng, N.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2010-05-01

    Some recent climate modeling results suggested a possible dieback of the Amazon rainforest under future climate change, a prediction that raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable as rainfall is projected to increase in nearly all models. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge of the Amazon and further south in central Brazil, are in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. Firstly, a decline in precipitation of 22% in the southern Amazon's dry season (May-September) reduces soil moisture, despite an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to nonlinear responses in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season rainfall: (1) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure; (2) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient, and to lesser degree a warmer eastern equatorial Pacific. Secondly, evaporation demand will increase due to the general warming, further reducing soil moisture. In terms of ecosystem response, higher maintenance cost and reduced productivity under warming may also have additional adverse impact. The drying corresponds to a lengthening of the dry season by 11 days. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of 20% in vegetation carbon stock in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Further, VEGAS predicts enhancement of fire risk by 10-15%. The increase in fire is primarily due to the reduction in soil moisture, and the decrease in dry season rainfall, which

  20. Ozone measurements in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Several scientists of the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Espacias, or INPE; headquarters at Sāo Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo) went to Manaus (3°S, 60°W), in the central region of the Amazon forest during July-August 1985 to study the atmosphere of the equatorial rainforest. The expedition to the Amazon was part of a large binational atmospheric chemistry field campaign that was organized to measure several atmospheric gases of the forest environment. This was definitely the largest scientific field expedition in this field ever performed on Brazilian territory.

  1. Niños de la Amazonía. Una experiencia de trabajo conjunto por una mejor educación para los niños y las niñas asháninkas de la selva central del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moromizato Izu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Children of the Amazon. A cooperative work experience to improve the quality of early childhood education in the Amazon of PerúThis article describes and analyzes the experience of three years of implementation of the Amazon Children Project, which promoted the formation and strengthening of a social platform, formed by allies who energized the actions of the project.This collective effort had as main objective to contribute in the development and learning for children from 3 to 8 years, who live in Ashaninka´s communities in the central jungle from the improvement in the quality of education, facilitatingthe process of transition between educational levels.

  2. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  3. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  4. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic succession of the southwesternmost Amazon Craton, state of Rondônia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Jhon Willy Lopes; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Facies and stratigraphic analysis were carried out in Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic deposits of Cacoal and Pimenta Bueno formations exposed on basement rocks and into the Pimenta Bueno Graben, northwestern portion of Parecis Basin, southwesternmost Amazon Craton. The redescription and redefinion of this succession confirmed the previous interpretation for the Cacoal Formation as a Marinoan (~ 635 Ma) cap carbonate. The Cacoal Formation is subdivided here in ...

  5. [Ants’ higher taxa as surrogates of species richness in a chronosequence of fallows, old-grown forests and agroforestry systems in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Gutiérrez, Jhonatan Andrés; Roussea, Guillaume Xavier; Andrade-Silva, Joudellys; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles

    2017-03-01

    Deforestation in Amazon forests is one of the main causes for biodiversity loss worldwide. Ants are key into the ecosystem because act like engineers; hence, the loss of ants’ biodiversity may be a guide to measure the loss of essential functions into the ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil ant’s richness and to estimate whether higher taxa levels (Subfamily and Genus) can be used as surrogates of species richness in different vegetation types (fallows, old-growth forests and agroforestry systems) in Eastern Amazon. The samples were taken in 65 areas in the Maranhão and Pará States in the period 2011-2014. The sampling scheme followed the procedure of Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF). Initially, the vegetation types were characterized according to their age and estimated species richness. Linear and exponential functions were applied to evaluate if higher taxa can be used as surrogates and correlated with the Pearson coefficient. In total, 180 species distributed in 60 genera were identified. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in intermediate fallows (88) and old secondary forest (76), and was lower in agroforestry systems (38) and mature riparian forest (35). The genus level was the best surrogate to estimate the ant’s species richness across the different vegetation types, and explained 72-97 % (P agroforestry systems may contribute in the conservation of Eastern Amazon ant community.

  6. Assessment of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kennedy Scofoni Faleiros de Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is funded by the national public health system (SUS. To evaluate treatment results in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil, we have consulted the files of the office of the State Department of Health responsible for supplying such medications. We obtained information on 232 treatments of 201 patients who underwent treatment in or prior to 2008. The study was conducted by reviewing medical records, making telephone calls and interviewing the assistant physicians. Thirty-nine patients (19.4% had cirrhosis and HCV genotype 1 predominated (64.3%. Excluding patients with comorbidities or treatment without ribavirin we analysed 175 treatments (sustained virologic response occurred in 32.6% of cases. Twenty-six of these 175 were retreatments and the sustained virological response (SVR rate among them was 30.8%; the SVR rate was 32.9% among those receiving treatment for the first time. The SVR rate of genotype 1 patients was 27.8%, whereas it was 37.5% in non-1 genotype patients. The adjusted multivariate analysis showed association of SVR with the absence of cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR: 7.7; confidence interval (CI 95%: 2.5, 33.3], the use of pegylated interferon (OR: 5.8; CI 95%: 1.5, 21.4, non-1 genotype (OR: 5.3; CI 95%: 1.7, 16.7 and uninterrupted treatment (OR: 9.0; CI 95%: 3.3, 45.4. The SVR rates were similar to those found in other Brazilian studies about HCV, but lower than those found in national and international clinical trials. These data suggest that the treatments of chronic hepatitis C that are made available by SUS does not, under normal conditions, work as well as the original controlled studies indicated.

  7. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James R; Brondízio, Eduardo S; Hetrick, Scott S; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  8. Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon : impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Boot, R.G.A.

    2002-01-01

    A demographic study was carried out on Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazil nut tree, in two primary forest sites in Northern Bolivia where Brazil nuts have been harvested for several decades. In spite of the large proportion (93€of seeds that are harvested, reasonable densities of recently emerged

  9. New Allometric Equations to Support Sustainable Plantation Management of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Krainovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke is an endangered Amazonian tree species which produces one of the most valuable essential oils in the world. The species is used in silvicultural systems which are seen as a means to reducing the pressure of exploitation of natural rosewood populations. There are no specific equations for rosewood plantations, and therefore generalized equations are inappropriate for the species in commercial systems. This study presents allometric equations from 144 trees sampled in different rosewood plantations of Central Amazonia. The equations generated were compared with an equation used in forest management to estimate wood volume and another one recommended by law for rosewood biomass. The equation suggested by current legislation underestimates the actual values by more than 70% making the viable use of this equation impossible in commercial plantations. The equations generated to estimate the volume and biomass serve as an alternative to the need to develop specific equations for each area and age of the plant. The generic equation for the species is consistent for fresh mass management, with a generalized R2 of 0.80 and an underestimation of 0.33%. The equation for crown fresh mass estimation presented a generalized R2 of 0.32 and an underestimation of 0.24%. The underestimation of the mass production by rosewood plantations represents a serious impediment to this forest activity. The allometric equations developed are highly applicable under different conditions and management options and should be suggested by the legal provisions regulating rosewood-related activity in Central Amazonia.

  10. Water balance, nutrient and carbon export from a heath forest catchment in central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F. .B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Tapia, A.P.; Alvarado Barrientos, M.S.; Bolson, M.A.; Luizao, F.J.; Manzi, A.O.; Dolman, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage values in the Amazon basin have been studied through different approaches in the last decades in order to clarify whether the rainforest ecosystem is likely to act as a sink or source for carbon in the near future. This water balance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient export

  11. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  12. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

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    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  13. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia) shawi shawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Yara Lins; de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs). Identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of L. (V.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of L. (V.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of L. (L.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V.) braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V.) shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains) expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V.) guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V.) s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains) did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V.) shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V.) s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains), L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V.) guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V.) s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) s. shawi exchange genetic information. PMID:25083790

  14. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

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    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  15. Sintopy of two Tropidurus lizard species (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in a rocky Cerrado habitat in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, R G; Araujo, A F B

    2004-11-01

    We studied the ecology of Tropidurus itambere and T. oreadicus that occur syntopically in rocky habitats of Cerrado vegetation in central Brazil during the dry season (April to September 2000). The two species are ecologically similar, but somewhat differentiated in vertical microhabitat use. The two species preferred rocky surface microhabitat. Both species demonstrated a unimodal activity pattern, with a peak between 10 and 15 h. Their diets were similar in composition and prey size. The most frequent item used by both species was ants, whereas the most important preys volumetrically were termites and ants. Small morphological differences observed between the two Tropidurus species could explain minor microhabitat divergence: T. itambere is slightly smaller, heavier, and more robust, and uses lower perches. T. oreadicus is larger, lankier, with longer extremities (tail, fore- and hindlegs), and uses a larger vertical microhabitat range. These ecological differences are slight, when compared with those observed between sympatric species of Tropidurus in spatially more heterogeneous landscapes. Considering the slight ecomorphological divergence between the two Tropidurus species and their high abundance in outcrops, we suggest that interspecific territoriality is the mechanism of coexistence.

  16. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pollination systems and floral traits in cerrado woody species of the Upper Taquari region (central Brazil

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    F. Q. Martins

    Full Text Available Plant species present flowers with varied morphological and functional features, which may be associated to pollination systems, including species pollinated by wind, beetles, moths, bees, small insects, birds, or bats. We calculated the frequencies of the pollination systems among woody species in five cerrado fragments in central-western Brazil and tested whether the pollination systems were indeed related to floral traits. We sampled 2,280 individuals, belonging to 121 species, ninety-nine of which were described in relation to all floral traits. Most species had diurnal anthesis, pale colors, and open flowers. The most frequent groups were those composed by the species pollinated by bees, small insects, and moths. A Principal Component Analysis of the species and floral traits showed that there was a grouping among species with some pollination systems, such as those pollinated mainly by beetles, moths, birds, and bats, for which inferences based on the floral traits are recommended in cerrado sites. For the species pollinated mainly by bees or small insects, inferences based on the floral traits are not recommended, due to the large dispersion of the species scores and overlapping between these two groups, which probably occurred due to the specificity absence in plant-pollinator relationships.

  18. Biological Monitoring Using Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators of Water Quality of Maroaga Stream in the Maroaga Cave System, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazon, Brazil

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    Christiane Brito Uherek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments are being modified by anthropogenic activities regarding their biological, physical, and chemical conditions; even pristine aquatic ecosystems can be threatened. This study focused on the biological monitoring of Maroaga Stream—a first order stream located in an Environmental Protection Area in the Amazon using the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP Score System. The BMWP Score System revealed that the Maroaga Stream was a Class I stream (score of 138 points, indicating clean or not significantly altered water quality. The results suggest the adequate environmental conditions and ecological responses of the Maroaga Stream.

  19. Using of the AMS - 14 C technique for dating of soil charcoals, from holocene period, in the amazon forest(Manaus-Brazil region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Tada, M.L. di; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique was used to determine the radiocarbon age of charcoal fragments of soil samples from the Amazon Region near Manaus. The radiocarbon ages are within the 130 - 2400 years range. The interpretation is that these results are evidences of important fire events that occurred mostly during the superior Holocene dry phase. These res had spread out more intensely at the high land areas than at shoals. In this paper there are descriptions of the processes of sample preparation and the procedures for the AMS analysis. (author)

  20. Estudos etnoictiológicos sobre o pirarucu Arapaima gigas na Amazônia Central Ethnoictiology studies on Pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups in Central Amazon

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    Liane Galvão de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou identificar saberes comuns entre o conhecimento científico e o conhecimento local sobre a ecologia e biologia do pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, contribuindo com informações úteis para a implementação e consolidação de projetos de manejo participativo pesqueiro na região. Foram realizadas 57 entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com pescadores profissionais de Manaus e pescadores de subsistência de Manacapuru durante o período de junho a dezembro do ano de 2002. Foi observado que os pescadores profissionais possuem informações igualmente precisas e abrangentes em relação aos saberes dos pescadores ribeirinhos de subsistência nos aspectos de reprodução, predação, migração, crescimento e mortalidade. Os aspectos que não são equivalentes entre os pescadores profissionais comerciais citadinos e ribeirinhos de subsistência são nos aspectos de tipo de alimentação e no tamanho de recrutamento pesqueiro. Concluímos que os pescadores da Amazônia central possuem os conhecimentos necessários que possibilitam o manejo participativo do pirarucu, como um profundo saber nos aspectos comportamentais, biológicos e ecológicos desta espécie, podendo assim contribuir de fato com a participação de gestão nos recursos pesqueiros locais.Present study it aimed at to identify to know common between scientific knowledge and local knowledge on ecology and biology of pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups, contributing with useful information for implementation and consolidation of projects of participative handling fishing boat in region. 57 half-structuralized interviews had been carried through, with fishing of Manaus and Manacapuru during period of June to December of year 2002. It was observed that professional fishermen also have accurate and comprehensive information in relation to knowledge of subsistence fishermen in coastal aspects of reproduction, predation, migration, growth and mortality. Aspects that are not equivalent

  1. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  2. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic succession of the southwesternmost Amazon Craton, state of Rondônia, Brazil

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    Jhon Willy Lopes Afonso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Facies and stratigraphic analysis were carried out in Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic deposits of Cacoal and Pimenta Bueno formations exposed on basement rocks and into the Pimenta Bueno Graben, northwestern portion of Parecis Basin, southwesternmost Amazon Craton. The redescription and redefinion of this succession confirmed the previous interpretation for the Cacoal Formation as a Marinoan (~ 635 Ma cap carbonate. The Cacoal Formation is subdivided here in two units separate by sharp contact found exclusively overlying Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks: 1 a homonymous formation characterized by diamictites, sandstones and siltstones with dropstones interpreted as glacio-marine deposits; and 2 the Espigão d’Oeste Formation that consists of dolostone, dolomitic stromatolites, dolostone-siltstone rhythmite and siltstone interpreted as shallow to moderately deep platform deposits. The Ordovician to Silurian Pimenta Bueno Formation is a filling of Pimenta Bueno graben and overlies locally the Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. This unit consists in diamictites, sandstones, siltstones and pelites interpreted as glacial-marine and tide- to storm-influenced platform deposits, recording a glacio-eustatic regressive-transgressive event. This new stratigraphic proposal modify the current stratigraphy for the Parecis Basin and suggest, at least, two levels of glaciation exposed in the sothwesternmost Amazon Craton related to the Marinoan and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian events.

