WorldWideScience

Sample records for amaurosis fugax

  1. Amaurosis fugax – delay between symptoms and surgery by specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvickström P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pia Kvickström,1 Bertil Lindblom,2,3 Göran Bergström,4,5 Madeleine Zetterberg2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, 4Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, 5Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Purpose: To describe the time course of management of patients with amaurosis fugax and analyze differences in management by different specialties.Methods: Patients diagnosed with amaurosis fugax and subjected to carotid ultrasound in 2004–2010 at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (n=302 were included in this retrospective cohort study, and data were collected from medical records.Results: The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 18.9%, and 14.2% were subjected to carotid endarterectomy. A trend of longer delay for surgery was noted for patients first consulting a general practitioner (P=0.069 as compared to hospital-based specialties. For 46.3% of the patients, an ophthalmologist was their first medical contact. No significant difference in time interval to endarterectomy was seen between ophthalmologists and neurologists/internists. Only 31.8% of the patients with significant carotid stenosis had carotid endarterectomy within 2 weeks from the debut of symptoms, and this proportion was smaller for patients residing outside the Gothenburg city area (P=0.038.Conclusion: Initially consulting an ophthalmologist does not delay the time to ultrasound or carotid endarterectomy. The overall time from symptoms to surgery is longer than recommended for a majority of the patients, especially for patients from rural areas and for patients initially consulting a general

  2. Amaurosis fugax: risk factors and prevalence of significant carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvickström P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pia Kvickström,1 Bertil Lindblom,2,3 Göran Bergström,4,5 Madeleine Zetterberg2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, 4Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, 5Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and prevalence of carotid stenosis in patients with amaurosis fugax (AF.Method: Patients diagnosed with AF and subjected to carotid ultrasound in 2004–2010 in Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (n=302, were included, and data were retrospectively collected from medical records.Results: The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 18.9%, and 14.2% of the subjects were subjected to carotid endarterectomy. Significant associations with risk of having ≥70% stenosis were male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–5.46, current smoking (aOR: 6.26; 95% CI: 2.62–14.93, diabetes (aOR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.37–9.90 and previous vasculitis (aOR: 10.78; 95% CI: 1.36–85.5. A majority of the patients (81.4% was seen by an ophthalmologist prior to the first ultrasound. Only 1.7% of the patients exhibited retinal artery emboli at examination.Conclusion: The prevalence of carotid stenosis among patients with AF is higher than has previously been demonstrated in stroke patients. An association with previously reported vascular risk factors and with vasculitis is seen in this patient group. Ocular findings are scarce. Keywords: amaurosis fugax, carotid stenosis, carotid ultrasound, giant cell arteritis, transient ischemic attack, transient monocular visual loss

  3. Epicrania Fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, María Luz; Guerrero, Angel L; Pareja, Juan A

    2016-04-01

    Epicrania fugax (EF) is a primary headache of recent description. EF essentially consists of brief paroxysms of pain describing a linear or zigzag trajectory across the surface of one hemicranium, commencing and terminating in the territories of different nerves. The pain of forward EF originates in a particular area of the occipital, parietal or temporal regions and moves anteriorly, whereas the pain of backward EF originates in the frontal area, the eye or the nose and moves posteriorly. Some patients have ocular or nasal autonomic accompaniments, and some have triggers. Between attacks, many patients have continuous or intermittent pain and/or tenderness at the stemming area. Pain frequency is extremely variable and some patients have spontaneous remissions. Preventive therapy is required when the paroxysms are frequent and non-remitting. Neuromodulators, indomethacin, amitryptiline, nerve anesthetic blockades, and trochlear steroid injections have been used in different cases, with partial or complete response.

  4. Oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, R

    1987-08-01

    A report is made of the successful use of oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the condition untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried oral clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with oral clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this condition is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this condition which has been described as incurable.

