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Sample records for amazon central brazil

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2011-12-29

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals. PMID:21764516

  2. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera, Tabanidae, an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Limeira-de-Oliveira Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Anseriformes, Anatidae. The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  3. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  4. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m−2, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively, lower

  5. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  6. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.

    1981-03-01

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (8 μmad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (containing P and S may be

  7. Pollination Requirements and the Foraging Behavior of Potential Pollinators of Cultivated Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) Trees in Central Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Cavalcante; F.F Oliveira; Maués, M. M.; B. M. Freitas

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with cultivated Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae) in the Central Amazon rainforest, Brazil, aiming to learn about its pollination requirements, to know the floral visitors of Brazil nut flowers, to investigate their foraging behavior and to determine the main floral visitors of this plant species in commercial plantations. Results showed that B. excelsa is predominantly allogamous, but capable of setting fruits by geitonogamy. Nineteen be...

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  10. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil. I - Dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase, atmospheric aerosol, and rainwater samples collected in Amazonia at ground level and in the atmosphere during the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment in July/August 1985 were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding concentrations in the atmospheric aerosol. In rainwater, the total formate and acetate represented about one half of the anion equivalents, in contrast to less than 10 percent of the soluble anionic equivalents contributed by these acids in the atmospheric aerosol. The observed levels of these ions in rainwater are considered to be the result of a combination of chemical reactions in hydrometeors and the scavenging of the gaseous acids by cloud droplets.

  11. Fauna de Hymenoptera em Ficus spp. (Moraceae na Amazônia Central, Brasil Fauna of Hymenoptera in Ficus spp. (Moraceae in the Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Alison G. Nazareno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A interação Ficus (Moraceae - vespas de figo é considerada um dos exemplos mais extremos de mutualismo entre planta e inseto. Neste trabalho, descreve-se a fauna de vespas de figo associada a cinco espécies de Ficus na Amazônia Central, considerando alguns aspectos do modo de polinização nas espécies Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. O estudo foi desenvolvido durante o período de abril a julho de 2004 em Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Estado do Amazonas. O número de espécies de vespas de figo por hospedeiro variou de uma a 13. Vespas do gênero Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, polinizadoras de Ficus (Urostigma spp., apresentam pentes coxais e bolsos torácicos adaptados à coleta e ao transporte de pólen, indicando modo ativo de polinização. No subgênero Pharmacosycea, a polinizadora do gênero Tetrapus Mayr, 1885, não apresenta estrutura morfológica adaptada ao transporte de pólen, condizente com o modo passivo de polinização. Além das vespas de figo, F. (Pharmacosyceae maxima e F. (Urostigma pertusa apresentaram associação com ácaros, formigas (Solenopsis sp., Formicidae, besouros (Staphylinidae e larvas de Diptera e Lepidoptera.The interaction between Ficus (Moraceae and fig wasps is considered one of the most extreme examples of plant-insect mutualism. In the present study, we reported the fig wasp fauna associated with five Ficus species in the Central Amazon, Brazil, and considered some aspects of the pollination mode found in Ficus (Urostigma cremersii, Ficus (Urostigma greiffiana, Ficus (Urostigma mathewsii, Ficus (Urostigma pertusa e Ficus (Pharmacosycea maxima. The study was carried out from April to July 2004, in the cities of Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (state of Amazonas, Brazil. The number of fig wasp species per host tree varied from one to 13. Wasps of the genus Pegoscapus Cameron, 1906, pollinators of

  12. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.

  13. A new triatomine host of trypanosoma from the Central Amazon of Brazil: Cavernicola lenti n.sp. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Toby V. Barrett

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Cavernicola lenti, new species, from Amazonas state, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Observations on the biology of the new species are presented. Preliminaty findings indicate that C. lenti is a probable vector of bat trypanosomes.Cavernícola lenti, n.sp. é descrita com base em exemplares coletados em uma árvore viva, oca, perto das obras da usina hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Incluímos descrições dos adultos e ninfas de primeiro e quinto estádio, e observações sobre a biologia da nova espécie. Salientamos alguns detalhes morfológicos da nova espécie que ampliam os conceitos prévios do gênero e da tribo Cavernicolini. Flagelados encontrados nas fezes de C. lenti foram identificados provisoriamente como parasita de morcegos, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei.

  14. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airao, Central Amazon, Brazil

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    LUIZ C.P.S. ALVES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botos (Inia geoffrensis are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  15. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Rodrigues, Felipe P.; Boratto, Paulo V.M.; Silva, Lorena C. F.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G.; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle.

  16. Mimivirus circulation among wild and domestic mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornas, Fábio P; Rodrigues, Felipe P; Boratto, Paulo V M; Silva, Lorena C F; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-03-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle. PMID:24564967

  17. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  19. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. PMID:27028984

  20. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Vandick S; Lima, Liane G

    2010-06-03

    The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp.) are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.

  1. In search of traditional bio-ecological knowledge useful for fisheries co-management: the case of jaraquis Semaprochilodus spp. (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Lima Liane G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp. are the most abundant group in the fishing landing in Manaus. However, just command and control management strategies have been used by the fishery governmental agency in the region without the power to enforce centralized decisions. The fishermen and their culture represent a source of information on dynamics of the resources and aquatic environments, fundamental in making possible the co-management of the fishing resources. The present study aims to contribute to management through identification of common information available in scientific and traditional knowledge about the jaraquis' bio-ecology. There were 57 semi-structured interviews recorded with fishermen of Manaus and rural areas of Manacapuru in 2002 concerning biological and ecological aspects. Similarity was observed between scientific and traditional knowledge in the following items: size of first sexual maturation, spawning type, parental care, trophic relationships and migratory behavior, as well as in some aspects of the mortality and growth of the species. However, there was less ethnoicthyological information on fecundity and the determination of the age and growth of adult fish. Common information would be used preferably by agencies to start an effective and technical dialogue with commercial and riverine fishermen to design management plans in a decentralized strategy.

  2. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 case

  3. Comparações entre as propriedades químicas de solos das regiões da floresta amazônica e do cerrado do Brasil Central Comparisons of chemical properties of forest (Amazon region and savanna soils (central region of Brazil

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    J.L.I. Demattê

    1993-09-01

    e para os solos argilosos a muito argilosos, o teor de carbono orgânico é sempre mais elevado na região de cerrado. Não houve diferenças significativas entre o teor de carbono orgânico dos solos com vegetação de cerrado e cerradão. Por outro lado, o teor de carbono orgânico dos latossolos da região Amazônica é mais elevado do que dos PVA.Chemical properties were studied in soil samples from two main fisiographic regions of Brazil: the Amazon region represented by the tropical rain forests and the Brazilian central region represented by the savanna (cerrado vegetation. For this study 17 profiles were selected from the Triângulo Mineiro area: 6 profiles from Goias state, and 5 profiles from the south eastern part of the Mato Grosso State. Most of the profiles are oxisols from medium to clayey texture. For the Amazon region 76 profiles were selected (38 oxisols and 38 ultisols located from Para to Acre States. The following depths were selected: 0-10 cm; 10-40 cm; 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm. The litter layer was not studied. The savanna region has soil in a more advanced weathered stage than the Amazon region. The Ki index of savanna soils varies from 6.0 to 1.5 and of Amazon soils the variation is from 1.3 to 2.5 that included Oxisols (Ki from 1.3 to 2.0 and Ultisols (Ki above 2.0. This indicates that the clay mineralogy of savanna soils is represented by an oxidic mineralogy that is more stable than in the Amazon region represented by a caulinitic mineralogy with 2:1 contribution. The Amazon soils are more acid and present exchangeable At in higher amounts than savanna soils with a direct effect on chemical management. Soils pH correction requires more lime in Amazon soils than in the savanna. The are great differences in both regions between base saturation and pH index. In Amazon soils the pH increase follows the base saturation while this does not occur in savanna soils. In sandy soils the organic carbon is higher in Amazon for all depths studied. In

  4. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

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    Joyce Mendes Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil.

  5. Governance of global climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: the case of Amazonian municipalities of Brazil

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    Cristina Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regards to the debate about governance of climate change, it should be assumed that the Amazon region plays an important role, as this large area is highly vulnerable to its effects. In this sense, this article aims to discuss how some Amazonian municipalities of Brazil have been taking part in the complexes and multilayered processes of climate governance.

  6. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  7. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  8. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Sidney Brito Oliveira; Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea...

  9. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra C. Pinheiro; Pedro S. Abe; Youszef O. C. Bitar; Luiz P. P. Albarelli; Maria C. Santos-Costa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso). The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area) by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  11. Spectrometry of pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  12. The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae in the Central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed G. Barros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau, which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.

  13. Lessons from the Rain Forest : Experiences of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Amazon and Atlantic Forests of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The largest hydrographic basin in the world, the Amazon is the source of 20 percent of all the fresh water on the planet. The Basin covers some 600 million hectares in nine countries, over half of which are located within Brazil's national boundaries. A striking characteristic of the Amazon region is its tremendous biodiversity, which includes an estimated 50,000 species of plants, 3,000 s...

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs from Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, W A; Bergamaschi, D P; Labruna, M B; Camargo, L M A; Souza, S L P; Silva, J C R; Pinter, A; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-07-10

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of this parasite because they are the only hosts known to excrete N. caninum oocysts. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed in serum samples from 157 dogs from Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazon, Brazil using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 13 (8.3%) of dogs in titers of 1:50 in 1, 1:100 in 2, 1:200 in 5, 1:800 in 1, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2 dogs. These data indicate that N. caninum infection is prevalent even in remote areas of the Amazon. PMID:12860070

  15. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  16. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  17. A new Hyphessobrycon (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle Amazon basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávio C T; Coutinho, Daniel P; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2014-10-08

    Hyphessobrycon montagi, new species, is described from tributaries of the Rio Arapiuns, a left margin affluent of the lower Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners by the possession of a combination of two well-defined humeral blotches, connected by a narrow stripe, and a caudal peduncle blotch. A putatively monophyletic Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, restricted to H. heterorhabdus, H. amapaensis, and H. eschwartzae, is herein proposed based on shared derived features of color pattern. Alternative proposals of a "Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus group" presented in the recent literature are evaluated and criticized.

  18. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  19. Response of tree biomass and wood litter to disturbance in a Central Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Teixeira, Liliane M; dos Santos, Joaquim; Laurance, Susan G; Trumbore, Susan E

    2004-12-01

    We developed an individual-based stochastic-empirical model to simulate the carbon dynamics of live and dead trees in a Central Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil. The model is based on analyses of extensive field studies carried out on permanent forest inventory plots, and syntheses of published studies. New analyses included: (1) growth suppression of small trees, (2) maximum size (trunk base diameter) for 220 tree species, (3) the relationship between growth rate and wood density, and (4) the growth response of surviving trees to catastrophic mortality (from logging). The model simulates a forest inventory plot, and tracks recruitment, growth, and mortality of live trees, decomposition of dead trees (coarse litter), and how these processes vary with changing environmental conditions. Model predictions were tested against aggregated field data, and also compared with independent measurements including maximum tree age and coarse litter standing stocks. Spatial analyses demonstrated that a plot size of approximately 10 ha was required to accurately measure wood (live and dead) carbon balance. With the model accurately predicting relevant pools and fluxes, a number of model experiments were performed to predict forest carbon balance response to perturbations including: (1) increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, (2) a single semi-catastrophic (10%) mortality event, (3) increased recruitment and mortality (turnover) rates, and (4) the combined effects of increased turnover, increased tree growth rates, and decreased mean wood density of new recruits. Results demonstrated that carbon accumulation over the past few decades observed on tropical forest inventory plots (approximately 0.5 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) is not likely caused by CO2 fertilization. A maximum 25% increase in woody tissue productivity with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 only resulted in an accumulation rate of 0.05 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) for the period 1980-2020 for a Central Amazon forest, or an

  20. Metallomic study of mercury in fish from Amazon region - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes P. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish from Amazonas region – Brazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and subsequent evaluation of mercury by Thermal Decomposition and Amalgamation Coupled with Atomic Absorption (TTA-CAAS. It was found that mercury is present in 18 protein spots of “dourada” muscle (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and 9 protein spots of “pacu” muscle (Myleussp.. The protein spots in which they were determined the presence of mercury present molecular weight of 13.5 and 21.4 kDa and isoelectric point of 3.8 and 9.2, respectively.

  1. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (De) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the De fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235U and 238U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232Th; already, for 40K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  2. Biogenic cloud nuclei in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, James D.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Brito, Joel; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Crawford, Ian; Stern, Rafael; Gallagher, Martin W.; Kaye, Paul H.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    The Amazon basin is a vast continental area in which atmospheric composition is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic aerosol particles. Understanding the properties of the natural biogenic aerosol particles over the Amazon rainforest is key to understanding their influence on regional and global climate. While there have been a number of studies during the wet season, and of biomass burning particles in the dry season, there has been relatively little work on the transition period - the start of the dry season in the absence of biomass burning. As part of the Brazil-UK Network for Investigation of Amazonian Atmospheric Composition and Impacts on Climate (BUNIAACIC) project, aerosol measurements, focussing on unpolluted biogenic air masses, were conducted at a remote rainforest site in the central Amazon during the transition from wet to dry season in July 2013. This period marks the start of the dry season but before significant biomass burning occurs in the region. Median particle number concentrations were 266 cm-3, with size distributions dominated by an accumulation mode of 130-150 nm. During periods of low particle counts, a smaller Aitken mode could also be seen around 80 nm. While the concentrations were similar in magnitude to those seen during the wet season, the size distributions suggest an enhancement in the accumulation mode compared to the wet season, but not yet to the extent seen later in the dry season, when significant biomass burning takes place. Submicron nonrefractory aerosol composition, as measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), was dominated by organic material (around 81 %). Aerosol hygroscopicity was probed using measurements from a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA), and a quasi-monodisperse cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc). The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, was found to be low, ranging from 0.12 for Aitken-mode particles to 0.18 for accumulation-mode particles. This was consistent

  3. Quinine levels in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the plasmatic concentrations of quinine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of the Amazon region in Brazil in a prospective clinical trial, in which a standard three-day course of oral quinine plus doxycycline was used. We measured the quinine in the plasma samples on days 0 and 3by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of quinine was 6.04 ±2.21 µg/mL in male patients and 5.98 ±1.95 µg/mL in female patients. No significant differences in quinine concentration were observed between these two groups. All samples collected before starting treatment were negative for quinine. This information could help in the development of strategies for the rational use of antimalarial drugs in Brazil.

  4. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws.

  5. Bovine herpesvirus 6 in buffaloes (Bubalus bulalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the first description of Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV-6) that was isolated from buffaloes of Amazon region in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BoHV-6 Brazilian strains clustered with the sequence of BoHV-6 from elsewhere available at the GenBank. It was observed in some buffaloes with lymphoproliferative disease in one herd, thus the animals were also tested for Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which has been associated to lymphoma in bovines. All animals were negative to BLV. These results indicate that BoHV-6 is present in buffaloes in Brazil, but the importance and impact of this infection and its association with any illness is still undefined.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  7. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  8. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  9. New technical and economic solutions for gas exploitation in the Amazon region (Peru-Brazil Pipeline)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, G.Z.; Santos, E.M. dos [Sao Paulo Univ., (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The oil and gas potential in Brazil's Amazon region and neighbouring countries was discussed with particular focus on the economic feasibility of developing a pipeline system to transport the resource from the reserves to potential markets. The natural gas energy option in particular, has been attracting governments and investors due to the lower capital cost required for gas-fired power plants as compared to hydroelectric systems that can still be developed in the region. It is also more competitive than current diesel or fuel oil power generation. Currently, the huge energy costs in the Brazilian Amazon region inhibit regional economic growth and development. It is estimated that the introduction of gas-fired power plants could reduce the regional generation cost to about $40 US MWh from $150 US MWh. The biggest challenge in doing so, however, lies in the large distances that separate the gas fields from the large cities where the market is concentrated. This paper presented the following 4 transportation options for linking the gas to markets in a transnational pipeline: (1) Pipeline Camisea - Porto Velho, (2) Pipeline Camisea - Porto Velho - Manaus, (3) Pipeline Camisea - Porto Velho - Caceres, and (4) Pipeline Camisea - Port Velho -Manaus combined with Porto Velho - Caceres. For each option, the authors described the route, the distances involved, the maximum gas flow forecasted, the pipeline diameter, the operational pressures and the requested compression stations. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Transient convection over the Amazon-Bolivia region and the dynamics of drought over Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, J.; Leitedasilvadias, P.; Moura, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    A two layer, nonlinear, equatorial beta-plane model, in p-coordinates is used to study the atmospheric response to a large scale prescribed heat source varying in time. The heat source is meant to represent a convective burst with total duration of approximately 48 hours over the Amazon/Bolivia region. The boundary conditions used are meridional velocity zero at 60 deg S, omega w = 0 at the top and zero geometric velocity at the lower boundary. Sensitivity study was done which includes initial state at rest, compared with realistic initial flow. The scale of the heat source is 1500 km in latitude and longitude and it is centered at 10 deg S. Special attention is paid to the distribution and intensity of the induced vertical motion. The model is integrated for two days and the preliminary results show agreement with the observed 200 mb flow. Of interest is the establishment of a trough and descending motion to the northeast of the heat source. A conjucture is thus made that the Amazon heat source and its fluctuations bear some relationship with the drought problem over Northeast Brazil.

  11. Moenkhausia celibela: a new species from the Amazon basin, Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M M F; Langeani, F

    2010-09-01

    A new species of Characidae, Moenkhausia celibela, is described from the Rio Amazonas at Santarém, Rio Maraú, several localities in the Rio Tapajós, Rio Curuá-Una, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari, all from the Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except species included in Géry's 1992 Moenkhausia lepidura group, by presenting a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, and the lower lobe is hyaline or light grey. Moenkhausia celibela is distinguished from the species of the M. lepidura group by the absence of a humeral spot and the presence of a roughly triangular and dark spot at the caudal-fin base, extending posteriorly along the middle caudal-fin rays, and distinctly separate from the spot on the upper caudal-fin lobe. PMID:20840617

  12. Imaging science at Amazon rainforest, Brazil, using an all-sky imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, G. L.; Pimenta, A. A.; Manzi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Near-simultaneous all-sky (160 degrees field of view) observations of the OI 630.0 nm, OI777.4 nm, OI557.7 nm and 589 nm nightglow emissions are being carried out on a routine basis at ZF-2 Cuireiras Biological Reserve (2.59 degrees S, 60.22 degrees W, altitude 87 m), Amazonas state, Brazil, since July 2015. In the thermosphere-ionosphere, three types of phenomena are studied using 630.0 nm and 777.4 nm observations: (1) brightness waves (BW) associated with the midnight temperature maximum (MTM), (2) electron density enhancement associated with plasma blobs and MSTID with characteristics matching a Perkins-instability. In the mesosphere we study gravity waves events, probably generated by lower atmospheric due to treetops of the Amazon rainforest.

  13. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  14. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

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    Leandra C. Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso. The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 50, Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 (n = 15, Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 13, Xenodon rabdocephalus (Wied, 1824 (n = 12, Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766 (n = 10 and Erythrolamprus almadensis (Wagler, 1824 (n = 10. The composition of species found here represents a combination of Cerrado and Amazonian savanna fauna.

  15. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Figueiredo Filho Alberto Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25degreesC, 30degreesC, and 37degreesC for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  16. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  17. A Central Brazil GT5 Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Caixeta, D.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-truth (GT) events, accurately located with a precision of 5 km (GT5 event) and associated travel times to regional stations are important in developing precise velocity models. The low Brazilian seismicity, with only three continental earthquakes of magnitude five in the last three decades, and the low number of seismic stations explain the difficulty to detect events at regional distances. In the world maps of GT events, Brazil appears almost empty. In Stable Continental Interiors, like Brazil, it is difficult to find an event fulfilling all the GT5 prerequisites, particularly in respect with the number of picked phases and azimuthal gaps. Recently PTS-CTBTO has organized meeting and workshops to encourage seismologists from South and Central America to cooperate with the work of identifying GT5 events in these countries, with a goal of developing a 3-dimentional velocity model for this part of the globe not covered yet like Europe and North America. As a result we studied a recent magnitude 5 event in Central Brazil detected by few regional stations. Aftershock studies with local stations, showed a fault 5 km long. Taking the mainshock epicenter as the center of fault the maximum error would be minimal, 2.5 km, assuming the events were located with zero uncertainty. The parameters depth and origin time source were precisely determined using correlations between waveforms of six events and stations corrections. The event magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.0 (mainshock, taken as reference event) recorded by regional and local stations. Events recorded at local and regional stations were used to determine the regional station corrections. These events were located only with data from local stations, assigning to the regional stations P and S phases zero weight in order to determine residuals for each regional stations used. The stations corrections were taken as the average of the residuals at each station. Precise pickings of P and S phases for the mainshock

  18. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

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    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  19. Succession-inducing disturbances and the old-growth forest mosaic of a Central Amazon landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    Old-growth forest ecosystems comprise a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the fraction of the landscape in any particular state relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Tropical forest studies commonly assume that plots covering only a small fraction of the landscape representatively sample this mosaic, and that departures from steady-state represent trends. Here a critical test of this equilibrium assumption for a Central Amazon old-growth forest landscape is carried out by combining extensive forest field plot data, remote sensing analysis to generate disturbance probability distribution functions, and simulation modeling to place plot-level results into a landscape context. Results show that succession-inducing disturbances had a return frequency of ~100 years, and that these episodic events have been poorly sampled by existing forest sample plots. Overall, key ecosystem attributes of small patches are expected to constantly change in the Central Amazon, and long significant trends can result from purely stochastic processes. The role of episodic disturbances will be discussed in terms of Amazon forest carbon balance, and regional tree diversity patterns.

  20. Forest response to increased disturbance in the Central Amazon and comparison to Western Amazonian forests

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    J. A. Holm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties surrounding vegetation response to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. Additionally, turnover rates computed as the average of mortality and recruitment rates in the Western Amazon basin are doubled when compared to the Central Amazon, and notable gradients currently exist in specific wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB between these two regions. This study investigates the extent to which the variation in disturbance regimes contributes to these regional gradients. To address these issues, we evaluated disturbance-recovery processes under two scenarios of increased disturbance rates in a complex Central Amazon forest using first ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model which we calibrated using long-term inventory data, and second using the Community Land Model (CLM, a global land surface model that is part of the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Upon doubling the mortality rate in the Central Amazon to mirror the natural disturbance regime in the Western Amazon of ∼2% mortality, at steady-state, AGB significantly decreased by 41.9% and there was no significant difference between the modeled AGB of 104 Mg C ha−1 and empirical AGB from the western Amazon datasets of 107 Mg C ha−1. We confirm that increases in natural disturbance rates in the Central Amazon will result in terrestrial carbon loss associated with higher turnover. However, different processes were responsible for the reductions in AGB between the models and empirical datasets. We observed that with increased turnover, the subsequent decrease in wood density drives the reduction in AGB in empirical datasets. However, decrease in stand basal area was the driver of the drop in AGB in ZELIG-TROP, and decreased leaf area index (LAI was the driver in CLM. Further comparisons found that stem density, specific wood density, and basal area growth rates differed between the two

  1. The Floating Forest: Traditional Knowledge and Use of Matupá Vegetation Islands by Riverine Peoples of the Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carolina T.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Piedade, Maria T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape. PMID:25837281

  2. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupa vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina T de Freitas

    Full Text Available Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas. The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape.

  3. An Intensive Study of Aerosol Optical Properties in the Outflow of the Manaus Urban Plume, in Central Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Barbosa, H. M.; Carbone, S.; Holanda, B. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Tota, J.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, one year of ground-based observations of aerosol optical properties from a site impacted by urban emissions in Central Amazon of Brazil are assessed as part of results from GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. The aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering (σs) coefficients, as well as single scattering albedo (SSA) are analyzed to aid in characterizing Manaus' urban aerosol at GoAmazon T2 site. There is a distinct diurnal variation for (σa) it was mainly attributed to the severe emission of particulate pollutants and black carbon during the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The decrease of (σa) nearly at noon (12:00-14:00 LT) was a result of strong atmospheric mixing and dilution due to the elevated height of atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). After sunset (18:00 LT), the formation of stable nocturnal PBL even in atmospheric inversion led to a low atmospheric diffusion ability to aerosols and thus relatively high (σa) and (σs) throughout the night. Indeed, it was observed a strong dependence on local wind confirmed by simulated back trajectories in all two seasons. Overall, the wind dependence results provide valuable information about the locations of aerosol pollution sources and suggest that the air pollution in dry season is a regional problem but in the wet season it is mainly affected by local urban emissions. We have also seen an interesting difference in variability of (σs) and (σa) during 8:00-13:00 LT in wet season. A clear decrease was observed for (σa), while a smooth increase during 11:00-13:00 LT was presented for (σs). This is possibly a consequence of secondary aerosol production. (σa) is controlled to a large degree by primary aerosols such as black carbon that are emitted directly from pollution sources like vehicles, while (σs) is related to secondary aerosols such as sulfate and nitrate that contribute the most to light scattering. SSA was relatively low around 7:00-08:00 LT, which reflected that (σa) increased more

  4. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

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    Kolby J. Jardine

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C5 and C6 GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C6 GLVs were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

  5. Astyanax ajuricaba: a new species from the Amazon basin in Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Astyanax species is described from several localities in the rio Negro, rio Solimões and lower rio Tapajós basins, Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all remaining characids by its unique color pattern consisting of the combination of presence of a conspicuous, narrow dark midlateral stripe, a well-developed vertically-elongated dark humeral spot, and upper caudal-fin lobe and middle caudal-fin rays dark, with a rounded clear ocellated spot present at anterior third of caudal-fin lobe.Uma nova espécie de Astyanax é descrita de diversas localidades nas bacias dos rios Negro, Solimões e baixo Tapajós, bacia Amazônica, Brasil. A nova espécie pode ser distinguida de todos os demais Characidae por um padrão de colorido único, que consiste na combinação da presença de uma linha médio-lateral estreita e escura, uma mácula umeral escura bem desenvolvida e verticalmente alongada e o lobo superior da nadadeira caudal e raios medianos escuros, com uma mancha ocelada clara presente no terço anterior do lobo.

  6. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-08-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance ('1') identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance ('1') tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance '1' showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  7. Avian influenza virus (H11N9 in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Jansen de Araujo

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR. The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres, that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.

  8. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.

  9. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea). The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus. PMID:27304520

  10. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae in the lower Amazon River (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Sidney Brito Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea; Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda; Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea; and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea. The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus.

  11. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea). The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus. PMID:27334815

  12. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-01-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  13. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  14. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Abril, G.; Lima Sobrinho, R.; Dorhout, D.; Moreiro-Turcq, P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl gly

  15. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

  16. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  17. Evaluating SAR polarization modes at L-band for forest classification purposes in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesenberg, Veraldo; Gloaguen, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Single, interferometric dual, and quad-polarization mode data were evaluated for the characterization and classification of seven land use classes in an area with shifting cultivation practices located in the Eastern Amazon (Brazil). The Advanced Land-Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data were acquired during a six month interval. A clear-sky Landsat-5/TM image acquired at the same period was used as additional ground reference and as ancillary input data in the classification scheme. We evaluated backscattering intensity, polarimetric features, interferometric coherence and texture parameters for classification purposes using support vector machines (SVM) and feature selection. Results showed that the forest classes were characterized by low temporal backscattering intensity variability, low coherence and high entropy. Quad polarization mode performed better than dual and single polarizations but overall accuracies remain low and were affected by precipitation events on the date and prior SAR date acquisition. Misclassifications were reduced by integrating Landsat data and an overall accuracy of 85% was attained. The integration of Landsat to both quad and dual polarization modes showed similarity at the 5% significance level. SVM was not affected by SAR dimensionality and feature selection technique reveals that co-polarized channels as well as SAR derived parameters such as Alpha-Entropy decomposition were important ranked features after Landsat' near-infrared and green bands. We show that in absence of Landsat data, polarimetric features extracted from quad-polarization L-band increase classification accuracies when compared to single and dual polarization alone. We argue that the joint analysis of SAR and their derived parameters with optical data performs even better and thus encourage the further development of joint techniques under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

  18. Use of morphometric soil aggregates parameters to evaluate the reclamation process in mined areas located at amazon forest - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Fengler, F. H.; Longo, R. M.; Mello, G. F.; Damame, D. B.; Crowley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has a high mineral potential that have been explored over the years. A large fraction of these mineral resources are located in Amazon region, which is known for its large biodiversity and world climate importance. As the policies that control the Amazon preservation are relatively new, several mining activities have been exploring the Amazon territory, promoting a large process of degradation. Once the mining activities have a high potential of environmental changes the government created polices to restrain the mining in Amazon forests and obligate mining companies to reclaim theirs minded areas. However, the measurement of reclamation development still is a challenging task for the Professionals involved. The volume and complexity of the variables, allied to the difficulty in identifying the reclamation of ecosystem functionalities are still lack to ensure the reclamation success. In this sense this work aims to investigate the representativeness of morphometric soil aggregates parameters in the understanding of reclamation development. The study area is located in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondônia. In the past mining companies explored the region producing eight closed mines that are now in reclamation process. The soil aggregates morphometric measurements: geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate circularity index, and aggregate roundness, were choose based in its obtaining facility, and their association to biological activity. To achieve the proposed objective the aggregates of eight sites in reclamation, from different closed mines, where chosen and compared to Amazon forest and open mine soil aggregates. The results were analyzed to one way ANOVA to identifying differences between areas in reclamation, natural ecosystem, and open mine. It was obtained differences for GMD and circularity index. However, only the circularity index allowed to identifying differences between the reclamation sites. The results allowed concluding: (1

  19. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex Central Amazon forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, D.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S. E.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; dos Santos, J.; Carneiro, V. M. C.; Lima, A. J. N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.; Holzwarth, F.; Reu, B.; Wirth, C.

    2015-09-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total AGB above-ground biomass in tropical forests and AGB estimation models are crucial for forest management and conservation. In the Central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial-scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this dataset we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape-level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into good predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with RMSE root-mean-square error values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape-level in complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model parametrization, requires the inclusion of predictors related to species architecture. The model of interest should comprise the floristic composition and size

  20. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This paper examines the spatial and temporal variation of limnological characteristics of floodplain lakes in the Solimões and Japurá confluence, an undisturbed region - the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR; METHODS: We analyzed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and transparency, and surface water samples were collected for determination of suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon, in two phases of the hydrograph stage, 2009 high water phase, 2008, 2009 and 2010 low water phases; RESULTS: The results showed that the studied water bodies have high variability in all measured variables: a between hydrograph phases; b among main rivers; and c between opposite margins of Japurá River; CONCLUSIONS: This shows the remarkable influence of the flood pulse and the primary water source on the limnology of this system. The monitoring of physical and chemical limnological variables in Mamirauá will serve as future reference for comparison with disturbed areas, such as the Lower Amazon, and as a baseline for modeling the effects of climate change and anthropogenic influences on Amazon aquatic ecosystem.OBJETIVO: Esse trabalho investiga a variação temporal e espacial de algumas características limnológicas dos lagos da planície de inundação da região de confluência dos Rios Japurá e Solimões, onde está localizada a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá (RDSM; MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se temperatura, condutividade, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez e transparência da água em três profundidades (superfície, Secchi e no limite da zona fótica e coletadas amostras de água na superfície para a determinação de material orgânico e inorgânico em suspensão, clorofila-a, feofitina, nitrogênio e fósforo total, carbono orgânico e inorgânico dissolvido, em duas fases da hidrógrafa, água alta

  1. Modeling Potential Impacts of Planting Palms or Tree in Small Holder Fruit Plantations on Ecohydrological Processes in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kunert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon, but little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. To explore the potential impacts of plantations on local to regional water balance, we studied plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region. The study was conducted in a mixed fruit plantation containing a dicot tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum and a monocot palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleracea close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon. Scaling from sap flux measurements, palms had a 3.5-fold higher water consumption compared to trees with a similar diameter. Despite the high transpiration rates of the palms, our plantation had only one third of the potential water recycling capacity of natural forests in the area. Converting natural forest into such plantations will thus result in significantly higher runoff rates.

  2. Geophysical Character and Geochemical Evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite, SW Amazon Craton (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, Vinicius; Cawood, Peter; Mantovani, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The Jauru Terrain hosts the Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite (FBS) in the SW of the Amazon Craton (Brazil). The FBS is a series of 1425 Ma layered mafic intrusions, previously interpreted as anorogenic. The FBS area is located in foreland to the Santa Helena orogen, formed by the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain under the Jauru Terrain. Potential field methods (magnetic and gravity), gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical and isotope data were used to characterize and to model the extent of FBS magmatism, the distribution of faults and shear zones in the area, to evaluate affinities of the magmatic activity, and the relation between the FBS and the Santa Helena orogen. The geophysical methods identified three anomalies corresponding with FBS outcrops. A fourth anomaly with significantly higher amplitude was observed to the north of the three anomalies. From south to north, the anomalies were named Indiavaí, Azteca, Figueira Branca and Jauru. These anomalies were modeled and indicated a northwest-southeast trend, parallel to regional shear zones. The gamma-ray data enabled the collection of 50 samples from the FBS rocks, the Alto Jauru group that hosts the FBS, from nearby intrusive suites, and the Rio Alegre Terrain. The 30 freshest samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for oxides and some trace elements, 20 by ICP-MS for Rare-Earth Elements and 10 for Nd-Sr isotope analyses. The FBS samples were gabbros and gabbro-norites with Nb/Yb-Th/Yb and TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb ratios indicating varying degrees of crustal interaction. The TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb data suggested a subduction related component and the ɛNd-ɛSr indicated a juvenile source. Samples from coeval adjacent intermediate magma suites displayed similar characteristics, which suggest derivation from a bimodal source probably related with the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain. We interpreted the tectonic setting of the FBS as a result of a roll-back of the subducted slab, which resulted in rejuvenation of the

  3. Effects of partial throughfall exclusion on the phenology of Coussarea racemosa (Rubiaceae) in an east-central Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo; Ray, David; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Curran, Lisa M; Oliveira, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Severe droughts may alter the reproductive phenology of tropical tree species, but our understanding of these effects has been hampered by confounded variation in drought, light and other factors during natural drought events. We used a large-scale experimental reduction of throughfall in an eastern-central Amazon forest to study the phenological response to drought of an abundant subcanopy tree, Coussarea racemosa. We hypothesized that drought would alter the production and the timing of reproduction, as well as the number of viable fruits. The study system comprised two 1-ha plots in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil: a dry plot where 50% of incoming precipitation (80% throughfall) was diverted from the soil during the six-month wet season beginning in January 2000, and a wet plot that received natural rainfall inputs. Fruit production of C. racemosa was quantified every 15 days using 100 litter traps (0.5 m(2)) in each plot. The production of new leaves and flowers was recorded monthly for C. racemosa individuals. Soil water, pre-dawn leaf water potential and solar radiation were measured to help interpret phenological patterns. Over the approximately 3.5-year period (April 2000 through December 2003), total fruit production remained similar between plots, declining by 12%. In 2003, production was four times higher in both plots than in previous years. In the dry plot, fruit fall shifted 40 and 60 days later into the dry season in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Total fruit fall dry mass production was variable across the study period. Foliage and flower production coincided with peak irradiance early in the dry season until delays in flowering appeared in the dry plot in 2002 and 2003. Plant water stress, through its influence on leaf developmental processes and, perhaps, inhibition of photosynthesis, appears to have altered both the timing of fruit fall and the quality and number of seeds produced. PMID:16955290

  4. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    M.R.A. Santos; Lima, M. R.; C.L.L.G. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by ...