  3. Deep mycoses in Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhari, S; Cunha, M G; Schettini, A P; Talhari, A C

    1988-09-01

    Patients with deep mycoses diagnosed in dermatologic clinics of Manaus (state of Amazonas, Brazil) were studied from November 1973 to December 1983. They came from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and the Federal Territory of Roraima. All of these regions, with the exception of Pará, are situated in the western part of the Amazon Basin. The climatic conditions in this region are almost the same: tropical forest, high rainfall, and mean annual temperature of 26C. The deep mycoses diagnosed, in order of frequency, were Jorge Lobo's disease, paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, mycetoma, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, and histoplasmosis.

  4. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  5. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil's Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Andersen, Monica L; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Scorza, Carla A

    2018-01-01

    Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models. With the aim of promoting comparative studies between the exotic wildlife populations in the laboratory and traditional rodent model, we surveyed a type of synaptic plasticity intimately related to memory encoding in animals. Using theta-burst paradigm, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 subfield of hippocampal slices was assessed in the Amazon rodents Proechimys and Wistar rats. Memory, learning and anxiety were investigated through the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and object recognition test. In PM-DAT, both animal species were submitted to two test sessions (3-h and 24-h) after the conditioning training. Proechimys exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the training session but during test sessions both species exhibited similar patterns of anxiety-related behavior. After 3-h of the training, Proechimys and Wistar spent significantly less time in the aversive enclosed arm than in the non-aversive arm. But, at 24-h after training, Wistar rats remained less time in the aversive closed arm in comparison with the non-aversive one, while Proechimys rodents spent the same amount of time in both enclosed arms. In the object recognition test, both species were evaluated at 24-h after the acquisition session and similar findings than those of the PM-DAT (24-h) were obtained, suggesting that long-term memory duration did not persist for 24-h in the Amazon rodent. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials recordings revealed

  6. Violence behavior and factors associated among students of Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta de Lima; Cunha, Sergio Souza da; Souza, Delma P Oliveira de

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of violence among adolescents and young adults and to identify associated factors. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2008 with systematic random sampling of 699 elementary and high school students enrolled in urban state schools of Barra do Garças, Central-Western Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was applied in the classrooms without the presence of the teacher. The outcome "violent behavior" was defined as (1) use of firearm or sharp instrument, and/or (2) aggression against oneself and/or others, and/or (3) suicide attempt. The analyzed independent variables were age, gender, socioeconomic status, use of alcohol, use of psychoactive drugs, sexual activity, and relationship between parents. Univariate analysis was conducted, as well as multiple regression adjusted for effect of clustering. Violence prevalence was of 18.6%, varying with age: 10.1% in the group aged 10 and 11 years; 20.2% for those aged 12-19 years; and 4.5% in the group aged 20-21 years. The factors associated with violent behavior were use of alcohol (RP = 2.51, 95%CI 1.22;5.15), use of psychoactive drugs (RP = 2.10, 95%CI 1.61;2.75), male gender (RP = 1.63, 95%CI 1.13;2.35) and unsatisfactory relationship between parents (RP = 1.64, 95%CI 1.25;2.15). Results indicate high prevalence of violence among adolescents in the age group 12-19 years, mainly among users of alcohol and drugs, of the male sex, from families whose parents do not have satisfactory relationships. Although without statistical significance in the final regression model, school result discrepancy and socioeconomic level should be considered in educational actions for prevention of violence behavior among students.

  7. Sources of anthropogenic lead in sediments from an artificial lake in Brasilia-central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioia, S.M.C.L.; Pimentel, M.M.; Tessler, M.; Dantas, E.L.; Campos, J.E.G.; Guimaraes, E.M.; Maruoka, M.T.S.; Nascimento, E.L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pb concentration and Pb isotopic composition are known to represent powerful tools to investigate the history of Pb pollution in water and sediments. In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a detailed study of sediments deposited in the Paranoa Lake, a 44-year-old artificial reservoir in Brasilia, central Brazil. Pb concentration and isotopic composition of the sediments were obtained by ID-TIMS, on three different sample fractions: leachate, residue, and bulk sample. The leachate phase has proven to be most efficient to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural Pb inputs. In the Paranoa lake, important sources of contamination were recognized, producing higher Pb concentrations (max. 37.68 ppm) and significant variations in Pb isotopic composition, relative to the regional geogenic background. Contamination of the sediments due to anthropogenic activity produced less radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.15-1.17), compared with the regional natural composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.19-1.25). 21 Pb analyses along one bore hole which sampled the entire sediment section indicated a sedimentation rate of 8.2 ± 1.8 mm/year. The combined use of the 21 Pb ages and Pb isotopic compositions of these samples revealed three distinct periods in the lake history: (1) the period of the time formation of the lake in 1959 until ca. 1970 was characterized by the deposition of sediments displaying more radiogenic Pb isotopic signature, (2) the time interval from the start of the process of eutrophication at 1970, until 1995, was characterized by the deposition of sediments having less radiogenic average compositions, and (3) from 1995 until the present represents a period of recovery of water quality, after two sewage treatment stations started to operate

  8. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Strauss

    Full Text Available We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26, found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval. An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  9. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  10. Hafnium and neodymium isotopes and REY distribution in the truly dissolved, nanoparticulate/colloidal and suspended loads of rivers in the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Schmidt, Katja; Münker, Carsten; Dantas, Elton L.

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic isotopes in river sediments and river waters have been widely used in provenance studies, as these samples naturally integrate the geology/chemistry of the entire catchment. While the Hf and Nd isotope systems are coupled during igneous processes, they are decoupled during supergene processes at the Earth's surface, which is reflected by the isotope composition of riverine sediments. We present the first data for both Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the dissolved (0.2 μm-filtrates rich in nanoparticles and colloids, NPCs) and the truly dissolved (1 kDa-ultrafiltrates) load of rivers. Hafnium and Nd isotope compositions and concentrations of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) and Hf were determined for suspended particles (>0.2 μm) as well as for the dissolved and the truly dissolved load of the Rio Solimões, the Amazon's largest tributary draining the Andes, and of the Rio Negro, an organic NPC- and particle-rich river draining the rainforest of northern Amazonia. We also analyzed the Nd isotope compositions of suspended sediments and 0.2 μm-filtered water samples from the Amazon River and its tributaries Rio Tapajos, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari. Our novel results clearly show that the decoupling of the Hf and Nd isotope systems is related to incongruent weathering processes on the continent, as this decoupling can already be observed in the different Hf and Nd pools, i.e. in the particulate, the NPC-dominated dissolved and the truly dissolved load of rivers. In the Rio Negro and Rio Solimões, a strong particle size-dependent difference in Hf isotope composition is observed. Values of εHf become more radiogenic as filter poresize decreases, which can be related to the density- and size-dependent distribution of Hf-rich minerals, e.g. zircons, and their absence from the truly dissolved pool. In contrast, the Nd isotope composition of Amazonian river waters reflects that of their catchment geology. Tributaries draining the Precambrian Brazilian and

  11. Prevalence of human T cell leukemia virus-I (HTLV-I antibody among populations living in the Amazon region of Brazil (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Nakauchi

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty-tree (31.4% out of 137 serum samples obtained from two Indian communities living in the Amazon region were found to be positive for HTLV-I antibody, as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa. Eighty-two sera were collected from Mekranoiti Indians, yielding 39% of positivity, whereas 11 (20.0% or the 55 Tiriyo serum samples had antibody to HTLV-I. In addition, positive results occurred in 10 (23.2% out of 43 sera obtained from patients living in the Belem area, who were suffering from cancer affecting different organs. Five (16.7% out of 30 Elisa positive specimens were also shown to be positive by either Western blot analysis (WB or indirect immunogold electron microscopy (IIG-EM.

  12. Geography of Food and the Urban Network in the Tri-Border Brazil-Peru-Colombia: The Case of Production and Commercialization of Poultry in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Schor; Francisco Carlos da Costa Avelino

    2017-01-01

    En la Amazonía brasileña, se identifica cada vez más una fuerte transformación de los hábitos alimenticios, especialmente en relación con la sustitución del consumo de alimentos frescos por comida procesada. Un elemento importante de esta transformación es la sustitución de proteína obtenida a nivel local por la carne de pollo "congelado". Esta transformación de los hábitos alimenticios se produce de forma diferente dependiendo de la estructura de mercado, la producción y la comercialización....

  13. Isotopic and chemical evidence for three accretionary magmatic arcs ( 1.79 - 1.42 Ga) in the SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Teixeira, Wilson; Schmus, William Randall van

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one U/Pb ages of granitoids in the SW Amazon craton define three crustal accretionary events during the Paleo-and Mesoproterozoic that represent significant portions of the Rio Negro-Juruena Province and the Rondonian/San Ignacio province. Two events refer to the Rio Negro-Juruena province: The Alto Jauru greenstone belt comprises acid volcanics and tonalite to granite gneisses with U/Pb ages from 1790 to 1750 Ma. Sm/Nd isotopic data (e N -d (t) from +2.6 to +2.2 and T DM from 2.0 to 1.80 Ga) indicate a volcanic arc with juvenile signatures for these units. The second event (Cachoeirinha arc) comprises granites to tonalites with U/Pb ages from 1580 to 1530 Ma. Sm/Nd results. (author)

  14. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  15. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  16. Políticas Territoriais e Mobilidade Populacional na Amazônia: contribuições sobre a área de influência das Hidrelétricas no Rio Madeira (Rondônia/Brasil Mobilité des populations et politiques territoriales en Amazonie: contributions sur l’influence des centrales hydroélectrique du rio Madeira (Rondônia/Brésil Population mobility and territorial policies in the Amazon: contributions on the influence of the Madeira River hydroelectric plants (Rondônia/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cleyton Holanda Lobato

    2011-03-01

    population amazonienne est motivée par la recherche de nouvelles possibilités d’emploi, un fait lié à des changements structurels, liés à l’action du gouvernement fédéral grâce à des politiques territoriales ouvertes, même dans les années 60 et 70. La mise en œuvre de projets d’infrastructure fournit diverses fonctions et à la restructuration spatiale, formant de nouveaux modes d’organisation sociale, économique et culturel. Actuellement, à Porto Velho, Rondônia, la construction de centrales hydroélectriques Jirau et Santo Antônio, sur la rivière Madeira, a commencé en 2008, a été interrogé sur le nouvel afflux de population, qui peut être caractérisé par deux cas: celui de la territorialisation et déterritorialisation . Le premier processus est marqué par l’attraction de la population, compte tenu de l’offre de travail et, d’autre part, fondée sur la dépossession en raison des déplacements de population dans la zone du réservoir, la présentant comme le cas le plus critique de la communauté Mutum Paraná, avec l’engagement total de ses noyau urbain. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer la relation entre la mobilité de la population et le déploiement de l’infrastructure et l’exploitation des ressources naturelles dans le bassin versant de l’hydroélectricité. La partie la méthodologie de l’analyse temporo-spatiale avec revue de la littérature, sur le terrain et la collecte de données de la zone géographique. Les variables utilisées ont été: la population, les principales activités économiques et les normes d’utilisation des terres (lois. Ces variables nous a permis de comprendre la relation entre la société et de l’espace dans leur processus d’organisation et de transformation. L’analyse a révélé que cette région, depuis son occupation jusqu’à ce que la mobilité de la population actuelle a été motivé par la réalisation de travaux d’infrastructures, de propriété et l

  17. New records of the mailed catfish Planiloricaria cryptodon from the upper Amazon in Peru, Brazil and Bolivia, with a key to the genera of the Planiloricariina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1986-01-01

    The mailed catfish Planiloricaria cryptodon (Isbrücker, 1971) was hitherto only known from the holotype from Río Ucayali, Peru. New material from Rio Purus (Est. Acre, Brazil) and from Río Mamoré (Prov. Beni, Bolivia) is described and compared with the holotype. One of the new specimens is

  18. Fish histopathology and catalase activity as biomarkers of the environmental quality of the industrial district on the Amazon estuary, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18032

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    Rossineide Martins Rocha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The environment quality of an industrial district on the river Pará, Amazon estuary, Brazil, based on the assessment of histological alterations and on the determination of catalase activity of the hepatic tissue of two fish species, Plagioscion squamossissimus and Lithodoras dorsalis, is provided. Histopathological changes were evaluated semi-quantitatively and qualitatively. Mean Assessment Values (MAV and Histological Alteration Index (HAI of organ lesions were calculated for each zone under analysis, with different impact levels: Zone 1 (industrial district, with high contamination risk; Zone 2 (medium risk and Zone 3 (minimum risk. Strong positive catalase activity and histopathological changes were reported in Zone 1. None of the specimens of either species captured in Zones 1 and 2 was healthy, whereas more than 60% of the specimens from Zone 3 presented healthy hepatic tissue. The principal alterations observed in the tissue of the two species included an increase in the number of Melanomacrophagous centers, fatty degeneration, inflammation, congestion, hepatitis and focal necrosis. The carnivorous P. squamosissimus presented higher levels of alteration than the herbivorous L. dorsalis. Results showed that local anthropogenic impacts were affecting the health of the two fish species under analysis.   

  19. Regional Impacts of Climate Change on the Amazon Rainforest: 2080-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2006-12-01

    A regional climate model with resolution of 60 km is coupled with a potential vegetation model to simulate future climate over South America. The following steps are taken to effectively communicate the results across disciplines and to make them useful to the policy and impacts communities: the simulation is aimed at a particular time period (2081-2100), the climate change results are translated into changes in vegetation distribution, and the results are reported on regional space scales relative to political boundaries. In addition, the model validation in clearly presented to provide perspective on uncertainty for the prognosis. The model reproduces today's climate and vegetation over tropical and subtropical South America accurately. In simulations of the future, the model is forced by the IPCC's A2 scenario of future emissions, which assumes that CO2 emissions continue to grow at essentially today's rate throughout the 21st century, reaching 757 ppmv averaged over 2081-2100. The model is constrained on its lateral boundaries by atmospheric conditions simulated by a global climate model, applied as anomalies to present day conditions, and predicted changes in sea surface temperatures. The extent of the Amazon rainforest is reduced by about 70 per cent in the simulation, and the shrubland (caatinga) vegetation of Brazil's Nordeste region spreads westward and southward well into the continental interior. Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina lose all of their rainforest vegetation, and Brazil and Peru lose most of it. The surviving rain forest is concentrated near the equator. Columbia's rainforest survives largely intact and, along the northern coast, Venezuela and French Guiana suffer relatively small reductions. The loss in Guyana and Surinam is 30-50 per cent. Much of the rainforest in the central Amazon north of about 15S is replaced by savanna vegetation, but in southern Bolivia, northern Paraguay, and southern Brazil, grasslands take the place of the

  20. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  1. The Morphologic Evolution of the Amazon Coastal Plain, Cabo Norte, Amapa, Brazil: The Need for Integrated Investigation on the Internal Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, O.; Santos, V. F.; Takiyama, L. R.