  5. Proctalgia fugax: a clinical enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, W H

    1988-05-01

    Proctalgia fugax is a benign condition characterized by paroxysms of anorectal pain in the absence of identifiable anorectal lesions. The cause is unknown but may involve spasm of smooth or striated muscle. Surveys indicate the disorder is common in the general population, with only a minority of victims seeking medical attention. There is no universally accepted treatment for proctalgia fugax. The diagnosis is established by the typical history and the exclusion of other pelvic and anorectal abnormality.

  6. Linear interictal pain in Epicrania Fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Bandrés, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Epicrania Fugax is a paroxysmal, short-lasting, head pain moving across one hemicranium, describing a linear or zag trajectory, starting and ending in territories of different nerves. Between attacks, patients are usually free of symptoms. We describe an Epicrania Fugax patient complaining of interictal pain. The interictal pain was line-shaped and extended across the usual starting and ending points of the typical Epicrania Fugax paroxysms. Although rarely encountered, persistent linear pain may be a feature of Epicrania Fugax.

  7. Colonic motility in proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R F

    1979-10-06

    Intraluminal pressure recordings were obtained from the rectum and sigmoid colon in two patients experiencing attacks of proctalgia fugax. In each patient the pain appeared to result from contractions of the sigmoid colon, and not from spasm of the levator ani, rectal wall muscle, or anal sphincters, all of which have previously been suggested as the source of such pain. Proctalgia fugax therefore appears, at least in some patients, to be an unusual variant of the irritable bowel syndrome, in which pain is referred from the sigmoid colon to the rectum.

  8. Oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax.

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, R

    1987-01-01

    A report is made of the successful use of oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the condition untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried oral clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia f...

  9. [Gonorrheal proctitis imitating proctalgia fugax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvátal, A; Masek, T; Hoch, J; Hercogová, J

    2004-01-01

    Proctalgia fugax is usually a source of many diagnostic and therapeutic problems. It is often very difficult to find the cause of the pain. Case-report of a 27-year-old patient who was examined by surgeons on cramp-like pain localized to the rectum. The careful history and laboratory examination confirmed gonorrheal proctitis. She was then successfully treated with ceftriaxon.

  10. A case of proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, G L

    1984-05-01

    The syndrome called proctalgia fugax may be a repository of various conditions, because there are no distinctive signs or supporting tests. Usually, the pain of this condition is described as cramping, gnawing or tight, and lasts about ten to 15 minutes. It occurs most frequently at night and is localized to the rectal region above the anus. One subgroup may be diagnosed by the existence of a `shelf sign' in the rectum. This shelf is probably caused by pubococcygeus spasm. Patients suffering from proctalgia fugax tend to be perfectionists and above average in intelligence. A literature review and the case history of one patient illustrate the difficulties, frustrations and pitfalls associated with this incurable condition.

  11. A Case of Proctalgia Fugax

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The syndrome called proctalgia fugax may be a repository of various conditions, because there are no distinctive signs or supporting tests. Usually, the pain of this condition is described as cramping, gnawing or tight, and lasts about ten to 15 minutes. It occurs most frequently at night and is localized to the rectal region above the anus. One subgroup may be diagnosed by the existence of a `shelf sign' in the rectum. This shelf is probably caused by pubococcygeus spasm. Patients suffering ...

  12. Proctalgia fugax: caused by pudendal neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    There is a strange disease called proctalgia fugax in which rather uncomfortable pain appears suddenly mostly at night without any particular warning and disappears completely without any objective traces. It also is categorized as a functional anorectal pain under the Rome II (diagnostic criteria for the functional gastrointestinal disorders). For the causes, many theories have been advocated but not decisive and therefore were not linked to the definite treatment. The author experienced 68 patients with proctalgia fugax, among which 55 patients had tenderness along the pudendal nerve. The location, character, and degree of pain caused by digital examination were confirmed by all of them to be similar to that which they experience at times of paroxysm. After administration of a nerve block, symptoms disappeared completely in 65 percent of the patients and decreased in 25 percent. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of proctalgia fugax is neuralgia of the pudendal nerves.