  5. The universalization of the electric power services and the isolated communities of Amazon region, Brazil; A universalizacao dos servicos de energia eletrica e as comunidades isoladas da amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of non interconnected systems which composes the Brazilian Electric Power System, the difficulties of rural electrification at the Country, specially in the Amazon region, and the obstacles of Amazon state, Brazil, for transportation energy power to hinterland. The results of Program Light for All are also synthesized in this document, present the profile of communities yet not attended by the Program and will be reached up to the end of the year 2010, at the finalization of the Program.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. PMID:24731964

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique.

  8. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan;

    2000-01-01

    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...

  9. Ecology and acculturation among native peoples of central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D R; Eiten, G; Flowers, N M; Leoi, F M; Ritter, M L; Werner, D W

    1979-11-30

    Simple exposure to Western goods may not be a sufficient explanation of why isolated village communities increase their participation in external market economies. The degree of market participation by four native villages in central Brazil is related to the difficulty of making a living from slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture as measured by the ratio of labor input to food output. PMID:17787469

  10. O efeito da floresta alagada na alimentação de três espécies de peixes onívoros em lagos de várzea da Amazônia Central, Brasil Effects of flooded forest in the diet of three fish species in floodplain lakes of Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claro-Jr

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As enchentes anuais dos rios na Amazônia alagam extensas áreas de floresta conhecidas como várzeas ou igapós. Estas áreas têm papel importante na vida dos peixes da região, pois são fontes de alimento e de abrigo. Acreditamos que o desmatamento destas áreas ocasiona prejuízos à ictiofauna principalmente pela diminuição da quantidade e diversidade de alimento disponível. O estudo da relação entre a quantidade de floresta e a dieta de Parauchenipterus galeatus (Auchenipteridae, Siluriformes, Mylossoma duriventre (Characidae, Characiformese Triportheus elongatus (Characidae, Characiformespermitiu registrar pela primeira vez a influência direta da floresta alagada na ecologia alimentar de peixes na Amazônia Central.The annual flooding of the rivers in the Amazonia extends over large forest areas known as várzeas or igapós. These areas play an important role in the life of the fishes, as a source of food and shelter. We believe that the deforestation of these areas may affect negatively the fish fauna mainly by decreasing the amount of food resources and consequently the diversity of food types available. The study of the relationship between the riparian forest cover and the diet of Parauchenipterus galeatus (Auchenipteridae, Siluriformes, Mylossoma duriventre (Characidae, Characiformes and Triportheus elongatus (Characidae, Characiformes allowed to refer for the first time on the direct influence of the flooded forest in the feeding ecology of fishes in Central Amazonia.

  11. Description of Microvelia urucara sp. nov. and new distributional data on veliids (Insecta: Heteroptera: Veliidae: from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. F Moreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected on streams and lakes from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil, Microvelia urucara sp. nov. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. The new species, like many other Neotropical Microvelia Westwood, 1834, does not present striking modifications on the body or appendages, but can be separated from its congeners by features of the male genitalia. Distributional data is presented for other veliids collected along the Amazon River, and Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, 2010 and Microvelia summersi Drake & Harris, 1928 are recorded for the first time from the Brazilian Amazon. Rhagovelia jubata Bacon, 1948 is newly recorded from the state of Amazonas, and Microvelia mimula White, 1879, M. pulchella Westwood, 1834 and M. venustatis Drake & Harris, 1933 are recorded for the first time from the state of Pará.

  12. Spatial and seasonal contrasts of sedimentary organic matter in floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, R. L.; Bernardes, M. C.; Abril, G.; Kim, J.-H.; Zell, C. I.; Mortillaro, J.-M.; Meziane, T.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the seasonal and spatial pattern of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in five floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin (Cabaliana, Janauaca, Canaçari, Mirituba and Curuai) which have different morphologies, hydrodynamics and vegetation coverages. Surface sediments were collected in four hydrological seasons: low water (LW), rising water (RW), high water (HW) and falling water (FW) in 2009 and 2010. We investigated commonly used bulk geochemical tracers such as the C : N ratio and the stable isotopic composition of organic carbon (δ13Corg). These results were compared with lignin phenol parameters as an indicator of vascular plant detritus and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) to trace the input of soil organic matter (OM) from land to the aquatic settings. We also applied the crenarchaeol as an indicator of aquatic (rivers and lakes) OM. Our data showed that during the RW and FW seasons, the surface sediments were enriched in lignin and brGDGTs in comparison to other seasons. Our study also indicated that floodplain lake sediments primarily consisted of allochthonous, C3 plant-derived OM. However, a downstream increase in C4 macrophyte-derived OM contribution was observed along the gradient of increasing open waters - i.e., from upstream to downstream. Accordingly, we attribute the temporal and spatial difference in SOM composition to the hydrological dynamics between the floodplain lakes and the surrounding flooded forests.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: robertohm@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for {sup 14}C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  14. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for 14C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  15. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT) BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares; Ynglea Georgina de Freitas Goch; José Reinaldo Pacheco Peleja; Bruce Rider Forsberg; Edivaldo Júnior de Souza Lemos; Otávio Peleja de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg) in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were d...

  16. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  17. Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by primary economic sectors: agriculture, cattle farming, plant extraction and mineral exploration. Structured interviews were applied to 227 persons chosen because of their prestige in the communities in relation to the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, identifying the therapeutic purpose, parts of the plant used and methods of preparation. The species were taxonomically identified. The ethnobotanic knowledge (inferred by the number of uses of medicinal plants per person was correlated with the Brazilian region of origin, age, and gender of the interviewees. According to the collected data, 34 botanical families and 53 native species were identified. Of the 53 species, only 7 occur exclusively in the Amazon Forest: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. K. Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. The most common disorders treated with the plants were kidney problems, influenza, generalized infections and inflammations, malaria and high blood pressure. Leaves were the most used parts in preparations. Barks, fruits, roots, flowers, stems, seeds, oils, buds, tubercles, and rhizomes were also mentioned. Thirteen forms of preparations were recorded, and infusion and decoction were the most used. Syrups, juices, flour, sap, oil and parts of the plant blended with milk, honey and coffee or flamed, macerated and

  18. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  19. Emissions of Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Oxide from Soils of Native and Exotic Ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric A.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Alexandre de Siqueira Pinto

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these ...

  20. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Mendes Pereira; Paulo Silva de Almeida; Adair Vieira de Sousa; Aécio Moraes de Paula; Ricardo Bomfim Machado; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic dist...

  1. Spatial and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis Deep in the Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronato Nunes, Beatriz; Pavan, Márcio G.; Jaeger, Lauren H.; Monteiro, Kerla J. L.; Xavier, Samanta C. C.; Monteiro, Fernando A.; Bóia, Márcio N.; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children’s nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years. Fecal samples were processed through parasitological techniques and molecular characterization. Prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 16.9% (73/433), reaching 22.2% (35/158) among children aged 2–5 years, and a wide distribution throughout the city with some hot spots. Positivity-rate was similar among children living in distinct socioeconomic strata (48/280 [17.1%] and 19/116 [16.4%] below and above the poverty line, respectively). Sequencing of the β-giardin gene revealed 52.2% (n = 12) of assemblage A and 47.8% (n = 11) of assemblage B with high haplotype diversity for the latter. The isolates clustered into two well-supported G. intestinalis clades. A total of 38 haplotypes were obtained, with the following subassemblages distribution: 5.3% (n = 2) AII, 26.3% (n = 10) AIII, 7.9% (n = 3) BIII, and 60.5% (n = 23) new B genotypes not previously described. Conclusions/Significance Giardia intestinalis infection presents a high prevalence rate among Amerindian descended children living in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro/Amazon. The wide distribution observed in a small city suggests the presence of multiple sources of infection, which could be related to environmental contamination with feces, possibly of human and animal origin, highlighting the need of improving sanitation, safe water supply and access to diagnosis and adequate treatment of infections. PMID:27392098

  2. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g-1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g-1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g-1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g-1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m-2 to 18.5 mg m-2, for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  3. Spatial and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis Deep in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato Nunes

    Full Text Available Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children's nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon.A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years. Fecal samples were processed through parasitological techniques and molecular characterization. Prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 16.9% (73/433, reaching 22.2% (35/158 among children aged 2-5 years, and a wide distribution throughout the city with some hot spots. Positivity-rate was similar among children living in distinct socioeconomic strata (48/280 [17.1%] and 19/116 [16.4%] below and above the poverty line, respectively. Sequencing of the β-giardin gene revealed 52.2% (n = 12 of assemblage A and 47.8% (n = 11 of assemblage B with high haplotype diversity for the latter. The isolates clustered into two well-supported G. intestinalis clades. A total of 38 haplotypes were obtained, with the following subassemblages distribution: 5.3% (n = 2 AII, 26.3% (n = 10 AIII, 7.9% (n = 3 BIII, and 60.5% (n = 23 new B genotypes not previously described.Giardia intestinalis infection presents a high prevalence rate among Amerindian descended children living in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro/Amazon. The wide distribution observed in a small city suggests the presence of multiple sources of infection, which could be related to environmental contamination with feces, possibly of human and animal origin, highlighting the need of improving sanitation, safe water supply and access to diagnosis and adequate treatment of infections.

  4. Mycocinogenic yeasts isolated from Amazon soils of the Maracá Ecological Station, Roraima-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vital Marcos José Salgado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The 240 yeasts isolated from soils of the Maracá Ecological Station in the Brazilian Amazon were identified and screened for mycocin production. These strains included 82% of ascomycetous and 18% basidiomicetous affinities and the prevalent species were Candida etchellsii, Candida famata, Candida robusta, Candida rugosa, Candida valida, Debaryomyces hansenii, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula minuta and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Mycocins able to kill some yeasts were produced by 6 strains identified as Issatchenkia sp., Saccharomyces exiguus?, Williopsis saturnus, var. subsufficiens, and 3 W. saturnus according to 26S rDNA D1/D2 region sequence and phenotypic data.

  5. Monoterpene Compositions of Three Forested Ecosystems in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A.; Fuentes, J. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Jardine, K.

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes play fundamental roles as secondary metabolites in forested ecosystems and as gas and liquid phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in their surrounding atmospheres. While the chemical pathways involved in ozonolysis driven SOA formation from individual monoterpene precursors is known, local and regional chemical transport models are still lacking observations of speciated monoterpenes from forested atmospheres. Here, we present high vertically resolved mixing ratio profiles of speciated monoterpenes from the ambient air of three neighboring forested ecosystems in the central Amazon Basin. Two well-drained plateau primary forests and one seasonally flooded valley forest were sampled during the afternoon hours (13:00 - 16:30) on walkup towers from the initiation of the 2013-14 wet season through the onset of the 2014 dry season (Nov 2013 - Jul 2014). Ambient mixing ratios in all three ecosystems were greatest in the upper canopy with secondary sources of some monoterpenes within the sub-canopies. Relative vertical compositions of monoterpenes did not change significantly throughout the seasons for either ecosystem type. Both ecosystem types were dominated by d-limonene (up to 1.6 ppb) with equally strong mixing ratios of alpha-pinene in the valley compared to the much weaker a-pinene mixing ratios on the plateaus (up to 200 ppt). The highly reactive cis- and trans-beta-ocimene were consistently present in both ecosystems (up to 250 ppt) with the addition of equally high camphene mixing ratios in the valley forest (up to 200 ppt) which is present in the plateau ecosystems in low quantities (50 ppt). With respect to clean atmosphere mixing ratios of 10 ppb ozone, lifetimes are below 2 hours for camphene and below 30 minutes for ocimene, suggesting a potentially large impact on local and possibly regional ozonolysis and subsequent SOA composition.

  6. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

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    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  7. TOTAL MERCURY (HgT BIOACCUMULATION AND FISH FOOD HABITS IN NEGRO RIVER BASIN, AMAZON, BRAZIL

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    Jean Louchard Ferreira Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, the fish is the main nutritional source for the riverine. Thus, fish have been commonly used in environmental monitoring work to be good biomonitors. This study analyzed the total mercury concentration (THg in fish of different species and feeding habits in order to investigate the existence of bioaccumulation in species in the basin of the Negro river and verify that the THg levels found are in accordance with the stipulated limit for consumption human. Sampling points were distributed in the basin of the Negro river during the period of high water. After the fisheries specimens were identified, measured and weighed. Then muscle samples were taken and subjected to acid digestion and analyzed by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrophotometer - CVAFS. To research data was used analysis of variance and linear regression. A total of 264 specimens distributed into 10 species were analyzed, and the THg of the concentrations ranged from 0.030 for 1,670 mg.kg-1. The species Hoplias malabaricus, Serrasalmus rhombeus, Hemiodus immaculatus and Cichla temensis showed bioaccumulation. High concentrations of THg were found in carnivorous, piscivorous, planctívos and omnivores fish. No specimen showed mean concentrations of THg in violation to ANVISA, but this occurred in relation to FAO and WHO. keywords: Brazilian Amazon; biomonitoring; high waters; Hg.

  8. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; Lopes, Anna Sylmara da Costa; de Souza, Larissa Costa; Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption.

  9. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  10. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  11. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4. Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM were used to evaluate the method.

  12. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  13. Mercury in environmental and biological samples from a gold mining area in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palheta, D; Taylor, A

    1995-05-19

    A massive increase in gold mining in the Amazon region of Brazil has led to an enormous discharge of metallic mercury into the aquatic ecosystem. To investigate the dispersion, total and inorganic mercury concentrations were measured in water, fish and animal tissues, and in blood, urine and hair from members of the local populations. Mercury concentrations in river water, sediments and fish were high compared with those of non-contaminated areas. Cattle and pigs kept in the area and with access to the contaminated rivers had concentrations of mercury of 0.1-1.28 micrograms/g and 11.7-15.7 micrograms/l in hair and blood, respectively. These results are approximately twice those measured in specimens from control animals. Mean mercury concentrations in blood, urine and hair of residents were increased at 11.4 micrograms/l, 22.8 micrograms/l and 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively, and the urine mercury of workers from the gold mining sites were up to 155 micrograms/l. The results demonstrate widespread contamination of the environment by mercury with transfer of the metal to fish and animals used for food, and into the inhabitants of the region. Further investigations for possible adverse health effects need to be undertaken. PMID:7610384

  14. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

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    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  15. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin.

  16. Molecular differentiation of species of the genus Zungaro (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay River basins in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, T A; Padial, A A; Prioli, S M A P; Lucio, L C; Maniglia, T C; Bignotto, T S; Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, R A; Prioli, A J

    2011-01-01

    Fish species of the Zungaro genus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) are amongst the largest migratory fish in Latin America and have considerable economic importance for commercial fishing in Brazil. However, natural populations of this large catfish are experiencing a severe decline. There are significant taxonomical inconsistencies for this fish. Two geographically separated species of the fish were initially described, one endemic in the Amazon and another in the Paraná-Paraguay River basins. A taxonomic review had recently proposed that there is only one Zungaro species in Brazil, based on morphological data. We made a molecular study of Zungaro populations in an attempt to solve taxonomical inconsistencies and to analyze genetic diversity in natural populations of this genus. We analyzed two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (the control region and the ATPase 6 gene region) of individuals sampled from the Paraná-Paraguay River and Amazon River basins. Analyses based on p-distances and maximum likelihood phylogenetic models showed a genetic difference between populations corresponding to different species. Genetic differentiation between Zungaro populations was at the same level as that observed between other Siluriformes species, using the same DNA sequences. We conclude that Zungaro species of the Paraná-Paraguay River basin do not belong to the same species found in the Amazon basin. This finding has a significant implication for conservation of this fish, given that populations are disappearing at a high rate in the Paraná-Paraguay River basin, mainly due to impoundments. PMID:22095604

  17. Seasonal variations in the stable oxygen isotope ratio of wood cellulose reveal annual rings of trees in a Central Amazon terra firme forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shinta; Durgante, Flávia M; Kagawa, Akira; Kajimoto, Takuya; Trumbore, Susan E; Xu, Xiaomei; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Higuchi, Niro

    2016-03-01

    In Amazonian non-flooded forests with a moderate dry season, many trees do not form anatomically definite annual rings. Alternative indicators of annual rings, such as the oxygen (δ(18)Owc) and carbon stable isotope ratios of wood cellulose (δ(13)Cwc), have been proposed; however, their applicability in Amazonian forests remains unclear. We examined seasonal variations in the δ(18)Owc and δ(13)Cwc of three common species (Eschweilera coriacea, Iryanthera coriacea, and Protium hebetatum) in Manaus, Brazil (Central Amazon). E. coriacea was also sampled in two other regions to determine the synchronicity of the isotopic signals among different regions. The annual cyclicity of δ(18)Owc variation was cross-checked by (14)C dating. The δ(18)Owc showed distinct seasonal variations that matched the amplitude observed in the δ(18)O of precipitation, whereas seasonal δ(13)Cwc variations were less distinct in most cases. The δ(18)Owc variation patterns were similar within and between some individual trees in Manaus. However, the δ(18)Owc patterns of E. coriacea differed by region. The ages of some samples estimated from the δ(18)Owc cycles were offset from the ages estimated by (14)C dating. In the case of E. coriacea, this phenomenon suggested that missing or wedging rings may occur frequently even in well-grown individuals. Successful cross-dating may be facilitated by establishing δ(18)Owc master chronologies at both seasonal and inter-annual scales for tree species with distinct annual rings in each region.

  18. Institutional stakeholders’ views on jaguar conservation issues in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yennie K. Bredin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carnivore management is typically a source of heated controversy worldwide and, in the Americas, jaguars (Panthera onca are at the centre of many human–wildlife conflicts. Although findings suggest that social, rather than economic, factors are important reasons for why humans kill jaguars, few studies focus on stakeholder attitudes towards jaguar conservation beyond quantifying livestock depredation. Yet insights from other large carnivore conflicts demonstrate the importance of the political landscape and stakeholder attitudes in carnivore conservation. To explore the extent to which stakeholder views about jaguar conservation aligned with institutional arrangements, we conducted a stakeholder analysis among personnel working for key institutions in central Brazil. Using Q methodology, we identified three stakeholder perspectives focusing on: A jaguars’ intrinsic right to exist; B wider ecocentric values; and C contesting jaguar-focused conservation. The three institutional stakeholder groups all accepted the jaguar’s fundamental right to exist and agreed that it was important to establish protected areas for jaguars. Yet, institutional stakeholder views diverged regarding the desired distribution of jaguars in Brazil, hunting policies, and the effects of hunting and development projects on jaguar conservation. These differences and their underlying motivations are important to consider for successful jaguar conservation strategies in Brazil.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic for malaria in Extra-Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Maria Regina F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for malaria have been demonstrated to be effective and they should replace microscopy in certain areas. Method The cost-effectiveness of five RDT and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, laboratory suppliers and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2010. Two costing methods were produced, based on exclusive-use microscopy or shared-use microscopy. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2010 U.S. dollars. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the cost-effectiveness analysis with exclusive-use microscopy, the RDT CareStart™ was the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy. Microscopy was the most expensive and most effective, with an additional case adequately diagnosed by microscopy costing US$ 35,550.00 in relation to CareStart™. In opposite, in the cost-effectiveness analysis with shared-use microscopy, the thick smear was extremely cost-effective. Introducing into the analytic model with shared-use microscopy a probability for individual access to the diagnosis, assuming a probability of 100% of access for a public health system user to any RDT and, hypothetically, of 85% of access to microscopy, this test saw its effectiveness reduced and was dominated by the RDT CareStart™. Conclusion The analysis of cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnosis technologies in the Brazilian Extra-Amazon Region depends on the exclusive or shared use of the microscopy. Following the assumptions of this study, shared-use microscopy would be

  20. Reproductive biology of Plagioscion magdalenae (Teleostei: Sciaenidae (Steindachner, 1878 in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil

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    Nayara Barbosa Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae (pacora is a commercially important benthopelagic sciaenid and widely distributed in the Amazon River basin. The present study describes the reproductive biology of this species in the bay of Marajo, Amazon Estuary, Brazil. The gonadal development stage, age and size at first sexual maturity (L50, sex ratio, and reproductive strategy were determined. The data were collected bi-monthly from December 2005 to October 2006. A total of 251 specimens were examined, with the total length (TL ranging between 220 and 590 mm. The weight-length relationship for females, males and grouped sexes was highly significant, showing a positive allometry. The L50 was of 279 mm for grouped sexes, with 305 mm and 269 mm TL for females and males respectively. The sex ratio for the total number of individuals favored the males (2.02 males: 1 female. Macroscopically, the gonads were classified as immature, maturing, mature and spent. Considering the macro and microscopic evaluation of the gonads, an extended spawning period, mainly in August to February, was observed.Plagioscion magdalenae (pescada-curuca é um sciaenídeo bentopelágico, de importância comercial, amplamente distribuído na bacia do rio Amazonas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie na baía do Marajó, estuário Amazônico, Brasil. Neste estudo foi determinado o estádio do desenvolvimento gonadal, tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal (L50, proporção entre sexos, época e o tipo de desova. A coleta foi realizada bimestralmente no período de dezembro de 2005 a outubro de 2006. Foi examinado um total de 251 exemplares, variando entre 220 e 590 mm de comprimento total (CT. A relação peso-comprimento para fêmeas, machos e sexos agrupados foi altamente significativa, com alometria positiva. O L50 foi de 279 mm considerando sexos agrupados, 305 e 269 mm CT para fêmeas e machos respectivamente. A proporção entre sexos para o total de

  1. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  2. Limits to Knowledge: Indigenous Peoples, NGOs, and the Moral Economy in the Eastern Amazon of Brazil

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    Janet Chernela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread recognition of the importance of community-conservation partnerships, problems continue to emerge. In this paper we examine one such interaction to propose that outside organisations have wrongly associated the delimitations of the habitational space with the extent of community allegiances and moral economies. Such oversights can lead to project withdrawal, as they did in one case of an ecotourism proposal among the indigenous Kayapσ of the southeastern Amazon. The case study points to the challenges in the processes of partnering with local villages where histories of fissioning and factioning contain within them their own processual relations and moral obligations. These models, by which people group themselves into communities of loyalty, affectivity, and belonging, may be elusive to outsiders and account for many challenges in local-international collaborations. Western planners are often unprepared for the long reach of relationships relevant to project planning and benefit sharing. We suggest that in order to move forward with effective multi-participant community-based projects, project planners should take into account supra-spatial, and dynamic, moral economies.

  3. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

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    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  5. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  6. Palaeohydrological controls on sedimentary organic matter in an Amazon floodplain lake, Lake Maracá (Brazil) during the late Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, L.S.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Kim, J.-H.; Caquineau, S.; Mandeng-Yogo, M.; Macario, K.D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of hydrological changes of the Amazon River on sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition in Amazonian floodplain lakes, three sediment cores were collected from Lake Maracá (eastern Amazonia) along a transect from the Amazon River main channel to inland. The cores

  7. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. PMID:26302373

  8. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  9. Water and nutrient dynamics at various spatial scales of a tropical agricultural watershed in Eastern Amazon region, Brazil: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickel, A. J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Sa, T.; Vlek, P. L.; Vielhauer, K.; Denich, M.

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the German-Brazilian Studies project on Human Impacts on Floodplains In the Tropics (SHIFT) the small agricultural "Cumaru" watershed (16 km2), Eastern Amazon region, Brazil, was monitored at various spatial scales for a period of one and a half year. The overall aim of this project is to provide sustainable alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture. With the current study an attempt is made to close the water and nutrient balance for two sub-watersheds (1 km2) and the fields surrounding their source. In order to understand the processes of water and nutrient dynamics from a field to watershed scale, a wide variety of hydrological and micro-meteorological measurements were made. An automatic weather station, throughfall gauges, TDR-profiles, a piezometer network, and weirs were installed to monitor the main components of the water balance. A digital database of topography, soils, hydrological properties, land use, and vegetation was made to serve as the base input of the various models that are intended to be used. In order to evaluate nutrient dynamics samples were taken of rain-, soil-, ground- and runoff-water at various temporal scales. The modeling of water yield and runoff response will be performed with the physically based TOPOG model. This model is capable of solving water, energy, solute and sediment balances of a catchment in a fully distributed way. Regional (shallow) groundwater modeling will be done with a Finite Element Model (MicroFEM). Preliminary measurement and modeling results indicate that the regional water balance is mainly determined by shallow groundwater flow. A strong nutrient fixation is observed throughout the soil profile, and in the riparian forest zone.

  10. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The papayas were grown and packed...

  12. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

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    Ferreira Aline A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth" and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A, height-for-age (H/A, and weight-for-height (W/H using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3% were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed among Brazilian children nationally, which is characterized by a sharp decline in child undernutrition in recent decades, even in the poorest regions of the country. This discrepancy calls attention to the persistent health disparities that exist between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Brazil.

  13. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 μ atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 μ atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 μ atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 μ atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of

  14. A forensic entomology case from the Amazon rain forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Marques, Helder; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rafael, José Albertino; Santana, Fernando H A; Arantes, Luciano C; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2006-09-01

    The first case of application of forensic entomology in the Brazilian Amazonia is described. The corpses of 26 men were found in the rainforest in Rondonia State, Brazil. Fly larvae collected on the bodies during autopsy were identified as Paralucilia fulvinota (Diptera, Calliphoridae). No data or specimens were collected at the crime scene. At the laboratory, the larvae developed into pupae in 58 h and into adults in 110.5 h. The total development time for P. fulvinota was measured in field experiments inside the forest. The age of the larvae when collected from the bodies was estimated as the difference between the time required for them to become adults and the total development time for this species. The estimated age of the maggots and the minimum postmortem interval was 5.7 days.

  15. Seasonal Variation in the Distribution and Isotopic Composition of Phytoplankton in an Amazon Floodplain Lake, Brazil

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    Pedro Caraballo Gracia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seasonal variation and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, water samples were collected monthly between October 2007 and November 2008 in Lake Catalão, a floodplain lake at the confluence between rivers Negro and Amazon. Analyses of total chlorophyll concentration and δ13C and δ15N isotopic abundances were made from particulate size fractions of 30-60, 10-30 and <10 µm in the littoral, pelagic, and floating meadows regions. Chlorophyll concentration was found to be inversely associated to lake depth, and high concentrations of chlorophyll in the floating meadows zone were significant.  The fraction <10 µm was the most abundant representing in average more than 40% of the particulate matter. The δ13C values were relatively constant during the study (-25.1‰ ~ -34.0‰, whereas the δ15N values showed strong variability (15.6‰ ~ 2.4‰, which has been attributed to the resuspension of sediments during mixing of the water column. Mixing associated to the sudden drop in temperature during the rising water period was an important event in the trophic and isotopic dynamics of the lake. Variations in chlorophyll content were generally associated with the dilution process, in which concentration was inversely correlated to the water level, whereas abundance was directly correlated to the water level.VARIACIÓN ESTACIONAL DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN ISOTÓPICA DEL FITOPLANCTON EN UN LAGO DE INUNDACIÓN EN LA AMAZONIA, BRASIL. Con el propósito de evaluar la variación estacional de la abundancia isotópica (δ13C e δ15N del fitoplancton, muestreos mensuales fueron realizados entre octubre de 2007 y noviembre de 2008 en el lago Catalão, un lago de inundación en la zona de confluencia de los ríos Negro y Solimões, ubicado frente a la ciudad de Manaus (AM, Brasil. Análisis de la clorofila total y evaluaciones de la abundancia natural de δ13C y δ15N fueron realizados en las fracciones partículadas de 30-60, 10

  16. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  17. Molecular detection of Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in procyonids (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

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    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to diagnose the natural infection of captive and free-living procyonids with Trypanosoma evansi in the states of Amapá and Pará, Brazil. From February 2012 to August 2013, whole blood samples and blood smears were obtained from 45 free-living procyonids and from nine procyonids kept in captivity in wild life refuges and zoobotanical parks in the states of Amapá and Pará. Whole blood samples were collected and kept at -20ºC for the detection of T. evansi DNA by PCR using the RoTat 1.2 forward and RoTat 1.2 reverse primers. In addition, the blood smears were processed and examined for the presence of trypomastigote forms of T. evansi. T. evansi DNA was detected in 18.52% (10/54 of the procyonids, namely, in captive crab-eating raccoons and captive and free-living coatis in Pará State. No trypomastigote forms were observed in the blood smears. DNA from T. evansi was detected in P. cancrivorus and N. nasua in Pará State, being this the first such report in P. cancrivorus.

  18. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Schneider Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  19. Influence of environmental variables on the density of shrub and tree seedlings in an Upland Forest in the Central Amazon

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    Randolpho Gonçalves Dias Terceiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the influence of luminosity and distance from an igarapé on seedling density in an upland forest in the Central Amazon. Twenty plots were installed, where we measured the percentage of canopy openness, and the distance from an igarapé, and we also counted the number of seedlings. We obtained a linear regression of canopy openness with the seedling density and an ANOVA of seedling density according to the distance from an igarapé. We registered a total of 229 seedling individuals (seedling density = 11 plants/m2. Among the environmental variables measured, only canopy openness has positively influenced on seedling density. Small amplitude in the increase in luminosity can cause an increased seedling density. Seedling density did not differ with regard to the distance from an igarapé, due to low competitiveness and adaptations by species occurring in the wetlands.

  20. Diet, Sleep and Metabolic Syndrome Among a Legal Amazon Population, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Poliana Rodrigues; Ferrari, Graziele Souza Lira; Ferrari, Carlos K B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome incidence is increasing worldwide then it is important to study the possible risk and protective factors. Our previous study suggested an association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to address possible associations between dietary lifestyle factors with metabolic syndrome. In a case-control study we compared 74 metabolic syndrome patients with 176-matched controls attended at a public health central unit. Incident cases diagnosed...

  1. Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2 and O3 in the Central Amazon Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Song-Miao; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1990-01-01

    An eddy correlation measurement of O3 deposition and CO2 exchange at a level 10 m above the canopy of the Amazon forest, conducted as part of the NASA/INPE ABLE2b mission during the wet season of 1987, is presented. It was found that the ecosystem exchange of CO2 undergoes a well-defined diurnal variation driven by the input of solar radiation. A curvilinear relationship was found between solar irradiance and uptake of CO2, with net CO2 uptake at a given solar irradiance equal to rates observed over forests in other climate zones. The carbon balance of the system appeared sensitive to cloud cover on the time scale of the experiment, suggesting that global carbon storage might be affected by changes in insolation associated with tropical climate fluctuations. The forest was found to be an efficient sink for O3 during the day, and evidence indicates that the Amazon forests could be a significant sink for global ozone during the nine-month wet period and that deforestation could dramatically alter O3 budgets.

  2. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  3. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Sobrinho, Rodrigo Lima; Dorhout, Denise; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), i.e., the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization of brGDGTs (CBT), were seen in the Amazon main stem. The highest concentration of core lipid (CL) brGDGTs normalized to particulate organic carbon (POC) was found during the HW season. During the HW season the MBT and CBT in the Amazon main stem was also most similar to that of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils, indicating that the highest input of soil-derived brGDGTs occurred due to increased water runoff. During the other seasons the MBT and CBT indicated an increased influence of in situ production of brGDGTs even though soils remained the main source of brGDGTs. Our results reveal that the influence of seasonal variation is relatively small, but can be clearly detected. Crenarchaeol was mostly produced in the river. Its concentration was lower during the HW season compared to that of the other seasons. Hence, our study shows the complexity of processes that influence the GDGT distribution during the transport from land to ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a detailed study of a river basin to interpret the MBT/CBT and BIT records for paleo reconstructions in adjacent marine setting.

  4. A brief historic of the evolution of the energy sources in relation to the economical occupation in Amazon State, North Brazil; A evolucao do uso da energia em funcao da ocupacao economica do Estado do Amazonas: um breve historico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaxo, Elizabeth F. [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia. Dept. de Eletricidade; Furtado, Andre T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the relation between the economical cycles and energy use in Amazon State, North Brazil, since pre-colombian times until present date, giving special attention to the natural rubber economic phase, which is presented in details 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  6. Fertility and pacification among the Mekranoti of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, D

    1983-06-01

    Demographic data from 3 different historical periods of the Mekranoti-Kayapo Indians of Central Brazil were used to examine various explanations for historical changes in fertility among this group. The possible effects of warfare on Mekranoti fertility were also examined since warfare has had an important role in many preindustrial societies. The Mekranoti are a group of 285 relatively unacculturated Indians living in a single village in southern Para, Brazil. As in precontact days, their economy is based on slash and burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing. To assess Mekranoti fertility, pregnancy histories collected from all women 15 years or older as of December 1976 were used. In precontact years a woman who survived to age 50 could expect to give birth 6.5 times. During the contact years this average dropped to 5.6 and in the postcontact period it soared to almost 8.5. The drop in Mekranoti fertility from precontact to contact years corresponds with an increase in mortality. The direction of these changes would support a "health" argument about fertility, but the degrees of change do not. Whereas mortality increased markedly after 1955, fertility fell only slightly. The data are not consistent with the view that changes in lactation periods are responsible for fertility changes. The number of uses of contraceptives per reproductive woman year did not not vary much in the different historical periods and certainly could not account for differences in Mekranoti fertility. The data suggest that fertility changes over Mekranoti history may be due in part to sexual abstinence resulting either from postpartum sexual taboos or, more importantly, from a lack of husbands. Sex imbalances resulting from high male mortality in warfare and subsequent disruption of marriages by disease and death left many women without spouses for long periods of time. The findings are consistent with other studies that found lower fertility associated with male absence. The Mekranoti are

  7. Amazon surveillance system (SIVAM): U.S. and Brazilian cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkoff, E. Peter

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis will demonstrate bow Brazil's System for Surveillance of the Amazon (SIVAM) increases bilateral linkages in Brazilian-U.S. relations within the framework of the international relations theory of complex interdependence; The thesis's central theme is that SIVAM might benefit U.S. national security interests in Latin America, especially in counter-drug operations. For example, an opportunity for greater cooperation between the...