    2007-05-01

    The north brazilian coastal region is submitted to the conjunction of three major forcing: 1) Atmospheric, related to the wind and precipitation regimen and controlling the climatic seasonality and the local rivers hydrology; 2) Oceanic, result of the general oceanic circulation (North Equatorial Current-NEC) and it modulation with the atmospheric forcing (North Brazilian Coastal Current reflection), and 3) Amazonic, which is a result of the sedimentary transport from Amazon river, being itself under the influence of the atmospheric and oceanic forcing. Their main characteristic are the proper periodicities and also variabilities expressed according multiples and differentiated scales of time and space, determining the structure and functioning of the coastal space, giving to the Amazon coast line a considerable environmental instability. The Amapa Coastal Plain shows important part of this environmental instability. Semidiurnal macro tides, strong currents and tidal bores acts over a low gradient coastal plain which evolutionary process are intrinsically related with tectonic and geological settings. Two main areas can be distinguished in this scenario. The first one is the Amapa Lakes Region, developed over meanders of ancient drainages building a mosaic of low relief forms, with varied shapes, linked throughout communication channels. Two lacustrine belts showing alignments with the main tectonic traces were recognized beginning at the internal limit of the coastal plain, flowing southeast through the Tabaco Creek until reach the Araguari River. In it way it conform the Occidental and Meridional Belts represented by shallow lakes, totally dependent of Tartarugal River discharge and surrounded by enormous areas of peat highly sensitive to fire during the regional low discharge. Light blue clays, peat and a package of tidal deposits with fluidization structures were recognized close to Araguari River, suggesting deposition during high sea level. The second area

  2. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T. D.; Nogueira, L.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Häggi, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Grohmann, C. H.; Chiessi, C. M.; Zabel, M.; Mulitza, S.; Mazoca, C. E. M.; Cunha, D. F.

    2018-06-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example, Tapajós and Xingu Rivers show more sensitive quartz than Solimões and Madeira Rivers, even though the latter have a significantly larger catchment area and longer sediment transport distance. Interestingly, high sensitivity quartz is observed in rivers draining relatively stable Central Brazil and Guiana shield areas (denudation rate ξ = 0.04 mmyr-1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ = 0.24 mmyr-1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin. Furthermore, luminescence sensitivity measured in sand or silt arises from the same mineral components (quartz and feldspar) and clearly discriminates between Andean and shield sediments, avoiding the grain size bias in provenance analysis. These results have implications for using luminescence sensitivity as a proxy for Andean and shield contributions in the stratigraphic record, providing a new tool to reconstruct past drainage configurations within the Amazon basin.

  3. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  4. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  5. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Different cytotypes in fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lcépède, 1803, (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Xingu river (Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Milhomem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the karyotypes of three specimens of fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lacepede, 1803 (Loricaridae from Xingu River (Amazon region. We used conventional staining techniques, including C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, CMA3- and DAPI-banding. Each specimen had a different cytotype: Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 had 2n=64 (32M/SM, 32ST/A; Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2 has 2n=66 (32M/SM, 34ST/A, and Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3 had 2n=65 (38M/SM, 26ST/A + 1 B. The three cytotypes showed similar C-, CMA3- and DAPI-banding patterns. The nucleolus organizing regions were located in the short arm of chromosome pair 25 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 and pair 29 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2, and in the long arm of pair 30 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3, probably because of a pericentric inversion. A fusion/fission rearrangement explains the difference in the diploid number and number of M/SM and ST/A chromosomes between the 2n= 64 and 2n=66 cytotypes. The B chromosome most probably explains the difference between the 2n=64 and 2n=65 cytotypes. The cytotype with 2n=65 had a significantly larger number of M/SM chromosomes, probably because of pericentric inversions. These three cytotypes may represent different species.

  7. Composition of functional ecological guilds of the fish fauna of the internal sector of the Amazon Estuary, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Keila R M; Ferreira, Valdimere; Lucena-Frédou, Flávia

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes the spatial and temporal structure of the estuarine fish community in the internal sector of the Amazon Estuary. Samples were obtained in the main channels and tidal creeks of Guajará and Marajó Bays and Guamá River. A total of 41,516 fish specimens were collected, representing 136 taxa, 38 families and 12 orders. In the dry season, the mean salinity of the main channel increased along a limnic-marine gradient, between the Guamá River and the Marajó Bay. Species richness was lowest in the mouth of the Guamá River and in the right margin of the Guajará Bay. Fish species composition and environmental guilds differed markedly among areas: Migrants and Freshwater Stragglers were dominant in the Guamá River and the Guajará Bay, while Estuarine, Marine Stragglers and Migrants predominated in the Marajó Bay. However, the trophic guilds were still relatively well balanced, in functional terms. Piscivores and Zoobenthivores were the dominant feeding functional groups in all the studied areas. In this study, the assessment of the community and the use of the guild approach were efficient to describe the structure and functioning of the assemblages of estuarine fish also helping to assess the anthropogenic pressures in the area.

  8. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types—always far higher within the arc—but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  9. Indigenous Territoriality and Re-existence in the Amazon Frontier: The Rikbaktsa People and the Escondido Indigenous Land, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the project "We are the others: Identity and Territory Rikbaktsa”, developed under the Lato Sensu Specialization Course "Collaborative Management of Complex Social-ecological Systems in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of the project conducted by the group of participants who focused on indigenous issues was to assess the social-ecological resilience of the Rikbaktsa indigenous people within the Escondido Indigenous Land (Cotriguaçu, Mato Grosso. The methodology was adapted from a tool developed by the group "Resilience Alliance", which enabled exploratory research focusing on the subjects: territorial reconfiguration from the 1950s; forms of use and occupation of the Escondido indigenous land; as well as challenges and lessons learned for the development of collaborative research methodologies with indigenous populations. Important attributes were identified for the resilience of the "Rikbaktsa System", in addition to factors of risk that threaten the territorial processes and resistance in which the Rikbaktsa are currently engaged. We also present reflections and recommendations for the application of concepts and methods of the complex social-ecological systems approach and principles of collaborative management with Amazonian indigenous peoples.

  10. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  11. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  12. LINEAR MIXED MODEL TO DESCRIBE THE BASAL AREA INCREMENT FOR INDIVUDUAL CEDRO (Cedrela odorata L.TREES IN OCCIDENTAL AMAZON, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Augusto da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable growth data from trees are important to establish a rational forest management. Characteristics from trees, like the size, crown architecture and competition indices have been used to mathematically describe the increment efficiently when associated with them. However, the precise role of these effects in the growth-modeling destined to tropical trees needs to be further studied. Here it is reconstructed the basal area increment (BAI of individual Cedrela odorata trees, sampled at Amazon forest, to develop a growth- model using potential-predictors like: (1 classical tree size; (2 morphometric data; (3 competition and (4 social position including liana loads. Despite the large variation in tree size and growth, we observed that these kinds of predictor variables described well the BAI in level of individual tree. The fitted mixed model achieve a high efficiency (R2=92.7 % and predicted 3-years BAI over bark for trees of Cedrela odorata ranging from 10 to 110 cm at diameter at breast height. Tree height, steam slenderness and crown formal demonstrated high influence in the BAI growth model and explaining most of the growth variance (Partial R2=87.2%. Competition variables had negative influence on the BAI, however, explained about 7% of the total variation. The introduction of a random parameter on the regressions model (mixed modelprocedure has demonstrated a better significance approach to the data observed and showed more realistic predictions than the fixed model.

  13. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  14. Evidence of Teleconnections between the Peruvian central Andes and Northeast Brazil during extreme rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Silva, F. Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about changes in regional circulation and physical processes associated with extreme rainfall events in South America is limited. Here we investigate such events over the Mantaro basin (MB) located at (10°S-13°S; 73°W-76°W) in the central Peruvian Andes and Northeastern Brazil (NEB), located at (9°S-15°S; 39°W-46°W). Occasional dry and wet spells can be observed in both areas during the austral summer season. The main goal of this study is to investigate potential teleconnections between extreme rainfall events in MB and NEB during austral summer. We define wet (dry) spells as periods that last for at least 3 (5) consecutive days with rainfall above (below) the 70 (30) percentile. To identify the dates of ocurrence of these events, we used daily accumulated rainfall data from 14 climate stations located in the Mantaro basin for the period 1965 to 2002. In NEB we defined a rainfall index which is based on average daily gridded rainfall data within the region for the same period. Dry (wet spells) in the MB are associated with positive (negative) OLR anomalies which extend over much of the tropical Andes, indicating the large-scale nature of these events. At 200 hPa anomalous easterly (westerly) zonal winds aloft accompany wet (dry) spells. Composite anomalies of dry spells in MB reveal significant contemporaneous precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign over NEB, which suggest that intraseasonal precipitation variability over the two regions may be dynamically linked. Indeed upper-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the central Andes extend across South America and appear to be tied to an adjustment in the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system. Dry (wet) spells in NEB are equally associated with a large-scale pattern of positive (negative) OLR anomalies; however, there are no related significant OLR anomalies over the MB during these events. Dry (wet) spells are associated with robust patterns of anomalous wind fields at both low and upper

  15. ECO-ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FROM THE AMAZON. IV. Occurrence and feeding habits of the aquatic caterpillar Palustra laboulbeni Bar, 1873 (Arctiidae: Lepidoptera) in the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Adis, Joachim

    1983-01-01

    Abstract Aquatic larvae of Palustra laboulbeni Bar, 1873 are recorded for the first time from Brazil. They live among macrophytes in different types of lakes around Manaus and mostly feed on algae. Observations on their respiration are given. Resumo Larvas aquáticas de Palustra laboulbeni Bar. 1873 são referidas pela primeira vez no Brasil. Elas vivem entre macrófitas em diferentes tipos de lagos nas proximidades de Manaus e se alimentam principalmente de algas. Observações sobre a respira...

  16. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V.; Marques, Ana Claudia S.

    1999-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil

  17. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães,Adriana Pellegrini; Veiga-Júnior,Valdir Florêncio da; Wiedemann,Larissa Silveira Moreira; Fernandes,Karenn Silveira; Sampaio,Paulo de Tarso Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

  18. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  19. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  20. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  1. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  2. South America Monsoon variability on millennial to multi-centennial time scale during the Holocene in central eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.

    2011-12-01

    A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.

  3. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

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    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  4. Morphological diversity of cassava accessions of the south-central mesoregion of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, B W; Barelli, M A A; Hoogerheide, E S S; Corrêa, C L; Delforno, G I S; da Silva, C J

    2017-08-17

    Genetic variability of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Brazil is wide, being this the result of natural and cultural selection during pre- and post-domestication of the species in different environments. Given the number of species of the genus found in the region (38 of a total of 98 species), the central region of Brazil was defined as the primary center of cassava diversity. Therefore, genetic diversity characterization of cassava accessions is fundamental, both for farmers and for plant breeders, because it allows the organization of genetic resources and better utilization of available genetic diversity. This research aims to assess genetic divergence of cassava accessions from the south-central region of the State of Mato Grosso, based on multi-categorical morphological traits. For this purpose, 38 qualitative and quantitative morphological descriptors were used. Genetic diversity was expressed by the genetic similarity index, with subsequent clustering of accessions by the modified Tocher's procedure and UPGMA. Of 38 descriptors, only growth habit of stem showed no variability. Tocher and UPGMA methods were efficient and corroborated on group composition. Both methods were able to group accessions of different localities in distinct group consistency.

  5. Screening for Intellectual Disability Using High-Resolution CMA Technology in a Retrospective Cohort from Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo Roncato; Pinto, Irene Plaza; Minasi, Lysa Bernardes; de Melo, Aldaires Vieira; da Cruz e Cunha, Damiana Mirian; Cruz, Alex Silva; Ribeiro, Cristiano Luiz; da Silva, Cláudio Carlos; de Melo e Silva, Daniela; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability is a complex, variable, and heterogeneous disorder, representing a disabling condition diagnosed worldwide, and the etiologies are multiple and highly heterogeneous. Microscopic chromosomal abnormalities and well-characterized genetic conditions are the most common causes of intellectual disability. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis analyses have made it possible to identify putatively pathogenic copy number variation that could explain the molecular etiology of intellectual disability. The aim of the current study was to identify possible submicroscopic genomic alterations using a high-density chromosomal microarray in a retrospective cohort of patients with otherwise undiagnosable intellectual disabilities referred by doctors from the public health system in Central Brazil. The CytoScan HD technology was used to detect changes in the genome copy number variation of patients who had intellectual disability and a normal karyotype. The analysis detected 18 CNVs in 60% of patients. Pathogenic CNVs represented about 22%, so it was possible to propose the etiology of intellectual disability for these patients. Likely pathogenic and unknown clinical significance CNVs represented 28% and 50%, respectively. Inherited and de novo CNVs were equally distributed. We report the nature of CNVs in patients from Central Brazil, representing a population not yet screened by microarray technologies. PMID:25061755

  6. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Druffel, E. R. M; Bauer, J. E; Griffin, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters...

  7. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  8. Migration among individuals with leprosy: a population-based study in Central Brazil

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    Christine Murto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates social and clinical factors associated with migration among individuals affected by leprosy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among those newly diagnosed with leprosy (2006-2008, in 79 endemic municipalities in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (N = 1,074. In total, 76.2% were born in a municipality different from their current residence. In the five years before diagnosis 16.7% migrated, and 3.6% migrated after leprosy diagnosis. Findings reflect aspects associated with historical rural-urban population movement in Brazil. Indicators of poverty were prominent among before-diagnosis migrants but not after-diagnosis migrants. Migration after diagnosis was associated with prior migration. The association of multibacillary leprosy with migration indicates healthcare access may be an obstacle to early diagnosis among before-diagnosis migrants, which may also be related to the high mobility of this group.