  13. Proctalgia fugax: would you recognize it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, R R

    1996-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by sudden and sometimes severe rectal pain that occurs by day or night at irregular intervals. The pain results from dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter. Proctalgia fugax has a uniform clinical picture, and it can be easily diagnosed when recognized. The patient can be assured that nothing serious is wrong. Expensive tests, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, are not required. Treatment may be difficult, but if the attacks of pain are numerous and severe,, a calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) should be tried.

  14. Low-dose intravenous lidocaine as treatment for proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Roni; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2002-01-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by a sudden internal anal sphincter and anorectic ring attack of pain of a short duration. Description of the influence of intravenous lidocaine treatment for proctalgia fugax. A 28-year-old patient suffering of proctalgia fugax for 8 months. Conventional treatment efforts did not improve his condition. A single dose of an intravenous lidocaine infusion completely stopped his pain attacks. Based on the experience reported in this case and the potential benefit of this treatment for proctalgia fugax, controlled studies comparing intravenous lidocaine with placebo should be conducted to confirm the observation and to provide a more concrete basis for the use of intravenous lidocaine for this indication.

  15. Treatment of proctalgia fugax with botulinum A toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinelos, P; Kalomenopoulou, M; Christodoulou, K; Katsiba, D; Tsolkas, P; Pilpilidis, I; Papagiannis, A; Kapitsinis, I; Vasiliadis, I; Souparis, T

    2001-11-01

    Two recent studies described a temporal association between a high-amplitude and high-frequency myoelectrical activity of the anal sphincter and the occurrence of proctalgia, which suggest that paroxysmal hyperkinesis of the anus may cause proctalgia fugax. We describe a single case of proctalgia fugax responding to anal sphincter injection of Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of botulinum toxin (BTX) in this condition is outlined. Botulinum A toxin seems to be a promising treatment for patients with proctalgia fugax, and further trials appear to be worthwhile for this condition, which has been described as incurable.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Leber congenital amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correlations with genotypes, gene therapy trials update, and future directions. J AAPOS. 2009 Dec;13(6):587-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2009.10.004. Review. Citation on PubMed Cremers FP, van den Hurk JA, den Hollander AI. Molecular genetics of Leber congenital amaurosis. Hum Mol ...

  17. Treatment of proctalgia fugax with salbutamol inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, V F; Dodt, O; Kanzler, G; Bernhard, G

    1996-04-01

    Although no generally effective treatment for proctalgia fugax is known, inhalation of salbutamol has been reported to shorten pain attacks in isolated cases. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inhaled salbutamol in 18 patients with proctalgia fugax. The clinical effect was evaluated by recording the duration of severe pain and discomfort during acute attacks. In addition, anorectal motility recordings were analyzed for possible changes in anal resting tone, sphincter relaxation during rectal distension and in rectal compliance prior to and following administration of the two test substances. Sixteen patients completed all investigations. Compared to placebo, salbutamol inhalation shortened the duration of severe pain (p = 0.019). The effect was most marked in patients having prolonged attacks. In the asymptomatic state, neither salbutamol nor placebo led to a significant change in anal resting pressure, anal relaxation during rectal distension, or rectal compliance. Salbutamol also did not alter the threshold for rectal sensation. Salbutamol inhalation shortens attacks of severe pain in patients with proctalgia fugax. The mechanism of this effect remains unexplained.

  18. Paroxysmal anal hyperkinesis: a characteristic feature of proctalgia fugax.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, S S; Hatfield, R A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proctalgia fugax is a common problem, yet its pathophysiology is poorly understood. The objective was to characterise colorectal disturbances in a paraplegic patient with a 10 year history of proctalgia fugax that began two years after an attack of transverse myelitis. METHODS: Standard anorectal manometry and prolonged 33 hour ambulatory colonic manometry at six sites in the colon were performed together with myoelectrical recording of the anus. Provocative tests designe...