  8. Diet, sleep and metabolic syndrome among a legal Amazon population, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Poliana Rodrigues; Ferrari, Graziele Souza Lira; Ferrari, Carlos K B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome incidence is increasing worldwide then it is important to study the possible risk and protective factors. Our previous study suggested an association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to address possible associations between dietary lifestyle factors with metabolic syndrome. In a case-control study we compared 74 metabolic syndrome patients with 176-matched controls attended at a public health central unit. Incident cases diagnosed according to ATP III criteria were matched with control group composed of healthy subjects performing routine examinations. Having lower educational level compared to highest levels tend to increase metabolic syndrome prevalence, which was not statistically significant. Similar pattern was observed for marital status. No difference was found regarding gender and metabolic syndrome odds. Interestingly, daily drinking two to three cups of coffee (OR=0.0646, 95% CI, 0.0139-0.3005, p=0.0005) or until 2 cups of milk were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome odds (OR=0.5368, 95% CI, 0.3139-0.9181, p=0.0231). Sleeping seven to eight hours per night was also associated with decreased odds of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.0789, 95% CI, 0.0396-0.1570, pchocolate was also associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.3475, 95%CI, 0.1865-0.6414, p=0.0009). Adequate sleeping and dietary intake of some foods materially decreased the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25713791

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  10. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  11. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  12. Morphological and molecular identification of ticks infesting Boa constrictor (Squamata, Boidae in Manaus (Central Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa Fiorini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites.

  13. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  14. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  15. The biomass burning aerosol influence on precipitation over the Central Amazon: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the aerosol influence on clouds and precipitation is an important key to reduce uncertainties in simulations of climate change scenarios with regards to deforestation fires. Here, we associate rainfall characteristics obtained by an S-Band radar in the Amazon with in situ measurements of biomass burning aerosols for the entire year of 2009. The most important results were obtained during the dry semester (July–December. The results indicate that the aerosol influence on precipitating systems is modulated by the atmospheric instability degree. For stable atmospheres, the higher the aerosol concentration, the lower the precipitation over the region. On the other hand, for unstable cases, higher concentrations of particulate material are associated with more precipitation, elevated presence of ice and larger rain cells, which suggests an association with long lived systems. The results presented were statistically significant. However, due to the limitation imposed by the dataset used, some important features such as wet scavenging and droplet size distribution need further clarification. Regional climate model simulations in addition with new field campaigns could aggregate information to the aerosol/precipitation relationship.

  16. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  17. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  18. Emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from soils of native and exotic ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E A; Bustamante, M M; de Siqueira Pinto, A

    2001-11-21

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these soil emissions of N oxide gases. The five published estimates for annual emissions of N2O from soils of mature Amazonian forests are remarkably consistent, ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 2.0 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Estimates of annual emissions of NO from Amazonian forests are also remarkably similar, ranging from 1.4 to 1.7 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 1.5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Although a doubling or tripling of N2O has been observed in some young (cattle pastures relative to mature forests, most Amazonian pastures have lower emissions than the forests that they replace, indicating that forest-to-pasture conversion has, on balance, probably reduced regional emissions slightly (Amazon region, far too few data exist for the Cerrado region to assess the impact of land use changes on N oxide emissions. PMID:12805795

  19. A new species of Lycengraulis Günther, 1868 (Clupeiformes: Engraulinae) from the Amazon basin, Brazil, with comments on Lycengraulis batesii (Günther, 1868).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Marina Vianna; Alcântara, Ayda Vera

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Lycengraulis from the Amazon basin is described. Lycengraulis figueiredoi can be distinguished from L. grossidens by a short upper maxilla, its posterior margin not reaching the lower maxilla joint (vs. upper maxilla longer, its posterior margin reaching to or a little past of mandible joint). Lycengraulis figueiredoi can be distinguished also from L. poeyi by 26 to 31 anal-fin rays (vs. 21 to 23 anal-fin rays) and by 44 to 46 vertebrae (vs. 42 vertebrae), and from L. batesii by having the anal-fin origin at vertical through base of second to fifth dorsal-fin ray (vs. anal-fin origin at vertical through base of sixth to 10th dorsal-fin ray) and by 17-21 gill rakers on the lower branch of first gill arch (vs. 12-15 gill rakers on the lower branch of first gill arch). The new species occurs in the rio Purus, Negro, Trombetas and Solimões, in the Amazon basin, Brazil.

  20. Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the gills of Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) in the Guamá River, Amazon Delta, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Marly de Fátima Carvalho; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2012-06-01

    Sciadicleithrum juruparii n. sp. is described from the gills of the Neotropical cichlid fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel) caught in the Guamá River, in the delta of the Amazon River, at Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new species are a basally articulated male copulatory organ with clockwise coils and an accessory piece; a ventral bar with a median process; similar hooklets; vagina in the form of a sclerotised tube; and a sinistral vaginal aperture with a sclerotised papilla lying in a small surface depression. It is the only species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1989 with a medial projection on the ventral bar. PMID:22581249

  1. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  2. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: Implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lima Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Abril Abril, Gwenaël; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the effects of hydrodynamical variations on the distributions and sources of branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs and isoGDGTs, respectively) transported by the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin. Particulate suspended matter was collected in the Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes at four different seasons (rising water, high water, falling water, and low water) at 6 stations along the main stem of the Amazon River, 3 tributaries (Negro, Madeira, and Tapajós) and 5 floodplain lakes (Manacapuru, Janauacá, Mirituba, Canaçari and Curuai). The concentration and distribution of brGDGTs of both core lipid (CL) and intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived fractions were investigated applying IPL-derived brGDGTs as an indicator of brGDGTs derived from recently-living cells. The organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of CL brGDGTs mimicked the trend of the hydrological variation with highest concentrations during the high water season. The CL brGDGT distributions were most alike those of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils during the high water season, indicating that input of soil-derived, allochthonous brGDGTs to the Amazon River was highest at that period. Accordingly, the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) varied corresponding to the hydrological changes, with the increasing influence of in situ produced brGDGTs in rivers and floodplain lakes during the low water season. The concentrations of CL crenarchaeol were highest during the low water season, due to increased autochthonous production. The concentration changes of both brGDGTs and crenarchaeol lead to a variation of the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index between 0.4 (low water) and 0.9 (high water). Hence, our study hints at the effect of hydrodynamical variations on the source of brGDGTs and isoGDGTs transported by rivers to the ocean and emphasized the importance of a detailed

  3. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  4. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae in Central-West Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  5. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  6. Detection of the VP6 gene of group F and G rotaviruses in broiler chicken fecal samples from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Joana D P; Bezerra, Delana A M; Silva, René R; Silva, Mayara J M; Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa; Soares, Luana S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to detect rotavirus F (RVF) and rotavirus G (RVG) in fecal specimens of broiler chickens in Brazil. During 2008 and 2011, a total of 85 fecal samples were collected. The viral genome was extracted, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nucleotide sequencing. Samples were screened for rotaviruses by PAGE, and RVF and RVG genome banding patterns were not seen. Using RT-PCR, it was found that 9.4 % (8/85) of the pools contained RVF, whereas 10.6 % (9/85) contained RVG. The predicted amino acid sequences of RVF and RVG from Brazilian samples were 94.4-95.7 % and 96.8-96.9 % identical, respectively, to those of prototypes from Germany. The detection of RVF and RVG in this study provides important epidemiological data about the simultaneous circulation of rotaviruses affecting broiler flocks in the Amazon region of Brazil. PMID:27154557

  7. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

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    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  8. Estimation of dry mass of caddisflies Phylloicus elektoros (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae in a Central Amazon stream

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    Renato T. Martins

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic invertebrate biomass estimations are often important in ecological and biological studies. Biomass may be determined by regression models between body and case dimensions and dry mass. Using linear, exponential and power regressions we analyzed the relationship between body and case dimensions and the biomass of Phylloicus elektoros Prather, 2003. Furthermore, we used cross-validation to evaluate the predictions of our models and of the models developed for Phylloicus sp. from southeastern Brazil. We measured four body dimensions (head capsule width, interocular distance, body and pronotum length of 152 larvae and two case dimensions (width and length of 45 cases. Case width provided better fit with biomass than case length in all model classes. Body length provided the best biomass prediction. Biomass predictions using models proposed in the literature were 75% lower than the observed values. The power model provided the best fit between body and case dimensions with biomass. However, exponential models also provided good biomass estimates. We observed a close fit between body and case dimensions and biomass, but the predictive power of the models was low (~40%. The predictive power of models proposed in the literature was much worse than those built from local data and thus we do not recommend their use to predict the biomass of organisms from different regions.

  9. Clinical trial of two antivenoms for the treatment of Bothrops and Lachesis bites in the north eastern Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Souza, Suzana Medeiro; Monteiro, Maria Rita de Cássia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; França, Francisco Oscar Siqueira; Tomy, Sandra Corrallo; Sano-Martins, Ida S; de Sousa-e-Silva, Maria Cristina Cirillo; Colombini, Mônica; Kodera, Nancy F; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Diva Ferreira; Velarde, David Toledo; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, Robert David; Warrell, David A

    2004-01-01

    The efficacies of specific Bothrops atrox-Lachesis and standard Bothrops-Lachesis antivenoms were compared in the north eastern Amazon region of Brazil. The main aim was to investigate whether a specific antivenom raised against the venom of B. atrox, the most important Amazon snake species from a medical point of view, was necessary for the treatment of patients in this region. Seventy-four patients with local and systemic effects of envenoming by Bothrops or Lachesis snakes were randomly allocated to receive either specific (n = 38) or standard (n = 36) antivenoms. In 46 cases (24 in the standard antivenom group, 22 in the other) the snake was identified either by enzyme immunoassay or by examination of the dead snake, as B. atrox in 45, L. muta in one. Patients were similar in all clinical and epidemiological respects before treatment. Results indicated that both antivenoms were equally effective in reversing all signs of envenoming detected both clinically and in the laboratory. Venom-induced haemostatic abnormalities were resolved within 24 h after the start of antivenom therapy in most patients. The extent of local complications, such as local skin necrosis and secondary infection, was similar in both groups. There were no deaths. The incidence of early anaphylactic reactions was 18% and 19%, respectively for specific and standard antivenoms; none was life-threatening. Measurement of serum venom concentrations by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) confirmed that both antivenoms cleared venom antigenaemia effectively. EIA also revealed that one patient had been bitten by Lachesis muta, although the clinical features in this case were not distinctive. PMID:14702836

  10. Conidiobolus macrosporus (Entomophthorales), a mosquito pathogen in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new fungal pathogen of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) adults, Conidiobolus macrosporus (Ancylistaceae), was detected and isolated during a survey of mosquito pathogens close to the city of Aruanã, Goiás State of Brazil, in December 2014. The morphological characteristics of C. macrosporus are pres...

  11. Leaf traits and gas exchange in saplings of native tree species in the Central Amazon Características foliares e trocas gasosas em arvoretas de espécies nativas da Amazônia Central

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    Keila Rego Mendes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict changes on the length of the dry season in the Amazon which may affect tree physiology. The aims of this work were to determine the effect of the rainfall regime and fraction of sky visible (FSV at the forest understory on leaf traits and gas exchange of ten rainforest tree species in the Central Amazon, Brazil. We also examined the relationship between specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, and leaf nitrogen content on photosynthetic parameters. Data were collected in January (rainy season and August (dry season of 2008. A diurnal pattern was observed for light saturated photosynthesis (Amax and stomatal conductance (g s, and irrespective of species, Amax was lower in the dry season. However, no effect of the rainfall regime was observed on g s nor on the photosynthetic capacity (Apot, measured at saturating [CO2]. Apot and leaf thickness increased with FSV, the converse was true for the FSV-SLA relationship. Also, a positive relationship was observed between Apot per unit leaf area and leaf nitrogen content, and between Apot per unit mass and SLA. Although the rainfall regime only slightly affects soil moisture, photosynthetic traits seem to be responsive to rainfall-related environmental factors, which eventually lead to an effect on Amax. Finally, we report that little variation in FSV seems to affect leaf physiology (Apot and leaf anatomy (leaf thickness.Os modelos climáticos globais prevêem mudanças na extensão da época seca na Amazônia, o que pode afetar a fisiologia das árvores. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o efeito da sazonalidade da precipitação e fração de céu visível (FSV no sub-bosque da floresta nas características foliares e trocas gasosas de 10 espécies florestais da Amazônia Central. Também examinou-se a relação entre área foliar específica (SLA, espessura da folha (LT e nitrogênio foliar em parâmetros fotossintéticos. Os resultados foram coletados nos

  12. Determinação de idade e crescimento do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus na Amazônia Central Age and growth of mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus in the Central Amazon

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    Leocy Cutrim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa contribuir para a conservação e manejo do mapará (Hypophthalmus marginatus, um importante recurso pesqueiro de exportação do Amazonas para o qual é necessário conhecer informações essenciais de sua dinâmica de populações. Para contribuir à esta finalidade, o presente trabalho estabeleceu como objetivo identificar o par de otólito mais adequado para leitura de anéis etários, determinar os parâmetros de crescimento do mapará (H. marginatus, Amazônia Central, Amazonas - Brasil. O trabalho foi efetuado através da análise de otólitos coletados no período de dezembro de 1996 á agosto de 1997. Os otólitos escolhidos foram os asteriscus, sendo a leitura efetuada em lupa estereoscópica com monitor acoplado. As marcas de crescimento foram validadas por meio da análise do incremento marginal relativo, sendo encontrado dois anéis/ano. Os valores estimados para os parâmetros no período foram L¥ = 52,63 cm; k = 0,555 ano; to = -0,029 e M = 0,552. O ciclo hidrológico e comportamento reprodutivo estão relacionados com a marcação de anéis etários.The present work seeks to contribute for the conservation and management of the mapará(Hypophthalmus marginatus, an important export fishing resource of Amazonas for which is necessary to know essential information of its population dynamics. To contribute to this purpose, the present work established as objective to identify a structure for reading of age rings, to determine the parameters of growth of the mapará (H. marginatus, Central Amazon, Amazonas - Brazil. The work was made through the otoliths analysis collected in the period of December of 1996 to August of 1997. The otolith chosen for reading was the asteriscus, being the reading made in a stereomicroscope with coupled monitor. The mark structures were validated by means of the analysis of the relative marginal increment, being found two rings. The values estimated for the parameters in the

  13. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  14. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  15. A new "Bat-Voiced" species of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Victor G D; Peloso, Pedro L V; Sturaro, Marcelo J; Da Silva-Filho, Heriberto F; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Faivovich, Julián; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-11-06

    We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.).

  16. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, some new data have brought light on the Hg cycle in the Amazon. Roulet et al (1998 and 1999) found high natural Hg contents in soils and showed that soil erosion, due to agriculture and other human activities, had increased the Hg burdens in aquatic systems. They also showed that, surprisingly, the activity of goldminers on many upstream affluents of the Tapajos river did not result in downstream gradients in dissolved or particulate Hg. Our own data (Malm et al, 1995, 1997) from long term surveys show little or no reduction in fish or human hair Hg levels in different water basins, despite a 3 to 10-fold decrease in goldmining activities since 1990. Regardless of the on-going debate on the relative magnitude of natural and man-made Hg sources in the Amazon, Hg is being transported and increasingly accumulated in productive lakes and floodplains in all the Amazon basin, leading riverine populations to unsafe Hg exposure levels. This Hg transport is done mainly in the particulate form, and the floating vegetation is a very efficient particle trap, besides providing support to an abundant periphyton, features that favor MeHg formation and bio-availability. A high Hg methylation potential in macrophytes is relevant for many reasons. This characteristic tropical aquatic vegetation produces highly bioavailable MeHg, because of its high standing stock (1 kg dw. m-2, Sioli, 1986) in direct contact with the water column and very high relative area. Because the root zone of these floating aquatic plants is densely populated by a varied fauna of invertebrates and fish and represents an essential carbon source for aquatic food chains, it may constitute a major pathway of MeHg uptake into tropical aquatic food webs. In contrast, the production of MeHg in surface sediments is ∼30 times lower than in macrophyte roots, its bioavailability is probably limited, as well as the sediment-water flux of MeHg. Moreover, the role of floating meadows as important

  17. Studies of palaeovegetation changes in the Central Amazon by carbon isotopes (12C, 13C, 14C) of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents carbon isotope data δ13C and 14C on soil organic matter collected along an ecosystem transect in southern Amazon state, north-central Amazon region, that includes three distinct vegetation communities: savannah (Campos de Humaita), a savannah-forest transition and forest (Manaus). The study sites are located along road BR 319. Botanical identification and 13C analysis of modern vegetation in the savannah and forest sites indicate that most of the vegetation is C3 plants, although a few C4 plants are present at Campos de Humaita. The 13C and 14C data for soil organic matter in the Humaita region show that significant vegetation changes have occurred in the past, probably associated with climatic changes. During the early Holocene, forest vegetation extended throughout the study region, including areas occupied today by savannah vegetation. Savannah vegetation expanded at least 2 km into the modern forest ecotone during the middle Holocene, suggesting drier conditions. The last approximately 1000 years appear to indicate a recent expansion of forest vegetation, reflecting a return to a more moist climate. The study illustrates that the transition area between forest and savannah vegetation is quite sensitive to climatic changes, and this region should be the focus of more extensive research related to past climate and vegetation dynamics in the Amazon region. (author)

  18. Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain

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    Bernard de Mérona

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets of most of fish species inhabiting a floodplain lake in central Amazonia were studied over a two years and half period. Based on the percentage of relative occurrence of 11 major food categories a classification of species in 11 feeding guilds is proposed. Many species were found to be specialized feeders. Fish, detritus and insects were the most important food resources supporting the fish community in both seasons, but the proportions of fruits, invertebrates and fish were reduced during the low water season. At the community level mean diet overlap between species was low, suggesting efficient resource partitioning within the community. However mean overlap between unspecialized feeders was high. Based on the 23 most abundant species belonging to the different feeding guilds, there was no difference in mean overlap between seasons. Whereas individual species exhibited diet changes between high water and low water seasons, there was no general pattern of seasonal change within feeding guilds.Os regimes alimentares da maioria das espécies de peixes de um lago de várzea da Amazônia central foram estudados durante dois anos e meio. Baseada nas percentagens de ocorrência relativa de 11 maiores categorias alimentares, uma classificação das espécies em 11 guildas alimentares é proposta. Muitas espécies foram consideradas especializadas em relação aos seus comportamentos alimentares. Peixes, detritos e insetos foram os recursos alimentares mais importantes ao longo do ano, mas as proporções relativas de frutos, invertebrados e peixes foram reduzidas durante a época de águas baixas. A nível de comunidade a sobreposição média entre espécies foi baixa, sugerindo uma partição eficiente dos recursos alimentares. Entretanto, para espécies não especializadas, os valores de sobreposição foram elevados. Baseado em 23 espécies abundantes, pertencentes a diferentes guildas alimentares, não foi observada diferença na sobreposi

  19. Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae in central Brazil

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    Priscila Canesqui da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia in central Brazil. Fig trees present a diverse interaction with different groups of organisms. The inflorescence, or syconium, has characteristics that form a microenvironment in which interactions occur between fig trees and invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the insect fauna associated with the figs of Ficus citrifolia and to quantitatively describe the distribution pattern of the insects in the syconium, in an urban area in central Brazil. The syconia were used by 12 species of insects. Our results showed that the insects found on Ficus citrifolia presented a pattern of occurrence that depends on the composition of species found within each syconium.

  20. First Medicolegal Forensic Entomology Case of Central Amazon: A Suicide by Hanging with Incomplete Suspension

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    Eduardo Souza

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Este relato descreve o primeiro caso de entomologia forense médico-legal na Amazônia Central. Um suicídio por enforcamento ocorrido em um platô de “terra firme” em floresta primária. A estimativa de intervalo pós-morte foi calculada com base na biologia da mosca varejeira Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e também pelo padrão de sucessão ecológica do besouro silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm. Este é o primeiro caso onde as informações ecológicas de um besouro foram usadas como indicador forense no Brasil. Estudos preliminares realizados em área urbana na cidade de Manaus e em hábitat semelhante em floresta primária, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, próximo do local onde o caso ocorreu, foram fundamentais para ajudar para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte.

  1. Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins. Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil

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    Ebert A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm. Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm. Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.

  2. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Machado, L.A. T.; Manzi, A.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, Henrique; Fan, Jiwen; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Poschl, U.; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-19

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as Introduction to the GoAmazon2014/5 Special Issue, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the two- year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  3. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  4. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  5. Evaluation of paleovegetation changes in the northwest part of the Amazon region, Brazil: a carbon isotope approach in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Numerous studies have focused on the understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the amazon region and its realtion to climate. The research approaches in these studies have involved the use of biological, geomorphologic and botanical tools, (1,2). Our approach involves the use of 13 and 14 C analyses in soil organic mater t infer past vegeation changes in the Amazon region (3). This is based on the distinct composition that characterize the C3 and C4 plants, that formed the different vegetation communities that exist in the Amazon region. 14 C used as a dating tool. This paper present data in soils collected in the Rondonia State, located in the northwestern part of the Amazon region. The soils were collected along a transect that include four distinct vegetation communities, ranging from a Cerrado type vegetation (southern part), dominated by C4 grasses, to a tropical forest (northern part). The soils types are Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo at the Cerrado, Cerrado-transition and forest-transition sites, and Podzolico Vermelho amarelo at the forest site. 14 C data obtained in total soil organic matter, humin fraction and charcoal indicate that the organic matterin these soils is at least Holocene in age. The forest and the forest-transition sites area characterized by typical δ 13 C profiles (-29 to -24 0/00), indicating the predominance of C3 plants during the past in this region. The Cerrado-transition sites show a significant change in δ 13 C from -27.5 0/00 at the surface to -19 0/00 at 30 cm. This value changed toward more depleted δ 13 C values at the 90-100 cm depth interval, reaching a value of -30 0/00 at 190-200 cm depth interval. This trend has to be associated to a change from a forest type vegetation (190-200 cm to 130-140 cm), to a vegetation community with a mayor influence of C4 palnts recorded i the interval between 110-120 to 20-23 cm depth. The δ 13 C values at the Cerrado sites are the more enriched ones observed in this study

  6. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  7. A possible correlation between the host genetic background in the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    A. K. C. R. Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region of Brazil is an area of great interest because of the large distribution of hepatitis B virus in specific Western areas. Seven urban communities and 24 Indian groups were visited in a total of 4,244 persons. Each individual was interviewed in order to obtain demographic and familial information. Whole blood was collected for serology and genetic determinations. Eleven genetic markers and three HBV markers were tested. Among the most relevant results it was possible to show that (i there was a large variation of previous exposure to HBV in both urban and non-urban groups ranging from 0 to 59.2%; (ii there was a different pattern of epidemiological distribution of HBV that was present even among a same linguistic Indian group, with mixed patterns of correlation between HBsAg and anti-HBs and (iii the prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg and anti-HBs were significantly higher (P=0.0001 among the Indian population (18.8% than the urban groups (12.5%. Its possible that the host genetic background could influence and modulate the replication of the virus in order to generate HB carrier state.

  8. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

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    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  9. Evaluation of monotonic trends for streamflow in austral Amazon, Brazil: a case study for the Xingu and Tapajós rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L. Z.

    2015-06-01

    This paper has the goal of evaluating monotonic trends in the Xingu and Tapajós river basins in the Austral Amazon region, Brazil. Non-parametric statistical tests such as Mann-Kendall, Bootstrap Mann-Kendall, Sen and Bootstrap Sen are applied on streamflow gauging stations data, to determine the significance and magnitude of possible trends. Data in these river basins is relatively scarce, with time series ranging from twenty to forty years, having many gaps. Former studies indicate a decreasing trend for both annual average and minimum streamflow values in the Tapajós river basin, with 99% confidence level, and a decrease in maximum values in the Xingu river basin, with 90% confidence level. However, past analyses have only used one station near the basin outlet. This study uses data from 7 gauging stations in the Xingu basin and 14 stations in the Tapajós basin. Results indicate opposite trends at the 95% confidence level for different regions in the basins, and for different flow regimes. For the Xingu river basin, trends in the minimum flow for different sub-basins even out at the Altamira station, near its outlet. For the Tapajós river, the southeastern part of the basin has increasing trends, while the southwestern part decreases. At the Itaituba station, they also balance out.

  10. Merging plot and Landsata data to estimate the frequency distribution of Central Amazon mortality event size for landscape-scale ecosystem simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    Mitigation strategies and estimates of land use change emissions assume initial states of landscapes that respond to prescribed scenarios. The Amazon basin is a target for both mitigation (e.g. maintenance of old-growth forest) and land use change (e.g. agriculture), but the current states of its old-growth and secondary forest landscapes are uncertain with respect to carbon cycling. Contributing to this uncertainty in old-growth forest ecosystems is a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the areal fraction of any particular stage relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Old-growth mosaics are generally created through ongoing effects of tree mortality, with the Central Amazon mosaic generated primarily by wind mortality. Unfortunately, estimation of generalizable frequency distributions of mortality event size has been hindered by limited spatial and temporal scales of observations. To overcome these limitations we merge field and remotely sensed tree mortality data and fit the top two candidate distributions (power law and exponential) to these data to determine the most appropriate statistical mortality model for use in landscape-scale ecosystem simulations. Our results show that the power law model better represents the distribution of mortality event size than the exponential model. We also use an individual-tree-based forest stand model to simulate a 100 ha landscape using the best fit of each candidate distribution to demonstrate the effects of different mortality regimes on above ground biomass in the Central Amazon forest mosaic. We conclude that the correct mortality distribution model is critical for robust simulation of patch succession dynamics and above ground biomass.

  11. First report of Leptolegnia chapmanii (Peronosporomycetes: Saprolegniales) affecting mosquitoes in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous isolates of an oomycete ‘fungus’, Leptolegnia chapmanii, are reported from Brazil for the first time. This aquatic pathogen was baited with Aedes aegypti sentinel larvae from stagnant, temporary bodies of water in selected locations under secondary tropical forests in and near the central B...

  12. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  13. THE LBA PROJECT: NUTRIENT CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE IN SAVANNAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cerrado of central Brazil is one of the largest savannah regions on Earth. The stressors affecting ecosystems in this region, including deforestation, fire, soil degradation, unwise agricultural practices, climate change, and urbanization, are all experienced in many U. S. ec...

  14. Observations on the ecology of Pseudis bolbodactyla (Anura, Pseudidae in central Brazil.

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    Reuber A. Brandão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on diet, activity, habitat use, and anti-predator behavior are presented for a population of Pseudis bolbodactyla in central Brazil. The most common diet items were diurnal plant-associated insects. Pseudis bolbodactyla shows both diurnal and nocturnal activity and uses mainly areas with aquatic vegetation (submerged and emergent. Individuals detect predators Visually and through vibrations in the water.

  15. Farm Ownership, Political Participation, and Other Social Participation in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Es, J. C.; Whittenbarger, Robert L.

    This study investigates the relationship between land ownership and social and political participation. A sociological thesis holding that land ownership is the basis of social class distinction and, more importantly, widespread differences in economic and political power is tested in a case study of some 300 farmers in Central Brazil. Findings…

  16. Uncovering spatial patterns in the natural and human history of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) across the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Thomas; C. Alcázar Caicedo; C.H. McMichael; R. Corvera; J. Loo

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our goal was to test the hypothesis that ancient humans substantially contributed to shaping the current distribution of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an Amazonian tree species that has been important for human livelihoods since pre-Columbian times. We scrutinized the putative association b

  17. Swine manure application effects on ammonia volatilization, forage quality, and yield in the Pre-Amazon Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of swine manure as a nutrient source for pastures is increasingly common in Brazil, due to its low cost. However, this practice can cause nitrogen (N) losses in agricultural soil, where ammonia volatilization may be the main drawback, generating undesirable economic and environmental consequ...

  18. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as ...

  19. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  20. Increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype C in Inland Central Western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Keila Correia; Reis, Monica Nogueira Guarda; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Bello, Gonzalo; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2013-03-01

    The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Brazil is complex and heterogeneous because several subtypes co-circulate with some important regional differences. This study evaluated HIV-1 subtypes amongst pregnant women living in the metropolitan area and in the interior cities from central western Brazil. From June 2008 to June 2010, 86.9% of confirmed cases of HIV-1 infection amongst pregnant women (172 out of 198 cases) were recruited in Goiania/Goias state. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced after nested-PCR. HIV-1 subtypes were assigned by REGA, phylogenetic, and bootscan analyses. The median age of participants was 26 years (15-41 years range); 58.7% of participants were diagnosed during prenatal care and 51.7% of participants came from >50 interior cities within Goias state. Amongst the 131 HIV-1 pol sequences, 64.9% were subtype B, 13.0% were BF1 recombinant, 11.4% were subtype C, 7.6% were subtype F1, and 2.3% were BC recombinant. According to the HIV-1 diagnosis date (1994-2010), a significant increase in subtype C and a decrease of BF1 mosaics were observed over time. All subtype C patients lived in interior cities where the highest prevalence of subtype C outside southern Brazil was observed (18.4%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple independent introductions of the Brazilian subtype C clade from the southern/southeastern regions of Brazil. The HIV-1 epidemic in women from central western Brazil infected by the heterosexual route is characterized by an unexpectedly high prevalence of subtype C viruses highly related to those circulating in southern/southeastern Brazil. These findings highlight the importance of molecular surveillance programs outside large metropolitan regions in Brazil.

  1. Description of Muscotabanus gen. nov. and Muscotabanus rafaeli sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini from Amazon Basin, Brazil

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    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Tabanidae mimetic of flies is described: Muscotabanus new genus, Muscotabanus rafaeli new species, based on 12 females collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It is presented a discussion for separating the new genus from Diachlorini species which resemblance with sarcophagids flies. It is characterised by striped thorax, banded abdomen, long slender palpus subequal antenna length, labella predominantly membranous, except for a narrow sclerotised plate, basicosta bare, wing hyaline and stigma brown.

  2. Composition, structure and floristic diversity in dense rain forest in the Eastern Amazon, Amapá, Brazil

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    Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytosociology and floristic composition of tree species in the eastern Amazon, at the Iratapuru River Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS, State of Amapá. Fouteen quarters with dimensions of 100 m x 100 m were randomly inventoried, and 50 sub-plots of 10 m x 20 m were established. In each sub-plot all living individuals were sampled, being taken from the height data and DAP (breast height diameter for tree species ≥ 10 cm. A total of 5,233 individuals belonging to 33 families and 184 species were registered. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (32, Lauraceae (17, Sapotaceae (12, Moraceae (10, Lecythidaceae (8 and Annonaceae (8. The six most abundant families (18.18% of total families in the present study were responsible for more than half (57.92% of the total number of species. The floristic structure of the area studied was diverse, with species of varied interests, including: medicinal, timber and oil-producing.

  3. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revêem os aspectos ecoepidemiológicos apresentados pelos virus da encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites equinas Leste (EEE, Oeste (WEE e Venezuelana [subtipos III, Mucambo (MUC e IV, Pixuna (PIX], decorrentes dos estudos realizados em diversas áreas da Região Amazônica brasileira, especialmente ao longo das rodovias e projetos de desenvolvimento. Esses vírus são amplamente distribuídos na Amazônia e pelo menos quatro deles, EEE, WEE, MUC e SLE já demonstraram ser patógenos do homem. O diagnóstico da doença humana foi feito por sorologia, sendo que de MUC e SLE obteve-se também isolamento viral. O vírus PIX, parece ser o menos prevalente e foi isolado em poucas oportunidades. Virtualmente se desconhecem os vetores do PIX e WEE. As aves silvestres constituem os hospedeiros principais de todos esses vírus, exceto do MUC, para o qual constituem os roedores. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes infectados na Amazônia é discutido, comparando-o ao apresentado em outras áreas, especialmente nos EUA, onde periodicamente SLE, EEE e WEE causam surtos de doença humana. Nenhuma epidemia foi até o presente detectada, embora em 1960 uma epizootia em eqüinos causada pelo EEE tenha sido registrada em Bragança, Pará, onde em um rebanho de 500 animais ocorreu uma letalidade de 5%. Quatro outras pequenas epizootias determinadas pelo SLE ocorreram nas florestas adjacentes a Belém, envolvendo aves silvestres e animais sentinelas.An overview of ecological, epidemiological and clinical findings of potential arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses circulating in the Amazon Region of Brazil are discussed. These viruses are the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE, Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE, St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE, Mucambo (MUC and Pixuna (PIX. These last two are subtypes (HI and IV of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. The areas of study were the highways and projects of development, as well as places where

  4. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  5. Selection objectives and criteria for sheep in Central Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three production systems for sheep (Low - L, Medium - M and High - H technology, with increasing technological levels, were studied under conditions in the Center-west of Brazil, to determine economic weights and selection indices of important traits. Receipts and costs were simulated using an economic simulator to calculate the structure of the operational costs. Only characteristics that were responsible for more than 10% of the profit were studied, which included: number of weaned lambs, food consumption (ewe and lamb, weight of carcass and weight of female lambs sold for reproduction. Regardless of the index used (profitability or yield or system (L, M or H, the economic weights are larger for the number of lambs weaned per ewe. With improvement in the technology used within the production system (H to L the importance of this trait becomes less important. Lamb growth increased and weight of female for slaughter decreased in importance in higher technology systems. Changes in herd structure had little influence on economic values, whereas (covariances were important sources of change in selection indices.

  6. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  7. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  8. Leprosy Reactions in Patients Coinfected with HIV: Clinical Aspects and Outcomes in Two Comparative Cohorts in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; Jucá Neto, Fernando Octávio Machado; de Albuquerque, Nahima Castelo; Macedo, Geraldo Mariano Moraes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    Background Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, can lead to scarring and deformities. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a lymphotropic virus with high rates of replication, leads to cell death in various stages of infection. These diseases have major social and quality of life costs, and although the relevance of their comorbidity is recognized, several aspects are still not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cohorts of patients with leprosy in an endemic region of the Amazon were observed. We compared 40 patients with leprosy and HIV (Group 1) and 107 leprosy patients with no comorbidity (Group 2) for a minimum of 2 years. Group 1 predominantly experienced the paucibacillary classification, accounting for 70% of cases, whereas Group 2 primarily experienced the multibacillary classification (80.4% of cases). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of leprosy reactions among the two groups (37.5% for Group 1 vs. 56.1% for Group 2), and the most frequent reaction was Type 1. The appearance of Group 1 patients’ reversal reaction skin lesions was consistent with each clinical form: typically erythematous and infiltrated, with similar progression as those patients without HIV, which responded to prednisone. Patients in both groups primarily experienced a single episode (73.3% in Group 1 and 75% in Group 2), and Group 1 had shorter reaction periods (≤3 months; 93.3%), moderate severity (80%), with 93.3% of the patients in the state of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 46.7% presenting the reaction at the time of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusions/Significance This study used a large sample and makes a significant contribution to the clinical outcomes of patients in the reactive state with comorbid HIV and leprosy. The data indicate that these diseases, although concurrent, have independent courses. PMID:26029928

  9. Evaluation of sustainability in the use of water within the Amazon deforestation area: a case study in Rondon do Pará, Pará State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13820

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto da Gama Rego; Lindemberg Lima Fernandes; Claudio Jose Cavalcante Blanco; Ana Rosa Baganha Barp

    2013-01-01

    The use of water in a hydrographic basin within the Amazon deforestation area is evaluated as a case study for the municipality of Rondon do Pará, State of Pará, Brazil. Current investigation takes into account the hydrographic basin as a system, following the Pressure/State/Response concept model, and aims at an analysis of the system’s sustainability. Results show that the use of water within the context of the system under analysis tends towards non-sustainability. Economic growth, especia...