  9. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

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    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.El pez tucunaré (Cichla piquiti, nativo del sistema de la cuenca del rio Tocantins-Araguaia, fue introducido en la cuenca del río Paranaíba, parte del sistema del río Paraná. En este ecosistema trófico de planicie aluvial, las relaciones entre comunidades de peces están definidas por diferentes factores que pueden ser modificados debido a la represa del río, y da como resultado grandes cambios en la interacción biológica en éstos hábitats. La represa de Cachoeira Dourada forma parte de una serie de represas en el río Paranaíba en el Brasil central, donde el tucunaré se ha establecido. Una investigación sobre su espectro alimentario, combinado con información sobre sus caracter

  10. Soil-vegetation relationships and community structure in a "terra-firme"-white-sand vegetation gradient in Viruá National Park, northern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bruno A F DE; Fernandes, Elpídio I; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Mendonça, Júlia G F DE; Vasconcelos, Bruno N F

    2017-01-01

    Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The vegetation of the Campinaranas types and Forest differed in biomass and species density. Ten species, endemic to Brazil, were particularly well-represented. PC and CCA indicated a clear distinction between the studied plots, based on measured soil variables, especially base sum and clay, which were the most differentiating properties between Campinarana and Forest; For the separation of the Campinarana types, the main distinguishing variable was organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher similarity of Campinaranas was associated to a monodominant species and the lower similarity of Forest was related to the high occurrence of locally rare species.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative damage caused by Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae to upland rice cultivated in new agricultural frontier of the Amazon rainforest (Brazil

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    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oebalus poecilus (Dallas 1851 is one of the stink bug species of great economic importance for rice producers in Brazil of irrigated, flood and upland cropping systems. These pentatomids are known as stink bugs of panicles, because both nymphs and adults feed mainly on panicles. Stink bug attacks result in pecky (spots seeds, lower mass, germinative reduction and deformed grains. Bearing these factors in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative losses in commercial cultivars of upland rice (Cambará variety, submitted to different population levels of stink bugs of panicles, O. poecilus, at different reproductive growth stages. The results show that in upland rice (Cambará variety, the rice grains are susceptible to quantitative (number and weight and qualitative (pecky, atrophy, chalky and broken grains damage during all panicle development. However, when the insects feed during anthesis/caryopsis and milky stage cause significantly greater percentage of empty grains (up to 83% than when they feed of grains during later phases of panicle development. This characteristic was also observed for the reduction in grain weight. This information may benefit producers and other researchers, allowing them to focus on the monitoring efforts of O. poecilus in most susceptible phases of the attack of this insect. This will enable decision-making about what control measures should be taken, and when, in order to control stink bugs of panicles.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

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    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  13. The Pulse of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. G.; Moura, J. M. S.; Mitsuya, M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Holmes, R. M.; Galy, V.; Drake, T.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers integrate over a fixed and definable area (the watershed), with their discharge and chemistry at any given point a function of upstream processes. As a consequence, examination of riverine discharge and chemistry can provide powerful indictors of change within a watershed. To assess the validity of this approach long-term datasets are required from fluvial environments around the globe. The Amazon River delivers one-fifth of the total freshwater discharged to the ocean and so represents a fundamentally important site for examination of long-term major ion, trace element, nutrient, and organic matter (OM) export. Here we describe data from a multi-year, monthly sampling campaign of the Amazon River at Obidos (Para, Brazil). Clear seasonality in all analyte fluxes is apparent and is linked to hydrology, however dissolved OM composition appears dominated by allochthonous sources throughout the year as evidenced by optical parameters indicative of high molecular weight and high relative aromatic content. Annual loads of some analytes for 2011-2013 inclusive varied by up to 50%, highlighting significant variability in flux from year to year that was linked to inter-annual hydrologic shifts (i.e. higher fluxes in wetter years). Finally, encompassing both intra- and inter-annual variability, a robust correlation was observed between chromophoric dissolved OM (CDOM) absorbance and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration highlighting the potential to improve DOC flux estimates at this globally significant site via CDOM measurements from in situ technologies or remote sensing techniques.

  14. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena Schayer; Amaral, Angela Maria; Poirior, Andre Pierre Prous

    2002-01-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  15. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno de Paulo; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; de Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros; Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Grisotto, Marcos Augusto Grigolin; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection. PMID:26943639

  17. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  18. Territorial and mating behavior in Phyllomedusa azurea (Anura: Hylidae at a temporary pond in west-central Brazil

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    Taís Borges Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied territorial and mating behavior of Phyllomedusa azurea in the municipality of Cocalzinho de Goiás, Goiás, which is locatedin central Brazil. During the mating season, male P. azurea engage in territorial behavior that is associated with vocalizations—advertisement, territorial, fight, or a combination of two more of these. When one male frog invades the territory of another, they commonly emit of territorial calls and engage in physical combat. Three main behavioral traits were observed in mating males—viz., “male-singer,” “active search” and “male-shifter.” Malesvocalize during the amplexus and oviposition. No aggression between females P. azurea was observed.

  19. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  20. Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

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    Alfredo DS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.

  1. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Freitas LS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larissa S Freitas,1 Núbia Caroline C Almeida,1 Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz,1 Marcelo M Zaninotto,2 Hellen T Fuzii,3 Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva,4 Antonio CR Vallinoto,1 Marluísa OG Ishak,1 Juarez AS Quaresma,3 Ricardo Ishak1 1Virus Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, 2Hospital of Clinic Gaspar Viana, 3Laboratory of Immunopathology, Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Para, Belém, 4Departament of Pathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ markers in the vascular system tissues. Methods: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Results: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60 of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115 and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025; C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously

  2. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  3. Body adiposity and nutritional status among indigenous children in villages of Kaxinawá tribe in Southwest Amazon rain forest, State of Acre, Brazil

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    Orivaldo Florêncio de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate body adiposity and nutritional status among indigenous children from Kaxinawá Tribe by using anthropometry. The sample was composed by 93 children aged 6 to 10 years and of both sexes, living at the villages Kaxinawá do Caucho e Paroá, in the state of Acre, Brazil. Body adiposity was estimated by skinfold thickness at triceps and subscapular sites and by the sum of these two skinfolds. Nutritional status was identified by the indicators weight-for age (w/a, stature-for-age (s/a and weight-for-stature (w/s using z-score cut-off points suggested by the World Health Organization. For comparison between sexes, the Student’s t-test was used. Low body fat prevalence was observed in 83.7% of boys and 62% of girls. There were significant differences between sexes at 8 and 10 years of age for the triceps skinfolds and the sum of skinfolds. For the subscapular skinfold, the difference was observed only at 8 years of age. Chronic malnutrition was detected in both sexes and the prevalence depended upon the applied criteria. The prevalence was 76.3% for s/a and 47.3% for w/a. Acute malnutrition was present among 12.9% of children when using w/s. Boys tended to have higher prevalence for chronic malnutrition (s/a and w/a, while the girls for acute malnutrition (w/s. It was concluded that there is a high prevalence of malnutrition and low body adiposity among indigenous Kaxinawá children in the state of Acre, Brazil. RESUMO O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a adiposidade corporal e o estado nutricional de crianças indígenas da Tribo Kaxinawá, através do método antropométrico. A amostra constitui-se de 93 crianças, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 06 a 10 anos de idade das aldeias indígenas Kaxinawá do Caucho e Paroá, no estado do Acre. Na adiposidade corporal, verificou-se as dobras cutâneas tricipital, subescapular e somatório de dobras cutâneas (tríceps mais

  4. Meteorological context of the onset and end of the rainy season in Central Amazonia during the GoAmazon2014/5

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    J. A. Marengo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset and demise of the rainy season in Amazonia are assessed in this study using meteorological data from the GoAmazon experiment, with a focus on the 2014–2015 rainy season. In addition, global reanalyses are also used to identify changes in circulation leading to the establishment of the rainy season in the region. Our results show that the onset occurred in January 2015, 2–3 pentads later than normal, and the rainy season during the austral summer of 2015 contained several periods with consecutive dry days in both Manacapuru and Manaus, which are not common for the wet season, and resulted in below-normal precipitation. The onset of the rainy season has been strongly associated with changes in large-scale weather conditions in the region due to the effect of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO. Regional thermodynamic indices and the height of the boundary layer did not present a significant difference between the onset and demise of the wet season of 2015. This suggests that local changes, such as those in the regional thermodynamic characteristics, may not have influenced its onset. Thus, variability of the large-scale circulation was responsible for regional convection and rainfall changes in Amazonia during the austral summer of 2014–2015.

  5. HIV seroprevalence and high-risk sexual behavior among female sex workers in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention.

  6. Caracterização do uso de malhadeiras pela frota pesqueira que desembarca em Manaus e Manacapuru, Amazonas Characterization of gillnet fisheries landed in Manaus and Manacapuru, Central Amazon

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    Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A malhadeira é um apetrecho de pesca frequentemente utilizado na pesca regional. O presente estudo visa verificar características das malhadeiras utilizadas nos diversos subsistemas da Amazônia Central, seu uso e a aplicação de normas legais relacionadas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com pescadores em Manaus entre 1994 e 2004 e em Manacapuru entre 2001 e 2004. Os resultados indicaram que o apetrecho responde em média a 14% da produção pesqueira de Manaus, com tendência a diminuição e a 24,5% de Manacapuru, com estabilidade interanual. As freqüências modais recentes do tamanho de malha estiveram entre 50-60 mm no desembarque em Manaus, mas em Manacapuru foram mais diversas, entre 20 mm e 90 mm. A moda do comprimento das redes foi de 100 m em ambos portos, mas se em Manaus correspondem a cerca de 90% das registradas, em Manacapuru não são nem 50% do total. Quanto à freqüência de ocorrência de uso da malhadeira nos subsistemas da Amazônia Central que desembarcaram em Manaus, destaca-se o rio Purus (47,8%, enquanto que para Manacapuru predominou explotação no Baixo Solimões (94,3%. A composição das capturas variou entre os anos analisados, destacando cinco principais pescados que compõem mais de 70% das capturas: tambaqui, aruanã, tucunaré, curimatá, pirapitinga. Com relação às restrições no tamanho de malha, a maioria dos apetrechos têm tamanho de malha passível de uso ilegal, similarmente aos comprimentos das mesmas. Concluiu-se que há grande diversidade de formas de uso do apetrecho, sendo necessário gerar normas legais mais efetivas e compatíveis com a realidade pesqueira, cultural e sócio-econômica da Amazônia.The gillnet is frequently used in Amazon commercial and artisanal fishing. The present study aims to verify characteristics of the gill-nets of gillnets found in various Central Amazon subsystems, their use, and compliance with related legal norms. Daily Interviews were made from

  7. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  8. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  9. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  10. Intoxicação natural por Brachiaria spp. em ovinos no Brasil Central Brachiaria spp. poisoning in sheep in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria spp. é a principal forrageira utilizada para ruminantes no Brasil Central, mas a sua toxicidade, devida à presença de saponinas esteroidais, torna-se um importante entrave à sua utilização. Neste trabalho descrevem-se 34 surtos e um foco de intoxicação por Brachiaria spp em ovinos, que ocorreram em diferentes épocas do ano. A morbidade geral foi de 23,2% e a letalidade foi 88,3%. O tempo que os animais permaneceram no pasto até o surgimento dos sinais clínicos da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. variou de 15 dias até mais de 12 meses. Em 90,1% dos surtos os animais eram menores de 12 meses de idade. O curso clínico da intoxicação variou de 2 a 45 dias. Os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas foram características de fotossenssibilização hepatógena, no entanto, nos casos mais agudos não foram observadas dermatite nem icterícia, ocorrendo severo edema em face e orelhas. Na histologia do fígado as lesões mais características foram a presença de macrófagos com citoplasma espumoso, encontrados principalmente nos sinusoides hepáticos e, às vezes, com imagens negativas de cristais acutiformes no citoplasma. Em oito das 11 fazendas visitadas os surtos ocorreram em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens; em duas em pastagens de B. brizantha e uma em pastagem de B. decumbens, B. humidicola e Andropogon sp. As concentrações de saponinas nas pastagens, em 5 surtos, variou de 0.3% a 2.56%. As informações geradas neste trabalho permitem a proposta de medidas para controle e profilaxia da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. no Brasil Central.Brachiaria spp. is the main pasture for ruminants in Central-Brazil, but the crucial problem for their utilization is the toxicity due to the presence of steroidal saponins. This paper reports 35 outbreaks of poisoning by Brachiaria spp in sheep. The poisoning occurred in different seasons of the year. Mean morbidity was 23.2% and mean lethality was 88.3%. The occurrence of

  11. Combined effects of climate change and forest clearing on the Amazon vegetation: Projections for 2080-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2007-05-01

    A regional climate model with resolution of 60 km coupled with a potential vegetation model is used to simulate future vegetation distributions over South America. The coupled model, which produces an accurate representation of today's climate and vegetation, is forced with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, sea surface temperature from a global model, and scenarios of future land use practices to predict climate and vegetation distributions for the last 2 decades of the 21st century. When only climate change is considered, under a business-as-usual scenario for global emissions, the extent of the Amazon rainforest is reduced by about 70 per cent by the end of this century, and the shrubland (caatinga) vegetation of Brazil's Nordeste region spreads westward and southward. Reductions in annual mean precipitation are widespread and rainfall becomes insufficient to support the rainforest in these regions, but some areas receive more precipitation. The length of the dry season increases in the central and southern Amazon in association with changes in the large-scale tropical circulation. Without this change in seasonality, local refugia of Amazon vegetation would be preserved and the retreat of the rainforest would be somewhat less extensive. Including various projections of future land use practices in addition to climate change may accelerate the unrecoverable demise of the rainforest and feedback to modify climate on regional space scales. The portions of the rainforest that are most vulnerable to climate change are the same as those that are under the most pressure from human activity, presenting a remarkable competition.

  12. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae in crop succession at central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Furquim Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae in crop succession at central Brazil. Beetles of the family Melolonthidae make up a large group and some species are considered pests of planted crops. Little information is available on the basic biological aspects of the genus Leucothyreus, such as association with cultivated crops and their occurrence periods. Therefore studies were developed in soybean and corn crops in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, with the objective of studying the occurrence and biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus. For acquisition of immature specimens of both species, in April 2011 sampling was performed in corn fields, in July and October in the fallow area, and in soybeans fields planted in December; in 2012 sampling was performed in January and February in soybean fields and in March in corn fields. In 2011 the total number of larvae obtained in April, July, October and December were 100, 6, 30 and 27, and in January, February and March of 2012 these quantities were 32, 52 and 65 larvae, respectively. In all sampling events the larvae of L. alvarengai were collected in greater quantity. At the beginning of the reproductive period of L. alvarengai and L. aff. semipruinosus, it was observed that the adults began to fly and soon after started oviposition in the field in September. The appearance of larvae coincides with the time of soybean planting in the field, thus the larvae feed on roots of soybean plants at the beginning of their development and the cycle from egg to adult of the two species was completed in one year.

  13. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Rosina D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics.

  14. SOURCES OF GROWTH OF SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL AND SOUTHEAST OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Moreira Bittencourt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the determinants of variations in the production of sugar cane in Southeast and Midwest of the Brazil, between 1990 and 2009, measuring the effects area, productivity and composition. The theoretical framework consists of the conceptualization of the modernization of agriculture and the description of the theory of induced innovation. The empirical analysis is based on the work of the Shift-Share model, also known as a differential structure. In the results from 1990 to 2009 (total period, there is the hypothesis of the higher average yield of sugarcane in the Southeast and of the pattern of growth production by area in the Midwest. On the other hand, in the period 2005 to 2009, where the two regions in question had the highest growth rates of production of sugar cane, the composition effect revealed the most significant values, showing that the expansion of sugarcane production has occurred in these regions, mainly by substituting other crops by land less profitable.