  19. [Proctalgia fugax. Differential diagnosis and therapy of fleeting anal cramp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, G

    1992-05-30

    Proctalgia fugax--short-lived anal spasm--is a common, extremely unpleasant, painful condition that occurs completely unexpectedly, often waking the victim at night. Scientific assessment is difficult on account of the functional nature of the condition and its multifactorial genesis. Before the patient is labeled "anal neurotic", however, he/she should be investigated by a specialist. The results of treating the rarely absent pathological organic findings give rise to optimism.

  20. Anorectal function and morphology in patients with sporadic proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, V F; Dodt, O; Kanzler, G; Bernhard, G

    1996-07-01

    The pathophysiology of sporadic proctalgia fugax remains unknown. This study investigates whether patients with this syndrome exhibit alterations in anal function and morphology. Eighteen patients with sporadic proctalgia fugax and 18 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls were studied. Manometric studies investigated anal resting and squeeze pressures, the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, rectal compliance, and smooth muscle response to edrophonium chloride administration. External and internal sphincter thickness was measured endosonographically. Patients had slightly higher (P = 0.0291) anal resting pressures (65.5 +/- 11.4 mmHg) than controls (56 +/- 9.9 mmHg). However, anal squeeze pressure, sphincter relaxation during rectal distention, and rectal compliance were similar in both groups, and no alterations were detected in external and internal anal sphincter thickness. Edrophonium chloride administration was followed by sharp postrelaxation contractions in two patients, whereas anal function remained unaltered in controls. Acute episodes of proctalgia, which occurred in two patients while under study, were associated with a rise in anal resting tone and an increase in slow wave amplitude. In the resting state, patients with proctalgia fugax have normal anorectal function and morphology. However, they may exhibit a motor abnormality of the anal smooth muscle during an acute attack.

  1. Paroxysmal anal hyperkinesis: a characteristic feature of proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S; Hatfield, R A

    1996-10-01

    Proctalgia fugax is a common problem, yet its pathophysiology is poorly understood. The objective was to characterise colorectal disturbances in a paraplegic patient with a 10 year history of proctalgia fugax that began two years after an attack of transverse myelitis. Standard anorectal manometry and prolonged 33 hour ambulatory colonic manometry at six sites in the colon were performed together with myoelectrical recording of the anus. Provocative tests designed to simulate psychological and physical stress and two types of meals were included. Anorectal manometry showed normal internal sphincter tone and normal rectoanal inhibitory reflex but an inability to squeeze or to bear down or to expel a simulated stool. Rectal sensation (up to 360 ml inflation) was absent. Pudendal nerve latency was prolonged (4.5 ms (normal 3.2 mv), high frequency (5-50/min) anal myoelectrical activity, particularly after stress tests, meals, and at night. The myoelectrical disturbance only occurred with proctalgia. Intermittently, 16 bursts of 3 cycles/ min phasic rectal contractions were seen, but only six were associated with proctalgia. Colonic motility was reduced compared with normal subjects. The temporal association between a high amplitude, high frequency myoelectrical activity of the anal sphincter, and the occurrence of proctalgia suggests that paroxysmal hyperkinesis of the anus may cause proctalgia fugax.

  2. [Proctalgia Fugax--what's new over the last 100 years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosi, Doron; Werbin, Nachum; Skornick, Yehuda; Greenberg, Ron

    2004-05-01

    Proctalgia Fugax is a benign, self-limiting disease characterized by episodes of intense pain in the anorectal area occurring at infrequent intervals. It is common, but most suffers do not seek medical advice. Although its classical symptomatology was describe more than a century ago, the etiology is unclear. Theories regarding the etiology have centered on alteration in the internal anal sphincter function and morphology. For most patients after gathering a detailed history, reassurance and warm baths will suffice. In persistent cases therapies that induce internal anal sphincter relaxation are the main treatment modalities.