  10. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) na região amazônica, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scofield; Rafaelle Cunha dos Santos; Nadino Carvalho; Áurea Linhares Martins; Gustavo Góes-Cavalcante

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen ...

  11. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949–54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9–17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies. (paper)

  12. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate residues in the midgut of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) from colony and field populations from Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Davi Marcos Souza; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; de Sena, Chubert Bernardo Castro; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Thiago; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Silva, Edilene Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis are worldwide diseases that occur in 98 countries including Brazil, transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomines during blood feeding. In Brazil it is known that some species of sand flies as Lutzomyia longipalpis sensun latum (vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Lutzomyia antunesi [suspected vector of Leishmania (Viannia) lindenbergi] are incriminated of transmitting the parasite Leishmania for the vertebrate host. The phlebotomine-parasite is mediated by the attachment of the promastigote lipophosphoglycan (LPG) to the midgut epithelium. However, another mechanism that is LPG-independent and mediated by N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) seems to occur in some species of phlebotomines that are classified as permissive. The aim of this study was to characterize the carbohydrate residues that, probably, play a role in parasite attachment to the midgut of phlebotomine from colony and field populations from the Brazilian Amazonian region. We observed the presence of GalNAc, mannose, galactose and GlcNAc in all phlebotomine species. A binding assay between L. (L.) amazonensis and L. i.chagasi to the midguts of different species of phlebotomines was performed. The attachment of both Leishmania and vector species suggests the presence of GalNAc on the midgut surfaces. Thus, these results suggested that GalNAc is a possible binding sites of Leishmania in sand flies from the Brazilian Amazonian region. PMID:27264642

  13. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  14. Prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle and dogs from Western Amazon, Brazil, in association with some possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Cavalcante, Guacyara T; Rodrigues, Aline A R; Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Camargo, Erney P; Gennari, Solange M

    2006-11-30

    For evaluation of the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and its associated risk factors, serum samples from 2109 cattle (11 beef, 50 dairy and 25 mixed farms) and 174 dogs were examined in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. An inquiry was applied in each farm. Sera were examined by the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT) using cut off dilution of 1:25 for cattle and 1:50 for dogs. Statistical association between the serologic status and several variables were analyzed by linear and logistic regression. The overall herd prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies for 86 farms was 72% (61.3-81.2%). Prevalence values were 100, 70 and 64% in beef, dairy and mixed herds, respectively. Herd prevalence in beef herds was significantly different (Pcattle was 8.8%. Prevalence values by animal were similar in different production types (P>0.05), with values of 9.5, 11.2 and 9.7% for beef, dairy or mixed cattle, respectively. Antibodies were found in 12.6% of the 174 examined dogs. Sixteen (22.8%) out of 70 farms with dogs had at least one dog with anti-N. caninum antibodies. The occurrence of antibodies in cattle was statistically associated with farms having more than 25 cows (OR 9.7, 95% IC 2.9-32.2; P=0.0002). There was no significant association between the presence of the dogs, jungle contact or reproductive variables with the occurrence of antibodies in cattle. PMID:16857319

  15. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  16. Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia (Moraceae) in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Canesqui da Costa; Gustavo Graciolli

    2010-01-01

    Insects associated with syconia of Ficus citrifolia in central Brazil. Fig trees present a diverse interaction with different groups of organisms. The inflorescence, or syconium, has characteristics that form a microenvironment in which interactions occur between fig trees and invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the insect fauna associated with the figs of Ficus citrifolia and to quantitatively describe the distribution pattern of the insects in the syconium, in an urban area in centr...

  17. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians.

  18. Decentralization and centralization in a federal system: the case of democratic Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the contradictory impulses towards decentralization and centralization in Brazil during the 1990s and early 2000s. After discussing the analytical issues related to the specific nature of decentralization in federal systems, the paper examines two sets of policy issues: those regulating the fiscal relations between national and sub-national governments and those redefining responsibilities for social services provision (basic education, health care, social assistance. Against conventional academic wisdom, it sustains that although there has been some re-centralization of fiscal decisions and of targeted income transfer programs, a clear re-centralization tendency cannot be siad to exist. Decentralization and centralization trends coexist propelled by different forces, with different motives and different outcomes.

  19. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  20. Modeling Amazon Deforestation for Policy Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Clive W.J.; Lykke E. Andersen

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has long ago removed most of the perverse government incentives that stimulated massive deforestation in the Amazon in the 70s and 80s, but one highly controversial policy remains: Road building. While data is now abundantly available due to the constant satellite surveillance of the Amazon, the analytical methods typically used to analyze the impact of roads on natural vegetation cover are methodologically weak and not very helpful to guide public policy. This paper discusses the resp...

  1. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini; Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Antonio Drauzio Varella; Riad Naim Younes

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon...

  2. Notes on parasitism by Amblyomma humerale (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luís Marcelo A; Terrassini, Flávio A; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Camargo, Erney P

    2002-11-01

    The tick Amblyomma humerale Koch is endemic to South America. All host records refer to the adult stage parasitizing tortoises, mostly yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.), and red-footed tortoise, Geochelone carbonaria (Spix). The current study reports the presence of A. humerale in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. A total of 215 adult ticks (201 males, 14 females) was collected from six G denticulata in an Indian reserve and nine Geochelone sp. in rural Monte Negro County, giving an overall mean infestation of 14.3 +/- 12.0 (range: 2-44) ticks per tortoise. Male ticks always outnumbered females on the host and nine tortoises had only male ticks. Male ticks were mostly attached in clusters on the ventral sides of the carapace near the anterior and posterior margins, and more rarely on the outer margin of the plastron. All females were found attached to the tortoise skin, at different sites such as head, neck, shoulders or legs. Male ticks were rarely observed attached to the body skin. Seven engorged nymphs collected on small vertebrates from Monte Negro County molted to adults of A. humerale. This included one nymph each on the seven-colored lizard, Plica plica (L), green tree climber, Plica umbra (L.), and wide-foraging lizard, Kentropyx calcarata Spix,three nymphs on the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis L., and one nymph on the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus L. These constitute the first host records for the immature stages of the tick A. humerale. PMID:12495177

  3. Avaliação de técnica de tomaticultura em gramado (TEG na amazônia oriental Evaluation of TEG (grassland tomato cropping technique in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon S. Cheng

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o tomateiro é cultivado principalmente em época de baixa precipitação e temperaturas amenas como as regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Centro Oeste. Na Amazônia Oriental, uma região tropical úmida de baixa altitude, com temperatura elevada, a cultura do tomateiro enfrenta muitas dificuldades. A baixa produtividade e a mortalidade das plantas têm reduzido o número de produtores desta hortaliça, com a produção local de tomate inferior a 0,1% do volume comercializado anualmente. A técnica de Tomaticultura Em Gramado (TEG foi concebida em 1997 e aperfeiçoada em 1998, para solucionar os problemas da tomaticultura sob clima quente e chuvoso da Amazônia, usando dois principais mecanismos: 1. Campo gramado para controlar a proliferação de doenças, pragas, plantas invasoras, erosão e lixiviação de nutrientes. 2. Queima de descarte de madeira na área de cultivo para eliminar a grama e reduzir a acidez e pobreza do solo. O presente trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares de tomaticultura sob essa nova técnica, com avaliação de produtividade, ciclo da planta e peso médio do fruto. A nova técnica de cultivo permitiu a produtividade de 5,6 ± 0,2 kg por planta, sendo o período de colheita de 60 a 80 dias. A TEG demonstrou ser uma alternativa promissora para o sistema de produção de tomate na região quente e chuvosa, usando a gramínea como protetora e limpadora do solo.In Brazil, tomatoes are cultivated principally in seasons with low precipitation and cool temperature such as in regions of Southeast, Northeast and Central west. In East Amazon, a humid tropical region of low altitude with high temperature, tomato cropping faces many difficulties. Low yield and plant mortality had reduced the number of tomato growers, with annual local production less than 0.1% of total volume commercialized. The grassland tomato cropping technique (TEG was elaborated in 1997 and improved in 1998 to solve the problems of tomato production

  4. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorneles@biof.ufrj.br; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta [Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul, IBAMA, 88301-700 Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: gibteuthis@yahoo.com.br; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Populacoes Marinhas, UNIRIO, 22290-240 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauloascosta@uol.com.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: azevedo.alex@uol.com.br; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in {mu}g/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 {mu}g/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods.

  5. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in μg/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 μg/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods

  6. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajos River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Dirce Torres Khoury

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p < 0.01. When all subjects were divided in two groups independently of age-mercury-exposed and non-exposed-the following results were found: tactile sensation thresholds in mercury-exposed subjects were higher than in non-exposed subjects at all body parts, except at the left chest; vibration sensation durations were shorter in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects, at all locations except in the upper sternum; two-point discrimination thresholds were higher in mercury-exposed than in non-exposed subjects at all

  7. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; Carneiro, Vilany; Ceron, Joao V.; Gimenez, Bruno O.; Soares, Cilene P.; Durgante, Flavia M.; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio O.; Gonçalves, José F. C.; Garcia, Sabrina; Martin, Scot T.; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Piva, Luani R.; Chambers, Jeff Q.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m-2 s-1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m-2 s-1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0-32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for photosynthesis during high temperature extremes regularly experienced in

  8. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Borges da Silva HEINEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dengue virus (DENV, which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV, which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  9. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the upper rio Tocantins basin in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius A. Bertaco; Fernando C Jerep; Fernando R Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Moenkhausia dasalmas is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros region, Goiás State, Central Brazil. The new species differs from all congeners by the presence of iii,9 rays in the dorsal fin. It can also be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of two humeral spots (first one vertically elongate and second one faint), by the number of branched anal-fin rays (17-19), lateral line scales (36-37), maxillary teeth (4-5), and a vertical dark spot in t...

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis C Virus infection among hemophiliacs in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P Barbosa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the hepatitis C virus (HCV infection prevalence and risk factors in hemophiliacs in Central Brazil, 90 patients were interviewed and serum samples tested for HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies. An overall prevalence of 63.3% (CI 95%: 53.0-72.7 was found. Multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that number of blood transfusions was significantly associated with this infection. Most hemophiliacs received locally produced cryoprecipitate. All infected patients were transfused before the screening of blood units for anti-HCV. However, hemophiliacs who received exclusively screened cryoprecipitate were HCV negative. It confirms the expected decline in transfusion-acquired hepatitis C.

  11. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil occupies an area of about 8.5 million square kilometers -- almost half of the South American continent. The dominant geographic feature is the Amazon basin. The Amazon River and its more than 200 tributaries drain about 60 percent of the country. The basin is a vast tropical rain forest, whereas the remainder of Brazil is made up predominantly of highlands. The Central Highlands, which extends into the Amazon basin, occupies nearly all of southern Brazil and includes major mountain chains such as the Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra do Espinhago. The Guiana Highlands fringe the northern Amazon basin and extend into Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana. Lowland areas other than the Amazon basin are found in western Mato Grosso, and along the Atlantic coast from French Guiana to Uruguay. The geology of Brazil is dominated structurally and areally by three major shields composed of crystalline rocks of Archean and Proterozoic age. Collectively they comprise the Brazilian complex which is probably the largest Precambrian outcrop in the world. The complex is made up of gneisses, granites, mica schists, quartzites, dolomites, skarns, diorites, itabirites and gabbros, many of which are deeply metamorphosed. Faults, quartz veins, and dikes are common. Recurrent granitization has occurred from the Precambrian to Late Tertiary. The area of Brazil is large and its geology is favorable, in places, for every known type of uranium deposit. This is not reflected in the amount of 'known' and 'inferred' reserves -- slightly more than 21,000 tons. Rather, it is an indication of the small amount of exploration done, taking into account the large area to be covered. The speculative potential can only be guessed. It is guessed to be 500,000 tons

  13. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gomes da Rocha; Rahel Sollmann; Emiliano Esterci Ramalho; Renata Ilha; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared ...

  14. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  15. Neutrons, radiation and archaeology: a multi analytical case study of incised rim tradition ceramics in Central Amazon; Neutrons, radiacao e arqueologia: estudo de caso multianalitico de ceramicas da tradicao borda incisa na Amazonia Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz-Marks, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary archaeometric study involving archaeological ceramic material from two large archaeological sites in Central Amazon, namely Lago Grande and Osvaldo, on the confluence region of Negro and Solimoes rivers. It was tested a hypothesis about the existence of an exchange network between the former inhabitants of those sites, focusing on material and/or technological exchange. That hypothesis has implications for archaeological theories of human occupation of the pre-colonial Central Amazon, which try to relativise the role of ecological difficulties of the tropical forest as a limiting factor for the emergence of social complexity in the region. The physical-chemical characterization of potsherds and clay samples near the sites was carried out by: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental chemical composition; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the firing temperature; X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the mineralogical composition; and dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Previous studies showed that Osvaldo and Lago Grande were occupied by people which produced pottery classified in the Manacapuru and Paredao phases, subclasses of the Incised Rim Tradition, around the 5-10th and 7-12th centuries BC, respectively. INAA results were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, whereby two chemical groups of pottery were defined for each archaeological site. Significant variation in firing temperatures and mineralogical composition were not identified for such groups. By integration of the results with archaeological data, the superposition between pairs of chemical groups was interpreted as a correlate of an ancient exchange network, although it was not possible to define if it existed exclusively between Lago Grande and Osvaldo. On the contrary, it was suggested that Lago Grande participated in a more extensive exchange network by comparison of two chemical groups

  16. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil. PMID:19665598

  17. Seed size influence on germination responses to light and temperature of seven pioneer tree species from the Central Amazon

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    Fabiana F. Aud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Amazon secondary forests are dominated by pioneer species that typically produce large amounts of small and dormant seeds that are able to form a persistent soil seed bank. Seed dormancy in this group of species is overcome by environmental conditions found in open areas, such as high irradiation or alternating temperatures. Nevertheless, a variety of germination responses to environmental factors is known among pioneers; some of them may germinate in diffuse light or in darkness condition at constant temperature. Seed mass can be considered as one of the factors that promotes this variety. Regarding species with very small seeds, it seems that the trigger for germination is light and for larger seeds temperature alternation may be a more important stimulus. In this study we established a relationship between seed mass and germination response to light and alternating temperature for a group of seven woody pioneer species from the Amazon forest. We found that an increase in seed mass was followed by a decrease in the need for light and an increase in the tolerance to alternating temperatures. Understanding germination strategies may contribute with the knowledge of species coexistence in high diverse environments and also may assist those involved in forest management and restoration.Na Amazônia as florestas secundárias são dominadas por espécies pioneiras que, normalmente, produzem grandes quantidades de sementes pequenas, dormentes e capazes de formar bancos de sementes no solo. A dormência neste grupo de espécies é superada pelas condições ambientais de áreas abertas, como alta irradiação ou alternância de temperaturas. No entanto, uma variedade de respostas de germinação aos fatores ambientais é conhecida entre as pioneiras; algumas germinam em luz difusa ou no escuro sob temperatura constante. Um dos fatores promotores desta variedade é a massa das sementes. Parece que para as espécies com sementes muito pequenas, o est

  18. Causes of intraplate seismicity in central Brazil from travel time seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Azevedo, Paulo Araújo de; Marotta, Giuliano Sant'Anna; Schimmel, Martin; Fuck, Reinhardt

    2016-06-01

    New results of travel time seismic tomography in central Brazil provide evidence that the relatively high seismicity in this region is related to the thinner lithosphere at the limit between the Amazonian and São Francisco paleocontinents. The transition between these paleocontinents is marked by low velocity anomalies, spatially well correlated with the high seismicity region, which are interpreted as related to the lithospheric thinning and consequent rise of the asthenosphere, which have increased the temperature in this region. The low-velocity anomalies suggest a weakness region, favorable to the build-up of stress. The effective elastic thickness and the strain/stress regime for the study area are in agreement with tomographic results. A high-velocity trend is observed beneath the Parnaíba Basin, where low seismicity is observed, indicating the presence of a cratonic core. Our results support the idea that the intraplate seismicity in central Brazil is related to the thin lithosphere underlying parts of the Tocantins Province between the neighboring large cratonic blocks.

  19. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  20. Evaluation of sustainability in the use of water within the Amazon deforestation area: a case study in Rondon do Pará, Pará State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto da Gama Rego

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of water in a hydrographic basin within the Amazon deforestation area is evaluated as a case study for the municipality of Rondon do Pará, State of Pará, Brazil. Current investigation takes into account the hydrographic basin as a system, following the Pressure/State/Response concept model, and aims at an analysis of the system’s sustainability. Results show that the use of water within the context of the system under analysis tends towards non-sustainability. Economic growth, especially triggered by the expansion of extensive cattle-raising and industrial activities, has worsened the situation. These conditions do not represent local reality since the above-mentioned activities have produced only scanty employment. Further, the municipality is striving with problems concerning the supply of drinking water, deficiency in sewage treatment and especially the deterioration of surface water resources.  

  1. Hot moments of N2O transformation and emission in tropical soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon (Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liengaard, Lars; Figueiredo, Viviane; Markfoged, Rikke;

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetland soils emit large amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), especially following wetting of drained soil. We investigated seasonally drained wetland soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon, both with a natural high nitrate content and low pH. Here we report the effect of wetting...

  2. Petrographic characterization and preliminary geochronologic data from volcanic rocks of the Iriri formation, southern-central portion of the Amazon Craton, Aripuana - Mato Grosso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moriru area is located in the south-central portion of the Amazon Craton, near the border of Mato Grosso and Amazonas states. The research was carried out using eight drill cores, 200 meters deep in average. The description of these drill cores allowed the identification of felsic lavas and pyroclastics inter layered with mafic flows volcanoclastic and sedimentary rocks. Granitic intrusions are completely altered by hydrothermal metamorphism. Later stage dikes were identified. The pyroclastic successions is characterized by ignimbritic rocks generated by pumice flows. The ignimbrites are enriched in pumice and phenocrysts and are classified as crystal enriched ignimbrite. The content of fine particles is low and the welding grade ranges from good to medium. The composition of ignimbrites is rhyodacite to dacite. U-Pb zircon ages are 1801+- 11 Ma for ignimbrites and 1848+-9 Ma for mafic volcanics. However, for the mafic rocks age may represent some inherited zircon. More data from these rocks are necessary before we can make a definitive conclusion. The air fall deposits are represented by ash tuff enriched in vitroclasts. The volcanogenic sedimentary deposits occur inter layered with pyroclastic deposits and are represented by volcanoclastic conglomerates and immature tuffaceous sandstones. The volcanic particles in this sequence, partially maintain igneous characteristics, which suggests small amount of reworking and a possible proximity to the source. Sulfides occur disseminated in sub-volcanic and in late-stage quartz-carbonate-chlorite veins. (author)

  3. Influence of land use changes on soil physical, chemical and biological atributes in a family farming settlement in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miguel; de Pierri Castilho, Selene Cristina; Camilo Bedano, José; Dominguez, Anahi; Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Nascimento Delgado Oliveira, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Soil knowledge and the changes in its attributes due to land use modifications in the Amazon region is important for decision making by family farmers. These farmers have to choose sustainable land use management practices for their survival in the region and, for soil and forest conservation. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. The objective of this research is to understand the relations between soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, and how these relations change with modifications in land use. This information is important for defining best management practices for family farming in the region. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. 40 cm pits were opened with five replicates in three landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope). Sampling periods were July/2012 (dry season); January/2013 (beginning of rainy season) and march/2013 (rainy season). Samples were taken for soil particle size analysis, bulk density, particle density, moisture, porosity, water retention, chemical, litter dry matter and macrofauna analysis. Statistical analysis techniques were performed uni and multivariate. No significant differences were observed in the particle size distribution of the studied soils. The soils presented sandy surface horizons with an increase of clay in depth in both land use systems. Soil bulk density values were higher in the surface horizons and, in general, in the pasture toposequence. Differences were also observed in the soil moisture content and litter dry matter which were higher under the native forest, and in the pH and organic matter values which were higher in the pasture. Higher water retention capacity was observed in the surface horizons of the forest when compared to the pasture, corroborating the higher values of macroporosity observed in the forest soils. Due to higher moisture content

  4. Mixing in the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.

  5. The principal reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the urban areas of Manaus, Central Amazon of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Arias

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one opossums (Didelphis marsupialis from disturbed primary forest in the vicinity of Manaus, and seven from an isolated island of secondary vegetation within the city of Manaus, were examined for the presence of Leishmania. Of the opossums from the primary forests, 13 (61.9% were found to be positive for Leishmania braziliensis guyanenesis. One additional opossum was found to be positive for Le. mexicana amazonensis. A simple and economical trapping technique for opossums is presented here, and a control method in special cases is suggested.Vinte e uma mucuras (Didelphis marsupialis, procedentes de uma floresta primária explorada, e sete de uma vegetação secundária em uma ilha isolada, nas cercanias de Manaus, foram examinadas para detectar a presença de Leishmania. Das mucuras da floresta primária, 13 (61.9% foram detectadas positivas para Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. Somente uma mucura foi dada como positiva para Le.mexicana amozonensis. Apresentamos aqui uma técnica simples e economica para captura de mucuras e e sugerido um método de controle, em casos especiais.

  6. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  7. Climatic and ecological future of the Amazon: likelihood and causes of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cook

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Some recent climate modeling results suggested a possible dieback of the Amazon rainforest under future climate change, a prediction that raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4 and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable as rainfall is projected to increase in nearly all models. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge of the Amazon and further south in central Brazil, are in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. Firstly, a decline in precipitation of 22% in the southern Amazon's dry season (May–September reduces soil moisture, despite an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to nonlinear responses in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season rainfall: (1 a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure; (2 a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient, and to lesser degree a warmer eastern equatorial Pacific. Secondly, evaporation demand will increase due to the general warming, further reducing soil moisture. In terms of ecosystem response, higher maintenance cost and reduced productivity under warming may also have additional adverse impact. The drying corresponds to a lengthening of the dry season by 11 days. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of 20% in vegetation carbon stock in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Further, VEGAS predicts enhancement of fire risk by 10–15%. The increase in fire is primarily due to the reduction in soil moisture, and the decrease in dry

  8. Calibration of speleothem δ18O records against hydroclimate instrumental records in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquet, J. S.; Cruz, F. W.; Novello, V. F.; Stríkis, N. M.; Deininger, M.; Karmann, I.; Santos, R. Ventura; Millo, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Guyot, J.-L.; Siffedine, A.; Vuille, M.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Santini, W.

    2016-04-01

    δ18O in speleothems is a powerful proxy for reconstruction of precipitation patterns in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study is to calibrate the δ18O record of speleothems against historical precipitation and river discharge data in central Brazil, a region directly influenced by the Southern Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), a major feature of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present work is based on a sub-annual resolution speleothem record covering the last 141 years (the period between the years 1870 and 2011) from a cave in central Brazil. The comparison of this record with instrumental hydroclimate records since 1921 allows defining a strong relationship between precipitation variability and stable oxygen isotope ratios from speleothems. The results from a monitoring program of climatic parameters and isotopic composition of rainfall and cave seepage waters performed in the same cave, show that the rain δ18O variability is dominated by the amount effect in this region, while δ18O drip water remains almost constant over the monitored period (1.5 years). The δ18O of modern calcite, on the other hand, shows clear seasonal variations, with more negative values observed during the rainy season, which implies that other factors also influence the isotopic composition of carbonate. However, the relationship between δ18O of carbonate deposits and rainwater is supported by the results from the comparison between speleothem δ18O records and historical hydroclimate records. A significant correlation between speleothem δ18O and monsoon rainfall variability is observed on sub-decadal time scales, especially for the monsoon period (DJFM and NDJFM), once the rainfall record have been smoothed with a 7-9 years running mean. This study confirms that speleothem δ18O is directly associated with monsoon rainfall variability in central Brazil. The relationship between speleothem δ18O records and hydroclimatic historical records allows

  9. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  10. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  11. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

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    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  12. Just words?: A quantitative analysis of the communication of the Central Bank of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the informational content of statements issued by the interest-rate setting committee of the Central Bank of Brazil (COPOM, building on the methodology developed by Lucca and Trebbi (2011. Using Google search queries, we measure the extent to which each CO-POM statement is perceived to be associated with more "hawkish" or "dovish" language. This allows us to construct a time-series of the informational content of COPOM statements, which we then use in regressions to explain changes in the term-structure of interest rates around COPOM meetings - together with a market-based measure of interest-rate surprises. We find that, during Governor Tombini's tenure, interest-rate surprises started to be "passed through" one-to-one (or more even at long maturities, as markets seem to have bought into the idea that the interest-rate cuts that began in mid-2011 would lead to lower yields in Brazil into the foreseeable future. Most importantly, changes in the informational content of COPOM statements seem to have meaningful effects on yields at short-to-medium maturities. However, this result only holds for the period prior to Tombini's tenure.

  13. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  14. TREE DIAMETER GROWTH FOLLOWING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS IN A SEMI-DECIDUOUS SECONDARY FOREST IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Venturoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Cerrado biome of Brazil, savannas and dry forests are intimately linked and form mosaics. These forests are composed of species of high commercial value, well accepted in the timber market, which causes intensive deforestation on the remaining vegetation. Thus, the management of these forests is an important alternative to reduce deforestation in the remaining vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of tree species in relation to silvicultural treatments of competition and liana cutting in a semi-deciduous forest in Central Brazil. The results showed that community basal area increased 24% over 4.8 years and the median periodic annual increment in diameter was about 20% higher in plots with silvicultural treatments: 2.9 mm.yr-1 in the control compared to 3.2 mm.yr-1 to 3.6 mm.yr-1 between treatments. This study demonstrated that it is possible to increase the rates of radial growth through silvicultural techniques.

  15. Variations of chromosomal structures in Caluromys philander (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Erica Martinha Silva de; Faresin e Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-03-01

    Caluromys is considered to be one of the most ancient genera of extant marsupials and is positioned among the basal taxa of the family Didelphidae. At least two species occur in Brazil, C. philander and C. lanatus, both of which have 2n = 14 chromosomes. For the first time, we present evidence of an intrapopulation polymorphism of the sexual chromosome pair in C. philander females from the Central Amazon region. Detailed cytogenetic results of animals from three localities on the Amazon region were analyzed using classical cytogenetics (NOR, C-Band and G-Band) and molecular techniques (18S rDNA and telomere probes). Similar to other conspecific individuals, the diploid number of these animals is 2n = 14, and their fundamental number is 24, with NOR present on the 6th autosomal pair. The X chromosome presented variation detectable by G banding, suggesting a pericentric inversion.

  16. Moenkhausia venerei (Characiformes: Characidae), a new species from the rio Araguaia, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolli, Marina G; Azevedo-Santos, Valter M; Benine, Ricardo C

    2016-01-01

    Moenkhausia venerei is described from the rio Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. The new species differs from its congeners, except M. collettii and M. copei, by the combination of the following characters: a longitudinal dark band extending from the tip of the snout to the base of caudal fin; a dark line along the base of the anal fin; and a conspicuous humeral spot. Moenkhausia venerei is distinguished from M. collettii by having a wider and more conspicuous longitudinal dark band and from M. copei by the higher number of anal-fin rays. A discussion about the overall similarity and putative relationship with M. collettii, M. copei, Hemigrammus ulreyi, H. ataktos, and H. barrigonae is provided. PMID:27394770

  17. Preferences of the central bank of Brazil under the inflation targeting regime: commitment vs. discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Aparecida Palma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate the preferences of the Central Bank of Brazil during the inflation targeting regime, using a standard new keynesian model with forward-looking expectations, as proposed by Givens (2010. The presence of rational expectations in the model makes a distinction between two modes of optimization, commitment and discretion, and thus allows us to evaluate which of these specifications is favored by the data. Using quarterly data for the period from 2000-1 to 2010-4, the obtained results allow us to affirm that the data favor a discretionary policy. Estimates of the loss function show that the monetary authority gives great weight to inflation stabilization, followed by interest rate smoothing and stabilization of the output gap.

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 variants in the Federal District, Central Brazil

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    Márcio R Cruz

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the prevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 variants in women with cervical lesions from the Federal District, Central Brazil. We analyzed 34 HPV-16 samples, identifying the sequence variations of E6 and L1 genes and correlating variant frequency with disease status. The most prevalent HPV-16 variant was the European (50%, followed by Asian-American (41.2%, African-1 (5.9%, and African-2 (2.9%. European and non-European variants appeared in equal frequencies among the cytological types of lesions - atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance, cytological alterations suggesting HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

  19. Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n = 20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese.

  20. Environmental Behavior of Chlorpyrifos and Endosulfan in a Tropical Soil in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Claudio A; Weber, Oscarlina L S; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Vecchiato, Antonio B; Pinto, Alicio A

    2016-05-25

    The environmental behavior of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in soil was studied in the central-western region of Brazil by means of a field experiment. Sorption was evaluated in laboratory batch experiments. Chlorpyrifos and endosulfan were applied to experimental plots on uncultivated soil and the following processes were studied: leaching, runoff, and dissipation in top soil. Field dissipation of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan was more rapid than reported in temperate climates. Despite the high Koc of the studied pesticides, the two endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate as well as chlorpyrifos were detected in percolated water. In runoff water and sediment, both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate were detected throughout the period of study. Observed losses of endosulfan by leaching (below a depth of 50 cm) and runoff were 0.0013 and 1.04% of the applied amount, whereas chlorpyrifos losses were 0.003 and 0.032%, respectively. Leaching of these highly adsorbed pesticides was attributed to preferential flow. PMID:26635198

  1. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae, in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 µg/cm², and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6. Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations.

  2. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  3. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  4. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  5. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  6. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  7. Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon : impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Boot, R.G.A.

    2002-01-01

    A demographic study was carried out on Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazil nut tree, in two primary forest sites in Northern Bolivia where Brazil nuts have been harvested for several decades. In spite of the large proportion (93€of seeds that are harvested, reasonable densities of recently emerged seed

  8. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Ostariophysi: Characidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius A Bertaco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Moenkhausia dasalmas is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros region, Goiás State, Central Brazil. The new species differs from all congeners by the presence of iii,9 rays in the dorsal fin. It can also be distinguished from its congeners by the presence of two humeral spots (first one vertically elongate and second one faint, by the number of branched anal-fin rays (17-19, lateral line scales (36-37, maxillary teeth (4-5, and a vertical dark spot in the caudal peduncle end.Moenkhausia dasalmas é descrita da bacia do alto rio Tocantins, Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brasil Central. A espécie nova difere de todas as suas congêneres pela presença de iii,9 raios na nadadeira dorsal. Ela também se distingue das suas congêneres por apresentar duas manchas umerais (a primeira verticalmente alongada e a segunda tênue, 17-19 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal, 36-37 escamas na linha lateral, quatro a cinco dentes no maxilar e uma mancha vertical e escura no final do pedúnculo caudal.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  10. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  11. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James R; Brondízio, Eduardo S; Hetrick, Scott S; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  12. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Welch

    Full Text Available International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010 and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010. The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6% but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%. Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  13. First report and description of a Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from a freshwater Cururu Stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae), from the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, N M; de Oliveira, A T; O'Dwyer, L H

    2016-08-01

    A haemogregarine is described in 12 cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix), from Mariuá Archipelago, Negro River, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. All animals, both male and female, were parasitized by the haemogregarine and parasitaemia varied between 0.8% and 10% of erythrocytes. The stages observed included trophozoites or merozoites, suspected meronts, and gamonts presumed to be of two types, macrogamonts and microgamonts. Most stages were observed inside mature erythrocytes, while others were extracellular. The stages observed were most similar to those characteristics of the genus Cyrilia, than to any other fish haemogregarine and may represent a new Cyrilia species. PMID:26642832

  14. First report and description of a Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from a freshwater Cururu Stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae), from the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, N M; de Oliveira, A T; O'Dwyer, L H

    2016-08-01

    A haemogregarine is described in 12 cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix), from Mariuá Archipelago, Negro River, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. All animals, both male and female, were parasitized by the haemogregarine and parasitaemia varied between 0.8% and 10% of erythrocytes. The stages observed included trophozoites or merozoites, suspected meronts, and gamonts presumed to be of two types, macrogamonts and microgamonts. Most stages were observed inside mature erythrocytes, while others were extracellular. The stages observed were most similar to those characteristics of the genus Cyrilia, than to any other fish haemogregarine and may represent a new Cyrilia species.