  15. Runoff measurement and prediction for a watershed under natural vegetation in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Silva

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to measure and analyze total rainfall (P, rainfall intensity and five-day antecedent rainfall effects on runoff (R; to compare measured and simulated R values using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (CN for each rainfall event; and to establish average R/P ratios for observed R values. A one-year (07/01/96 to 06/30/97 rainfall-runoff data study was carried out in the Capetinga watershed (962.4 ha, located at the Federal District of Brazil, 47° 52' longitude West and 15° 52' latitude South. Soils of the watershed were predominantly covered by natural vegetation. Total rainfall and runoff for the period were 1,744 and 52.5 mm, respectively, providing R/P of 3% and suggesting that watershed physical characteristics favored water infiltration into the soil. A multivariate regression analysis for 31 main rainfall-runoff events totaling 781.9 and 51.0 mm, respectively, indicated that the amount of runoff was only dependent upon rainfall volume. Simulated values of total runoff were underestimated about 15% when using CN method and an area-weighted average of the CN based on published values. On the other hand, when average values of CN were calculated for the watershed, total runoff was overestimated about 39%, suggesting that CN method shoud be used with care in areas under natural vegetation.

  16. Seasonal variations in soil water in two woodland savannas of central Brazil with different fire history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Hodnett, Martin G; Breyer, Lacê M; Santos, Alexandre J B; Andrade, Sérgio; Miranda, Heloisa S; Miranda, Antonio Carlos; Lloyd, Jon

    2008-03-01

    Changes in soil water content were determined in two cerrado (sensu stricto) areas with contrasting fire history and woody vegetation density. The study was undertaken near Brasília, Brazil, from 1999 to 2001. Soil water content was measured with a neutron probe in three access tubes per site to a depth of 4.7 m. One site has been protected from fire for more than 30 years and, as a consequence, has a high density of woody plants. The other site had been frequently burned, and has a high herbaceous vegetation density and less woody vegetation. Soil water uptake patterns were strongly seasonal, and despite similarities in hydrological processes, the protected area systematically used more water than the burned area. Three temporarily contiguous patterns of water absorption were differentiated, characterized by variation in the soil depth from which water was extracted. In the early dry season, vegetation used water from throughout the soil profile but with a slight preference for water in the upper soil layers. Toward the peak of the dry season, vegetation had used most or all available water from the surface to a depth of 1.7 m, but continued to extract water from greater depths. Following the first rains, all water used was from the recently wetted upper soil layers only. Evaporation rates were a linear function of soil water availability, indicating a strong coupling of atmospheric water demand and the physiological response of the vegetation.

  17. Vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly in an urban center in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Driemeier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9% of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly.

  18. New Astyanax from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, Central Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Vinicius A. Bertaco

    Full Text Available Astyanax utiariti, new species, is described from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Astyanax utiariti has a horizontally oval black humeral spot, a lozenge-shaped caudal-peduncle spot, continuing to the tip of the middle caudal-fin rays, and two brown bars in the humeral region that allows its inclusion in the A. bimaculatus species group. It also possesses a black stripe extending along midlateral body. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a reticulate scale pattern, a black longitudinal stripe, toothless maxilla, larger dentary teeth and teeth of the inner row of the premaxilla with five to seven cusps, body depth 33.3-39.9% of standard length (SL, head length (HL 23.9-26.4% of SL, caudal-peduncle depth 12.0-13.4% of SL, orbital diameter 28.5-34.3% of HL, interorbital width 32.7-38.4% of HL, 36-38 perforated scales along the lateral line, and 22-26 branched anal-fin rays.

  19. NATURAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma cruzi IN ONE DOG IN CENTRAL WESTERN BRAZIL: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY It is estimated that about 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, mostly in Latin America and more than 25 million are at risk of acquiring this infection in endemic areas. Dogs are an important reservoir for this pathogen and thus, considered a risk factor for human populations. This report describes one case of Chagas disease in a dog from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The diagnosis was obtained by direct examination of trypomastigote forms in blood smears. Amastigotes forms were visualized in microscopy of the bone marrow, lymph nodes, kidneys, liver and brain. The T. cruzi (ZIII infection was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, and sequencing. The animal presented multisystemic failure and died. Although acute Chagas disease in humans is not reported in Cuiabá, this is the first report of a canine case in this region. This case represents a warning, to health professionals and authorities, to the possibility of transmission of this zoonosis in Cuiabá.

  20. Lead and mercury levels in an environmentally exposed population in the Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Leda Diva Freitas de; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Azevedo, Sayonara Vieira de; Borges, Renato Marçullo; Gomes, Regina Aderne de Almeida; Bergamini, Fernanda Pereira Baptista; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to assess the level of exposure to lead and mercury in a population in the Pantanal region in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Blood lead (PbB) (n = 119) and urinary mercury (HgU) (n = 109) in local residents were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of means and correlations between variables used analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals. Mean PbB was 2.82 ± 1.53µg dL-1. The comparison of PbB stratified by collection site (p ≤ 0.01), work activity (p ≤ 0.01), and consumption of locally produced cow's milk (p ≤ 0.05) showed statistically significant differences. There were also positive associations between PbB and collection site (p ≤ 0.01), participants' profession (p ≤ 0.05), local milk (p ≤ 0.01), and source of drinking water (p ≤ 0.01). Mean HgU was 1.41 ± 0.98µg L-1. The levels only showed significant differences for participants' profession (p ≤ 0.01), and positive associations emerged between HgU and work activity (p ≤ 0.01) and body mass index (p ≤ 0.01). The samples showed low lead and mercury levels, similar to those found in other environmentally exposed populations. Despite these low concentrations, current knowledge on the toxicity of these metals shows that health effects can already be felt at levels that were previously considered safe, thus characterizing a health hazard.

  1. Prevalence and genetic characterisation of HTLV-1 and 2 dual infections in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Central-West Brazil

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    Aline Garcia Kozlowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV may impact the clinical course of tuberculosis (TB. Both infections are highly endemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in TB patients in Central-West Brazil and to perform a genetic characterisation of the respective isolates. Of the 402 patients, six (1.49% were positive for anti-HTLV and five (1.24%; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-3.05 were infected with HTLV-1/2. Genetic characterisation demonstrated that the four HTLV-1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a and that the HTLV-2 isolate belonged to subtype a (HTLV-2a/c. The prevalence of HTLV infection observed in this study is higher than that observed in local blood donors and the HTLV-1 and 2 subtypes identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.

  2. Performance of centralized versus decentralized tuberculosis treatment services in Southern Brazil, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mara Cristina; Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Wildner, Leticia Muraro; Medeiros, Taiane Freitas; Maurici, Rosemeri; Kupek, Emil; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2018-04-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) control programs face the challenges of decreasing incidence, mortality rates, and drug resistance while increasing treatment adherence. The Brazilian TB control program recommended the decentralization of patient care as a strategy for combating the disease. This study evaluated the performance of this policy in an area with high default rates, comparing epidemiological and operational indicators between two similar municipalities. This study analyzed epidemiological and operational indicators on new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis reported in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2006 and 2015. In addition, to characterize differences between the populations of the two studied municipalities, a prospective cohort study was conducted between 2014 and 2015, in which patients with new cases of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were interviewed and monitored until the disease outcome. A descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, and a Poisson regression model were employed to compare TB treatment outcomes and health care indicators between the municipalities. Two thousand three hundred nine cases were evaluated, of which 207 patients were interviewed. Over the 2006-2015 period, TB incidence per 100,000 population in the municipality with decentralized care was significantly higher (39%, 95% CI 27-49%) in comparison to that of the municipality with centralized care. TB treatment default rate (45%, 95% CI 12-90%) was also higher in the municipality with decentralized care. During the two-year follow-up, significant differences were found between patients in centralized care and those in decentralized care regarding treatment success (84.5 vs. 66.1%), treatment default (10.7 vs. 25.8%), illicit drug use (27.7 vs. 45.9%), and homelessness (3.6 vs. 12.9%). The operational indicators revealed that the proportion of control smear tests, medical imaging, and HIV tests were all significantly higher in the centralized care

  3. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  4. Extractive industries and political frontiers in the Amazon during the elastic rubber boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate G, Carlos G

    2008-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between the extractive activity of elastic rubber, during the period between the fourth part of 19th century and the first decades of the 20 Th century, in the Amazonian frontier between Brazil, Peru and Colombia, and the process of configuration and definition of the boundaries between these countries. The central aspect of the analysis and the discussion is the questioning of the deterministic and simplistic interpretations that associate, in a mechanical way, the relationship between the kind of rubber species exploited and their production organization, the effects on the indigenous societies, and even the politic organization and delimitation of the bordering territories. It is also expected to show how these interpretations have been wrongly or instrumentally used even in the ideological field, to justify and explain the results of the bordering agreements of these countries, which conduced to establish the current Political frontiers in the Amazon

  5. Genetic parameters for type classification of Nelore cattle on central performance tests at pasture in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini Neto, José; Machado, Carlos Henrique Cavallari; McManus, Concepta

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Nelore cattle on central performance tests in pasture, ranked by the visual classification method EPMURAS (structure, precocity, muscle, navel, breed, posture, and sexual characteristics), and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations between these parameters, including visual as well as production traits (initial and final weight on test, weight gain, and weight corrected for 550 days). The information used in the study was obtained on 21,032 Nelore bulls which were participants in the central performance test at pasture of the Brazilian Association for Zebu Breeders (ABCZ). Heritabilities obtained were from 0.19 to 0.50. Phenotypic correlations were positive from 0.70 to 0.97 between the weight traits, from 0.65 to 0.74 between visual characteristics, and from 0.29 to 0.47 between visual characteristics and weight traits. The genetic correlations were positive ranging from 0.80 to 0.98 between the characteristics of structure, precocity and musculature, from 0.13 to 0.64 between the growth characteristics, and from 0.41 to 0.97 between visual scores and weight gains. Heritability and genetic correlations indicate that the use of visual scores, along with the selection for growth characteristics, can bring positive results in selection of beef cattle for rearing on pasture.

  6. Monetary policy during Brazil's Real Plan: estimating the Central Bank's reaction function

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    Maria José S. Salgado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a Threshold Autoregressive (TAR model with exogenous variables to explain a change in regime in Brazilian nominal interest rates. By using an indicator of currency crises the model tries to explain the difference in the dynamics of nominal interest rates during and out of a currency crises. The paper then compares the performance of the nonlinear model to a modified Taylor Rule adjusted to Brazilian interest rates, and shows that the former performs considerably better than the latter.A função de reação do Banco Central do Brasil é modelada via um modelo TAR (Limiar Auto-regressivo para dar conta da mudança de regime na determinação da taxa nominal de juros. O modelo faz uso de um indicador de crises cambiais para explicar as distintas dinâmicas da taxa nominal de juros durante e fora das crises. O desempenho do modelo não-linear é significativamente melhor do que o de uma regra de Taylor ajustada às taxas de juros brasileiras, demonstrando o comportamento dual da função de reação do Banco Central do Brasil.

  7. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John P; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3-16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14-17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti is the first

  8. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

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    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  9. Trichomycterus dali: a new highly troglomorphic catfish (Silurifomes: Trichomycteridae from Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Brazil

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    Pedro Pereira Rizzato

    Full Text Available Trichomycterus dali, new species, is described from flooded limestone caves in Serra da Bodoquena karst area, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. The new species is diagnosed by a unique character in the genus, the presence of conspicuous, ridge-like adipose folds lining dorsally throughout the body. Trichomycterus dali can be further distinguished readily from epigean congeners by the reduction of eyes and skin pigmentation (except for T. gorgona, and from remaining congeners (i.e., all hypogean plus T. gorgona by the total loss of eyes, not visible externally (except for T. sandovali and T. spelaeus. Other diagnostic features includes very long barbels, especially the nasal (99.3-143.5% HL and the maxillary (97.0-131.3% HL, pectoral-fin ray count reaching I,9 and a unique cranial fontanel with a conspicuous constriction on the meeting point of supraoccipital and the two frontal bones. The troglobitic status of the species is suggested by the presence of troglomorphisms on an advanced degree, especially the reduction of skin pigmentation, the total loss of eyes and the enlarged barbels. In addition, the presence of a well developed adipose fold in adults may indicate a distinctive adaptation acquired by neoteny to withstand the food scarce conditions of its hypogean habitat.

  10. Ordovician A-type granitoid magmatism on the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Neivaldo A.; Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Osako, Liliane S.; Nutman, Alan A.; Liu, Dunyi

    2012-07-01

    We present field relationships, major and trace element geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP and ID-TIMS geochronology of the A-type Ordovician Quintas pluton located in the Ceará Central Domain of the Borborema Province, in northeastern Brazil. This pluton presents a concentric geometry and is composed mainly of syenogranite, monzogranite, quartz syenite to quartz monzodiorite, monzogabbro and diorite. Its geochemical characteristics [SiO2 (52-70%), Na2O/K2O (1.55-0.65), Fe2O3/MgO (2.2-7.3), metaluminous to sligthly alkaline affinity, post-collisional type in (Y + Nb) × Rb diagram, and A-type affinity (Ga > 22 ppm, Nb > 20 ppm, Zn > 60 ppm), REE fractioned pattern with negative Eu anomaly] are coherent with post-collisional A2-type granitoids. However, the emplacement of this pluton is to some extent temporally associated with the deposition of the first strata of the Parnaíba intracratonic basin, attesting also to a purely anorogenic character (A1-type granitoid). The emplacement of this pluton is preceded by one of the largest known orogenesis of the planet (Neoproterozoic Pan-African/Brasiliano) and, if it is classified as an A2-type granitoid, it provides interesting constraints about how long can last A2-type magmatic activity after a major collisional episode, arguably triggered by disturbance of the underlying mantle, a topic extensively debated in the geoscience community.

  11. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population.

  12. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: abiotic factors and nymph density

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    Pitágoras da Conceição Bispo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The stonefly (Pleeoptera nymphs of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, and some abiotie factors that might affect their temporal distribution were studied. Nymphs were sampled monthly (June 1993 to July 1994 in five stations with a Surber sampler, and each sample consisted of 20 units totalling 2 m². In each station, stream velocity, discharge, temperature, electrical conductivity and pH were measured in order to assess their influence on the density of nymphs. Nymphs were identified to genus level. In general, the annual variation in density of nymphs, in four stations, showed that the seasonal variation was not clearly influenced by the annual rain cycle. In the case of the one of the stations, where numbers of stonefly nymphs were low and the anthropic action high, there was a density peak in the rainy season. This peak was probably related to dilution of the organie pollution in the rainy season, improving the environmental conditions for the Pleeoptera.