  3. Treatment of proctalgia fugax with topical nitroglycerin: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, B; Cataldo, P A

    1998-05-01

    We report a single case of proctalgia fugax that responded to 0.3 percent nitroglycerin ointment. Case report. A single case of proctalgia fugax responded to topical application of 0.3 percent nitro glycerin ointment with no significant side effects. Nitroglycerin ointment is a newly described treatment for several painful anal conditions. We describe a single case of levator spasm or proctalgia fugax responding to topical application of nitroglycerin. This is only a single case report, and conclusive evidence awaits completion of a controlled clinical trial.

  4. Use of botulinum A toxin for proctalgia fugax-a case report of successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriou, Marios; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Kofina, Konstantinia; Efthimiadis, Christoforos

    2017-11-01

    Proctalgia fugax is considered as intermittent anal pain of unknown etiology; a variety of treatments have been used, without, however, permanent results. Injection of botulinum A toxin is recently suggested as an alternative option. We present the case of a woman presenting proctalgia fugax that was untreatable through other current forms of treatment. After two administrations of botulinum A toxin, 80 units and 100 units each, the patient remained asymptomatic on 8-month follow-up control. Botulinum A toxin injection can reduce internal anal sphincter pressure, leading to relief of symptoms, and seems a promising option with minimal morbidity in cases on proctalgia fugax that does not respond to other current treatments.

  5. Hereditary proctalgia fugax and constipation: report of a second family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, A F; Katsinelos, P; Read, N W; Khan, M I; Donnelly, T C

    1995-04-01

    A second family with hereditary proctalgia fugax and internal anal sphincter hypertrophy associated with constipation is described. Anorectal ultrasonography, manometry, and sensory tests were conducted in two symptomatic and one asymptomatic subjects within the same family and further clinical information was obtained from other family members. The inheritance would correspond to an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetration, presenting after the second decade of life. Physiological studies showed deep, ultraslow waves and an absence of internal anal sphincter relaxation on rectal distension in the two most severely affected family members, suggesting the possibility of a neuropathic origin. Both of these patients had an abnormally high blood pressure. After treatment with a sustained release formulation of the calcium antagonist, nifedipine, their blood pressure returned to normal, anal tone was reduced, and the frequency and intensity of anal pain was suppressed. These together improved the quality of the patients' sleep, which had previously been very troubled because of night time attacks of anal pain.

  6. Epicrania fugax: 19 cases of an emerging headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, María Luz; Ordás, Carlos M; Sánchez-Lizcano, María; Casas-Limón, Javier; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; García-García, María Eugenia; Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Barahona-Hernando, Raúl; Porta-Etessam, Jesús