  15. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of har

  16. Bancos de sementes de plantas daninhas em cultivos de mandioca na Amazônia Central Weed seed banks in cassava cultivations in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a densidade de sementes e a riqueza de espécies dos bancos de sementes de plantas daninhas em cultivos de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, em pequenas propriedades rurais localizadas em Manacapuru, Amazonas. Nos cultivos foram estabelecidas quatro parcelas, de onde foram coletadas 20 amostras (0,0225 m² de 15 x 15 cm (0,0225 m² na camada de 0-5 cm e três amostras nas profundidades de 5-10 e 10-30 cm, totalizando 104 amostras. Para a contagem e identificação das sementes, utilizou-se a técnica de emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação. As plântulas foram identificadas, inicialmente, por morfotipo e, quando possível, até espécie. O monitoramento foi feito durante nove meses. Houve diferença significativa na densidade de sementes (Kruskal Wallis, 5%; pThis study aimed to evaluate seed density and number of species in a weed seed bank collected from four different cassava family farms. The farms were located on highway AM-070 in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Four plots were established in each cassava crop, from which 20 15 x 15 cm samples.(0.0225 m² at 0-5 cm depth level and three samples at 5-10 and 10-30 depth levels were collected, totalizing 104 samples. For seed counting and identification, plantlet emergence technique under greenhouse conditions was used. The plantlets were initially identified by morphotype and when possible, even by species. Monitoring was conducted during 9 months. A significant difference in seed density was found among the plots (Kruskal Wallis, 5%; p<0.05 and an average of 5.113 seeds m-2 at 0-5 cm depth. At the depth of 5-10 cm, the cassava crops presented an average of 1.111 seeds m-2 , while at the 10-30 cm depth,the average was 285 seeds m-2 . The seed banks of the cassava crops were basically herbaceous species typical of agricultural lands and disturbed environments. Weed cut once a year was not sufficient to control weed plants and reduce negative weed interference

  17. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Figueiredo; C. Hoorn; P. van der Ven; E. Soares

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present sha

  18. Geology and geochronology of the metamorphic suite Colorado and his rock assemblages, southeastern Rondonia, Brazil: implications for the mesoproterozoic evolution of the southwestern Amazon Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined geochronological (U-Pb, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, and RB-Sr) geological data help define an important tectonomagmatic event in the Colorado do Oeste and Cabixi regions, southeastern Rondonia, Brazil, and characterize the Colorado Metamorphic Suite (CMS), well represented by rock assemblages which experienced deformation and metamorphic recrystallization (upper-amphibolite facies). The suite is composed of: porphyritic monzogranite associated with amphibolite (bimodal magmatism); interlayered clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks (sillimanite schists and iron formation); muscovite-garnet leucogranite; and mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks. The CMS mafic rocks occur as underformed isolated bodies of layered coarse-grained metagabbro, still preserving typical cumulate igneous texture. U-Pb zircon isotopic data for three fractions of sample RO-10 define a discordia with an upper intercept (crystallization) age of 1352 + 4/-3 Ma (MSWD = 0,18). The porphyritic orthogneisses (RO-15; monzogranite and amphibolite) yielded a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 1360 ± 45 Ma, and 87 Sr/86 Sr, = 0.7040 ± 0.0012 (MSWD = 9.2). One sample of aplite that is subparallel to the main regional foliation has furnished an age 1360 ±13 Ma. The 40 Ar/39 Ar data for muscovite from a anatectic leucogranite (RO-14) yielded plateau ages of 1312 ± 3 Ma (grain 1), and 1303 ± 2 Ma/1305 ± 2 Ma (grain 2). Grain 3 presented an heterogeneous isotopic spectrum, the integrated age being 1289 ± 2 Ma. Hornblende from two amphibolite samples yielded 40 Ar/39 Ar plateau ages of 1313 ± 4 Ma; 1313 ± 6 Ma and 1312 ± 3 Ma (RO-18), and 1325 ± 3 Ma; 1326 ± 2 Ma; 1330 ± 3 Ma (RO-19). The weighted-mean age 1319 ± 10 Ma, and is interpreted as the best estimated age for regional metamorphic cooling. These data suggest that southeastern Rondonia was affected by a tectonomagmatic event at ca. 1.36 - 1.32 Ga, predating the evolution of the Nova Brasilandia Terrane (1215 - 1110 Ma). However, the unequivocal

  19. Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Fernandes Druzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4% of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8% and with incomplete immunization (56.3%. Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months.

  20. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  1. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. PMID:26249652

  2. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  3. Estudos etnoictiológicos sobre o pirarucu Arapaima gigas na Amazônia Central Ethnoictiology studies on Pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups in Central Amazon

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    Liane Galvão de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou identificar saberes comuns entre o conhecimento científico e o conhecimento local sobre a ecologia e biologia do pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, contribuindo com informações úteis para a implementação e consolidação de projetos de manejo participativo pesqueiro na região. Foram realizadas 57 entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com pescadores profissionais de Manaus e pescadores de subsistência de Manacapuru durante o período de junho a dezembro do ano de 2002. Foi observado que os pescadores profissionais possuem informações igualmente precisas e abrangentes em relação aos saberes dos pescadores ribeirinhos de subsistência nos aspectos de reprodução, predação, migração, crescimento e mortalidade. Os aspectos que não são equivalentes entre os pescadores profissionais comerciais citadinos e ribeirinhos de subsistência são nos aspectos de tipo de alimentação e no tamanho de recrutamento pesqueiro. Concluímos que os pescadores da Amazônia central possuem os conhecimentos necessários que possibilitam o manejo participativo do pirarucu, como um profundo saber nos aspectos comportamentais, biológicos e ecológicos desta espécie, podendo assim contribuir de fato com a participação de gestão nos recursos pesqueiros locais.Present study it aimed at to identify to know common between scientific knowledge and local knowledge on ecology and biology of pirarucu (Arapaima mock-ups, contributing with useful information for implementation and consolidation of projects of participative handling fishing boat in region. 57 half-structuralized interviews had been carried through, with fishing of Manaus and Manacapuru during period of June to December of year 2002. It was observed that professional fishermen also have accurate and comprehensive information in relation to knowledge of subsistence fishermen in coastal aspects of reproduction, predation, migration, growth and mortality. Aspects that are not equivalent

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani Mariane MA; Turchi Marilia D; Minuzzi Ana L; Filho Jose; Filho Clidenor; Avelino Mariza M; Machado Gustavo C; Costa Zelma B; Souza Wayner de; Martelli Celina MT

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infe...

  5. Robust monetary policy, structural breaks, and nonlinearities in the reaction function of the Central Bank of Brazil

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    Gabriela Bezerra de Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we seek to investigate the existence of nonlinearities in the reaction function of the Central Bank of Brazil arising from this policymaker's uncertainties about the effects of the output gap on inflation. Theoretically, we follow Tillmann (2011 to obtain a nonlinear optimal monetary policy rule that is robust to uncertainty about the output-inflation trade-off of the Phillips Curve. In addition, we perform structural break tests to assess possible changes in the conduct of the Brazilian monetary policy during the inflation-targeting regime. The results indicate that: (i the uncertainties about the slope in the Phillips curve implied nonlinearities in the Central Bank of Brazil's reaction function; (ii we cannot reject the hypothesis of a structural break in the monetary rule parameters occurring in the third quarter of 2003; (iii there was an increase in the response of the Selic rate to output gap and a weaker response to the current inflation gap in Meirelles–Tombini's administration; and (iv the Central Bank of Brazil has also reacted to the exchange rate in Meirelles–Tombini's administration.

  6. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  7. A Metalloproteomics Study on the Association of Mercury With Breast Milk in Samples From Lactating Women in the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Felipe André; Cavecci, Bruna; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Santos, Ademir; de Lima Leite, Aline; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Zara, Luiz Fabrício; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify metalloproteins that lose their metal ions in the presence of mercury (Hg) and bind to Hg in breast milk samples collected from the riverine population of the Madeira River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Initially, total Hg was determined from the hair of lactating women to identify individuals who were contaminated followed by a proteomic analysis of breast milk samples through two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after acetone precipitation. The presence of Hg in the obtained protein spots was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These determinations indicated the presence of Hg in one protein spot, which was then characterized through electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Based on searches in the UniProt database, this protein spot was identified as lysozyme C.

  8. Spatial point analysis based on dengue surveys at household level in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Junior, João B; Maciel, Ivan J; Barcellos, Christovam; Souza, Wayner V; Carvalho, Marilia S; Nascimento, Nazareth E; Oliveira, Renato M; Morais-Neto, Otaliba; Martelli, Celina MT

    2008-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) affects nonimunne human populations in tropical and subtropical regions. In the Americas, dengue has drastically increased in the last two decades and Brazil is considered one of the most affected countries. The high frequency of asymptomatic infection makes difficult to estimate prevalence of infection using registered cases and to locate high risk intra-urban area at population level. The goal of this spatial point analysis was to identify potential high-risk intra-urban areas of dengue, using data collected at household level from surveys. Methods Two household surveys took place in the city of Goiania (~1.1 million population), Central Brazil in the year 2001 and 2002. First survey screened 1,586 asymptomatic individuals older than 5 years of age. Second survey 2,906 asymptomatic volunteers, same age-groups, were selected by multistage sampling (census tracts; blocks; households) using available digital maps. Sera from participants were tested by dengue virus-specific IgM/IgG by EIA. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to detect the spatial varying risk over the region. Initially without any fixed covariates, to depict the overall risk map, followed by a model including the main covariates and the year, where the resulting maps show the risk associated with living place, controlled for the individual risk factors. This method has the advantage to generate smoothed risk factors maps, adjusted by socio-demographic covariates. Results The prevalence of antibody against dengue infection was 37.3% (95%CI [35.5–39.1]) in the year 2002; 7.8% increase in one-year interval. The spatial variation in risk of dengue infection significantly changed when comparing 2001 with 2002, (ORadjusted = 1.35; p < 0.001), while controlling for potential confounders using GAM model. Also increasing age and low education levels were associated with dengue infection. Conclusion This study showed spatial heterogeneity in the risk areas of dengue

  9. Spatial point analysis based on dengue surveys at household level in central Brazil

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    Oliveira Renato M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV affects nonimunne human populations in tropical and subtropical regions. In the Americas, dengue has drastically increased in the last two decades and Brazil is considered one of the most affected countries. The high frequency of asymptomatic infection makes difficult to estimate prevalence of infection using registered cases and to locate high risk intra-urban area at population level. The goal of this spatial point analysis was to identify potential high-risk intra-urban areas of dengue, using data collected at household level from surveys. Methods Two household surveys took place in the city of Goiania (~1.1 million population, Central Brazil in the year 2001 and 2002. First survey screened 1,586 asymptomatic individuals older than 5 years of age. Second survey 2,906 asymptomatic volunteers, same age-groups, were selected by multistage sampling (census tracts; blocks; households using available digital maps. Sera from participants were tested by dengue virus-specific IgM/IgG by EIA. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM was used to detect the spatial varying risk over the region. Initially without any fixed covariates, to depict the overall risk map, followed by a model including the main covariates and the year, where the resulting maps show the risk associated with living place, controlled for the individual risk factors. This method has the advantage to generate smoothed risk factors maps, adjusted by socio-demographic covariates. Results The prevalence of antibody against dengue infection was 37.3% (95%CI [35.5–39.1] in the year 2002; 7.8% increase in one-year interval. The spatial variation in risk of dengue infection significantly changed when comparing 2001 with 2002, (ORadjusted = 1.35; p Conclusion This study showed spatial heterogeneity in the risk areas of dengue when using a spatial multivariate approach in a short time interval. Data from household surveys pointed out that low prevalence areas

  10. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  11. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  12. Preferência alimentar sanguínea de flebotomíneos da Amazônia do Maranhão, Brasil Feeding preference of sand flies in the Amazon, Maranhão State, Brazil

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    Yrla Nívea Oliveira-Pereira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as fontes alimentares sanguíneas de flebotomíneos por meio da reação da precipitina, em Buriticupu, na Amazônia maranhense, Brasil, de julho de 2002 a junho de 2004. Foram detectadas reações simples (87,6%, duplas (8% e não reagentes (4,4%. A presença de flebotomíneos alimentados com sangue humano (6,7% e de possíveis reservatórios de Leishmania no peridomicílio ajuda a explicar a ocorrência de casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar no Município de Buriticupu.The objective of this study was to determine the blood feeding sources for sand flies based on the precipitin test in Buriticupu, Amazon Region, Maranhão State, Brazil, from July 2002 to June 2004. Single (87.6% and double (8% reactions and non-reactive samples (4.4% were found. The presence of sand flies fed on human blood (6.7% and blood of animals that are possible peridomiciliary Leishmania reservoirs helps explain the reporting of autochthonous tegumentary leishmaniasis cases in Buriticupu.

  13. Fish histopathology and catalase activity as biomarkers of the environmental quality of the industrial district on the Amazon estuary, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18032

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    Rossineide Martins Rocha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The environment quality of an industrial district on the river Pará, Amazon estuary, Brazil, based on the assessment of histological alterations and on the determination of catalase activity of the hepatic tissue of two fish species, Plagioscion squamossissimus and Lithodoras dorsalis, is provided. Histopathological changes were evaluated semi-quantitatively and qualitatively. Mean Assessment Values (MAV and Histological Alteration Index (HAI of organ lesions were calculated for each zone under analysis, with different impact levels: Zone 1 (industrial district, with high contamination risk; Zone 2 (medium risk and Zone 3 (minimum risk. Strong positive catalase activity and histopathological changes were reported in Zone 1. None of the specimens of either species captured in Zones 1 and 2 was healthy, whereas more than 60% of the specimens from Zone 3 presented healthy hepatic tissue. The principal alterations observed in the tissue of the two species included an increase in the number of Melanomacrophagous centers, fatty degeneration, inflammation, congestion, hepatitis and focal necrosis. The carnivorous P. squamosissimus presented higher levels of alteration than the herbivorous L. dorsalis. Results showed that local anthropogenic impacts were affecting the health of the two fish species under analysis.   

  14. What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brazil flux network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Rocha, da H.R.; Hutyra, L.R.; Araujo, de A.C.; Borma, L.S.; Christoffersen, B.; Cabral, O.M.R.; Camargo, de P.B.; Cardoso, F.L.; Lola da Costa, A.C.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Kruijt, B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity, and the effects thereon of variations in climate and land-use, by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in A

  15. Age and growth of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula (tetraodontiformes, balistidae of the central coast of Brazil

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    Albuquerque Cristiano Queiroz de

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal spines (n=649 of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula were collected between 1997 to 1999 at the central coast of Brazil and used to evaluate fish growth. The marginal increment analysis validated that 1 increment was formed annually (n=476, with minimum values observed at the summer, and coinciding with the maximum proportion of translucent growth bands. Fish's maximum fork length and age were 460 mm and 14 years respectively. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy function were: Fl∞ = 441.3 mm, K = 0.14 and T0= -1.8. Weight gain by year ranged from about 110 g yr-1 for age 5 to about 30 g yr-1 for age 14. Compared to other studies, B. vetula growth in the Central coast of Brazil was slow, which could be related to the influence of the oligotrophic water from Brazil current. Our results indicate that B. vetula's fisheries in the Central coast of Brazil until 1999 have caught mostly adult individuals over the sexual maturation lenght, 60% of them with ages from 6 to 8 yr.Entre 1997 e 1999 foram amostrados 649 espinhos de Balistes vetula na costa central do Brazil e foram utilizados para a avaliação de crescimento. A validação de anéis anuais de crescimento foi realizada através da analise de incrementos marginais, cujos valores mínimos foram observados durante o verão, coincidindo com a maior proporção de anéis translúcidos na borda do espinho. Portanto, forma-se um anel de crescimento a cada ano. A idade e o comprimento padrão máximos observados foram respectivamente 14 anos e 460 mm. Os parâmetros da equação de von-Bertalanffy foram: Fl∞ = 441,3 mm, K = 0,14 e T0= -1,8. O incremento anual em peso variou de 110 g yr-1 para a idade 5 a 30 g yr-1 para a idade 14. Comparados a outros estudos, nossos resultados indicam taxas de crescimento mais baixas, que podem ter sido induzidas pela influência oligotrófica da corrente do Brasil ao longo da costa central do Brasil. Nossos resultados indicam que a pesca do peroá at

  16. Políticas Territoriais e Mobilidade Populacional na Amazônia: contribuições sobre a área de influência das Hidrelétricas no Rio Madeira (Rondônia/Brasil Mobilité des populations et politiques territoriales en Amazonie: contributions sur l’influence des centrales hydroélectrique du rio Madeira (Rondônia/Brésil Population mobility and territorial policies in the Amazon: contributions on the influence of the Madeira River hydroelectric plants (Rondônia/Brazil

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    Luiz Cleyton Holanda Lobato

    2011-03-01

    population amazonienne est motivée par la recherche de nouvelles possibilités d’emploi, un fait lié à des changements structurels, liés à l’action du gouvernement fédéral grâce à des politiques territoriales ouvertes, même dans les années 60 et 70. La mise en œuvre de projets d’infrastructure fournit diverses fonctions et à la restructuration spatiale, formant de nouveaux modes d’organisation sociale, économique et culturel. Actuellement, à Porto Velho, Rondônia, la construction de centrales hydroélectriques Jirau et Santo Antônio, sur la rivière Madeira, a commencé en 2008, a été interrogé sur le nouvel afflux de population, qui peut être caractérisé par deux cas: celui de la territorialisation et déterritorialisation . Le premier processus est marqué par l’attraction de la population, compte tenu de l’offre de travail et, d’autre part, fondée sur la dépossession en raison des déplacements de population dans la zone du réservoir, la présentant comme le cas le plus critique de la communauté Mutum Paraná, avec l’engagement total de ses noyau urbain. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer la relation entre la mobilité de la population et le déploiement de l’infrastructure et l’exploitation des ressources naturelles dans le bassin versant de l’hydroélectricité. La partie la méthodologie de l’analyse temporo-spatiale avec revue de la littérature, sur le terrain et la collecte de données de la zone géographique. Les variables utilisées ont été: la population, les principales activités économiques et les normes d’utilisation des terres (lois. Ces variables nous a permis de comprendre la relation entre la société et de l’espace dans leur processus d’organisation et de transformation. L’analyse a révélé que cette région, depuis son occupation jusqu’à ce que la mobilité de la population actuelle a été motivé par la réalisation de travaux d’infrastructures, de propriété et l

  17. Neonatal mortality in intensive care units of Central Brazil Mortalidade neonatal em unidades de cuidados intensivos no Brasil Central

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    Claci F Weirich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify potential prognostic factors for neonatal mortality among newborns referred to intensive care units. METHODS: A live-birth cohort study was carried out in Goiânia, Central Brazil, from November 1999 to October 2000. Linked birth and infant death certificates were used to ascertain the cohort of live born infants. An additional active surveillance system of neonatal-based mortality was implemented. Exposure variables were collected from birth and death certificates. The outcome was survivors (n=713 and deaths (n=162 in all intensive care units in the study period. Cox's proportional hazards model was applied and a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was used to compare the performance of statistically significant variables in the multivariable model. Adjusted mortality rates by birth weight and 5-min Apgar score were calculated for each intensive care unit. RESULTS: Low birth weight and 5-min Apgar score remained independently associated to death. Birth weight equal to 2,500g had 0.71 accuracy (95% CI: 0.65-0.77 for predicting neonatal death (sensitivity =72.2%. A wide variation in the mortality rates was found among intensive care units (9.5-48.1% and two of them remained with significant high mortality rates even after adjusting for birth weight and 5-min Apgar score. CONCLUSIONS: This study corroborates birth weight as a sensitive screening variable in surveillance programs for neonatal death and also to target intensive care units with high mortality rates for implementing preventive actions and interventions during the delivery period.OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores prognósticos de mortalidade neonatal em unidades de cuidados intensivos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo de coorte de nascidos vivos do município de Goiânia, no período de novembro de 1999 a outubro de 2000. Procedeu-se à vinculação das bases de dados das declarações de nascidos vivos e de óbitos, das quais as variáveis de exposição foram extra

  18. Adverse events and technical complaints related to central venous catheters marketed in Brazil

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    Luciene de Oliveira Morais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to critically analyze data of the National Notification System for Adverse Events and Technical Complaints (Notivisa related to central venous catheters, through an evaluation of the description of notifications recorded between 2006 and 2009. Methods: Notifications were categorized and evaluated to: (i determine the number of adverse events and technical complaints, (ii verify compliance with the classification criteria defined by the legislation, (iii reclassify notifications, when necessary, in order for them to fit in with the legal definitions, (iv verify registered companies in Brazil, (v quantify the notifications according to the registered company and product lot, and (vi identify the country of original of the notified product. Microsoft Excel® 2010 was used to categorize and systematize the data. Results: Some conceptual errors and incomplete records were found. Altogether, 228 notifications of technical complaints and 119 of adverse events were identified. Some notifications on guidewires and broken catheters were reported which led to the necessity of duplicating some medical procedures and to the occurrence of lesions/lacerations of vessels and tissue injury. Forty-seven percent of companies presented at least one notification in Notivisa and in all, 38 product lots had more than one notification. Conclusion: These data support a necessity for cooperation between all entities of the National Health Surveillance System to check compliance of this type of product and to properly report adverse events and technical complaints. It is also important to incorporate minimum standards for the management of technologies in health services, including in the acquisition of products and training of staff.

  19. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil

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    Tamíris Augusto Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The collection of recyclable waste materials is a widespread activity among the urban poor. Today, this occupation attracts an increasingly large number of individuals. Despite its economic and environmental importance, this activity is associated with unsafe and unhealthy working conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiological profile of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in a population of recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil. Methods: Recyclable waste collectors from all 15 recycling cooperatives in Goiânia City were invited to participate in the study. The participants (n = 431 were interviewed and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HBsAg- and anti-HBc-positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and genotyped. Results: The overall prevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive was 12.8%. An age over 40 years and illicit drug use were associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected in 2/3 HBsAg-positive samples and in 1/52 anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative samples (an occult HBV infection rate of 1.9%, in which the genotypes/subgenotypes A/A1, D/D3 and F/F2 were identified. Only 12.3% of the recyclable waste collectors had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination. Conclusions: These findings highlight the vulnerability of recyclable waste collectors to HBV infection and reinforce the importance of public health policies that address the health and safety of this socially vulnerable population.

  20. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in central Brazil. A study of 1,211 individuals born to infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Alejandro O; Tavares, Suelene Brito do Nascimento; Siriano, Liliane da Rocha; Oliveira, Rozângela Amaral de; Campos, Dayse Elizabeth; de Morais, Cicilio Alves; de Oliveira, Enio Chaves

    2015-05-01

    Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi during pregnancy is estimated to occur in less than 20% of infected mothers; however, the etiopathogenesis is not completely understood. The Centre for Studies on Chagas Disease provides confirmation of T. cruzi infection for individuals living in central Brazil. In this retrospective hospital-based study, all requests for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in individuals less than 21 years old from 1994-2014 were searched. We end with 1,211 individuals and their respective infected mothers. Congenital transmission of infection was confirmed in 24 individuals (2%) in central Brazil, an area where the main T. cruzi lineage circulating in humans is TcII. This low prevalence of congenital Chagas disease is discussed in relation to recent findings in the south region of Brazil, where TcV is the main lineage and congenital transmission has a higher prevalence (approximately 5%), similar to frequencies reported in Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. This is the first report to show geographical differences in the rates of congenital transmission of T. cruzi and the relationship between the prevalence of congenital transmission and the type of Tc prevalent in each region.

  1. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 in the amazon region, Brazil Primeiro relato de sarna notoédrica em jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 na região amazônica, Brasil

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    Alessandra Scofield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 µm and 137.6 × 104.9 µm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon.O presente estudo descreve um caso de sarna notoédrica em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis na região da Amazônia Brasileira. Um macho jovem com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, ilegalmente mantido como animal de estimação, foi apreendido em uma residência em Altamira, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O animal foi transportado para o Parque Mangal das Garças, município de Belém, estado do Pará. A jaguatirica apresentava prurido e lesões sugestivas de escabiose na cabeça, por isso um raspado cutâneo foi realizado e examinado ao microscópio óptico. Foi observado um grande número de ovos, larvas, ninfas e ácaros adultos. Os exemplares fêmeas mediram em média 230,2 × 200,4 µm, e os exemplares machos mensuraram 137,6 × 104,9 µm. Com base nas características morfológicas e análises morfométricas, o ácaro foi classificado como Notoedres cati. Esse é o primeiro relato da sarna notoédrica em L. pardalis na Amazônia Brasileira.

  2. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  3. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian; Adriana Hitomi Matsuda; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2007-01-01

    Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee an...

  4. Life cycle and biological parameters of several Brazilian Amazon fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, M.L.; Isaac, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    This contribution summarizes knowledge on the biology (population dynamics, reproduction, ecology) of 25 fish species from the Lower Amazon, Brazil, based on data from a Brazilian-German field project (IARA) and a review of the literature.

  5. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  6. [Indicator of socio-environmental vulnerability in the Western Amazon. The case of the city of Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Karen Dos Santos; Siqueira, Alexandre San Pedro; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque de; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2014-09-01

    The accelerated process of urbanization in the State of Amazônia associated with changes in the patterns of exploitation of natural resources have resulted in several types of environmental impacts, such as urban air pollution produced by forest fires which alters the relationship between urban and rural areas and establishes new vulnerabilities. The scope of this study is to analyze the socio-environmental vulnerability in relation to forest fires and health effects in the urban area of Porto Velho, located in the Brazilian Amazon region. Data was analyzed using a synthetic indicator combining income and education aspects, housing infrastructure, environmental exposure and health effects. The findings indicate that 51% of the resident population, i.e. around 157,000 inhabitants, is exposed to conditions of high and extreme environmental vulnerability. Analysis of the dimensions used to construct the synthetic indicator reveals an intense heterogeneity in terms of socio-environmental vulnerability in the urban area of the city of Porto Velho. These results highlight the need for integrated actions from different government departments in order to enhance health promotion, ecological sustainability and also reduce social inequalities in health.

  7. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact.

  8. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  9. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  10. Brazil's Cuiabá- Santarém (BR-163) Highway: The Environmental Cost of Paving a Soybean Corridor Through the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2007-05-01

    Brazil’s Cuiabá-Santarém (BR-163) Highway provides a valuable example of ways in which decision-making procedures for infrastructure projects in tropical forest areas need to be reformulated in order to guarantee that environmental concerns are properly weighed. BR-163, which is slated to be paved as an export corridor for soybeans via the Amazon River, traverses an area that is largely outside of Brazilian government control. A climate of generalized lawlessness and impunity prevails, and matters related to environment and to land tenure are especially unregulated. Deforestation and illegal logging have accelerated in anticipation of highway paving. Paving would further speed forest loss in the area, as well as stimulate migration of land thieves ( grileiros) to other frontiers. An argument is made that the highway should not be reconstructed and paved until after a state of law has been established and it has been independently certified that sufficient governance prevails to secure protected areas and enforce environmental legislation. A waiting period is needed after this is achieved before proceeding with the highway paving. Above all, the logical sequence of steps must be followed, whereby environmental costs are assessed, reported, and weighed prior to making de facto decisions on implementation of infrastructure projects. Deviation from this logical sequence is a common occurrence in many parts of the world, especially in tropical areas.

  11. Richness of ferns and lycophytes in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Lehn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the floristic survey of ferns and lycophytes occurring in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the study area, 29 species and 2 varieties were recorded. Dryopteridaceae and Pteridaceae were the richest families (8 and 5 species, respectively and Elaphoglossum and Blechnum were the richest genera (3 species each one. Preferably, the listed species occur within the forest (68%, they occupy the terrestrial substrate (77.4%, and they are hemicryptophyte (77.4% and rosulate (64.5%. We observed four species still not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul, which are Blechnum lanceola L., Elaphoglossum pachydermum (Fée T. Moore, Lindsaea lancea (L. Bedd var lancea, and Mickelia nicotianifolia (Sw. R. C. Moran et al., which has its southern limit of distribution in Brazil, in the study area.

  12. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  13. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  14. Distribuição de mercúrio total em sedimentos da plataforma continental Amazônica: Brasil Distribution of total mercury in sediments from Amazon continental shelf: Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar W. Siqueira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Plataforma Continental do Amazonas (PCA com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de Hg total no sedimento de fundo, e assim contribuir como matriz ambiental indicadora para o plano geral de gerenciamento costeiro na região norte do Brasil. Foram amostrados 20 pontos entre maio e junho dos anos de 1999 a 2002, 2005 e 2007. Os resultados indicam não haver evidências de atividades antrópicas relacionadas à contaminação de mercúrio na região. Os teores encontrados variaram entre 0,047 e 0,166 mg kg-1 com média 0,085±0,026 mg kg-1, estando dentro do intervalo de "background" referido para os rios amazônicos não contaminados, que é de 0,05 a 0,28 mg kg-1. As concentrações de Hg no sedimento, especialmente no sedimento lamoso, mostraram uma estreita dependência com os teores de argila (material fino e matéria orgânica, corroborando mecanismos geoquímicos importantes na dinâmica do metal. A maior adsorção do mercúrio pode estar associada ao aumento dos teores de compostos (óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro, alumínio, manganês e os minerais primários e secundários formadores das rochas da bacia de drenagem amazônica.This study was developed at the Amazon Continental Shelf aims to determine the levels of total mercury in the sediment bottom, and them to contribute as environmental matrix for the general plan of coastal monitoring in the North Region of the Brazil. Twenty sampling sites between May and June from 1999 to 2002, 2005 and 2007 were analyzed. The results indicate there is not evidence of anthropic activities associated to the contamination by mercury in the region. The levels of total mercury founded range between 0.047 and 0.166 mg kg-1 with average of 0.085±0,026 mg kg-1. The results are inside of the background interval determined to not contaminated or not polluted Amazon Rivers, which the interval ranges from 0.05 to 0.28 mg kg-1. The mercury concentrations in the sediment bottom

  15. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  16. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  17. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  18. Dispersal syndromes related to edge distance in cerrado sensu stricto fragments of central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vitor Fleuri Jardim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main selective forces affecting the fruiting strategies are related to the environment in which plants occur. As a savanna, microclimatic conditions should not vary in relation to distance from edge in cerrado sensu stricto fragments. Thus, we postulated that the importance of different dispersal syndromes would not vary towards the fragment core. Our aim was to test in four cerrado sensu stricto fragments in central Brazil whether the absolute density of anemo-, auto-, and zoochorous individuals varied in relation to edge distance. According to results, the absolute density of anemo-and autochorous individuals did not vary, whereas those of zoochorous individuals increased with edge distance, pointing out that there were other factors rather than abiotic conditions shifting zoochorous species to the interior of cerrado sensu stricto fragments.As principais forças seletivas que afetam as estratégias de frutificação estão relacionadas ao ambiente em que as plantas ocorrem. Como fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto são savânicos, as condições microclimáticas não devem variar em relação à distância da borda. Assim, postulamos que a importância das diferentes síndromes de dispersão não varia da borda ao interior de um fragmento de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar, em quatro fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto (centro-oeste do Brasil, se a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo, auto e zoocóricos variava em função da distância da borda. Segundo nossos resultados, a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo e autocóricos não variou significativamente borda em direção ao interior dos fragmentos, enquanto que a dos indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou, indicando que existem outros fatores, que não as condições abióticas, deslocando as espécies zoocóricas para o interior dos fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto.

  19. Sm/Nd data of metasedimentary rocks from the central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatky, Diana; Tupinamba, Miguel; Duarte, Beatriz Paschoal [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Grupo de Pesquisa Geotectonica - Tektos

    2000-03-01

    The central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern brazil, comprises several tectonic domains where, during the Proterozoic, extensive detritic material was deposited over pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks. This paper presents Sm-Nd isotopic data on the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of this belt and discusses some possible implications on their sedimentary provenance. The pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks display different Nd isotopic evolution and thus can be promptly discriminated as sources of different Nd model ages (T{sub DM}) and isotopic characteristics such as: Mantiqueira such as: Mantiqueira Complex, 3.0 and 2.6 Ga T{sub DM} isochrons ages; Juiz de Fora Complex, 2.2 Ga T{sub DM} isochron age and Quirino Complex, 2.0 Ga and 3.2 Ga T{sub DM} ages. At the Juiz de Fora Domain, metapelites from the Andrelandia Depositional Cycle display a very narrow range of Sm/Nd values (0.15 to 0.17) and T{sub DM} ages between 1.8 and 2.0 Ga. The corresponding measured {epsilon}{sub Nd} values [{epsilon}{sub Nd} (0)] vary between -20.8 and -29.1. The metapsammopelites of the Jardim Gloria Unit, in the same geologic domain, display very different isotopic characteristics: higher Sm/Nd ratios (0.22 and 0.24), lower {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) values (-15.3 and -18.3) and Neoarchean T{sub DM} ages (2.5 and 2.6 Ga). At the Paraiba do Sul Klippe, the analyzed metapelites from the middle unit of Paraiba do Sul group show T{sub DM} ages close to 1.7 Ga with e{sub ND} (0) values of -14.10 and -17.34. The metapsammopelites from the basal and uppermost units plot the 2.0 Ga T{sub DM} isochron and display {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) values vary between-21 and -32. An isolated T{sub DM} of an amphibolitic body, probably intrusive in the metasedimentary rocks of Paraiba do Sul Group, yields 1.0 Ga T{sub DM} age, with a {sup 147} Sm/{sup 144} Nd value of 0.1428. (author)

  20. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  1. Sm/Nd data of metasedimentary rocks from the central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern brazil, comprises several tectonic domains where, during the Proterozoic, extensive detritic material was deposited over pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks. This paper presents Sm-Nd isotopic data on the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of this belt and discusses some possible implications on their sedimentary provenance. The pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks display different Nd isotopic evolution and thus can be promptly discriminated as sources of different Nd model ages (TDM) and isotopic characteristics such as: Mantiqueira such as: Mantiqueira Complex, 3.0 and 2.6 Ga TDM isochrons ages; Juiz de Fora Complex, 2.2 Ga TDM isochron age and Quirino Complex, 2.0 Ga and 3.2 Ga TDM ages. At the Juiz de Fora Domain, metapelites from the Andrelandia Depositional Cycle display a very narrow range of Sm/Nd values (0.15 to 0.17) and TDM ages between 1.8 and 2.0 Ga. The corresponding measured εNd values [εNd (0)] vary between -20.8 and -29.1. The metapsammopelites of the Jardim Gloria Unit, in the same geologic domain, display very different isotopic characteristics: higher Sm/Nd ratios (0.22 and 0.24), lower εNd (0) values (-15.3 and -18.3) and Neoarchean TDM ages (2.5 and 2.6 Ga). At the Paraiba do Sul Klippe, the analyzed metapelites from the middle unit of Paraiba do Sul group show TDM ages close to 1.7 Ga with eND (0) values of -14.10 and -17.34. The metapsammopelites from the basal and uppermost units plot the 2.0 Ga TDM isochron and display εNd (0) values vary between-21 and -32. An isolated TDM of an amphibolitic body, probably intrusive in the metasedimentary rocks of Paraiba do Sul Group, yields 1.0 Ga TDM age, with a 147 Sm/144 Nd value of 0.1428. (author)

  2. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta) from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Dirse Clara Kern; Alice Helena Eleotério Pinto; Jorge Raimundo da Trindade Souza

    2004-01-01

    This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE) in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP). They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. T...

  3. Development of gas activities in the Amazon region: technological proposals for overcoming the challenges of the regional transport (Peru-Brazil gas pipeline); Desenvolvendo atividades gasiferas na Regiao Amazonica: propostas tecnologicas para superar os desafios do transporte regional (gasoduto Peru-Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamalloa, Guido Antonio Carrera; Santos, Edimilson Moutinho dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    1999-07-01

    The Amazon region has been demonstrating a great oil and gas potential in Brazil and in the neighboring countries, specially the field of Camisea in Peru. However, the development of feasible and economically justifiable transport systems, that allow the flows of those resources to their potential markets, it continues to be a great challenge. In this work we present some options that can be transformed into competitive and commercial enterprises. We describe different transportation systems, discussing about their technical, economic and commercial aspects. We suggest that the fields already discovered in the area should be treated in an integrated way, achieving economics of scale in more ambitious projects aiming at export. (author)

  4. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  5. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  6. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil Desempenho de um teste de imunocromatografia para malária por P. vivax na Amazônia

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    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.Avaliação do teste ICT malaria Pf/PvTM para o diagnóstico da malária por P. vivax em Belém, Estado do Pará. Foram comparados os resultados do teste imunocromatográfico com a gota espessa (GE e avaliados o comportamento desse teste, estocado a três temperaturas distintas (25(0C/ 30(0C/ 37(0C, 24 horas antes de seu uso. A sensibilidade do ICT malaria Pf/PvTM foi de 61,8% com especificidade de 100%, valores preditivo positivo e negativo de 100% e 71,8%, respectivamente, e acurácia de 80,67%. A sensibilidade desse teste foi independente da densidade parasitária. Este teste necessita de reavaliação para melhorar o seu comportamento no diagnóstico da malária por P. vivax.