  13. Interactions between sedimentary evolution and prehistoric human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Paulo César Fonseca Giannini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina State, in Brazil, the articulation between natural and anthropic processes modeled a strongly domesticated landscape, shaped by the massive construction of shell mounds of monumental dimensions and millenarian permanence. In the coastal plain between Passagem da Barra (Laguna District and Figueirinha Lake (Jaguaruna District, 76 sambaquis were mapped, 48 of which have been dated. Systematic site surveys and radiocarbon datings allowed identifying patterns of spatial distribution in sambaquis according to the sedimentary context at the time of construction, stratigraphy and age. Based on these criteria, the following groups were recognized: five geological-geomorphological contexts of location; three stratigraphic patterns; and four phases of sambaqui occupation in the area, based on site number and type of constructive pattern. The model for sedimentary evolution and time-space distribution of sambaquis shows that sites were built in already emerged areas and that inland sites, away from the lagoons, may have not be preserved or they are not exposed due to the continuous sedimentary filling that characterized this region after the maximum Holocene transgression. The crossing of data, here proposed, shows the importance of integral approaches between archaeology and geosciences for the study of landscape evolution.

  14. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

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    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  15. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  16. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

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    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  17. The use of carbon isotopes in the study of groundwater of the Bambui calcareous-central region of Bahia (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, F.C.F.

    1978-06-01

    Groundwater of 34 wells and of a spring of the Bambui limestone aquifer, in central Bahia, Brazil, were analized for the 14 C and 13 C content. One sample of soil CO 2 and four of soil organic matter were analized for 13 C. From these data were calculated the 14 C ages of these waters. A major difficulty in the use of radiocarbon in groundwater hydrology is the estimation of the initial 14 C concentration. In many cases, this can be simply determined by the fraction of carbon derived from soil gas, relative to the total carbon dissolved, by the use of Δ 13 C of the soil organic matter, limestone and dissolved carbon in water. This approach does not seem to be completely valid in arid ou semi-arid regions, specially where the pH of the soil is relatively high. In this case, the isotopic composition of the soil water can be determined if the pCO 2 and pH of the soil can be estimated and if the isotopic composition of the soil CO 2 can be known. The final isotopic composition of the groundwater is a combination of the isotopic composition of the soil water and any limestone thereafter dissolved. The 14 C ages of the water samples analized ranged from modern to about 13000 years. The recharge areas of the aquifer are clearly indicated, as the probable underground flow directions. The interpretation of the radiocarbon data is in accord with the hydrologic data. (Author) [pt

  18. Activity of Tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae Attacking the Reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn. (Alligatoridae and Eunectes murinus (Linn. (Boidae, in the Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Ferreira Ruth LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2, situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02°45'33"S; 59°51'03"W. Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn., and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn., in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  19. Subterranean ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae as prey of fossorial reptiles (Reptilia, Squamata: Amphisbaenidae in Central Brazil

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    Flávia de Araújo Esteves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ant diversity observed in stomach contents of fossorial reptiles was compared to the subterranean ant richness collected using traditional and modern techniques of ant collections. We analyzed the alimentary tract of 64 specimens of amphisbaenians (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis, and 25 Leposternon infraorbitale collected during the fauna rescue for the construction of Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam in the Tocantins River (from 1992 to 1997, in Minaçu County, Goiás, Brazil. We found only five ant species present in the stomach contents, all belonging to the army ants subfamily Ecitoninae. In contrast, the traditional techniques for subterranean ants' collection are far more efficient than the exam of fossorial reptile's stomach contents, collecting a much richer and diverse ant fauna. The exclusive occurrence of army ants in the alimentary tract of these fossorial reptiles suggests that they trace the chemical trails laid by the ants while moving inside and over the soil. Further, the occurrence of the epigaeic army ants Eciton and Labidus in the stomach contents suggests that amphisbaenians may forage on the soil surface as well.A diversidade de formigas no conteúdo estomacal de répteis fossoriais foi comparada à riqueza de formigas subterrâneas coletadas com o uso de técnicas tradicionais e modernas para sua coleta. Analisamos o trato alimentar de 64 espécimes de anfisbenídeos (4 Amphisbaena alba, 10 A. fuliginosa, 25 A. vermicularis e 25 Leposternon infraorbitale coletados durante o resgate da fauna para a construção da represa da Hidroelétrica da Serra da Mesa no Rio Tocantins (de 1992 a 1997, na cidade de Minaçu, Goiás, Brasil. Encontramos apenas cinco espécies de formigas presentes nos conteúdos estomacais aqui examinados, todas pertencentes à subfamília das formigas-de-correição, Ecitoninae. Ao contrário, as técnicas tradicionais de coleta de formigas subterrâneas são muito mais

  20. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  1. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  2. Microfitoplâncton de águas costeiras amazônicas: Ilha Canela (Bragança, PA, Brasil Microphytoplankton of Amazon coastal waters: Canela Island (Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Brabo de Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Variações sazonal e nictemeral do microfitoplâncton foram estudadas em uma estação fixa (00º46'37,2''S-046º43'24,5''W, localizada em uma área costeira próxima à ilha Canela (Norte do Brasil, durante os meses de setembro e dezembro/2004 (período seco e março e junho/2005 (período chuvoso. As amostras destinadas à análise qualitativa do fitoplâncton foram obtidas a partir da filtragem de 400 L de água, através de uma rede planctônica (65 μm de abertura de malha, durante marés de sizígia, em intervalos regulares de três horas, por um período de 24 horas. O material coletado foi fixado com formol neutro a 4%. Paralelamente a essas coletas foi medida a salinidade da superfície da água. A salinidade apresentou variação significativa ao longo do período de estudo, variando entre 26,1 (junho/2005 e 39,0 (dezembro/2004, caracterizando o ambiente como eualino-polialino. Foram identificados 130 táxons incluídos nas divisões Cyanophyta (dois táxons, Bacillariophyta (115 táxons e Dinophyta (13 táxons. As diatomáceas dominaram o microfitoplâncton da área, sendo Asterionellopsis glacialis, Dimeregramma minor, Skeletonema sp. e Thalassiosira subtilis os táxons mais freqüentes e abundantes. Os altos valores de salinidade condicionaram a maior representatividade das espécies marinhas neríticas, polialóbias. Os processos de ressuspensão provocados pelos ventos e arrebentação das ondas promoveram intercâmbios entre as populações planctônicas e ticoplanctônicas, dentre as quais as espécies Dimeregramma minor, Triceratium biquadratum e T. pentacrinus representaram novas ocorrências para as águas costeiras do litoral amazônico.Seasonal and nyctemeral variations of the microphytoplankton were studied at a fixed station (00º46'37.2''S-046º43'24.5''W on Canela Island (North Brazil in September and December/2004 (dry season and in March and June/2005 (rainy season. Samples for qualitative phytoplankton studies were

  3. Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The study present evaluated the levels of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in hair samples of people from Barreiras community, riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River (Pará, Brazil), an area impacted by clandestine gold mining, as well as we analyzed the levels of Hg and Se (selenium) in nine fish species (carnivores and non-carnivorous) from the Tapajós River, which stand out as the main species consumed by riverside inhabitants, to evaluate a relationship between frequency of fish consumption and Hg concentration, and also to evaluate possible mechanisms of fish protection (or non-protection) to Hg exposure by Se. Furthermore we analyze the water quality to evaluate the environmental trophic state, fact responsible by creating conditions that can potentiate the effects of toxic mercury. Concentrations of Hg and MeHg were analyzed in hair samples of 141 volunteers in different age band. Of those, 84.40% of samples present values above the threshold for biological tolerance, which is 6.00μgg(-1) of total Hg in hair. Total Hg, in men there was a variation of 2.07-24.93μgg(-1), while for women the variation was 4.84-27.02μgg(-1). Consequently, the level of MeHg in men presented a variation of 1.49-19.57μgg(-1), with an average of 11.68μgg(-1), while with women the variation was from 3.73 to 22.35μgg(-1), with an average of 10.38μgg(-1). In fish species, Hg concentrations in carnivorous species had an average of 0.66μgg(-1), higher than that permitted by current legislation, ranging from 0.30 to 0.98μgg(-1), while the non-carnivorous species have values below the recommended by the legislation averaging 0.09μgg(-1), ranging between 0.02 and 0.44μgg(-1). For Se in fish, show that among carnivores, the contents of Se ranged between 0.18 and 0.54μgg(-1) with a mean of 0.34μgg(-1), while for non-carnivores these values were of the order of 0.16-0.56μgg(-1), with an average of 0.32μgg(-1). In surface water quality variables at the sampling points

  4. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  5. A new pale-spotted species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hypostomus Lacépède (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins in central Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of pale blotches over a darker background on head, body and fins, and conspicuous keels on head, predorsal region and lateral plates. Comments on the pale-spotted species of Hypostomus are provided.

  6. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the central da Mata Atlântica in Eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, C. F. D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H. G.; Alves, M. A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphi...

  7. Soil chemical factors and grassland species density in Emas National Park (central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, P K; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Studies of grasslands on specific soil types suggest that different nutrients can limit biomass production and, hence, species composition and number. The Brazilian cerrado is the major savanna region in America and once covered about 2 million km(2), mainly in the Brazilian Central Plateau, under seasonal climate, with wet summer and dry winter. In view of the importance of soil chemical factors in the distribution of the vegetation forms within the Cerrado domain and which may influence the number of species, we analyzed some soil characteristics in three herbaceous vegetation forms -- hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland -- in Emas National Park, a core cerrado site, to investigate the relationship between number of species and soil characteristics. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted the obtained data to multiple linear regression. We found out that aluminum and pH were the best predictors of species density, the former positively related to species density and the latter negatively related. Since the predictable variation in species density is important in determining areas of conservation, we can postulate that these two soil factors are indicators of high species density areas in tropical grasslands, which could be used in selecting priority sites for conservation.

  8. Interpretation of the natural radioactive anomalies in the central area of Belo Horizonte/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Mayara P.; Taveira, Natália F.; Santos, Talita O.; Lara, Evelise G.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Silva, José Augusto R.; Rocha, Zildete; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactivity is responsible for approximately 80% of the average annual radiation dose received by human being. This work aims at the knowledge of the origin and distribution from the natural radioactivity and the potential risk due to radon in Belo Horizonte. This study was based on local geology, composed mainly by granitic and gneissic rocks and in a previously study of indoor air radon concentration, that pointed out dwellings with high concentrations, above some international action levels. It presents the mapping of the spatial distribution of uranium, thorium, potassium, dose rate and of the total gamma count rate, distributed throughout the central region of the city that is within the boundaries of Contorno Avenue. The work was developed with a survey made inside a car with a portable gamma detector, RS-230, Radiation Solutions, coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) in every street within the Contorno Avenue and after using geoprocessing techniques and statistics, the results was spatially distributed and classified according to the background in five classes (very low, low, medium, high and very high). It was observed next to the Liberdade Square, were found total gamma count rate 'very high'. After performing a more detailed analysis on the radiation background it was observed that this high level of radiation in specific locations appear to originated from the cobblestones of the streets, granitic rocks,which came from quarries in the region around the Contorno Avenue and that do not correspond to gamma radiation emanating from the local soil. (author)

  9. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  10. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for

  11. Poverty in the Brazilian Amazon: An Assessment of Poverty Focused on the State of Para

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    The states in the Brazilian Amazon have made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the last decade. Despite this progress, the poverty rate in the Amazon is among the highest in Brazil. As of 2000, rural poverty is the greatest challenge. In Par?, not only is the headcount poverty rate of 58.4 percent in rural areas more than 55 percent higher than headcount pover...

  12. Interpretation of the natural radioactive anomalies in the central area of Belo Horizonte/Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Mayara P.; Taveira, Natália F.; Santos, Talita O.; Lara, Evelise G.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Silva, José Augusto R.; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: jars@cdtn.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com.br, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The natural radioactivity is responsible for approximately 80% of the average annual radiation dose received by human being. This work aims at the knowledge of the origin and distribution from the natural radioactivity and the potential risk due to radon in Belo Horizonte. This study was based on local geology, composed mainly by granitic and gneissic rocks and in a previously study of indoor air radon concentration, that pointed out dwellings with high concentrations, above some international action levels. It presents the mapping of the spatial distribution of uranium, thorium, potassium, dose rate and of the total gamma count rate, distributed throughout the central region of the city that is within the boundaries of Contorno Avenue. The work was developed with a survey made inside a car with a portable gamma detector, RS-230, Radiation Solutions, coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) in every street within the Contorno Avenue and after using geoprocessing techniques and statistics, the results was spatially distributed and classified according to the background in five classes (very low, low, medium, high and very high). It was observed next to the Liberdade Square, were found total gamma count rate 'very high'. After performing a more detailed analysis on the radiation background it was observed that this high level of radiation in specific locations appear to originated from the cobblestones of the streets, granitic rocks,which came from quarries in the region around the Contorno Avenue and that do not correspond to gamma radiation emanating from the local soil. (author)

  13. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut sampl...

  14. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Manaus Pollution Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutsch, Frank N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This work was part of the larger Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GOAmazon 2014/15) experiment, which extended through the wet and dry seasons from January 2014 through December 2015 and which took place around the urban region of Manaus, Brazil in central Amazonia. This work was conducted as part of this experiment at the main U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground research site “T3” circa 100 km west of Manaus during two intensive operational periods, “IOP1” and “IOP2” (February 1 to March 31, 2014, and August 15 to October 15, 2014, respectively). Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation AGS 1321987/1628491. The GoAmazon experiment was designed to enable the study of how aerosols and surface fluxes influence cloud cycles under clean conditions, as well as how aerosol and cloud life cycles, including cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions, are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity. These observations provide a data set vital to constrain tropical rain forest model parameterizations for organic aerosols, cloud and convection schemes, and terrestrial vegetation components and how these are perturbed by pollution. Research objectives specific to this work and the T3 ground site included studies of how outflow of pollution from Manaus modulated the photochemically driven conversion of emitted precursors to aerosol precursors and aerosol.