    2013-05-01

    Epicrania fugax (EF) is a primary headache of recent description. We aimed to report 19 new cases of EF, and thus contribute to the characterization of this emerging headache. EF is characterized by painful paroxysms starting in a particular area of the head, and rapidly radiating forwards or backwards through the territories of different nerves. The pain is felt in quick motion along a lineal or zigzag trajectory. To date, 47 cases have been published, 34 with forward EF and 13 with backward EF. We performed a descriptive study of all EF cases attending our Headache Unit from April 2010 to December 2012. Demographic and clinical data were recorded with a structured questionnaire. Overall, there were 12 women and 7 men. Mean age at onset was 51.7 ± 16.2. Fourteen patients had forward EF, while 5 patients had backward EF. Painful paroxysms lasted 1-4 seconds. Pain intensity was usually moderate or severe, and pain quality was mostly electric. Four patients had ocular autonomic accompaniments. Pain frequency was extremely variable, and 7 patients identified some triggers. Between attacks, 13 patients had some pain or tenderness in the stemming area. Thirteen patients required therapy for their pain. Neuromodulators, indomethacin, anesthetic blockades, and steroid injections were used in different cases, with partial or complete response. EF appears as a distinct headache syndrome and could be eventually included in future editions of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  7. Proctalgia fugax, an evidence-based management pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyarajah, Santhini; Chow, Andre; Ziprin, Paul; Tilney, Henry; Purkayastha, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Proctalgia fugax (PF) is a benign anorectal condition which has been described in the literature since the nineteenth century commonly presenting to general surgeons. There is little high level evidence on the subject and its therapeutic modalities. We aimed through this systematic literature review to outline the definition and diagnostic criteria of this condition, the aetiology and differential diagnoses and describe the different treatment modalities that have been attempted and their success. A literature search of Google Scholar and Medline using Pubmed as the search engine was used to identify all studies directly related to the definition, aetiology and treatment options for this condition (latest at 12 August 2008) was performed. The search produced 61 references with three others obtained from the references of these papers. The prevalence of PF in the general population ranges from 4% to 18%. The diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic symptoms as defined by Rome III guidelines and physical examination. The mainstay of treatment is reassurance and careful counselling with evidence in the literature for warm baths, topical treatment with glyceryl trinitrate or diltiazem and salbutamol inhalation. In persistent cases, local anaesthetic blocks, clonidine or Botox injections can be considered after clarification of risk and benefit. Based on this we suggest that diagnosis should be made through exclusion of common organic causes such as haemorrhoids, anal fissure or anorectal carcinoma and on the fulfillment of Rome III criteria. The main treatment for this benign condition remains reassurance and topical treatment.

  8. Anorectal pain and irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, and pruritus ani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, C

    1999-03-01

    Anal fissures, proctalgia fugax, levator ani syndrome, and pruritus ani are common causes of anorectal pain and irritation. The clinician who obtains a thorough history and performs a complete examination can accurately diagnose these disorders. Ancillary tests seldom are helpful and rarely are necessary. Most patients suffering from these conditions readily respond to conservative therapy provided in the primary care practitioner's office.

  9. Mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, cause Leber congenital amaurosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Koenekoop, R.K.; Mohamed, M.D.; Arts, H.H.; Boldt, K.; Towns, K.V.; Sedmak, T.; Beer, M. de; Nagel-Wolfrum, K.; McKibbin, M.; Dharmaraj, S.; Lopez, I.; Ivings, L.; Williams, G.A.; Springell, K.; Woods, C.G.; Jafri, H.; Rashid, Y.; Strom, T.M.; Zwaag, B. van der; Gosens, I.; Kersten, F.F.J.; Wijk, E. van; Veltman, J.A.; Zonneveld, M.N.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Maumenee, I.H.; Wolfrum, U.; Cheetham, M.E.; Ueffing, M.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Roepman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes blindness or severe visual impairment at or within a few months of birth. Here we show, using homozygosity mapping, that the LCA5 gene on chromosome 6q14, which encodes the previously unknown ciliary protein lebercilin, is associated with this disease. We

  10. Involvement of LCA5 in Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa in the Spanish population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corton, M.; Avila-Fernandez, A.; Vallespin, E.; Lopez-Molina, M.I.; Almoguera, B.; Martin-Garrido, E.; Tatu, S.D.; Khan, M.I.; Blanco-Kelly, F.; Riveiro-Alvarez, R.; Brion, M.; Garcia-Sandoval, B.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Carracedo, A.; Ayuso, C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel genetic defects in the LCA5 gene underlying Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in the Spanish population and to describe the associated phenotype. DESIGN: Case series. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 217 unrelated Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive or

  11. Hereditary vacuolar internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: a new case contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Portilla, Fernando; Borrero, Juan José; Rafel, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Hereditary anal sphincter myopathy is rare. We present a family with one affected member with proctalgia fugax, constipation and internal anal sphincter hypertrophy. Ultrastructural findings show vacuolization of smooth muscle cells without the characteristic polyglucosan inclusion. Further relief of symptoms was obtained using an oral calcium antagonist. Based on clinical presentation, endosonography and morphological findings, we consider our case is a histological variant of the vacuolar myopathy originally described.