  7. Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of Ediacaran outer platform carbonates, Paraguay Belt, central Brazil

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    Claudio Riccomini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available After the late Cryogenian glaciation the central region of Brazil was the site of extensive deposition of platformal carbonates of the Araras Group. This group includes a basal cap carbonate sequence succeeded by transgressive, deep platform deposits of bituminous lime mudstone and shale. Facies and stratigraphic data combined with carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of the most complete section of the transgressive deposits, exposed in the Guia syncline, were used to evaluate the depositional paleoenvironment and to test the correlation of these deposits along the belt and with other units worldwide. The studied succession consists of 150 m thick tabular beds of black to grey lime mudstone and shale with predominantly negative delta13C PDB values around -2.5 to -1‰ . The delta13C PDB profile of Guia syncline shows a clear correlation with the upper portion of Guia Formation in the Cáceres region, about 200 km to the southwest. The delta13C PDB profile of the Araras Group is comparable with delta13C PDB profiles of Ediacaran units of the southern Paraguay Belt, western Canada, and the Congo and Kalahari cratons. Moreover, facies distribution, stratigraphy and the carbon isotopic profile of the Araras Group match the middle Tsumeb Subgroup in Namibia, which reinforces the Ediacaran age assigned to the Araras Group.Após a glaciação do final do Criogeniano, a região central do Brasil foi palco de extensa deposição de carbonatos plataformais do Grupo Araras. Este grupo inclui na sua base uma seqüência de capa carbonática sucedida por depósitos transgressivos de calcilutitos betuminosos e folhelhos de plataforma profunda. Dados de fácies e estratigráficos combinados com análises isotópicas de carbono e oxigênio da seção mais completa desses depósitos transgressivos, expostos no sinclinal da Guia, foram empregados para avaliar o paleambiente deposicional e para testar a correlação desses depósitos ao longo da faixa e tamb

  8. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  9. Suspected Lead Poisoning in an Amazon Parrot

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    A double yellow headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala tresmariae) of unknown age and sex was examined for an acute onset of anorexia, listlessness, central nervous system signs and diarrhea. A tentative diagnosis of lead toxicosis was achieved based on radiographs, clinical pathology and response to therapy. Chelation therapy (Calcium EDTA) and supportive measures resulted in an uneventful recovery.

  10. Two new species and a new record of Anacroneuria (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição; Costa, Lucas De Souza Machado; Novaes, Marcos Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    We studied specimens of Anacroneuria (Plecoptera: Perlidae) collected from the region of Goiás City, Goiás State, Brazil. Two new species of Anacroneuria, A. meloi Bispo & Novaes and A. corae Bispo & Novaes are described and A. debilis (Pictet) is recorded for the first time from Goiás State. PMID:24871754

  11. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  12. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  13. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

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    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  14. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  15. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  16. Bold enterprise in Amazon basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D.

    1980-08-30

    The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pumpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia- Gmelina arborea which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products: pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

  17. Use of multi-proxy approaches to determine the origin and depositional processes in modern lacustrine sediments: Carajás Plateau, Southeastern Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Distribution of elements in lake sediments depicts the depositional process. • Geochemical proxies reflect the weathering and provenance of sediments. • δ13C and δ15N values have best used to trace organic sediments. • CIA values of sediment are mainly controlled by physical erosion process. - Abstract: Geochemical and isotopic compositions of surficial sediments from a plateau lake in Carajás, Southeastern Amazon region, were investigated to understand the spatial distribution of major and trace elements, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratio, depositional processes, and the origin of inorganic and organic fractions. The δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratio indicate mainly an autochthonous source, with siliceous sponge spicules and algae being the major source of organic matter in the center of the lake (Sector 3), while an allochthonous source, mainly derived from C3 vascular forest plants dominates in the shallowest portion of the lake (Sector 1). Consequently, there was an apparent dilution of C4 plants (montane savanna) in the sediment/water interface. Among major elements, Fe2O3 is highly enriched in Sector 3, which is controlled by the erosion of catchment laterites and underwater topography, while Al2O3 and P2O5 enrichment near the northern border of the lake is controlled by the weathering of mafic rocks. Similar spatial distribution of SiO2 with total organic carbon (TOC) and isotopic evidence indicate that Si distribution is partially controlled by organic components such as siliceous sponge spicules and algae. The occurrence of most of the trace and rare earth elements (REE) is independent of Fe2O3 and TOC, but controlled by detrital aluminum silicates and heavy minerals, indicating a lack of post-depositional diagenetic control on their distribution. The distribution of As and Mo are possibly controlled by organic matter mineralization during early diagenesis and subsequently precipitation of Fe phases. The values of the chemical index of

  18. Parasites in Curimata cyprinoides (Characiformes: Curimatidae from eastern Amazon, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.19649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is the first study on parasitic fauna of Curimata cyprinoides Linnaeus, 1766 (Curimatidae and the host-parasite relationship. The total of 154,740 parasites such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, trophozoite of Spironucleus sp. (Hexamitidae, Urocleidoides sp. (Monogenoidea, Digenea gen. sp. and Polymorphus sp. (Polymorphidae were collected. The component community showed low diversity (HB = 0.004 ± 0.020 and parasite species richness (1.4 ± 0.6. However, I. multifiliis and Urocleidoides sp. were prevalent and with higher intensity on the host population and also aggregated the distribution pattern. The occurrence of these ectoparasites in C. cyprinoides may be a consequence of its alimentary diet. Positive correlation between the abundance and size of I. multifiliis and the relative condition factor of the host were observed and discussed. These data represent increased knowledge of the biology of these parasites. Furthermore, this study expanded the geographic distribution of some parasite species for this new host from Brazil.

  19. Molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc in the Kararao Village (Kayapo in the Amazon Region of Brazil

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    Ishak Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from native Indians in the Kararao village (Kayapo, were analysed using serological and molecular methods to characterize infection and analyse transmission of HTLV-II. Specific reactivity was observed in 3/26 individuals, of which two samples were from a mother and child. RFLP analysis of the pX and env regions confirmed HTLV-II infection. Nucleotide sequence of the 5' LTR segment and phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity (98% between the three samples and prototype HTLV-IIa (Mot, and confirmed the occurrence of the HTLV-IIc subtype. There was a high genetic similarity (99.9% between the mother and child samples and the only difference was a deletion of two nucleotides (TC in the mother sequence. Previous epidemiological studies among native Indians from Brazil have provided evidence of intrafamilial and vertical transmission of HTLV-IIc. The present study now provides molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc, a mechanism that is in large part responsible for the endemicity of HTLV in these relatively closed populations. Although the actual route of transmission is unknown, breast feeding would appear to be most likely.

  20. Morphological aspects of Henneguya aequidens n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Azevedo, Rodney; Silva, Reinaldo; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya aequidens sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), was described based on its ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus, in the Peixe-boi River, Pará, Brazil. This parasite was found in the gills, in the form of whitish ellipsoid cysts with mature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15 ± 0.9 μm in length (n = 30) and 6 ± 0.8 μm in width (n = 30), and the tail measured 27 ± 0.5 μm in length (n = 15). The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 3 ± 0.3 μm in length and 2 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament forming a helix from the apical region to the polar caps, with four to six turns. Based on the ultrastructural differences in morphology of these spores, the location of the parasite, and its host specificity, this parasite was described as a new species.

  1. Determination of the Mercury Fraction Linked to Protein of Muscle and Liver Tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José C S; Cavecci, Bruna; Queiroz, João V; Braga, Camila P; Padilha, Cilene C F; Leite, Aline L; Figueiredo, Wllyane S; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Zara, Luiz F; Padilha, Pedro M

    2015-11-01

    This study used metalloproteomic techniques to characterize mercury (Hg)-bound proteins in the muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) collected at the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant in Madeira River Basin, Brazil. The proteome of the muscle and liver tissue was obtained after two steps of fractional precipitation and separating the proteins by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hg was identified and quantified in the protein spots by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization in an ultrasound bath. Hg with a molecular weight <20 kDa and a concentration between 13.30 and 33.40 mg g(-1) was found in the protein spots. These protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion. From a total of 12 analyzed spots, seven proteins showing Hg biomarker characteristics were identified: parvalbumin and its isoforms, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, zinc (Zn) finger and BTB domain-containing protein 24, and dual-specificity protein phosphatase 22-B.

  2. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  3. Riscos na qualidade sanitária da carne de jacaré da Amazônia Centra | Sanitary risk assessment for caiman meat quality in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sotero-Martins

    2015-11-01

    production chain of wild populations. In Brazil, there are no protocols for this type of meat. The slaughter and processing were performed using a simplified, traditional floating raft system and a water treatment system that used both filtration and chemicals. The animals were caught using a hook, harpoon, resting pole, and cable snare. The wild caimans of two species (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus were captured in the region of the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve in Central Amazon during three harvesting events. After each event, we progressively improved the meat-processing protocol. Microbiological testing of the meat was performed as described in norms and Brazilian legislation for fish meat. As a result, we achieved improvements in the sanitary quality of the meat of the killed animals for 57%, 76.5% and 100% of the samples obtained during the first, second, and third harvesting events, respectively. There were significant differences in the microbiological quality of the meat, with a reduction in the disapproval of the samples. The process of capturing animals, the cable snare, and the restraining pole were the factors that least affected the quality of the meat; in addition, animals between 81 and 100 cm of CRC had a lower risk of microbiological contamination. We can conclude that health surveillance activities, such as hand hygiene when handling meat, improvements in water quality, selection of animals of the most appropriate size for slaughter, and capture by less invasive methods can reduce the potential for microbiological contamination of the meat contribute to decrease the potential for microbiological contamination of meat.

  4. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  5. Intestinal parasitism in the Xavánte Indians, Central Brazil Parasitas intestinais entre índios Xavánte, Brasil Central

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    Ricardo V. Santos

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a survey for intestinal parasites among the Xavánte Indians from Central Brazil. A. lumbricoides (25.0% and hookworms (33.6% were the two most common helminths; E. histolytica complex (7.8% and G. lamblia (8.6% the most common protozoans. The majority (58.5% of positive individuals hosted only one species of helminth. Egg counts for helminths, and for A. lumbricoides in particular, were found to be not dispersed at random, with a few individuals, all of whom young children, showing very high counts. The prevalence rates of intestinal parasites for the Xavánte are below those reported for other Amerindian populations from Brazil.Este trabalho reporta os resultados de um inquérito transversal qualitativo e quantitativo sobre parasitas intestinais entre os Xavánte do Brasil Central. A. lumbricoides (25% e ancilostomídeos (33,6% foram os helmintos mais freqüentes; complexo E. histolytica (7,8% e G. lamblia (8,6% os protozoários mais comuns. A maioria dos indivíduos positivos albergava somente uma espécie de helminto (58,5%. Os resultados dos exames quantitativos indicaram que alguns poucos indivíduos, todos eles crianças, apresentavam concentrações particularmente elevadas de ovos de helmintos, particularmente no caso de A. lumbricoides. As prevalências de positividade dos Xavánte são inferiores àquelas reportadas para outros grupos indígenas do Brasil.

  6. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M.; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin-the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches-are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation.

  7. Migration among individuals with leprosy: a population-based study in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Murto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates social and clinical factors associated with migration among individuals affected by leprosy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among those newly diagnosed with leprosy (2006-2008, in 79 endemic municipalities in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (N = 1,074. In total, 76.2% were born in a municipality different from their current residence. In the five years before diagnosis 16.7% migrated, and 3.6% migrated after leprosy diagnosis. Findings reflect aspects associated with historical rural-urban population movement in Brazil. Indicators of poverty were prominent among before-diagnosis migrants but not after-diagnosis migrants. Migration after diagnosis was associated with prior migration. The association of multibacillary leprosy with migration indicates healthcare access may be an obstacle to early diagnosis among before-diagnosis migrants, which may also be related to the high mobility of this group.

  8. Use of Camera-Trapping to Estimate Puma Density and Influencing Factors in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Negroes, Nuno; Sarmento, Pedro; Cruz, Joana; Eira, Catarina; Revilla, Eloy; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Natália M.; Furtado, Mariana M.; Sollmann, Rahel

    2010-01-01

    We used remotely triggered cameras to collect data on Puma (Puma concolor) abundance and occupancy in an area of tropical forest in Brazil where the species’ status is poorly known. To evaluate factors influencing puma occupancy we used data from 5 sampling campaigns in 3 consecutive years (2005 to 2007) and 2 seasons (wet and dry), at a state park and a private forest reserve. We estimated puma numbers and density for the 2007 sampling data by developing a standardized individua...

  9. Molecular and geographic analyses of vampire bat-transmitted cattle rabies in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Hamilton P; Ito Fumio H; Albas Avelino; Carvalho Adolorata AB; Itou Takuya; Hirano Shinji; Mochizuki Nobuyuki; Sato Go; Kobayashi Yuki; Sakai Takeo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Vampire bats are important rabies virus vectors, causing critical problems in both the livestock industry and public health sector in Latin America. In order to assess the epidemiological characteristics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies, the authors conducted phylogenetic and geographical analyses using sequence data of a large number of cattle rabies isolates collected from a wide geographical area in Brazil. Methods Partial nucleoprotein genes of rabies viruses isolated...

  10. Molecular and geographic analyses of vampire bat-transmitted cattle rabies in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Hamilton P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vampire bats are important rabies virus vectors, causing critical problems in both the livestock industry and public health sector in Latin America. In order to assess the epidemiological characteristics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies, the authors conducted phylogenetic and geographical analyses using sequence data of a large number of cattle rabies isolates collected from a wide geographical area in Brazil. Methods Partial nucleoprotein genes of rabies viruses isolated from 666 cattle and 18 vampire bats between 1987 and 2006 were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The genetic variants were plotted on topographical maps of Brazil. Results In this study, 593 samples consisting of 24 genetic variants were analyzed. Regional localization of variants was observed, with the distribution of several variants found to be delimited by mountain ranges which served as geographic boundaries. The geographical distributions of vampire-bat and cattle isolates that were classified as the identical phylogenetic group were found to overlap with high certainty. Most of the samples analyzed in this study were isolated from adjacent areas linked by rivers. Conclusion This study revealed the existence of several dozen regional variants associated with vampire bats in Brazil, with the distribution patterns of these variants found to be affected by mountain ranges and rivers. These results suggest that epidemiological characteristics of vampire bat-related rabies appear to be associated with the topographical and geographical characteristics of areas where cattle are maintained, and the factors affecting vampire bat ecology.

  11. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paulo Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection.

  12. Species composition and abundance of the benthic community of Axiidea and Gebiidea (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Marapanim Bay, Amazon estuary, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Costa Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The thalassinideans (Axiidea and Gebiidea encompasses approximately 615 species with reclusive habits, generally confined to extensive galleries burrowed into the sand or mud and, more rarely, in openings in reefs or the cavities of sessile animals such as sponges and coral. These species use the galleries for shelter, feeding and breeding, except during the pelagic larval stage. They inhabit estuaries, bays, lagoons, beaches, seas and both tropical and temperate oceanic areas throughout the world, distributed predominantly in the intertidal zone (mid-littoral and infralittoral zones. The aim of the present study was to assess the species composition and abundance of thalassinideans, comparing two micro-habitats (consolidated and non-consolidated substrates, and determine whether there is a correlation between abundance of the organisms and time of the year, collection sites or salinity. Twelve monthly samplings were carried out between August 2006 and July 2007 over consolidated and non-consolidated bottoms of the upper and lower portions of the mid-littoral zones, with three sub-samplings, totaling 48 monthly samples and 576 in all. A total of 651 individuals were collected - 114 Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 and 537 Upogebia vasquezi Ngoc-Ho, 1989. There was correlation between the abundance of both species and salinity, but U. vasquezi was more abundant in the rainy season. Lepidophthalmus siriboia appears to prefer non-consolidated substrates, whereas U. vasquezi prefers consolidated substrates. The recruitment period for the callianassid L. siriboia appears to occur in just two periods of the year and is more intense in the dry season, whereas U. vasquezi is more frequent throughout the year. The smallest and largest sizes (carapace length - CL recorded for L. siriboia were smaller than those recorded for the species in northeastern region of Brazil. CL values for ovigerous females suggest that U. vasquezi reaches

  13. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno de Paulo; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; de Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros; Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Grisotto, Marcos Augusto Grigolin; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection.

  14. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  15. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  16. Evaluation of a Commercial Real-Time PCR Kit for Detection of Dengue Virus in Samples Collected during an Outbreak in Goiânia, Central Brazil, in 2005▿

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, José Eduardo; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Machado, Adriana Freire; Ramalho, Débora Camillo; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; de Rezende Feres, Valéria Christina; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Marília Dalva TURCHI; Siqueira, João Bosco; Pannuti, Cláudio Sérgio

    2007-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, dengue has reemerged in Brazil as a significant public health problem. Clinicians demand a diagnostic test with high sensitivity that is applicable during the early symptomatic phase. We aimed to test two distinct molecular methods on samples from suspected dengue cases during an outbreak in Central Brazil. Acute-phase serum specimens from 254 patients suspected of having dengue were collected during 2005 in the city of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Samples were blindly eval...

  17. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  18. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  19. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  20. A new species of spiny-backed treefrog (Osteocephalus) from Central Amazonian Brazil (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfer, Karl-Heinz; Verdade, Vanessa K; Faivovich, Julián; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2016-01-01

    A new species of treefrog of the genus Osteocephalus is described from the Rio Abacaxis, a southern tributary of the Amazonas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. This member of the O. buckleyi group is characterized by green dorsal colouration with irregular blotches of various shades of brown, light venter with tan spots and bold dark markings on the posterior surfaces of the thighs. It can be distinguished from its closest relative, O. helenae from the same general area, by the lack of an axillary membrane, a few indistinct tubercles on the proximal segment of Finger IV and single ulnar tubercles. PMID:27395123

  1. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  2. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  3. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region. PMID:27286412

  4. Preliminary paleohydrological interpretation of an Amazon floodplain system based on seismic stratigraphy: Varzea do Lago Grande do Curuai, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, M. A.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Turcq, B.

    2009-04-01

    The aquatic lacustrine ecosystems are depositional environments that register in yours sediments the process that occurs on the own site and in the all drainage basin. The Amazonas River and its tributaries are followed along your upward and downward course by several floodplains that cover a large area of environs 300.000 km2. These sites are dynamic and complexes systems. Floodplains affect the erosion the transport and the sedimentation flux in the system and it has a special importance for carbon cycle due yours high productivity. In the floodplains systems the sediment deposition occurs in a different scale of time period. In these work, we study the "Varzea Grande do Curuai" which size varies from 1340km2 during the dry season, to 3600 km2 during the wet season, according to the level of the river. This floodplain is located on the southern margin of the Amazonas River, close to the city of Óbidos, Pará-Brazil, in the Lower Amazonas. The floodplain contains several white water lakes such as Grande, Poção, Santa Ninha and Salé Lakes, and black water lakes such as the Curumucuri and Açaí Lakes. These lakes are connected to each other and to the Amazonas River by small channels, some of which are permanently connected to the river and others not, depending on the variations of the water level. The purpose of this work is to reconstruct past sedimentary processes using seismic stratigraphy profiles realized all along the floodplain lakes and sediment cores collected at strategic sites. The sedimentary patterns observed in the seismic profiles are horizontal layers, highly reflective unpenetrated levels and paleochannels that could have been formed during the Holocene. The larger quantity of paleochannels along the lakes has been observed in the Grande and Salé lakes. The paleochannels in the Grande Lake would indicate a migration of actual depositional ridge that separates the floodplain from the river. In the Salé Lake, the paleochannels indicate that

  5. Caracterização do uso de malhadeiras pela frota pesqueira que desembarca em Manaus e Manacapuru, Amazonas Characterization of gillnet fisheries landed in Manaus and Manacapuru, Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A malhadeira é um apetrecho de pesca frequentemente utilizado na pesca regional. O presente estudo visa verificar características das malhadeiras utilizadas nos diversos subsistemas da Amazônia Central, seu uso e a aplicação de normas legais relacionadas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com pescadores em Manaus entre 1994 e 2004 e em Manacapuru entre 2001 e 2004. Os resultados indicaram que o apetrecho responde em média a 14% da produção pesqueira de Manaus, com tendência a diminuição e a 24,5% de Manacapuru, com estabilidade interanual. As freqüências modais recentes do tamanho de malha estiveram entre 50-60 mm no desembarque em Manaus, mas em Manacapuru foram mais diversas, entre 20 mm e 90 mm. A moda do comprimento das redes foi de 100 m em ambos portos, mas se em Manaus correspondem a cerca de 90% das registradas, em Manacapuru não são nem 50% do total. Quanto à freqüência de ocorrência de uso da malhadeira nos subsistemas da Amazônia Central que desembarcaram em Manaus, destaca-se o rio Purus (47,8%, enquanto que para Manacapuru predominou explotação no Baixo Solimões (94,3%. A composição das capturas variou entre os anos analisados, destacando cinco principais pescados que compõem mais de 70% das capturas: tambaqui, aruanã, tucunaré, curimatá, pirapitinga. Com relação às restrições no tamanho de malha, a maioria dos apetrechos têm tamanho de malha passível de uso ilegal, similarmente aos comprimentos das mesmas. Concluiu-se que há grande diversidade de formas de uso do apetrecho, sendo necessário gerar normas legais mais efetivas e compatíveis com a realidade pesqueira, cultural e sócio-econômica da Amazônia.The gillnet is frequently used in Amazon commercial and artisanal fishing. The present study aims to verify characteristics of the gill-nets of gillnets found in various Central Amazon subsystems, their use, and compliance with related legal norms. Daily Interviews were made from

  6. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  7. Sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest to convective storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Rifai, S. W.; Urquiza Munoz, J. D.; Tello, R.; Alegria Munoz, W.; Marra, D.; Ribeiro, G.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest contiguous continental tropical forest in the world and is a world center of carbon storage, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and biogeophysical processes that affect the Earth climate system. Yet anthropogenic activities have produced changes in the forest-climate system. Consequently, an increase in rainfall in both the Western and Central Amazon and a decrease in the Eastern Amazon are expected due to these anthropogenic activities. While the projected decrease in rainfall has been discussed under the context of drought, deforestation, and fires, the effect of an increase in rainfall, and associated convective processes, on forest ecosystems has been overlooked. Across the Amazon rainforest, Western Amazonia has the highest precipitation rates, wood productivity, soil fertility, recruitment and mortality rates. Yet our field-measured tree mortality data from blowdowns that occurred in Western and Central Amazonia do not show a statistical difference in tree mortality between these regions. However, downburst velocities associated with these disturbances were calculated to be lower in Western Amazonia than in the Central Amazon. This suggests the Western Amazon is more highly sensitive to intense convective systems. This result is particularly relevant given the expected increase in rainfall in the Western and Central Amazon. The increase in rainfall is associated with more intense convective systems that in turn imply an increase in low level jet stream (LLJ) intensity east of the Andes. The presence of the LLJ is the main cause of squall lines and an increase in LLJ intensity will therefore cause increased propagation of squall lines into the Amazon basin. More frequent and active squall lines have the potential to increase the intensity and frequency of downbursts responsible for large forest blowdowns that will affect the biogeophysical feedbacks on the forest ecosystem and carbon budget.

  8. Pathways of clay mineral transport in the coastal zone of the Brazilian continental shelf from Ceará to the mouth of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, J. O.; Tintelnot, M.; Irion, G.; Souza Pinheiro, L.

    2006-03-01

    The transport pathways of fine sediments (fraction coagulation of individual clay mineral groups. By contrast, our experiments with river bank samples show that selective coagulation does not occur in Amazon River sediments. A more appropriate explanation for observed variations in clay mineral composition off the Amazon mouth seems to be, similarly to that for the shelf between Ceará and the Amazon mouth, a mixing of Amazon sediments with suspended material of the North Brazil Current. This interpretation is supported by data on clay mineral composition east and south of the Amazon mouth, showing more affinity to sediments of the North Brazil Current than to the suspended load of the Amazon River. Additionally, relatively low sedimentation rates and low concentrations of fine-grained sediments on the shelf suggest that high riverine input by the Amazon River does not overprint the sediments of the North Brazil Current in this region. The strong North Brazil Current shunts the Amazon suspended load in a north-westerly direction along the north-eastern coast of South America. Hence, stronger sedimentation of Amazon sediments would occur only west of the river mouth.

  9. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  10. Intoxicação natural por Brachiaria spp. em ovinos no Brasil Central Brachiaria spp. poisoning in sheep in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria spp. é a principal forrageira utilizada para ruminantes no Brasil Central, mas a sua toxicidade, devida à presença de saponinas esteroidais, torna-se um importante entrave à sua utilização. Neste trabalho descrevem-se 34 surtos e um foco de intoxicação por Brachiaria spp em ovinos, que ocorreram em diferentes épocas do ano. A morbidade geral foi de 23,2% e a letalidade foi 88,3%. O tempo que os animais permaneceram no pasto até o surgimento dos sinais clínicos da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. variou de 15 dias até mais de 12 meses. Em 90,1% dos surtos os animais eram menores de 12 meses de idade. O curso clínico da intoxicação variou de 2 a 45 dias. Os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas foram características de fotossenssibilização hepatógena, no entanto, nos casos mais agudos não foram observadas dermatite nem icterícia, ocorrendo severo edema em face e orelhas. Na histologia do fígado as lesões mais características foram a presença de macrófagos com citoplasma espumoso, encontrados principalmente nos sinusoides hepáticos e, às vezes, com imagens negativas de cristais acutiformes no citoplasma. Em oito das 11 fazendas visitadas os surtos ocorreram em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens; em duas em pastagens de B. brizantha e uma em pastagem de B. decumbens, B. humidicola e Andropogon sp. As concentrações de saponinas nas pastagens, em 5 surtos, variou de 0.3% a 2.56%. As informações geradas neste trabalho permitem a proposta de medidas para controle e profilaxia da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. no Brasil Central.Brachiaria spp. is the main pasture for ruminants in Central-Brazil, but the crucial problem for their utilization is the toxicity due to the presence of steroidal saponins. This paper reports 35 outbreaks of poisoning by Brachiaria spp in sheep. The poisoning occurred in different seasons of the year. Mean morbidity was 23.2% and mean lethality was 88.3%. The occurrence of

  11. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae in crop succession at central Brazil

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    Alex Furquim Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae in crop succession at central Brazil. Beetles of the family Melolonthidae make up a large group and some species are considered pests of planted crops. Little information is available on the basic biological aspects of the genus Leucothyreus, such as association with cultivated crops and their occurrence periods. Therefore studies were developed in soybean and corn crops in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, with the objective of studying the occurrence and biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus. For acquisition of immature specimens of both species, in April 2011 sampling was performed in corn fields, in July and October in the fallow area, and in soybeans fields planted in December; in 2012 sampling was performed in January and February in soybean fields and in March in corn fields. In 2011 the total number of larvae obtained in April, July, October and December were 100, 6, 30 and 27, and in January, February and March of 2012 these quantities were 32, 52 and 65 larvae, respectively. In all sampling events the larvae of L. alvarengai were collected in greater quantity. At the beginning of the reproductive period of L. alvarengai and L. aff. semipruinosus, it was observed that the adults began to fly and soon after started oviposition in the field in September. The appearance of larvae coincides with the time of soybean planting in the field, thus the larvae feed on roots of soybean plants at the beginning of their development and the cycle from egg to adult of the two species was completed in one year.

  12. NATURAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma cruzi IN ONE DOG IN CENTRAL WESTERN BRAZIL: A CASE REPORT

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    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY It is estimated that about 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, mostly in Latin America and more than 25 million are at risk of acquiring this infection in endemic areas. Dogs are an important reservoir for this pathogen and thus, considered a risk factor for human populations. This report describes one case of Chagas disease in a dog from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The diagnosis was obtained by direct examination of trypomastigote forms in blood smears. Amastigotes forms were visualized in microscopy of the bone marrow, lymph nodes, kidneys, liver and brain. The T. cruzi (ZIII infection was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, and sequencing. The animal presented multisystemic failure and died. Although acute Chagas disease in humans is not reported in Cuiabá, this is the first report of a canine case in this region. This case represents a warning, to health professionals and authorities, to the possibility of transmission of this zoonosis in Cuiabá.

  13. Vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly in an urban center in central Brazil

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    Marta Driemeier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9% of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly.

  14. Runoff measurement and prediction for a watershed under natural vegetation in central Brazil

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    C. L. Silva

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to measure and analyze total rainfall (P, rainfall intensity and five-day antecedent rainfall effects on runoff (R; to compare measured and simulated R values using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (CN for each rainfall event; and to establish average R/P ratios for observed R values. A one-year (07/01/96 to 06/30/97 rainfall-runoff data study was carried out in the Capetinga watershed (962.4 ha, located at the Federal District of Brazil, 47° 52' longitude West and 15° 52' latitude South. Soils of the watershed were predominantly covered by natural vegetation. Total rainfall and runoff for the period were 1,744 and 52.5 mm, respectively, providing R/P of 3% and suggesting that watershed physical characteristics favored water infiltration into the soil. A multivariate regression analysis for 31 main rainfall-runoff events totaling 781.9 and 51.0 mm, respectively, indicated that the amount of runoff was only dependent upon rainfall volume. Simulated values of total runoff were underestimated about 15% when using CN method and an area-weighted average of the CN based on published values. On the other hand, when average values of CN were calculated for the watershed, total runoff was overestimated about 39%, suggesting that CN method shoud be used with care in areas under natural vegetation.

  15. Diversity of sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) captured in sandstone caves from Central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Veracilda Ribeiro; Freitas, Rui Alves de; Santos, Francisco Lima; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2011-05-01

    In the present paper we describe the diversity of phlebotomine sandflies collected in three sandstone caves in the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The phlebotomines were captured during 2006 with CDC light traps. Guano samples from inside the Gruta Refúgio do Maruaga were collected to investigate the presence of immature specimens. A total of 2,160 adult phlebotomines representing 15 species were captured. Pintomyia pacae was the dominant species in Gruta dos Animais (1,723 specimens) and Gruta dos Lages (50 specimens) and Deanemyia maruaga new comb (280 specimens) was the dominant species in Gruta Refúgio do Maruaga. A total of 18 guano samples were collected and seven of these samples included immature specimens. A total of 507 immature specimens were captured; 495 of these specimens were larvae and 12 were pupae. The presence of paca (Agouti paca) footprints near Gruta dos Animais and Gruta dos Lages suggests the association of Pi. pacae with this rodent. This finding may explain the abundance of Pi. pacae in these locations, while the species is relatively rare in the forest. Deanemyia maruaga is a cave species that uses guano to breed during its immature stages. Adult specimens of this species are apparently parthenogenetic and autogenous and represent the second record of parthenogenesis for the subfamily Phlebotominae.

  16. Subsidies and Cattle Production in the Amazon: An Economic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Emily A.; Catherine HALBRENDT; Sherbourne, Jennifer; Gempesaw, Conrado

    1992-01-01

    Cattle production has been a major source of agricultural deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rainforest. Brazilian credit subsidies have been blamed for speeding cattle expansion and thus deforestation. A stochastic coefficients regression approach was used to quantify the effects of credit subsidies and world prices on cattle numbers in five Amazon rigions for the 1963-83 period. Results show that cattle production has been positively correlated to both prices and credit. Elasticities show tha...

  17. Endemic hepatitis b and c virus infection in a brazilian eastern amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo El Khouri; Quirino Cordeiro; Diogo Arantes Behling Pereira da Luz; Leandro Savoy Duarte; Mônica Elinor Alves Gama; Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection has been an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. However there are few investigations regarding the prevalence and possible risk factors for these diseases in Brazil, particularly in Amazon region, where there are some endemic focus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the city of Buriticupu, MA, located in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon region, and try to explore the risk factors for th...

  18. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  19. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Daniel Gomes; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598

  20. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598

  1. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Density in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes da Rocha

    Full Text Available Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2 was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  2. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  3. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.;

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut sampl...