  15. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  16. On the possibility of autochthonous Chagas disease in Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, 2000-2001 Sobre a possibilidade da ocorrência de doença de Chagas autóctone em Roraima, Amazônia brasileira, 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Luitgards-Moura

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease has been almost entirely eradicated from the arid zones in Central and Northeastern Brazil where rare or no autochthonous cases have been reported. However, in the last 10 years the disease has increasingly been registered in the Amazon Region. Aiming to investigate the possibility of the occurrence of autochthonous cycle of Chagas disease in Roraima, triatomine collections, vectorial susceptibility studies (this one to be shown elsewhere, parasitological and serological analyses were conducted in three agricultural settlement areas (Rorainópolis, Passarão Project and Ilha Community. Blood-donor candidates were also investigated. This is the first epidemiological survey on Chagas disease conducted in agricultural settlements in Roraima. Triatomine species found were Triatoma maculata, Rhodnius pictipes, Rhodnius robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus. Trypanosoma cruzi detection analyses included xenodiagnosis, indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemaglutination, ELISA and kinetoplast PCR amplification. Natural triatomine infection was not found in intestinal contents. Twenty-five adult settlers (1.4% out of 1821, all > 15 year-old, 20 migrants presented anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Two migrant settlers (from Minas Gerais and Maranhão tested positive for more than two serological tests, besides either being positive for xenodiagnosis or PCR. Results show that Chagas disease is not endemic in the areas studied. However, all elements of the transmission cycle are present, demanding for an adequate and continuous vigilance.A doença de Chagas foi quase inteiramente erradicada das zonas áridas do Brasil Central e Nordeste, onde ciclos autóctones de transmissão praticamente inexistem. Contudo, na última década a doença vem sendo registrada na Região Amazônica. Objetivando investigar a possibilidade da ocorrência de ciclos autóctones de transmissão em áreas de colonização agrícola no Estado de Roraima, foram realizadas

  17. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  18. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  19. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  20. Rhizobium altiplani sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules on Mimosa pudica growing in untypically alkaline soil in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraúna, Alexandre C; Rouws, Luc F M; Simoes-Araujo, Jean L; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Maluk, Marta; Goi, Silvia R; Reis, Veronica M; James, Euan K; Zilli, Jerri E

    2016-10-01

    Root nodule bacteria were isolated from nodules on Mimosa pudica L. growing in neutral-alkaline soils from the Distrito Federal in central Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of 10 strains placed them into the genus Rhizobium with the closest neighbouring species (each with 99 % similarity) being Rhizobium grahamii, Rhizobium cauense, Rhizobium mesoamericanum and Rhizobium tibeticum. This high similarity, however, was not confirmed by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII and rpoB), which revealed R. mesoamericanum CCGE 501T to be the closest type strain (92 % sequence similarity or less). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles [with majority being C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c)], DNA G+C content (57.6 mol%), and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the placement of the novel strains in the genus Rhizobium. Results of average nucleotide identity (ANI) differentiated the novel strains from the closest species of the genus Rhizobium, R. mesoamericanum, R. grahamii and R. tibeticum with 89.0, 88.1 and 87.8 % similarity, respectively. The symbiotic genes essential for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) were most similar (99-100 %) to those of R. mesoamericanum, another Mimosa-nodulating species. Based on the current data, these 10 strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium altiplani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR 10423T (=HAMBI 3664T).

  1. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  2. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G.; Diniz, Ivone R.; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  3. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  4. Alternative food sources and overwintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A; Sujii, Edison R; Diniz, Ivone R; Medeiros, Maria A de; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L; Branco, Marina C; Pires, Carmen S S; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2010-01-01

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae(50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions.

  5. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  6. What the United States can learn from Brazil in response to HIV/AIDS: international reputation and strategic centralization in a context of health policy devolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2010-11-01

    Contrary to what many may expect, this article argues that Brazil did a better job than the USA when it came to responding to HIV/AIDS. Because of the Brazilian government's concern about its international reputation and the partnerships it has forged with international donors and civil society, the government has been committed to strengthening decentralization processes by introducing both formal and informal re-centralization measures that strengthen health policy devolution, while effectively targeting the biggest at-risk groups. The US, in contrast, has not achieved these objectives, due to its lack of interest in increasing its international reputation and its focus on bi-lateral aid rather than investing in domestic policy. The paper closes by explaining the lessons that Brazil can teach the US and other large federations seeking to ensure that decentralization and prevention policy work more effectively.

  7. Another puzzle piece: new record of the Fringed Leaf Frog, Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Anura: Phyllomedusidae), in the eastern Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Leandro; Pavan, Dante

    2017-01-01

    We report new occurrence of Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) in the eastern Amazon Rainforest. This is only the second record from the state of Pará, Brazil and represents the easternmost known point of this species' range.

  8. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region; Energia de biomassa para a sustentabilidade economica das comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V. [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Recursos Hidricos; Marques, Ana Claudia S. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    1999-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil.

  9. Effect of direct seeding mulch-based systems on soil carbon storage and macrofauna in central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchart, E.; Bernoux, M.; Sarda, X.; Feller, C. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Montpellier (France); Siqueira Neto, M.; Cerri, C.C.; Piccolo, M. [CENA-USP, Piracicaba (Brazil). Lab. Biogeoquimica Ambiental; Douzet, J.M. [CIRAD, Antsirabe (Madagascar); Scopel, E. [CIRAD-CA, Planaltina (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Soils represent a large carbon pool, approximately 1500 Gt, equivalent to almost three times the quantity stored in terrestrial biomass and twice the amount stored in the atmosphere. The management and maintenance of soil carbon is therefore an integral part of the global carbon cycle. Land use change, inappropriate agricultural practices and climate change can all lead to a net release of C from soils to the atmosphere, exacerbating the problems of greenhouse gas release. Any modification of land-use or land management can induce variations in soil carbon stocks, even in agricultural systems that are perceived to be in a steady state. These modifications also alter soil macrofauna that is known to affect soil carbon dynamics. Direct seeding Mulch-based Cropping (DMC) systems with two crops per year without soil tillage have widely been adopted over the last 10 to 15 years in the Cerrado (central region) of Brazil. They are replacing the traditional soybean monocropping with fallow under conventional tillage (CT). Th e objective of this study was to examine how DMC practices affect soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and macrofauna (Rio Verde, Goias State). The approach was to determine soil C stocks and macrofauna in five fi elds under DMC aged 1, 5, 7, 11 and 13 years. In order to compare DMC systems with the native system of the region and previous land-use, a situation under native Cerrado (tree-savanna like vegetation) and a field conducted traditionally (CT) were also studied. Soil C stocks were calculated for the 0-10 and 0-40 cm soil depth and also for the fi rst 400 kg m{sup -2} of soil to compare the same amount of soil and to suppress the potential artefact of soil compaction when sample is based on fix layer depth. Soil macrofauna was hand-sorted from soil monoliths (30 cm depth, TSBF method). In our study, the annual rate of carbon storage was equal to ca. 1.6 MgC ha{sup -1}, which is in the range of values measured for DMC in different areas of Brazil

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Mariane MA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6, with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%, and the risk increased with age (p Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of higher risk of HIV-1 infection among black women despite being in consonance with the HIV-1 ethnic pattern in some American regions cannot be ruled out to be a surrogate

  11. A new spiny species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Loricariidae: Hypostominae from thermal waters, upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda O. Martins

    Full Text Available A new species of Hypostomus is described from the rio Quente, rio Paranaíba drainage, in the upper rio Paraná basin in central Brazil. The rio Quente is a peculiar small and shallow fast water stream with water temperatures around 34ºC. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by having the five lateral series of plates with hypertrophied odontodes not aligned in rows and more conspicuous on flanks of caudal peduncle of the larger specimens. The new species is only known from the rio Quente.

  12. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Demerval S.; Longo, Karla M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Mercado, Lina M.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Gloor, Emauel; Viana, Rosane S. M.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Domingues, Lucas K. G.; Correia, Caio C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to -104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50-50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado), as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high

  13. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to −104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50–50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado, as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry

  14. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  15. Can Transport of Saharan Dust Explain Extensive Clay Deposits in the Amazon Basin? A Test Using Radiogenic Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Abouchami, W.; Näthe, K.; Kumar, A.; Galer, S. J.; Jochum, K. P.; Williams, E.; Horbe, A. M.; Rosa, J. W.; Adams, D. K.; Balsam, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Bodélé Depression, located in the Southern Sahara, is a huge source of atmospheric dust and thus an important element in biogeochemical cycles and the radiative budget of Earth's atmosphere. Previous studies have shown that Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic acts as an important source of mineral nutrients to the Amazon rainforest. The Belterra Clay, which outcrops extensively across the Amazon Basin in Brazil, has been proposed to result from dry deposition of African dusts. We have investigated this hypothesis by measuring the radiogenic isotopic composition (Sr, Nd and Pb) of a suite of samples from the Belterra Clay, the Bodélé Depression, dusts deposits collected at various locations along the airmass transport trajectory, as well as loess from the Cape Verde Islands. Radiogenic isotope systems are powerful tracers of provenance and can be used to fingerprint dust sources and atmospheric transport patterns. Our results identify distinct isotopic signatures in the Belterra Clay samples and the African sources. The Belterra Clay display radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios associated with non-radiogenic Nd isotope signatures. In contrast, Bodélé samples and dusts deposits show lower Pb isotope ratios, variable 87Sr/86Sr, and relatively homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions, albeit more radiogenic than those of the Belterra Clay. Our data show unambiguously that the Belterra Clay is not derived from African dust deposition, nor from the Andean chain, as originally suggested by W. Sombroek. Rather, isotopic compositions and Nd model ages are consistent with simple mixing of Archean and younger Proterozoic terranes within the Amazon Basin as a result of weathering and erosion under humid tropical conditions. Whether Saharan dusts contribute to the fertilization in the Amazon Basin cannot be ruled out, however, since the African dust isotopic signature is expected to be entirely overprinted by local sources. Radiogenic isotope data obtained on

  16. Fenologia reprodutiva de Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd (Fabaceae em duas áreas de floresta na Amazônia Central Reproductive phenology of Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd (Fabaceae in two forest areas in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moçambite Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fenológicos de longa duração em florestas tropicais são raros. Foi realizado o acompanhamento fenológico de Dipteryx odorata, no período de 1974 à 2000, em duas áreas de floresta amazônica: a Reserva Florestal Ducke (RFD e Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical (EEST. O objetivo foi observar os padrões fenológicos nas duas áreas, verificar a regularidade da floração e frutificação num período de 27 anos e a influência dos fatores climáticos nestes eventos. Foram marcados cinco indivíduos na RFD e cinco na EEST e observados quanto à produção de flores, frutos imaturos e maduros. A floração e a produção de frutos imaturos apresentaram padrão irregular nas duas áreas observadas, variando quanto a época de ocorrência e a duração entre anos e estações, mas apresentaram freqüência de ocorrência similar nos 27 anos observados. Para a fenofase frutos maduros este padrão foi diferente, com intervalos de até três anos sem ocorrência de frutos maduros, na RFD e de sete anos na EEST. Conclui-se que a freqüência de ocorrência das fenofases de floração e frutos imaturos foi anual e a de frutos maduros supra-anual, todas com padrão irregular e duração de intermediária a prolongada. Ocorreu variação de um a três anos entre episódios de floração e frutos imaturos e de um a sete anos entre episódios de frutos maduros, não ficando evidente, nesta análise, a influência dos fatores climáticos nos padrões observados. Sugere-se o uso racional dos produtos derivados de Dipteryx odorata, o cumaru, especialmente quanto à exploração de seus frutos e o desenvolvimento de mais estudos de longa duração, fundamentais para entender os padrões fenológicos reprodutivos e de oferta de recursos em florestas tropicais.Long term phenological studies in tropical forests are scarce. A phenological study of Dipteryx odorata was carried out from 1974 to 2000 in two areas of Amazon Forest: Reserva

  17. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  18. Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo de Almeida Farias Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Farias Junior U. de A. & Chalkidis H.M. [Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report.] Envenenamento clínico de bovino por peçonha de Bothrops atrox no município de Oriximiná-Pará, Amazô- nia Central, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:264-268, 2015. Laboratório de Pesquisas Zoológicas, Faculdades Integradas do Tapajós, Rua Rosa Vermelha, 335, Aeroporto Velho, Santarém, PA 68010-200, Brasil. E-mail: chalkidis@hotmail.com It explains a case of poisoning bovine by Bothrops atrox, abundant snake family Viperidae, prevalent in northern Brazil, assigned as the etiological agent of over 90% of cases of snakebite in the State of Pará. Report the examination semiological and the clinical symptoms observed due to its evolution as well. Clinical signs are confronted with the findings conferred in similar cases reported by veterinarians and ranchers in the region. The treatment in this particular case was not proceeded in order to examine symptoms presented by the accuracy of these reports.

  19. Impact of health legislation on the sale of anorectics in a city in the Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Castro,Luana Valéria da Silva; Farias Junior,Gilvo; Teixeira,Francisco Martins; Vieira,José Ricardo dos Santos; Maia,Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The International Narcotics Control Board released its 2005 annual report, highlighting the Brazil population as one of the largest consumers of anorectics. In Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency issued the resolution RDC 58/2007 in order to control the prescription and sale of such drugs. In Belém, the biggest city in the Brazilian Amazon region, this resolution came into force in 2008, leading to inspections of drugstores and magistral pharmacies. The aim of this wor...

  20. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  1. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J.; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively. PMID:19549819

  2. Tree rings and rainfall in the equatorial Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato-Souza, Daniela; Stahle, David W.; Barbosa, Ana Carolina; Feng, Song; Torbenson, Max C. A.; de Assis Pereira, Gabriel; Schöngart, Jochen; Barbosa, Joao Paulo; Griffin, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The Amazon basin is a global center of hydroclimatic variability and biodiversity, but there are only eight instrumental rainfall stations with continuous records longer than 80 years in the entire basin, an area nearly the size of the coterminous US. The first long moisture-sensitive tree-ring chronology has been developed in the eastern equatorial Amazon of Brazil based on dendrochronological analysis of Cedrela cross sections cut during sustainable logging operations near the Rio Paru. The Rio Paru chronology dates from 1786 to 2016 and is significantly correlated with instrumental precipitation observations from 1939 to 2016. The strength and spatial scale of the precipitation signal vary during the instrumental period, but the Rio Paru chronology has been used to develop a preliminary reconstruction of February to November rainfall totals from 1786 to 2016. The reconstruction is related to SSTs in the Atlantic and especially the tropical Pacific, similar to the stronger pattern of association computed for the instrumental rainfall data from the eastern Amazon. The tree-ring data estimate extended drought and wet episodes in the mid- to late-nineteenth century, providing a valuable, long-term perspective on the moisture changes expected to emerge over the Amazon in the coming century due to deforestation and anthropogenic climate change.