  12. [Treatment of proctalgia fugax with botulinum toxin: results in 5 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Romero, A M; Arroyo Sebastián, A; Pérez Vicente, F A; Serrano Paz, P; Candela Polo, F; Calpena Rico, R

    2006-03-01

    Proctalgia fugax can be defined as transitory but recurrent anal pain. Although its etiology remains unknown, an internal anal sphincter spasm seems to be the most likely, so that the different treatments focus on reducing the pressure of the internal anal sphincter. This study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of botulinum A toxin in the treatment of proctalgia fugax. Prospective clinical trial of patients with proctalgia fugax treated with botulinum A toxin at the Outpatient Clinic attached to the Coloproctogy Unit, University Hospital of Elche, from January 1999 to January 2002. The patients included in the study underwent rectal digital examination, anuscopy, rectoscopy, anal manometry and ultrasonography, barium enema and pelvic CT scan to rule out any organic cause for anal pain. The treatment consisted of 25 IU of botulinum A toxin, with a supplementary dose of 50 IU in those patients with persistence of anal pain episodes within the next two months. The patients were reviewed on the first week, second month, sixth month and first and second year. Anal pain was measured by the patients, using a linear analogue scale from 0 to 10, and continence was assessed at every visit using the Cleveland Continence Grading Scale. Five patients were recluted for the study, with a predominance of females (4 vs. 1). Mean age was 45 years. Length of symptoms prior to the treatment was 13 months (range: 6-18 months). Only one female patient required a second dose of botulinum A toxin to handle the anal pain. All the patients healed and remained free of pain up to finishing the follow-up. There were no local complications. Anal manometry showed an increased MRP (mean resting pressure) in comparison to a control group of patients (114 mmHg vs. 66 mmHg; p proctalgia fugax.

  13. Leber congenital amaurosis associated with optic disk neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Daryl; Ciulla, Thomas A

    2003-05-01

    To report an unusual case of optic disk neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage associated with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Interventional case report. A 16-year-old Caucasian girl with a history of LCA presented with decreased vision in her left eye, diffuse retinal pigmentary abnormalities characteristic of LCA, and hemorrhage over the left optic disk and macula. Six months of follow-up revealed optic disk neovascularization. A small amount of neovascularization was noted in the right eye at 6 months. An extensive systemic evaluation indicated no other cause for the neovascularization. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed in both eyes, and subsequently the neovascularization regressed. Leber congenital amaurosis like retinitis pigmentosa, can rarely be associated with neovascularization of the disk, which is amenable to treatment with peripheral photocoagulation if it does not spontaneously regress.

  14. Long-Term Effect of Gene Therapy on Leber's Congenital Amaurosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, James W B; Mehat, Manjit S; Sundaram, Venki; Robbie, Scott J; Barker, Susie E; Ripamonti, Caterina; Georgiadis, Anastasios; Mowat, Freya M; Beattie, Stuart G; Gardner, Peter J; Feathers, Kecia L; Luong, Vy A; Yzer, Suzanne; Balaggan, Kamaljit; Viswanathan, Ananth

    2015-01-01

    Background Mutations in RPE65 cause Leber's congenital amaurosis, a progressive retinal degenerative disease that severely impairs sight in children. Gene therapy can result in modest improvements in night vision, but knowledge of its efficacy in humans is limited. Methods We performed a phase 1-2 open-label trial involving 12 participants to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gene therapy with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2/2 (rAAV2/2) vector carrying the RPE65 complementary DNA, an...