  4. Fitossociologia de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa na Amazônia Setentrional, Roraima, Brasil Phytosociology of a dense ombrophilous forest in the northern Amazon, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Monteiro Condé

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a composição florística e fitossociológica de uma floresta nativa no município de Caracaraí, Roraima, Brasil. Foram inventariadas todas as árvores com DAP > 10 cm em 9 parcelas permanentes de 100 x 100 m (1 ha cada. Foram observados 4.724 indivíduos (525ind.ha-1, distribuídos em 42 famílias botânicas, 111 gêneros e 165 espécies. As famílias com maior número de indivíduos foram Fabaceae (1.883, Lecythidaceae (609 e Sapotaceae (434, perfazendo 52% do total de indivíduos amostrados. O grupo composto por espécies pioneiras apresentou maior número de indivíduos (219ind.ha-1, seguido das secundárias (193ind.ha-1 e climácicas (113ind.ha-1. No entanto, as secundárias obtiveram maior número de espécies (95, em detrimento de climácicas (44 e pioneiras (26. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' = 3,27 e o valor de equabilidade de Pielou (J = 0,64 foram inferiores aos obtidos em outros inventários florísticos na Amazônia Legal, contribuindo para isso o tamanho populacional de Pentaclethra macroloba. As espécies Pentaclethra macroloba (52,1, Eschweilera bracteosa (23,7 e Pouteria caimito (8,1 apresentaram os maiores valores de importância, perfazendo 28% do VI total. A maior parte dos indivíduos amostrados (71,3% = 374ind.ha-1 foram registrados no estrato médio (12,4 m This study was carried out to characterize species composition and phytosociology of a native forest located at Caracaraí, Roraima, Brazil. All trees with breast diameter (DBH above 10 cm in nine 1-ha-permanent plots (100 x 100 m each were inventoried. We observed 4,724 individuals (525 trees per hectare distributed in 42 families, 111 genera and 165 species. The families with greater number of individuals were Fabaceae (1883, Lecythidaceae (609 and Sapotaceae (434, comprising 52% of the total. The higher densities of individuals were observed in the pioneer (219 trees ha-1, followed by secondary (193 trees

  5. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens de várzea no Estado do Amazonas Phytosociological assessment of pastures under flooded low land conditions in the State of Amazon, Brazil

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    A.K.L. Galvão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens é uma importante ferramenta de suporte às recomendações de manejo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar um levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens de várzea do município de Autazes-AM. O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas de várzea sazonalmente inundadas, localizadas nesse município. No estudo, utilizou-se o método do quadrado, aplicado por meio de um quadrado de 1,0 m², lançado ao acaso 31 vezes em cada área de três hectares. Nas duas áreas foram encontrados 27.706 indivíduos, distribuídos em 12 famílias e 22 espécies. As famílias mais importantes em número de espécies nas duas áreas foram Poaceae (7 e Cyperaceae (4. Brachiaria subquadripara mostrou, nas duas áreas, maiores valores de frequência, densidade, abundância e IVI. As espécies que apresentaram maiores valores de IVI na área 1 foram: B. subquadripara (118,45, Paspalum fasciculatum (51,25, Cynodon dactylon (46,99 e Lindernia crustacea (25,25, e na área 2 foram: B. subquadripara (111,66, C. dactylon (55,44, Acroceras zizanioides (33,70 e L. crustacea (24,91. Em ambas as áreas, a família Poaceae representou mais de 90% do total de indivíduos encontrados, e algumas espécies apresentaram bom potencial forrageiro.The phytosociological assessment of pastures is an important support tool for management recommendations. The objective of this work was to make a phytosociological assessment of flooded low land in Autazes-Amazon, Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas that had been flooded in the past. The inventory square method was applied using a square frame of 1.0 m², randomly thrown 31 times in each area of three hectares. In these two areas, 27,706 individuals were found, distributed in 12 families and 22 species. The most important families in number of species in the two areas were Poaceae (7 and Cyperaceae (4. Brachiaria subquadripara presented higher frequency, density, abundance and IVI

  6. Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The study present evaluated the levels of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in hair samples of people from Barreiras community, riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River (Pará, Brazil), an area impacted by clandestine gold mining, as well as we analyzed the levels of Hg and Se (selenium) in nine fish species (carnivores and non-carnivorous) from the Tapajós River, which stand out as the main species consumed by riverside inhabitants, to evaluate a relationship between frequency of fish consumption and Hg concentration, and also to evaluate possible mechanisms of fish protection (or non-protection) to Hg exposure by Se. Furthermore we analyze the water quality to evaluate the environmental trophic state, fact responsible by creating conditions that can potentiate the effects of toxic mercury. Concentrations of Hg and MeHg were analyzed in hair samples of 141 volunteers in different age band. Of those, 84.40% of samples present values above the threshold for biological tolerance, which is 6.00μgg(-1) of total Hg in hair. Total Hg, in men there was a variation of 2.07-24.93μgg(-1), while for women the variation was 4.84-27.02μgg(-1). Consequently, the level of MeHg in men presented a variation of 1.49-19.57μgg(-1), with an average of 11.68μgg(-1), while with women the variation was from 3.73 to 22.35μgg(-1), with an average of 10.38μgg(-1). In fish species, Hg concentrations in carnivorous species had an average of 0.66μgg(-1), higher than that permitted by current legislation, ranging from 0.30 to 0.98μgg(-1), while the non-carnivorous species have values below the recommended by the legislation averaging 0.09μgg(-1), ranging between 0.02 and 0.44μgg(-1). For Se in fish, show that among carnivores, the contents of Se ranged between 0.18 and 0.54μgg(-1) with a mean of 0.34μgg(-1), while for non-carnivores these values were of the order of 0.16-0.56μgg(-1), with an average of 0.32μgg(-1). In surface water quality variables at the sampling points

  7. Microfitoplâncton de águas costeiras amazônicas: Ilha Canela (Bragança, PA, Brasil Microphytoplankton of Amazon coastal waters: Canela Island (Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Brabo de Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Variações sazonal e nictemeral do microfitoplâncton foram estudadas em uma estação fixa (00º46'37,2''S-046º43'24,5''W, localizada em uma área costeira próxima à ilha Canela (Norte do Brasil, durante os meses de setembro e dezembro/2004 (período seco e março e junho/2005 (período chuvoso. As amostras destinadas à análise qualitativa do fitoplâncton foram obtidas a partir da filtragem de 400 L de água, através de uma rede planctônica (65 μm de abertura de malha, durante marés de sizígia, em intervalos regulares de três horas, por um período de 24 horas. O material coletado foi fixado com formol neutro a 4%. Paralelamente a essas coletas foi medida a salinidade da superfície da água. A salinidade apresentou variação significativa ao longo do período de estudo, variando entre 26,1 (junho/2005 e 39,0 (dezembro/2004, caracterizando o ambiente como eualino-polialino. Foram identificados 130 táxons incluídos nas divisões Cyanophyta (dois táxons, Bacillariophyta (115 táxons e Dinophyta (13 táxons. As diatomáceas dominaram o microfitoplâncton da área, sendo Asterionellopsis glacialis, Dimeregramma minor, Skeletonema sp. e Thalassiosira subtilis os táxons mais freqüentes e abundantes. Os altos valores de salinidade condicionaram a maior representatividade das espécies marinhas neríticas, polialóbias. Os processos de ressuspensão provocados pelos ventos e arrebentação das ondas promoveram intercâmbios entre as populações planctônicas e ticoplanctônicas, dentre as quais as espécies Dimeregramma minor, Triceratium biquadratum e T. pentacrinus representaram novas ocorrências para as águas costeiras do litoral amazônico.Seasonal and nyctemeral variations of the microphytoplankton were studied at a fixed station (00º46'37.2''S-046º43'24.5''W on Canela Island (North Brazil in September and December/2004 (dry season and in March and June/2005 (rainy season. Samples for qualitative phytoplankton studies were

  8. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  9. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  10. Activity of Tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae Attacking the Reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn. (Alligatoridae and Eunectes murinus (Linn. (Boidae, in the Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Ferreira Ruth LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2, situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02°45'33"S; 59°51'03"W. Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn., and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn., in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  11. The Amazon and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.

  12. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  13. New Astyanax from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, Central Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Vinicius A. Bertaco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Astyanax utiariti, new species, is described from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Astyanax utiariti has a horizontally oval black humeral spot, a lozenge-shaped caudal-peduncle spot, continuing to the tip of the middle caudal-fin rays, and two brown bars in the humeral region that allows its inclusion in the A. bimaculatus species group. It also possesses a black stripe extending along midlateral body. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a reticulate scale pattern, a black longitudinal stripe, toothless maxilla, larger dentary teeth and teeth of the inner row of the premaxilla with five to seven cusps, body depth 33.3-39.9% of standard length (SL, head length (HL 23.9-26.4% of SL, caudal-peduncle depth 12.0-13.4% of SL, orbital diameter 28.5-34.3% of HL, interorbital width 32.7-38.4% of HL, 36-38 perforated scales along the lateral line, and 22-26 branched anal-fin rays.Astyanax utiariti, nova espécie, é descrita da drenagem do alto rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Astyanax utiariti tem uma mancha umeral preta horizontalmente ovalada, uma mancha losangular preta no pedúnculo caudal continuada até a extremidades dos raios caudais medianos e duas barras marrons na região humeral, que permite sua inclusão no grupo de espécies A. bimaculatus. Também possui uma faixa preta estendida ao longo do meio do corpo. A nova espécie distingue-se de suas congêneres pelo padrão reticulado nas escamas, uma faixa preta longitudinal, maxilar sem dentes, dentes maiores do dentário e dentes da série interna do pré-maxilar com cinco a sete cúspides, altura do corpo de 33,3-39,9% do comprimento padrão (CP, comprimento da cabeça (CC de 23,9-26,4% do CP, altura do pedúnculo caudal 12,0-13,4% do CP, diâmetro orbital de 28,5-34,3% do CC, largura interorbital de 32,7-38,4% do CC, 36-38 escamas perfuradas ao longo da linha lateral e 22-26 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal.

  14. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

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    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  15. Chloritites of the Tocantins Group, Araguaia fold belt, central-northern Brazil: Vestiges of basaltic magmatism and metallogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschoubey, Basile; Villas, Raimundo Netuno; Aires, Benevides

    2016-08-01

    Chloritites from different localities (Arapoema, Couto Magalhães Velho, Juarina, Morro Grande, Morro do Jabuti, Morro do Pau Ferrado, Morro do Salto, Serra do Jacu, Serra do Quatipuru, Serra do Tapa, Serrinha) of the Araguaia fold belt, Tocantins geotectonic province, central-northern Brazil, have been investigated. Based on field work and petrographic, diffractometric, geochemical and mineral chemistry data, these rocks, commonly associated with metacherts and banded iron formations, have been interpreted as products of ocean-floor exhalative-hydrothermal activity on MORB basalts. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements and diagrams of relatively immobile components in the hydrothermal environment highlight not only the genetic link between the chloritites and the basaltic rocks that occur in the region (Serra do Tapa and Morro do Agostinho), but also some peculiar characteristics of the submarine environment. The rock association and anomalous contents of Cu, Zn, Ni, As, and Au are suggestive that the region was favorable to the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, what makes it a potential target for mineral exploration programs.

  16. Bionomic data and larval density of Scarabaeidae (Pleurosticti in sugarcane in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Gilmar Vieira Coutinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bionomic data and larval density of Scarabaeidae (Pleurosticti in sugarcane in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Phytophagous larvae of Scarabaeidae cause damage to diverse crops. Information on these pests is scarce; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine biological aspects and larval density of species occurring in an area of sugarcane. The studies were developed in Sidrolândia from April 2009 to March 2010. Scarab beetle larvae were collected in sugarcane roots every fifteen days, taken to the laboratory and reared to obtain the adults and determine biological parameters. A total of 2,656 larvae were collected, being 162 Liogenys fuscus, 120 Cyclocephala verticalis, 37 Cyclocephala forsteri, and 2337 Anomonyx sp. In January, 53.65 larvae m-2 were obtained, and the most abundant species was Anomonyx sp, representing 87.99% of the total larvae collected. From November to March, the greatest densities of Anomonyx were observed in the field. The adults of this species occurred from May to September, and egg laying from September to November. Eggs measured 1.1 x 1.7 mm, and incubation period last 15.4 days. First instar larvae were observed mainly in October; second instar larvae from November to April; and third instar from January to July. Pupae were observed from May to August. The most abundant scarab beetle, Anomonyx sp. in roots of sugarcane presents one generation per year in Sidrolândia, MS.

  17. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

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    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  18. Analysis of moisture content, acidity and contamination by yeast and molds in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananias, Karla Rubia; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; de Moura, Celso José

    2013-01-01

    The development of mold of environmental origin in honey affects its quality and leads to its deterioration, so yeasts and molds counts have been used as an important indicator of hygiene levels during its processing, transportation and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of yeasts and molds contamination and their correlation with moisture and acidity levels in Apis mellifera L. honey from central Brazil. In 20% of the samples, the yeasts and molds counts exceeded the limit established by legislation for the marketing of honey in the MERCOSUR, while 42.8% and 5.7% presented above-standard acidity and moisture levels, respectively. Although samples showed yeasts and molds counts over 1.0 × 10(2) UFC.g(-1), there was no correlation between moisture content and the number of microorganisms, since, in part of the samples with above-standard counts, the moisture level was below 20%. In some samples the acidity level was higher than that established by legislation, but only one sample presented a yeasts and molds count above the limit established by MERCOSUR, which would suggest the influence of the floral source on this parameter. In general, of the 35 samples analyzed, the quality was considered inadequate in 45.7% of cases.

  19. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

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    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  20. Airborne Geophysical Surveys in the North-Central Region of Goias (Brazil): Implications for Radiometric Characterization of Subtropical Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, S N P; Justo, J S

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present progress obtained in analysis airborne geophysical survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil). The results obtained indicate that most of the subtropical soil types are characterized by Uranium contents of greater than one parts per million (ppm). Only ultisol and oxisol soils are found to have Uranium contents lower than one ppm. Thorium and Potassium abundances also display trends similar to those of Uranium. The K/U ratios fall in the expected range of values for common soils while the Th/U ratios are higher than normal. This latter observation may indicate a characteristic feature of subtropical soils. Alternatively it may be considered as indicative of disequilibrium conditions in radioactive series and consequent underestimation of Uranium in soil layers of the study area. In this context we point out the possibility of using results of radiometric surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in subtropical env...

  1. Analysis of floodplain storage and sedimentation in the middle Araguaia River, an anabranching system of central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, K. B.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Bayer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Araguaia River is the largest river that drains the Cerrado, or savanna ecosystem, in central Brazil. With a drainage area of about 377,000 km2 and a mean annual discharge of 6,420 m3s-1, the Araguaia River is an anabranching system with a tendency to braid. The study area is a middle section of the river, which maintains a well-developed alluvial floodplain. We use a water budget approach to analyze discharge data from 1976-2006 from four gauging stations along the study area, demonstrating that up to 30% of the river discharge is lost to floodplain storage during flooding periods in some river reaches. We link floodplain storage of discharge to the morphology of the channel and alluvial floodplain, emphasizing the role of morphological features such as paleomeander and oxbow lakes. Floodplain storage also displays a temporal pattern. In addition, we present initial results of floodplain sedimentation rates obtained through Pb-210 geochronology in a reach of the study area near the Aruanã gauging station. Channel and floodplain morphology is linked to floodplain sedimentation patterns. This research contributes to knowledge of water and sediment fluxes between tropical anabranching rivers and their floodplains.

  2. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population. PMID:12701237

  3. Epidemiology of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus in Goiás, central Brazil: re-evaluation based on G-L intergenic region

    OpenAIRE

    Ito Fumio H; Carvalho Adolorata AB; Itou Takuya; Hirano Shinji; Sakai Takeo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Vampire bat related rabies harms both livestock industry and public health sector in central Brazil. The geographical distributions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus variants are delimited by mountain chains. These findings were elucidated by analyzing a high conserved nucleoprotein gene. This study aims to elucidate the detailed epidemiological characters of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus by phylogenetic methods based on 619-nt sequence including unconserved G...

  4. The role of bee diversity in pollination and fruit set of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa, Passifloraceae) crop in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Marcela; Silva, Cláudia; Augusto, Solange; Barbosa, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Pollination is an important ecosystem service, especially to self-sterile crops as passion fruit, which depends on the large solitary bee for fruit set. We estimated the species richness of pollinators of yellow passion fruit in Central Brazil and examined whether there was any association with crop yield. We recorded 27 bee species on passion fruit flowers in commercial orchards in the region, from 2004 to 2007. Some 17 species were classified as pollinators (12 as effective and 5 as occasio...

  5. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae) from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho; Ayrton Klier Péres Júnior; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianae)from a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females), 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4) and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were ...

  6. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes) along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rita G.; Eduardo Ferreira; Yuri L. R. Leite; Carlos Fonseca; Costa, Leonora P.

    2011-01-01

    We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769), pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814) and Oecomys spp....

  7. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  8. Identification of Oropouche Orthobunyavirus in the cerebrospinal fluid of three patients in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Monte, Rossicleia Lins; Lessa, Natália; Pinto de Figueiredo, Regina Maria; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Pivoto João, Guilherme; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes

    2012-04-01

    Oropouche fever is the second most frequent arboviral infection in Brazil, surpassed only by dengue. Oropouche virus (OROV) causes large and explosive outbreaks of acute febrile illness in cities and villages in the Amazon and Central-Plateau regions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 110 meningoencephalitis patients were analyzed. The RNA extracted from fluid was submitted to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to identify OROV. Three CSF samples showed the presence of OROV causing infection in the central nervous system (CNS). These patients are adults. Two of the patients had other diseases affecting CNS and immune systems: neurocysticercosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the OROV from the CSF of these patients belonged to genotype I. We show here that severe Oropouche disease is occurring during outbreaks of this virus in Brazil.

  9. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Funasaki; Hileia dos Santos Barroso; Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes; Ingrid Sabino Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), bacuri (Platonia insignis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), buriti (Mauritia vi...

  10. Effect of Direct Seeding Mulch-Based Systems on Soil Carbon Storage and Macrofauna in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Blanchart

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils represent a large carbon pool, approximately 1500 Gt, equivalent to almost three times the quantity stored in terrestrial biomass and twice the amount stored in the atmosphere. Any modification of land-use or land management can induce variations in soil carbon stocks, even in agricultural systems that are perceived to be in a steady state. These modifications also alter soil macrofauna that is known to affect soil carbon dynamics. Direct seeding Mulch-based Cropping (DMC systems with two crops per year without soil tillage have widely been adopted over the last 10 to 15 years in the Cerrado (central region of Brazil. They are replacing the traditional soybean monocropping with fallow under conventional tillage (CT. The objective of this study was to examine how DMC practices affect soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics and macrofauna (Rio Verde, Goias State. The approach was to determine soil C stocks and macrofauna in five fields under DMC aged 1, 5, 7, 11 and 13 years. In order to compare DMC systems with the native system of the region and previous land-use, a situation under native Cerrado (tree-savanna like vegetation and a field conducted traditionally (CT were also studied. Soil C stocks were calculated for the 0-10 and 0-40 cm soil depth and also for the first 400 kg m-2 of soil to compare the same amount of soil and to suppress the potential artefact of soil compaction when sample is based on fix layer depth. Soil macrofauna was hand-sorted from soil monoliths (30 cm depth, TSBF method. In our study, the annual rate of carbon storage was equal to ca. 1.6 MgC ha-1, which is in the range of values measured for DMC in different areas of Brazil, i.e., 0.4 to 1.7 MgC ha-1 with the highest rates obtained in the Cerrado region. Compared to natural vegetation, soil macrofauna in cropped systems was strongly modified. In CT, biomass and density were very low and much lower than in DMC systems. With increasing age of DMC, total macrofauna

  11. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region; Energia de biomassa para a sustentabilidade economica das comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V. [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Recursos Hidricos; Marques, Ana Claudia S. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    1999-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil.

  12. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  13. Detection of Herpesvirus, Enterovirus, and Arbovirus infection in patients with suspected central nervous system viral infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Michele S; Lessa, Natália; Naveca, Felipe G; Monte, Rossicléia L; Braga, Wornei S; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Mourão, Maria Paula G

    2014-09-01

    Acute infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be caused by various pathogens. In this study, the presence of herpesviruses (HHV), enteroviruses (EVs), and arboviruses were investigated in CSF samples from 165 patients with suspected CNS viral infection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genomes of one or more viral agents were detected in 29.7% (49/165) of the CSF samples. EVs were predominant (16/49; 32.6%) followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (22.4%), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) (20.4%), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (18.4%), herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) (4.1%), (HSV-2) (4.1%), and the arboviruses (14.3%). Four of the arboviruses were of dengue virus (DENV) and three of oropouche virus (OROV). The detection of different viruses in the CNS of patients with meningitis or encephalitis highlight the importance of maintaining an active laboratory monitoring diagnostics with rapid methodology of high sensitivity in areas of viral hyperendemicity that may assist in clinical decisions and in the choice of antiviral therapy.

  14. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  15. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  16. Modelling the interplay between global and regional drivers on Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Montenegro Lapola, D.; Woltjer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since mid-2000s, several measures have been taken to curb Amazon deforestation in Brazil, which dropped 84% up to 2012. However, this process raise concerns owed of the unintended effects of such interventions, like land use displacements. Here we explore an innovative modeling approach for the Amazon in order to simulate how the global demand for agricultural commodities and different regional land use policies could affect future deforestation trends inside and outside the Amazon, paying special attention to leakage effects over the Cerrado. A global economic model was taken to integrate supply and demand factors at both global and regional scales, coupled with a spatially explicitly land use model. Leakage effects are simulated in two different ways, regarding land demand and land allocation, based on the relative land rents of different land use types and spatial regression. Six contrasting multi-scale scenarios are explored focusing on deforestation rates and spatial pattern analysis. Our results unveil that Amazon conservation might not be the end of deforestation in Brazil once it can lead to 70% increase over the Cerrado cleared area up to 2050. Biofuels targets compliance can further press land cover changes over these regions revealing that productivity gains will be decisive for both Amazon and Cerrado conservation. In summary, closing the agricultural frontier in the Amazon cannot ensure biodiversity conservation or carbon savings in absence of complementary measures committed with land use efficiency, controlled land use expansion and new economic alternatives.

  17. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de genótipos de girassol no Brasil Central Adaptability and stability of sunflower genotypes in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karolina Grunvald

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de genótipos de girassol, no Brasil Central, quanto ao rendimento de grãos e de óleo. Os dados foram obtidos de ensaios de genótipos de girassol coordenados pela Embrapa Soja, de 2004 a 2007. Foram usados os métodos de Eberhart & Russell, Porto et al., Rocha et al. e Annicchiarico. Foi realizada a decomposição do índice de recomendação de Annicchiarico nos ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Este método e o de Porto et al. foram similares e mais adequados para avaliar a adaptabilidade dos genótipos. Em relação ao rendimento de grãos, as variedades BRSGira 02 e Nutrissol apresentaram adaptação ampla. Os híbridos Agrobel 959, MG50 e V03005 e as variedades Catissol e Multissol apresentaram adaptação aos ambientes favoráveis, e os híbridos BRHS 02 e BRHS 04 apresentaram adaptação aos ambientes desfavoráveis. Quanto ao rendimento de óleo, os híbridos Agrobel 959, V03005, MG50, VDH 487, EXP 1441, EXP 1447 e EXP 1446 e as variedades BRSGira 01, BRSGira 02 e Nutrissol apresentaram adaptação ampla. O híbrido MG52 e as variedades Catissol e Multissol mostraram adaptação aos ambientes favoráveis, e BRHS 04 e BRHS 02 mostraram adaptação aos ambientes desfavoráveis. Os genótipos selecionados mostraram-se estáveis, mas em níveis diferenciados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability and stability of sunflower genotype grain and oil yield, in Central Brazil. The analyzed data were obtained from sunflower genotype trials coordinated by Embrapa Soja, from 2004 to 2007. Genotype adaptability and stability were evaluated using the methods of Eberhart & Russell, Porto et al., Rocha et al., and Annicchiarico. The Annicchiarico method divides sites into favorable and unfavorable environments. This method and the one of Porto et al. were similar and more adequate to evaluate genotypic adaptability. For grain yield, the varieties BRSGira

  18. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-05-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  19. Estrategias reproductivas de la vegetación y sus respuestas al pulso de la inundación en las zonas inundables de la Amazonía Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T.F. Piedade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales o áreas que sufren largos períodos de inundaciones periódicas, asociadas a los grandes ríos, cubren aproximadamente el 6% de la Amazonia Brasileña. Precisamente en esta región se encuentran localizados los bosques inundados con mayor extensión y diversidad vegetal del mundo. En esos ambientes, la altura de la columna de agua puede fluctuar durante todo el año, llegando a valores promedio de hasta 10 m. La previsibilidad y duración del pulso de las inundaciones, la abrupta transición en las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del gradiente topográfico en los márgenes de los ríos principales y la intensidad de las corrientes de agua y la dinámica de los sedimentos representan una fuerte presión selectiva sobre las poblaciones de plantas y sus sistemas de reproducción. En este trabajo se examina y discute cómo el ciclo del agua influye en las estrategias de reproducción sexual y asexual que conducen a la realización del ciclo de vida de las plantas, permitiendo el mantenimiento de sus poblaciones. También se abordan las posibles restricciones sobre los procesos de germinación, el establecimiento de plántulas y la formación de bancos de semillas. Además, se indican algunas lagunas en el conocimiento existente sobre las estrategias reproductivas de la vegetación en las planicies de inundación de la Amazonía Central y se proponen líneas futuras de investigación. Se enfatiza en las especies herbáceas, debido a la gran variedad de formas de vida y estrategias reproductivas y su fuerte dinámica temporal y espacial en respuesta al ciclo hidrológico. El estudio de la vegetación de los ambientes inundados presentados aquí es relevante, especialmente, debido a los efectos previstos en las poblaciones de estas comunidades ante los escenarios de cambio climático previstos para la Amazonia.

  20. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility. PMID:20653534

  1. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Mariane MA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6, with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%, and the risk increased with age (p Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of higher risk of HIV-1 infection among black women despite being in consonance with the HIV-1 ethnic pattern in some American regions cannot be ruled out to be a surrogate

  3. Bold enterprise in Amazon basin. [Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D.

    1980-08-30

    The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pulpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia, Gmelina arborea, which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products, pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood, and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

  4. Geographic patterns of land use and land intensity in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Thomas, Timothy S.

    2001-01-01

    Using census data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96, the authors map indicators of current land use, and agricultural productivity across Brazil's Legal Amazon, These data permit geographical resolution about ten times finer than afforded by "municipio" data, used in previous studies. The authors focus on the extent, and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use in Amazonia today. S...

  5. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  6. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  7. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  8. Epidemiological profile of meningococcal disease in the State of Minas Gerais and in the Central, North, and Triângulo Mineiro regions, Brazil, during 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karynne Alves do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infection by Neisseria meningitidis, termed as meningococcal disease, can cause meningococcal meningitis and septicemia with or without meningitis. Meningococcal disease is endemic in Brazil and has a high potential to cause large-scale epidemics; therefore, it requires the immediate notification of cases to the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN in Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe an epidemiological profile using data from notified and confirmed cases in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from January 2000 to December 2009, obtained from the investigation records of individuals with meningitis registered with SINAN. METHODS: This was a retrospective, population-based study. Descriptive analysis of the data was made using the simple and relative frequencies of the categorical variables in the investigation records. RESULTS: There were 1,688 confirmed patients in Minas Gerais of which 45.5% lived in the Central, North, and Triângulo Mineiro regions. The highest frequencies of cases were in the 1-4-years age group (26.3%, males (54.7%, caucasian (36.4%, and lived in an urban area (80%. In the patients with specified education, 650 (60.9% patients had secondary education. Serogrouping of meningococci had been performed in 500 (29.6% patients by age and gender; 285 (57% belonged to serogroup C, 67 (13.4% were in the 1-to 4-years age group, and 168 (33.6% were male. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological profiles of patients in the Central, North, and Triângulo Mineiro regions were not significantly different from the profile of patients in Minas Gerais.

  9. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  10. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    PAUNIĆ, ALIDA

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  11. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  12. Considerations about the recommendations of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf on the Amazon fan

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    Rodrigo Fernandes More

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Brazil submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS a Submission for the outer limit of the Brazilian continental shelf for its extension beyond the limits of 200 nautical miles. In 2007, the CLCS presented its recommendations, however it did not recommend four areas proposed by Brazil, the Amazon Fan among them. The objective of this study is to present the main legal and technical aspects of the controversy about the Amazon Fan, in order to evaluate some alternatives for a future submission, new or revised.

  13. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  14. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  15. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cutolo, André Antonio; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, ...

  16. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior. PMID:26084679

  17. Ethnoichthyological contribution to the official fisheries document concerning fisheries closure of some commercial fish categories in the western Brazilian Amazon, Guaporé River, Rondônia, Brazil

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    Suelen Taciane Brasil de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicts among fishermen and local environmental protection agencies that regulate fishing in the area, concerning the official closure periods of the fisheries. The fishermen affirm that the dates established for protection of spawning do not correspond to the spawning season of the primary commercialized species, and that this could be hindering the local fish markets. This report compares the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK with information obtained from experimental fishery and scientific data covering the reproduction periods of the primary categories of fish market in the region. Of the 28 fish categories analyzed, 14 (50% were captured in experimental fishing and were evaluated. The TEK confirmed the experimental information for 10 categories of fish (72%. The results suggest the necessity of adjusting the official protection dates stipulated for the following fish categories: caparari (Pseudoplatystoma tigrinun, Sorubim (P. fasciatum, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, pescada (Plagioscion squamosissimus and tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. The discussion deals with a possibly inadequate period of protection based on the information obtained from different basins applied to larger and more diverse areas of the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. This study confirms the refined biological knowledge that the fishermen have of the species they exploit and suggests that the traditional ecological knowledge can be useful to adjust political issues dealing with the regional protection agency of fishing.

  18. Infection of the central nervous system with dengue virus 3 genotype I causing neurological manifestations in Brazil

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    Danilo Bretas de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A case of dengue virus 3 (DENV-3 genotype I infection with neurological manifestations occurred in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais in October 2012. The serotype was detected by PCR, and the genotype was assessed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the C-prM region. The virus causing neurological manifestations clustered with other sequences of DENV-3 genotype I. Because neurological manifestations of DENV are possibly misdiagnosed in Brazil, this study serves as an alert of the importance of DENV diagnoses in CNS infections.

  19. Milk quality according to the daily range in farm production in the Mesoregion Central Mineira and Oeste of Minas Gerais regions, Brazil

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    L.R. Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize milk production from the Central Mineira and Oeste Mesoregions regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to quality parameters such as somatic cell count, total bacteria count, and composition for specific production ranges. Average results for milk fat, protein, total and nonfat solids were compliant with Brazilian legal requirements (IN-62/2011 in all the production ranges selected. Average somatic cell counts (SCC complied with the legal requirements of 600,000 cells/mL, except for the range with a daily production above 1,000 liters. However, average maximum values of 400,000 cells/mL are recommended for good milk quality. Total bacterial count was the most critical quality factor, with the highest values found in breeds with milk production above 500 liters per day.

  20. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

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    Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3, tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1, illicit drug use (OR = 2.3, sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9 were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  1. Etnogénesis de un grupo indígena del Brasil central Ethnogenesis of an indigenous group of central Brazil

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    Marlene Castro Ossami de Moura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El texto analiza el proceso de emergencia étnica de un grupo de indígenas llamados tapuios , que habitan el Área Indígena Carretão, situada entre los municipios de Nova América y Rubiataba, en el estado de Goiás, Brasil. Este grupo es fruto de una política de aldeamentos indígenas surgida en Brasil desde el comienzo de la colonización en el siglo XVI hasta mediados del siglo XIX. En el estado de Goiás fueron construidos cerca de 20 aldeamentos indígenas entre los años de 1741 y 1872. Los tapuios son descendientes de cuatro grupos indígenas que fueron reubicados en el aldeamento Carretão, construido en 1788 por la Corona portuguesa y desactivado al final del siglo XIX. Ocultos en el escenario nacional, con la extinción de ese aldeamento , los tapuios van adquirir visibilidad en la década de 1980 al nacer un nuevo grupo orgánico de individuos, respaldados por la lucha de recuperación de su territorio y de su identidad étnica, dos pilares de afirmación del grupo.This text analyses the process of ethnic emergence of an indigenous group called tapuios that inhabits the Indigenous Area Carretão, located between the districts of Nova América and Rubiataba, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. This group is the outcome of a settlement policy promoted in Brazil since the beginning of the colonization in the 16th century, until early 19th century. Approximately 20 indigenous settlements were built in the state of Goiás between the years 1741 and 1872. The tapuios are descendents of four indigenous groups who were moved to the Carretão indian settlement, constructed by the royal Portuguese authorities in 1788 and deactivated at the end of the nineteenth century. Hidden in the Brazilian national scene, since the settlement was extinct, the tapuios , since the 1980s, have regained visibility by the birth of a new native group of individuals, sustained by their fight to regain their territory and to recuperate their ethnic identity, two

  2. Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil Pesquisa Sorológica por doenças transmitidas por carrapatos em cães da Amazônia oriental, Brasil

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    Mariana Granziera Spolidorio

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina são as doenças parasitárias transmitidas por carrapatos de maior prevalência em cães do Brasil. Poucos estudos pesquisaram doenças transmitidas por carrapatos na região da Amazônia brasileira. Um total de 129 amostras de sangue foram colhidas de cães da Amazônia oriental brasileira. Setenta e dois cães eram de áreas rurais de 19 municípios do Estado do Pará, e 57 amostras foram colhidas de cães errantes vadios da área urbana do município de Santarém-PA. As amostras de soro foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, com antígenos de Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, e seis espécies de Rickettsia. A frequência de cães com anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, e anti-Rickettsia spp. foi de 42,6%, 16,2% e 31,7%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli foram detectados em 59,6% dos cães urbanos, e em 29,1% dos cães rurais (P < 0.05. Para E. canis, a soroprevalência foi parecida entre os cães urbanos (15,7% e rurais (16,6%. Para Rickettsia spp., cães rurais apresentaram prevalência (P < 0.05 significativamente

  3. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  4. New sediment budget calculations for the submarine Amazon Delta indicates enhanced modern sediment fluxes of the Amazon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, T.; Haberkern, J.; Mulitza, S.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The submarine Amazon Delta is one major sink in the Amazon source-to-sink system. It is estimated, that the Amazon transports around 1200 Mt/yr. Around 50% of this river sediment load, namely 400 - 800 Mt/yr, is stored on the submarine delta, leading to sedimentation rates of decimeters per year (Nittrouer et al., 1995). The majority of the remaining sediments is deposited on the lower delta plain of the Amazon, but another significant portion is accumulated at the Amapa shoreline or is bypassed further northwestwards. These sediment budget calculations are mainly based on radioisotopic profiles measured at sediment cores in the frame of the AmasSeds project, which was carried out in the 1980ties and 1990ties (Nittrouer et al., 1995). Here we present another approach for calculating mass fluxes in the Amazon system. Within the Project AMADEUS, a cooperation between the MARUM, Bremen, Germany and the University Sao Paulo, Brazil, high-resolution seismic multichannel seismic data and sediment echosounder data (PARASOUND) were collected during Cruise MSM20/3 in February/March 2012. Main emphases of the surveying were set to the forset and bottomset of the delta, where most of the accretion occurs. A special outcome of the new data is the comparison with PARASOUND data collected in 1996 during Cruise M34/4. Due to several crossing points of both data sets it is now possible to carry out direct measurements of the accumulation during these 16 years. Another time horizon is a prominent unconformity spreading over the submarine delta, since the sedimentation on top of this unconformity had been dated to start roughly 100 yrs ago (Sommerfield et al., 1995). Mapping of this unconformity as well as the reflector representing the seafloor of 1996 gives the opportunity to calculate volumes and mass of the sediment stored within the survey area for two different time spans. First calculations show, that the sediment accumulation on the submarine delta since 1996 is

  5. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence. PMID:27529479

  6. La producción familiar como alternativa de un desarrollo sostenible para la Amazonía; Lecciones aprendidas de iniciativas de uso forestal por productores familiares en la Amazonía boliviana, brasilera, ecuatoriana y peruana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokorny, B.; Godar, J.; Hoch, L.; Johnson, J.; Koning, de J.; Medina, G.; Steinbrenner, R.; Vos, V.; Weigelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Between 2005 and 2009, the EU-financed project ForLive set out to analyse promising local forest management initiatives in the Amazon Basin in four countries: Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru. Researchers aimed to identify locally viable practices that benefit livelihoods and ecological

  7. Prevalence of HTLV-I antibody among two distinct ethnic groups inhabiting the Amazon region of Brazil Prevalência do anticorpo HTLV-I em dois grupos étnicos distintos habitando a região da Amazônia Brasileira

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    C.M. Nakauchi

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-I seroprevalences of 3.63% (02/55, 12.19% (10/82 and 13.88% (10/72 were demonstrated among Tiryio, Mekranoiti and Xicrin Amazonian Indians, respectively, by the Western blotting enzyme assay (WBEI. By indirect immuno electron microscopy (IIEM, 2 Tiriyo, 9 Mekranoiti and 6 Xicrin Amerindians were reactive. Of 44 serum samples from Japanese immigrants, none reacted by any of the techniques before mentioned. One, 8 and 6 serum samples from Tiryio, Mekranoiti and Xicrin Indians, respectively, were both WBEI and IIEM positive. Our results strongly suggest that HTLV-I and/or an HTLV-I antigenic variant circulate (s among populations living in the Amazon region of Brazil.Soroprevalências para HTLV-I de 3,63% (02/55, 12,9% (10/82 e 13,88% (10/72 foram demonstradas entre os Tiryió, Mekranoiti e Xicrin, respectivamente - indígenas habitantes da Amazônia -, utilizando-se a técnica de "Western Blot" (WBEI. Por outro lado, a imunomicroscopia eletrônica indireta (IIME revelou como positivos 2 Tiryió, 9 Mekranoiti e 6 Xicrins. Das 44 amostras de soro oriundas de migrantes japoneses, nenhuma resultou positiva pelas duas técnicas antes mencionadas. Foram reativos por ambos os métodos, 1, 8 e 6 amostras dos índios Tiryió, Mekranoiti e Xicrin, respectivamente. Nossos resultados representam uma forte evidência de que o HTV-I e/ou variante(s antigenicamente similar(es circula(m entre populações que habitam a região amazônica do Brasil.