  3. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  4. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J; Galford, Gillian L; Moran, Chris J; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2017-10-18

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km 2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone. Pathways leading to such impacts include mining infrastructure establishment, urban expansion to support a growing workforce, and development of mineral commodity supply chains. Mining-induced deforestation is not unique to Brazil; to mitigate adverse impacts of mining and conserve tropical forests globally, environmental assessments and licensing must considered both on- and off-lease sources of deforestation.

  5. Compromising polarity and waveform constraints in focal-mechanism solutions; the Mara Rosa 2010 Mw 4 central Brazil earthquake revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradník, J.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Carvalho, J.; Barros, L.V.; Sokos, E.; Janský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, NOV (2015), s. 323-333 ISSN 0895-9811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : weak events * focal mechanism * waveforms * polarities * uncertainties * Brazil * Mara Rosa Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.737, year: 2015 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0895981115300481

  6. Amazon`s strategic analysis approaching the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Rúa de la Plaza, José

    2018-01-01

    Amazon.com has not stopped growing since its foundation in 1994, and has become the leading company in the world of e-commerce. Amazon emerged from a great idea of its founder Jeff Bezos, who has managed to turn an online books store into a company that is constantly thinking about its customers and trying to innovate, either improving existing products and services, developing new ones or entering new markets. Amazon takes advantage of economies of scale that derive from its excellent dis...

  7. Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae em igarapés da Amazônia Central, Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Brasil Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae from central Amazon rivers, Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo districts, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferrari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos florísticos e taxonômicos envolvendo diatomáceas são escassos para a região amazônica. As publicações existentes incluem registros de diatomáceas da Amazônia brasileira, do Equador, da Colômbia e do Peru e comumente mostram que Eunotia e Actinella (Eunotiaceae são gêneros bem representados nessa região. A maioria dos igarapés amazônicos costuma apresentar potencial hidrogeniônico (pH ácido, característica aquática que promove o desenvolvimento de uma comunidade típica de diatomáceas, dominada por espécimes de Eunotiaceae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi providenciar um levantamento florístico das espécies de Eunotiaceae presentes em igarapés da Amazônia Central brasileira e registrar os morfotipos de algumas espécies. Amostras fitoplanctônicas e perifíticas foram coletadas em cinco igarapés na rodovia BR-174, em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, em setembro e outubro de 1996 e fevereiro e março de 1997. Lâminas permanentes foram preparadas de acordo com a técnica de oxidação lenta para o estudo qualitativo. Vinte e três espécies pertencentes ao gênero Eunotia e seis ao gênero Actinella foram determinadas. Chaves dicotômicas de identificação, descrição detalhada, comentários relevantes e ilustrações foram providenciadas para cada táxon determinado. Morfotipos foram documentados para Eunotia zygodon. Espécies raramente citadas na literatura foram registradas, tais como, Eunotia falcifera e Eunotia rostellata.Floristic and taxonomical studies about diatoms to Amazonian region are commonly well represented by Eunotia and Actinella (Eunotiaceae. The available works include diatom assemblage from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, Colombian and Peruvian Amazonia. The local streams often present acid pH which provides environmental conditions to develop a very particular diatom community dominated by specimens of Eunotiaceae. Thus, the aim of this paper is to give a floristic survey of Eunotiaceae from central

  8. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  9. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  10. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  11. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  12. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  13. Occurence of larval Culicidae (Diptera in water retained in Aquascypha hydrophora (Fungus: Stereaceae in Central Amazônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth LM Ferreira

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of insects, especially mosquito larvae, in water held in the fungus Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Stereaceae is reported. The study was done in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, 26 km east of Manaus, AM, Brazil, from September 1998 through November 1999. The most abundant entomofauna were immature Culicidae (n = 121 91.7%, followed by adult Dytiscidae (n = 3 2.3%, immature Chironomidae (n = 5 3.8% and immature Tipulidae (n = 3 2.3%. Culicidae associated with A. hydrophora comprised species of the subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae.

  14. Considerations about the recommendations of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf on the Amazon fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Brazil submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS a Submission for the outer limit of the Brazilian continental shelf for its extension beyond the limits of 200 nautical miles. In 2007, the CLCS presented its recommendations, however it did not recommend four areas proposed by Brazil, the Amazon Fan among them. The objective of this study is to present the main legal and technical aspects of the controversy about the Amazon Fan, in order to evaluate some alternatives for a future submission, new or revised.

  15. Are there co-occurrence patterns that structure snake communities in Central Brazil? Existem padrões de coocorrência que estruturam comunidades de serpentes no Brasil Central?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FGR. França

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The main factors that structure Neotropical animal communities have been the subject of discussion in ecology communities. We used a set of null models to investigate the existence of structure in snake communities from the Cerrado in Central Brazil in relation to the co-occurrence of species and guilds concerning specific resources. We used fragments (conservation units inside the Distrito Federal and neighbor municipalities. In spite of recent human colonization in the region from the end of the 1950’s, intense habitat modification and fragmentation has taken place. Sixty three snake species are present in the Distrito Federal. Co-occurrence analysis of species and guilds associated to snake diets and habitats suggested a lack of organization. The homogeneity of habitats in Central Brazil and the minor importance of ecological effects can lead to random arrangement.Os processos que levam à estruturação de comunidades animais neotropicais têm sido sujeito de ampla discussão em ecologia de comunidades. Usou-se um conjunto de modelos nulos para investigar a existência de estrutura em comunidades de serpentes presentes no Cerrado do Brasil Central, em relação à coocorrência de espécies e de guildas relacionadas a recursos específicos. As localidades utilizadas para as análises representam fragmentos de habitats dentro do Distrito Federal e em municípios vizinhos. Apesar da recente colonização humana da região, datada para o final da década de 50, a intensidade da modificação e fragmentação dos habitats no Brasil Central têm sido enorme. Sessenta e três espécies de serpentes estão presentes no Distrito Federal. As análises dos padrões de coocorrência tanto para as espécies quanto para guildas relativas à dieta e ao uso do ambiente sugeriram ausência de organização. A homogeneidade dos ambientes no Brasil Central e a baixa importância de efeitos ecológicos podem levar ao arranjo randômico.

  16. Milk quality according to the daily range in farm production in the Mesoregion Central Mineira and Oeste of Minas Gerais regions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize milk production from the Central Mineira and Oeste Mesoregions regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to quality parameters such as somatic cell count, total bacteria count, and composition for specific production ranges. Average results for milk fat, protein, total and nonfat solids were compliant with Brazilian legal requirements (IN-62/2011 in all the production ranges selected. Average somatic cell counts (SCC complied with the legal requirements of 600,000 cells/mL, except for the range with a daily production above 1,000 liters. However, average maximum values of 400,000 cells/mL are recommended for good milk quality. Total bacterial count was the most critical quality factor, with the highest values found in breeds with milk production above 500 liters per day.

  17. Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the rio Paranaíba and rio Grande basins, both in the upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil, are described herein. One of them is distinguished from all congeners, except H. albopunctatus, by having the pectoral-fin spine length equal to or smaller than the pelvic-fin spine. From H. albopunctatus, it is distinguished by having round dark spots (vs. pale on body and fins. The second species is distinguished from all congeners, except H. multidens and H. ternetzi, by having more than 115 teeth (vs. less than 109 per ramus on dentary and premaxilla. It is distinguished most readily from H. ternetzi by having teeth with two symmetrical (vs. asymmetrical cusps. It is distinguished from H. multidens by having round dark spots (vs. pale over body and fins.

  18. Etnogénesis de un grupo indígena del Brasil central Ethnogenesis of an indigenous group of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Castro Ossami de Moura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El texto analiza el proceso de emergencia étnica de un grupo de indígenas llamados tapuios , que habitan el Área Indígena Carretão, situada entre los municipios de Nova América y Rubiataba, en el estado de Goiás, Brasil. Este grupo es fruto de una política de aldeamentos indígenas surgida en Brasil desde el comienzo de la colonización en el siglo XVI hasta mediados del siglo XIX. En el estado de Goiás fueron construidos cerca de 20 aldeamentos indígenas entre los años de 1741 y 1872. Los tapuios son descendientes de cuatro grupos indígenas que fueron reubicados en el aldeamento Carretão, construido en 1788 por la Corona portuguesa y desactivado al final del siglo XIX. Ocultos en el escenario nacional, con la extinción de ese aldeamento , los tapuios van adquirir visibilidad en la década de 1980 al nacer un nuevo grupo orgánico de individuos, respaldados por la lucha de recuperación de su territorio y de su identidad étnica, dos pilares de afirmación del grupo.This text analyses the process of ethnic emergence of an indigenous group called tapuios that inhabits the Indigenous Area Carretão, located between the districts of Nova América and Rubiataba, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. This group is the outcome of a settlement policy promoted in Brazil since the beginning of the colonization in the 16th century, until early 19th century. Approximately 20 indigenous settlements were built in the state of Goiás between the years 1741 and 1872. The tapuios are descendents of four indigenous groups who were moved to the Carretão indian settlement, constructed by the royal Portuguese authorities in 1788 and deactivated at the end of the nineteenth century. Hidden in the Brazilian national scene, since the settlement was extinct, the tapuios , since the 1980s, have regained visibility by the birth of a new native group of individuals, sustained by their fight to regain their territory and to recuperate their ethnic identity, two

  19. Uncertainties in Amazon Hydropower Development: Risk Scenarios and Environmental Issues around the Belo Monte Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Cabral de Sousa Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region is the final frontier and central focus of Brazilian hydro development, which raises a range of environmental concerns. The largest project in the Amazon is the planned Belo Monte Complex on the Xingu river. If constructed it will be the second biggest hydroelectric plant in Brazil, third largest on earth. In this study, we analyse the private and social costs, and benefits of the Belo Monte project. Furthermore, we present risk scenarios, considering fluctuations in the project’s feasibility that would result from variations in total costs and power. For our analysis, we create three scenarios. In the first scenario Belo Monte appears feasible, with a net present value (NPV in the range of US$670 million and a rate of return in excess of the 12% discount rate used in this analysis. The second scenario, where we varied some of the project costs and assumptions based on other economic estimates, shows the project to be infeasible, with a negative NPV of about US$3 billion and external costs around US$330 million. We also conducted a risk analysis, allowing variation in several of the parameters most important to the project’s feasibility. The simulations brought together the risks of cost overruns, construction delays, lower-than-expected generation and rising social costs. The probability of a positive NPV in these circumstances was calculated to be just 28%, or there is a 72% chance that the costs of the Belo Monte dam will be greater than the benefits. Several WCD recommendations are not considered in the project, especially those related to transparency, social participation in the discussion, economic analysis and risk assessment, and licensing of the project. This study underscores the importance of forming a participatory consensus, based on clear, objective information, on whether or not to build the Belo Monte dam.

  20. Comparative cytogenetics of some marsupial species (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae from the Amazon basin

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    Carlos Eduardo Faresin e Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon. C-banding on the X chromosome revealed two patterns for the species of Marmosops Matschie, 1916, apparently without geographic or specific relationships. The nucleolus organizer region (NOR of all species was confirmed with the 18S rDNA probe, except on the Y chromosome of Monodelphis touan Shaw, 1800. The distribution of this marker varied only in the genus Marmosa Gray, 1821 [M. murina Thomas, 1905 and M. demerarae Thomas, 1905]. Considering that simple NORs are seen as a plesiomorphic character, we conclude that the species Marmosa spp. and Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 evolved independently to the multiple condition. By increasing the sample, using chromosomal banding, and FISH, we verified that marsupials present intra- and interspecific chromosomal variations, which suggests the occurrence of frequent chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of this group. This observation contrasts with the chromosomal conservatism expected for didelphids.

  1. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3, tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1, illicit drug use (OR = 2.3, sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9 were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  2. Biomass burning in the Amazon-fertilizer for the mountaineous rain forest in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Peter; Kohlpaintner, Michael; Rollenbeck, Ruetger

    2005-09-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates are derived comparable to those found in polluted central Europe. As significant anthropogenic sources are lacking at the research site it is suspected that biomass burning upwind in the Amazon basin is the major source of the enhanced sulfate and nitrate imput. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m has been carried out in the Podocarpus National Park close to the Rio SanFrancisco (3 degrees 58'S, 79 degrees 5'W) in southern Ecuador. pH values, electrical conductivity and chemical ion composition were measured at the TUM-WZW using standard methods. Results reported cover over one year from March 2002 until May 2003. Annual deposition rates of sulfate were calculated ranging between 4 and 13 kg S/ha year, almost as high as in polluted central Europe. Nitrogen deposition via ammonia (1.5-4.4 kg N/ha year) and nitrate (0.5-0.8 kg N/ha year) was found to be lower but still much higher than to be expected in such pristine natural forest environment. By means of back trajectory analyses it can be shown that most of the enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is most likely due to forest fires far upwind of the ecuadorian sampling site, showing a seasonal variation, with sources predominantly found in the East/North East during January-March (Colombia, Venezuala, Northern Brazil) and East/SouthEast during July-September (Peru, Brazil). Our results show that biomass burning in the Amazon basin is the predominant source of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that fertilize the mountaineous rain forest in south Ecuador. The

  3. Is Amazon the next Google?

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver; Köhler, Karoline Henrike

    2015-01-01

    Dominant or apparently dominant internet platform increasingly become subject to both antitrust investigations and further-reaching political calls for regulation. While Google is currently in the focus of the discussion, the next candidate is already on the horizon - the ubiquitous online trading platform Amazon. Competitors and suppliers but also famous economists like Paul Krugman unite in criticizing Amazon's market power and alleged abuse of it. In this paper, we collect the multitude of...

  4. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  5. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  6. Natural and Experimental Poisoning of Cattle by Enterolobium contortisiliquum Pods (Fabaceae Mimosoideae in Central-Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Souza Mendonça

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods are commonly identified as being the cause of abortions and photosensitivity in cattle. This paper describes the clinical and pathological aspects of a natural outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization by the pods of E. contortisiliquum in Brazil and the results of experimental poisoning in three bovines. The history of natural poisoning was obtained at the site of the outbreak. Clinical examinations were carried out and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. A post-mortem examination was carried out at the outbreak location on a cow that had died. Several samples were collected from the animal's internal organs to carry out histopathological examinations. E. contortisiliquum pods were given to cows in order to reproduce the disease. The natural poisonings were characterized by photosensitization and aborted young. Enterolobium photosensitization was not experimentally reproduced, but the animals fell sick and recovered after 52 days.

  7. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest. PMID:27185928

  8. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  9. Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil Pesquisa Sorológica por doenças transmitidas por carrapatos em cães da Amazônia oriental, Brasil

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    Mariana Granziera Spolidorio

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina são as doenças parasitárias transmitidas por carrapatos de m