  8. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  9. Chagas disease: from bush to huts and houses. Is it the case of the Brazilian amazon?

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of the major problems facing the Amazon - human migration from the other areas and uncontrolled deforestation - constitute the greatest risk for the establishment of endemic Chagas disease in this part of Brazil. At least 18 species of triatomines had been found in the Brazilian Amazon, 10 of them infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, associated with numerous wild reservoirs. With wide-range deforestation, wild animals will perforce be driven into other areas, with tendency for triatomines to become adapted to alternative food sources in peri and intradomicilies. Serological surveys and cross-sectional studies for Chagas disease, carried out in rural areas of the Rio Negro, in the Brazilian Amazon, showed a high level of seropositivity for T. cruzi antibodies. A strong correlation of seroreactivity with the contact of gatherers of piaçava fibers with wild triatomines could be evidenced.

  10. Thermal structure of the Poraquê lake, Central Amazonian, Brazil = Estrutura térmica do lago Poraquê, Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Marques Aprile

    2011-01-01

    Thermal gradient of a Central Amazonian lake was studied to establish a link between seasonal variations in the water level, temperature, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and thermal stratification. Bimonthly measurements of temperature and PAR radiation were made at 0.25 m intervals from the surface to bottom from February 2004 to July 2006. Daily occurs full vertical mixing of the water column, and classic thermal stratification was not observed in the period. The effect of the winds asso...

  11. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  12. Validity of self-reported weight and stature in adolescents from Cuiabá, Central-Western Brazil

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    Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the agreement between self-reported and measured weight and stature in adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-seven students from public and private high schools of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (14 to 19 years old, were examined to assess the validity of self-reported weight and stature. The adolescents reported their weight and stature, which were subsequently measured by standard procedures. The body mass index was calculated from both self-reported and measured data. Weight status was classified according to body mass index Z-score and World Health Organization criteria. The differences between the self-reported and measured means were tested by the Student's paired t-test. Weighted Kappa's coefficient of agreement was used to assess the variations in weight status categorization using informed and measured data. Agreement between measurements was assessed by the Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The means of self-reported and measured weights (p=0.30, statures (p=0.76 and body mass index (p=0.47 were not significantly different. There was high agreement between self-reported and measured measurements according to intraclass correlation coefficient (weight: r=0.99; stature: r=0.96; body mass index: r=0.97 and the mean agreements estimated by the Bland-Altman method were 99% for weight and 100% for stature. CONCLUSION: Given the excellent agreement with measured data, self-reported weight and stature are considered valid to be used in epidemiological studies on adolescents of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  13. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  14. Spatiotemporal NDVI, LAI, albedo, and surface temperature dynamics in the southwest of the Brazilian Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Beneditti, Cristina Aparecida; Machado, Nadja Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo José Gama; da Silva Querino, Juliane Kayse Albuquerque; dos Santos Neto, Luiz Alves; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, the Amazon rainforest underwent uncontrolled exploitation that modified its environmental variables. The current paper analyzes the spatiotemporal dynamics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and surface albedo, and temperature in two different vegetation covers, preserved and deforested areas. We calculated the remote-sensing products using Landsat 5 TM images obtained during the dry season 1984, 1991, 2000, and 2011 of the central region of the State of Rondônia, Brazil. The results showed a reduction of vegetation indexes NDVI (˜0.70 in 1984 to ˜0.27 in 2011) and LAI (˜1.8 in 1984 to ˜0.3 in 2011), with an increase of surface albedo (0.12 in 1984 to 0.20 in 2011) and temperature (˜24°C in 1984 to 30°C in 2011) as the effect of the rainforest converted in grassland during the study period. No changes in any variables were observed in the protected area. Forest conversion into grassland resulted in a decrease of 69% in NDVI and 110% in LAI and a rise of 59% and 24% in albedo and surface temperature, respectively.

  15. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate neurodevelopment delays coexisting with exposure to multiple neurotoxic substances merits further investigation in poor environmental settings of tin

  16. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goias, Central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio M.; Dantas, Elton L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br; mmp1103@terra.com.br; Armstrong, Richard A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2003-03-15

    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich E W-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 {+-} 10 Ma and 618 {+-} Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga granite yielded U-Pb ages between 1.79 and 1.49 Ga. Sm-Nd T{sub DM} ages for both intrusions are 1.44 Ga and epsilon{sub Nd}(T) values are -5.1 and -5.7, suggesting the input of material derived from older (Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic) sialic crust in the origin of the parental magmas. Magma mixing structures indicate co-existence of mafic and felsic end-members. The felsic end-member of the intrusions is dominantly represented by crust-derived melts, formed in response to the invasion of Paleo/Mesoproterozoic sialic crust by alkali-rich mafic magmas at ca. 620 Ma. These intrusions are roughly contemporaneous with, or perhaps slightly younger than, the peak of regional metamorphism in the southern Brasilia Belt. Their emplacement along the Pireneus lineament suggest a syn-tectonic origin for them, most probably in transtensional settings along these faults. (author)

  17. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  18. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  19. Novas espécies de Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae do Planalto Central e Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil New species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae from Central Brazil and Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Barbosa Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Novas espécies de Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae do Planalto Central e Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Quatro novas espécies são descritas e ilustradas para o gênero Diplusodon, que se somam ao alto número de espécies registradas para este gênero no Cerrado brasileiro, mais especificamente para as montanhas que formam a Serra Geral do Paraná, ou Serra Geral de Goiás, reafirmando a região como centro de diversidade genética do gênero. As seguintes espécies são descritas: Diplusodon capitalensis, do Distrito Federal e Goiás, D. chapadensis e D. grahamae, de Goiás, e D. rupestris, de Minas Gerais.(New species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae from Central Brazil and Minas Gerais State. Four new species are described and illustrated for the genus Diplusodon. These are added to the already high number of species registered for the Brazilian Cerrado, more precisely in the chain of mountains that form the Serra Geral do Parana or Serra Geral de Goiás, confirming this region as the primary center of genetic diversity of the genus. The following species are described: Diplusodon capitalensis, from the Distrito Federal and Goiás, D. chapadensis and D. grahamae from Goiás, and D. rupestris, from Minas Gerais.

  20. Thermal structure of the Poraquê lake, Central Amazonian, Brazil = Estrutura térmica do lago Poraquê, Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Marques Aprile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gradient of a Central Amazonian lake was studied to establish a link between seasonal variations in the water level, temperature, suspended particulate matter (SPM and thermal stratification. Bimonthly measurements of temperature and PAR radiation were made at 0.25 m intervals from the surface to bottom from February 2004 to July 2006. Daily occurs full vertical mixing of the water column, and classic thermal stratification was not observed in the period. The effect of the winds associated to flood-pulse and the penetrativeconvection, transported the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE into the lake mixing the column of water. This phenomenon was more expressive in the rainfall seasons when is generally higher contributing to the circulation of the water. The limit of the euphotic zone ranged from 1.36 to 1.77 m in the period studied. The results of the transmission curves for the sampling sites showed that, in general, less than 0.01% of the surface light reached the bottom. The trend curve developed can facilitate the understanding of the limnological and ecological processes in lentic systems of whitewaters of the Central Amazonian.Foi estudado o gradiente térmico de um lago da Amazônia Central para estabelecer associação entre variações sazonais no nível de água, temperatura, material em suspensão e estratificação térmica. Bimestralmente, foram medidas a temperatura e a radiação luminosada superfície ao fundo do lago no período entre fevereiro de 2004 e julho de 2006. Ocorreu completa mistura vertical diária da coluna de água, não sendo observada estratificação térmica clássica no período. A energia cinética turbulenta (ECT proveniente da ação dos ventos em associação com o pulso de inundação foi responsável pela mistura da coluna de água. Esse fenômeno foi mais expressivo no período chuvoso, quando a ECT é geralmente mais alta, contribuindo para a circulação da água. A extensão da zona euf

  1. Population-based surveillance of pediatric pneumonia: use of spatial analysis in an urban area of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial distribution of childhood community-acquired pneumonia detected through prospective surveillance in Goiânia, Brazil. Three spatial analysis techniques were applied to detect intra-urban geographic aggregation of pneumonia cases: Kernel method, nearest neighbor hierarchical technique, and spatial scan statistic. A total of 724 pneumonia cases confirmed by chest radiography were identified from May 2000 to August 2001. All cases were geocoded on a digital map. The annual pneumonia risk rate was estimated at 566 cases/100,000 children. Analysis using traditional descriptive epidemiology showed a mosaic distribution of pneumonia rates, while GIS methodologies showed a non-random pattern with hot spots of pneumonia. Cluster analysis by spatial scan statistic identified two high-risk areas for pneumonia occurrence, including one most likely cluster (RR = 2.1; p < 0.01 and one secondary cluster (RR = 1.3; p = 0.01. The data used for the study are in line with recent WHO-led efforts to improve and standardize pediatric pneumonia surveillance in developing countries and show how GIS and spatial analysis can be applied to discriminate target areas of pneumonia for public heath intervention.

  2. Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla. Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i accidental contamination during sampling, (ii simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.

  3. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  4. Elemental hydrochemistry and hydro geochemistry of the uranium isotopes in Alter do Chao formation, Manaus (Amazon - Brazil); Hidroquimica elementar e dos isotopos de uranio em aguas subterraneas da Formacao Alter do Chao, Manaus (AM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio Luiz da [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas]. E-mail: marciols@inpa.gov.br; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br

    2006-09-15

    The water exploitation at Manaus city, Amazonas State, Brazil, takes place from Negro River and tubular wells, being performed by a private company. This paper evaluates the hydrochemistry and geochemical behavior of uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) in groundwaters from Manaus city, with the aim to characterize the contaminants or pollutants that possibly are affecting the quality of the underground hydrological resources, as well as to evaluate the potential use of the natural U-isotopes as hydrological tracers in the aquifer studied. The U-isotopes analysis allowed to determine {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios of 1.2-4.4, and dissolved uranium concentration of 0.003-1.1 {mu}g.L{sup -1} (ppb). These results and those concerning the others parameters indicated that the waters are appropriate for human consumption, permitting to classify the hydrological system as acid-reducing, and to say that the waters leach minerals in strata containing low U content.(author)

  5. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabidó, Meritxell; Adele S Benzaken; de Andrade Rodrigues, Ệnio José; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  6. Protected Areas’ Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation – Development Interactions to Inform Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pfaff; Juan Robalino; Diego Herrera; Catalina Sandoval

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that prote...

  7. Land-use systems affect Archaeal community structure and functional diversity in western Amazon soils

    OpenAIRE

    Acácio Aparecido Navarrete; Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani; Lucas William Mendes; Fabiana de Souza Cannavan; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira; Siu Mui Tsai

    2011-01-01

    The study of the ecology of soil microbial communities at relevant spatial scales is primordial in the wide Amazon region due to the current land use changes. In this study, the diversity of the Archaea domain (community structure) and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (richness and community composition) were investigated using molecular biology-based techniques in different land-use systems in western Amazonia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in two periods with high precipitation (March 2008 a...

  8. Spatial Interactions in Tropical Deforestation: An application to the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade de Sa, Saraly; DELACOTE, Philippe; Eric Nazindigouba KERE

    2015-01-01

    Etudes & documents This paper investigates the mechanisms determining spatial interactions in deforestation, and its transmission channels, using data from Brazil. Our preliminary results confirm the hypothesis that deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is characterized by complementarity, meaning that deforestation in a particular municipality tends to increase deforestation in its neighbors. We further show that cattle density, tend to be the most important factors determining the nature...

  9. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  10. The holocene sequence of the central continental shelf of the State of Bahia, Brazil; A sequencia holocenica da plataforma continental central do Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes; Dominguez, Jose Maria Landim [PETROBRAS S.A., BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Exploracao e Producao da Bahia. Ativo de Exploracao Avaliacao e Acompanhamento Geologico]. E-mail: fernandofreire@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    Fifty cores were recovered from the sea bottom in the central portion of the continental shelf of the State of Bahia, between the Marau Peninsula and the city of Olivenca. Thirty six of these cores were collected by divers at up to 40 m deep waters. Fourteen cores were collected by piston cores in areas ranging from the continental shelf to the upper slope. All cores were described, photographed and sampled for grain size and bio stratigraphic analysis. These data were used to prepare textural and facies maps of the continental shelf. The piston cores were run parallel to sub-bottom profiling surveys. Results show that there is a strong reflector located 3 - 4 m below the sediment- water interface, which limited the penetration of the piston cores. This reflector represents a sequence boundary separating the holocene from the pleistocene sequences. A transgressive system tract has been deposited on the top of this surface along with the early stages of the high stand system tract, particularly on the inner shelf. Because of the starved character of this shelf, notably on its external portion, a detailed application of sequence stratigraphy concepts has not been possible. Only at the inner shelf/shore face there is evident pro gradation of siliciclastics over carbonates. Several submarine valleys dissect the outer shelf/upper slope, thus acting as channels that transport continental shelf sediments to the deeper portions of the basin. (author)

  11. Seasonal variation in energy balance and canopy conductance for a tropical savanna ecosystem of south-central Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T. R.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; de Oliveira, R. G.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical savanna (locally known as cerrado) comprises 24% of Brazil and is characterized by high temporal (climatic) and spatial (land cover) variation, biodiversity, and human activity. However, temporal variations in energy exchange are poorly understood, especially for mixed-grasslands (locally known as campo-sujo), making current and future patterns of energy balance highly uncertain. We used eddy covariance to measure latent (Le) and sensible (H) heat flux of a mixed-grassland, and linked meteorological and remote-sensing data to determine the controls on these fluxes. We hypothesized that (1) seasonal variations in H and Le would be large due to variations in precipitation, (2) ecosystem phenology, estimated using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), would be the best predictor of seasonal variation in Le, and (3) cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests would have similar rates of average annual Le despite large seasonal variation in cerrado Le. We found that campo-sujo exhibits large seasonal fluctuations in energy balance that are driven by rainfall, and that responses to rainfall pulses are rapid and dynamic, especially during the dry season. Seasonal variations in the EVI did not affect energy fluxes; however, when energy fluxes were normalized with net radiation (Rn), the EVI was found to significantly affect the amount of available energy dissipated by H, Le, and G, indicating an important ground surface feedback on energy partitioning. Compared to other tropical ecosystems, cerrado exhibited substantially more seasonal variation in energy flux density than forested tropical ecosystems. For example, cerrado had lower rates of Le during the dry season, due to water limitations, but higher rates of wet-season Le than tropical forests, which were likely limited by radiation due to frequent cloud cover. Overall, these seasonal variations caused average annual rates of Le to be similar between cerrado, transitional, and humid evergreen forests.

  12. Intraplate Stress Field in Brazil Using Focal Mechanisms: Regional and Local Patterns: Examples of Regional Forces Controlling the Stress Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F. L.; Assumpcao, M.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. In Brazil, the stress field has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a breakout data and in-situ measurements. However, the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. We show a recent compilation of focal mechanism determined in Brazil (Fig 1). The focal mechanisms of some recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations (> 30°) with a good signal/noise ratio and we grouped then according to distance and azimuth. With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models ( Coblentz & Richardson, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). This compression is mainly due to the interaction of tectonic plate forces. Meanwhile in the Amazon region, we find an indication of SHMax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995) and Amazon Fan, we have flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load with is in agreement with local theoretical models (Watts et al., 2009) . In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998). We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to determine focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 5.0 mb) using distant or few seismograph stations. We find examples of stress perturbations induced by local effects (e.g. flexure and continental spreading). The results of this work should be useful for future

  13. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta) from lower Amazon region, Brazil: mineralogy Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológios com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: mineralogia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Dirse Clara Kern; Alice Helena Eleotério Pinto; Jorge Raimundo da Trindade Souza

    2004-01-01

    Several archaeological black earth (ABE) sites occur in the Amazon region. They contain fragments of ceramic artifacts, which are very important for the archaeological purpose. In order to improve the archaeological study in the region we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of the fragments of ceramic artifacts found in the two ABE sites of Cachoeira-Porteira, in the Lower Amazon Region. Their ceramics comprise the following tempers: cauixi, cariapé, sand, sand +feldspars,...

  14. Idades e crescimento da cioba, Ocyururs chrysurus, da Costa Central do Brasil Age and growth of yellowtail snapper, Ocyururs chrysurus, from Central Coast of Brazil

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    Júlio Neves de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A idade e o crescimento da cioba da costa central do Brasil foram estudados a partir de leituras de otólitos obtidos em amostragens mensais de desembarques comerciais, realizados nas cidades de Vitória e Vila Velha, entre os anos de 1998 e 1999. Através da análise do incremento marginal, foi verificada a formação anual de uma zona translúcida a partir do final do outono e durante o inverno. Foram observadas ciobas de 2 a 19 anos. Os comprimentos furcais (CF médios retrocalculados variaram de 108 mm para idade 1 a 524 mm para idade 19. A equação de Von Bertalanffy ajustada aos CF médios retrocalculados foi CFt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773. A relação comprimento peso foi P = 2,68x10-5CF2.914, onde P = peso total em gramas. O crescimento é lento, com os incrementos anuais em peso aumentando gradativamente até atingir o máximo de 164 g entre as idades 7 e 8 anos. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que a cioba tem longa expectativa de vida e baixas taxas de crescimento somático, características das espécies mais sensíveis à exploração pesqueira.To age and study the growth of yellowtail snapper, we analyzed readings of otoliths obtained in monthly samplings from commercial landings in the cities of Vitória and Vila Velha, from 1998 to 1999. Marginal increment analysis showed that the formation of a translucent zone occurred in the early fall and during the winter. The observed ages range from 2 to 19 years. Mean back-calculated fork lengths (FL range from 108 mm for age 1 to 524 mm for age 19. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation fitted to the mean back-calculated FL was FLt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773, The length-weight relationship was W= 2,68x10-5FL2.914, where W = whole weight in grams. Yellowtail snapper has a slow growth with annual growth increments in weight raising progressively to the maximum of 164 g between the 7 and 8 years. The yellowtail snapper has long lifespan and slow growth rates, features of

  15. Epidemiology of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus in Goiás, central Brazil: re-evaluation based on G-L intergenic region

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    Ito Fumio H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vampire bat related rabies harms both livestock industry and public health sector in central Brazil. The geographical distributions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus variants are delimited by mountain chains. These findings were elucidated by analyzing a high conserved nucleoprotein gene. This study aims to elucidate the detailed epidemiological characters of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus by phylogenetic methods based on 619-nt sequence including unconserved G-L intergenic region. Findings The vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus isolates divided into 8 phylogenetic lineages in the previous nucleoprotein gene analysis were divided into 10 phylogenetic lineages with significant bootstrap values. The distributions of most variants were reconfirmed to be delimited by mountain chains. Furthermore, variants in undulating areas have narrow distributions and are apparently separated by mountain ridges. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the 619-nt sequence including G-L intergenic region is more useful for a state-level phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus than the partial nucleoprotein gene, and simultaneously that the distribution of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants tends to be separated not only by mountain chains but also by mountain ridges, thus suggesting that the diversity of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants was delimited by geographical undulations.

  16. Diagnostic of ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin using two methods of rapid environmental assessment, Federal District, Central Brazil

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    Julio Cesar Joveli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid environmental assessments have been used to describe the quality and semi-quantitative attributes of the ecosystems along an environmental gradient using visual observations and few measurements. The aim of this study was to identify and measure anthropogenic impacts on ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin, Federal District, Central Brazil, and to propose its environmental zoning. This study was performed using two methods based on rapid environmental assessment: a rapid river assessment protocol, to evaluate in an integrated form the features of a lotic system section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment; and the Leopold matrix, to identify and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts. The environmental zoning of this sub-basin detected three areas: preserved, transition and urban areas. The environmental assessment revealed, the preserved area had lotic stretches with natural features under low magnitude of impacts, except on burned areas. In the transition area, there was a predominance of lotic stretches with altered features, due to agriculture and livestock activities of intermediate level of impacts. Finally, the urban area had altered and impacted lotic stretches of higher magnitude due to anthropogenic impacts. Thus, this study revealed large differences among the areas detected by environmental zoning, according to the methods used. These methods were considered complementary in relation to environmental diagnostic of the ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin.

  17. Allele frequencies of combined DNA index system (CODIS) and non-CODIS short tandem repeat loci in Goiás, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodovalho, R G; Santos, G S; Cavalcanti, L M; Moura, B F S M; Rodrigues, E L; Lima, P R; Gigonzac, M A D; Vieira, T C

    2015-01-01

    In studies of human identification, obtaining a high standard of outcomes and satisfactory conclusions are directly related to the use of highly polymorphic molecular markers. In addition to the combined DNA index system (CODIS) group, it is also important to implement non-CODIS markers into the analysis, as they increase the power of discrimination. During the identification process, it is essential to consider the genetic variation among distinct groups of populations, as the allele frequencies are directly associated with the power of discrimination. However, the population of Goiás, a State located in Central Brazil, is characterized by a highly mixed population due to its diverse ethnic origins. In this study, a survey of the allelic frequencies in the Goiás population was carried out using a molecular assembly composed of 21 autosomal loci both from and external to the CODIS group. The new data, for some of the markers used, were statistically similar to those from previous studies. This consistency means that the use of these markers might serve as a parameter for future population comparisons. The results from these analyses further our knowledge of the study of human identification.

  18. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

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    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianaefrom a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females, 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4 and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were from juveniles of T. merianae, 30 from adult males and 21 from adult females. Salmonella enterica was the most frequent bacteria followed by Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakasakii, Kluivera sp., Citrobacter amalonaticus, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter diversus, Yersinia frederiksenii, Serratia odorifera, and Serratia liquefaciens. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae and houtenae showed resistance to cotrimoxazole, and serum Salmonella enterica Worthington showed resistance to tetracycline and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica Panama and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae showed intermediate sensitivity to cotrimoxazole. In addition to Enterobacteriaceae in the Tegu lizard, pathogenic serotypes of S. enterica also occur, and their antimicrobial resistance was confirmed.

  19. A new dwarf species, new distribution records, and supplementary descriptive notes of the centipede genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae from central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Luis Alberto Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dwarf species of the centipede genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899, named I. donatellae sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae is hereby proposed on the basis of specimens from the vicinity of Manaus, Central Amazonia (Brazil, previously identified as Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957 (hereby designated holotype female, paratype male and paratype female. Supplementary morphological data and new illustrations are provided after this type material. The new species, characterized by having the internal edge of the forcipular tarsungulum serrate, is herein included in a key that will enable the identification of the 10 other Neotropical members of the genus Ityphilus sharing the same trait. New distribution records and supplementary descriptive notes for Ityphilus crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994, and Ityphilus demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (including the first description of the male of the latter, are also given. Undiluted 2-Phenoxyethanol (CAS No. 122-99-6 has been used as an effective clearing agent/mounting medium for the preparation of temporary mounts of all body parts of the examined specimens.

  20. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

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    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  1. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection and high rate of response to hepatitis B virus Butang®vaccine in adolescents from low income families in Central Brazil

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    Michele Dias da S Oliveira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the seroepidemiology and response to Butang® vaccine in adolescents from low income families in Central Brazil, blood samples of 664 adolescents were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs markers, and multiple logistical regression analysis was carried out to determine variables associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection markers. further, three 20 µg butang® vaccine doses were offered to all susceptible individuals (n = 304. Among those who accepted them (n = 182, the seroresponse was evaluated in 170 individuals by quantitative anti-HBs. an overall hbv prevalence of 5.9% was found: four adolescents were HBsAg positive, 24 were anti-HBc, anti-HBs-reactive, and 11 were anti-HBc only. The analyse of risk factors showed that age 16-19 years, place of birth outside Goiás, school B and body piercing were statistically associated with HBV infection markers (p < 0.05. All 170 adolescents responded to butang®, and a geometric mean titer (gmt of 4344 mui/ml was obtained. these results reinforce the importance of hepatitis b vaccine in adolescents despite of the hbv regional endemicity, and suggest that three doses of 20 µg of the butang® should guarantee protective anti-hbs levels to individuals at a critical time for hepatitis b acquiring such as latter adolescence and adulthood.

  2. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

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    Rita G. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  3. Vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections in women who sell sex on the route of prostitution and sex tourism in Central Brazil

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    Marcos André de Matos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, STD-related risk behaviors, and signs/symptoms of STDs among female sex workers (FSWs. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample comprising 395 women recruited using a respondent-driven sampling method between 2009 and 2010. The data were collected during face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: most of the participants were young adults, had a low educational level, and had poor knowledge on the transmission paths of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Over one-third of the participants were not able to describe the signs/symptoms of STDs. The prevalence rates of vaginal discharge and wounds/ulcers were 49.0% and 8.6%, respectively, but 41.7% of the women had not sought treatment. CONCLUSION: the results indicate the need for public health policies focusing on the control and prevention of STDs in this population, especially for the FSWs who are active in an important prostitution and sex tourism route in central Brazil.

  4. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil

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    Luce Marina Freires Corrêa da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the importance of HCV infection as a possible risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, a case-control study was conducted, comparing the prevalence of HCV infection among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic outpatients attending to a University Hospital in Central-West Brazil were evaluated between April and October 2005. A control group composed by patients from the same institution was matched by gender and age. Candidates to control group were included only if fasting glucose measures were under 100 mg/dL. Diabetics and controls had blood samples taken in order to test for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV by enzyme-immunoassay. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot were performed to confirm the anti-HCV status. Each group included 206 participants. Despite of the groups were in general comparable. The diabetics had a greater body mass average and smaller family income. The prevalence of confirmed anti-HCV in the diabetic group was of 1.4%, which was similar to the controls (1%. Finding statistical difference may have been hampered by the low frequency of HCV infection in both groups. It was not possible to demonstrate a role of HCV as an etiologic factor in type 2 diabetes, since HCV infected patients represented a small portion of the overall diabetes cases. This finding does not allow to recommend regular screening for HCV infection in type 2 diabetics in this region.

  5. Ecomorphology and diet reflect the spatial segregation between two Siluriformes species inhabiting a stream of the Bodoquena Plateau, in Central Brazil

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    Francisco Severo-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimelodella taenioptera Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 and Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes, 1956 are two of the most common fish species in Bodoquena Plateau streams, Paraguay basin. These species have benthic habits and subaquatical observations suggested that they present differentiation in their preference for mesohabitat types. Pimelodella taenioptera shows preference for slow waters, such as pools, while I. schubarti is associated to riffles. In this study we investigated if the known patterns of mesohabitat use of P. taenioptera and I. schubarti can be predict by their ecomorphological and trophic traits. We described the dietary habits and ecomorphological attributes of P. taenioptera and I. schubarti individuals, captured in the Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena (PNSB, Mato Grosso do Sul state, central Brazil. Pimelodella taenioptera presented a more generalist diet, consuming a total of 23 different food items. Imparfinis schubarti have a diet based exclusively on aquatic insects. The ecomorphological analysis revealed that the species differed in relation to five morphological traits associated to habitat use (p <0.01. The results of this study reveal a clear functional dissimilarity between P. taenioptera and I. shubarti. The observed trophic and ecomorphological patterns are congruent with the known habitat use for these species and probably reflect the spatial and temporal variability on conditions and resources present in riffles and pools. Therefore, as expected, the morphological and feeding attributes represent predictive information related to mesohabitat use.

  6. Current Characterization at the Amazon estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M. O.

    2009-04-01

    At the estuary there are several mechanisms that cause turbulence: influence of solid contours (estuary bottom and shores), speed vertical shearing (fluid inside), wind shearing stress (free surface) and surface and internal gravity waves. Turbulence intensity controls vertical distribution of estuary water mass property concentration. As flow into the estuary takes place during the transition or turbulent regimen, produced by small space and time scale movements, entrainment, turbulent scattering and advection are the processes responsible for fresh water mixing up with the sea and for local salinity variation, as well as for concentration of natural properties and man-made ones. According to this focus, we shall describe general circulation, conveyance and mixing characteristics of the Amazon low estuary waters. Amazon estuary shows unusual characteristics: it is of vast length and enormous outflow. It is extremely wide - 150 Km - and its discharge into the Atlantic amounts to 180,000 m3s-1 (Otman, 1968, Figueiredo et al, 1991), which means 18% of all water discharged by rivers into oceans; this is the largest punctual source of fresh water for oceans (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Maximum outflow is 2.5 x 105 m3s-1, and it happens at the end of May. Minimum outflow is 1.2 x 105 m3 s-1, and it takes place in November. At Amazon River, the Mixing Zone occurs where the Coastal Zone usually is. The reason for that is the extension of fresh water plume moves Northeast for over 1000 Km (Gibbs, 1970; Muller-Karger et al 1988). This is the most extensive estuarine plume ever found in the ocean. During low fluvial discharge (June-November) plume reaches 300 Km; however, on high discharge (November-May) plume reaches 500 Km. Plume already is 3 to 10 m thick and 80 to 300 Km wide (Lentz and Limeburner, 1995). From June to January plume moves towards Africa, from whence 70% of it goes east carried by North Brazil Current retroflection and 30% goes towards the Caribbean. From

  7. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  8. Saúde e doença em índios Panará (Kreen-Akarôre após vinte e cinco anos de contato com o nosso mundo, com ênfase na ocorrência de tuberculose (Brasil Central Health and disease among Panará (Kreen-Akarôre Indians in Central Brazil after twenty-five years of contact with our World, with an emphasis on tuberculosis

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    Roberto Geraldo Baruzzi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 1973, houve a quebra do estado de isolamento dos Panará (Kren-Akarore no interior da floresta amazônica. Dois anos após estavam reduzidos a 82 indivíduos, de uma população estimada em 400 a 500 em meados dos anos 60. Em 1998, o exame dos Panará, nas cabeceiras do rio Iriri, sul do Pará, levou ao diagnóstico presuntivo de tuberculose em 15 indivíduos, dos quais 10 foram confirmados na cidade de Colider com base em dados clínicos e radiológicos. Desses 10 casos, 6 eram menores de 10 anos de idade e 4 tinham de 40 a 50 anos. Todos da tribo apresentavam cicatriz vacinal do BCG. Em crianças, a prevalência de desnutrição crônica e de anemia ferropriva foi menor do que a relatada em outros grupos indígenas da região amazônica. As medidas de controle da Tb, a nível local, incluíram: a continuidade do tratamento dos pacientes, na aldeia, sob supervisão do Auxiliar de Enfermagem e do Agente Indígena de Saúde; b observância dos critérios de cura; c acompanhamento clínico de comunicantes e não-comunicantes dada a elevada prevalência da doença; d implantação de sistema de referência e contra-referência com serviços de saúde de Colider.The Panará, who had previously lived in isolation from Brazilian national society in the Amazon forest, were first contacted in 1973. Two years later they were moved to another area in Central Brazil. During this same period they were reduced to 82 members, the survivors of a population of 400 to 500 in the mid-1960s. In 1995 they returned to a small area in their old territory still not occupied by outsiders. There, three years later, a health survey showed a presumed diagnosis of tuberculosis in 15 individuals out of a population of 181. Further tests in the town of Colider, based on clinical data and chest X-rays, confirmed the diagnosis in 10 Panará (6 children under 10 years of age and 4 adults from 40 to 50 years old. BCG scars were present in the entire population. The

  9. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: isolamento de Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni do roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no estado do Pará, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: isolation of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni from the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Pará State, Brazil

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    Fernando T. Silveira

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, pela primeira vez, do isolamento de Leishmania (V. lainsoni de um mamífero silvestre, o roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras do parasita foram isoladas da pele, aparentemente íntegra, de 3 espécimes desse roedor, capturados no município de Tucuruí (ilha de Tocantins, em área que seria inundada pela formação do lago da hidrelétrica construída naquele município. Nenhum isolamento foi obtido de vísceras de qualquer dos animais. A identificação das amostras de L. (V. lainsoni baseou-se na morfologia de amastigotas e promastigotas, no comportamento da infecção em "hamsters", na análise bioquímica de isoenzimas e, ainda, através de testes com anticorpos monoclonais. A natureza inaparente da infecção nos animais faz supor que o mamífero em questão possa representar um hospedeiro definitivo do parasita na região Amazônica.The isolation of Leishmania (V. lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, from Pará State, north Brazil. Isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the Island of Tocantins, in the municipality of Tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the Tucuruí hydroeletric dam. No isolations were made from the viscera. Identification of the parasite was in each case based on morphology of the amastigotes and promastigotes, behavior of the organism in hamsters, isoenzymes profiles and the use of monoclonal antibodies. The inapparent nature of the infection leads us to suggest that the "paca", Agouti paca, represents a primitive host of L. (V. lainsoni in the Amazon Region.

  10. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  11. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goiás, Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PIMENTEL MÁRCIO M.; DANTAS ELTON L.; FUCK REINHARDT A.; ARMSTRONG RICHARD A.

    2003-01-01

    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich EW-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 ± 10 Ma and 618 ± 4 Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga g...

  12. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

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    Achee Nicole L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742, and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457. The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1

  13. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil Agressões de morcegos hematófagos a pessoas em um povoado da região amazônica do Brasil

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    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that a