  15. Proctalgia fugax: demographic and clinical characteristics. What every doctor should know from a prospective study of 54 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Parades, Vincent; Etienney, Isabelle; Bauer, Pierre; Taouk, Milad; Atienza, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to describe a typical attack of proctalgia fugax. Patients were recruited from May 2003 to June 2004. Whatever the reason for consultation, they were systematically asked: "Do you ever suffer intermittent and recurring anorectal pain lasting for at least three seconds?" If the answer was yes, they were interviewed with a questionnaire and had a proctologic examination. The criterion for proctalgia fugax was a positive answer with a negative examination. The study included 1,809 patients. Fifty-four of these patients (3 percent) had proctalgia fugax and 83 percent of them had never sought medical advice for this problem. The mean age was 51 (range, 18-87) years. Thirty-seven patients were females (69 percent). The onset of pain was sudden and without a trigger factor in 85 percent of cases. Attacks occurred in the daytime (33 percent) as well as at night (35 percent). The pain was described as cramping, spasm-like, or stabbing in 76 percent of cases. It did not radiate in 93 percent of cases. There were no concomitant symptoms in 81 percent of cases. Attacks stopped spontaneously in 67 percent of cases. The average duration was 15 minutes (range, 5 seconds to 90 minutes). The average annual number of attacks was 13 (range, 1-180). Proctalgia fugax affects twice as many females as males at approximately aged 50 years. Commonly the roughly once-monthly attack occurs as a sudden pain with no trigger factor, diurnally as often as nocturnally. The nonradiating cramp, spasm, or stabbing pain, without concomitant symptoms, is most severe on average after 15 minutes and declines spontaneously.

  16. Abnormalities of the five serum ions in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Zhong Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the concentration changes of the serum magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride ions of the patients of Leber congenital amaurosis(LCA.METHODS:Based on the retrospective study and the simple size in the statistics, 50 cases of LCA patients and 99 cases of normal people were tested the serum ions by professionals in hospital according to the single blind study. Data were analyzed statistically between LCA and normal groups. RESULTS: In the clinical serum ions test of LCA group, the concentration of calcium and potassium were 2.338±0.090mmol/L and 4.164±0.356mmol/L respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the normal group(all PPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: In the patients with LCA, abnormal concentration changes of magnesium, calcium and potassium will be needed to concern of the ophthalmologist, which is probably related with the occurrence of LCA.

  17. Comprehensive genotyping reveals RPE65 as the most frequently mutated gene in Leber congenital amaurosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astuti, Galuh D N; Bertelsen, Mette; Preising, Markus N

    2016-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) represents the most severe form of inherited retinal dystrophies with an onset during the first year of life. Currently, 21 genes are known to be associated with LCA and recurrent mutations have been observed in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1 and GUCY2D. In addition, sequenc...... therapies.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 2 December 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.241....

  18. [Irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax and chronic pelvic and perineal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Alain; Rigaud, Jérôme; Labat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    To define functional gastrointestinal pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, the pathophysiology of these syndromes and the treatments that can be proposed. Review of articles published on the theme based on a Medline (PubMed) search and consensus conferences selected according to their scientific relevance. IBS is very common. Patients report abdominal pain and/or discomfort, bloating, and abnormal bowel habit (diarrhoea, constipation or both), in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. IBS has a complex, multifactorial pathophysiology, involving biological and psychosocial interactions resulting in dysregulation of the brain-gut axis associated with disorders of intestinal motility, hyperalgesia, immune disorders and disorders of the intestinal bacterial microflora and autonomic and hormonal dysfunction. Many treatments have been proposed, ranging from diet to pharmacology and psychotherapy. Patients with various types of chronic pelvic and perineal pain, especially those seen in urology departments, very often report associated IBS. This syndrome is also part of a global and integrated concept of pelviperineal dysfunction, avoiding a rigorous distinction between the posterior segment and the midline and anterior segments of the perineum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Evidence of pudendal neuropathy in Proctalgia Fugax: perineal neurophysiological assessment in 55 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damphousse, M; Jousse, M; Verollet, D; Guinet, A; Le Breton, F; Lacroix, P; Sheik Ismael, S; Amarenco, G

    2012-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax (PF) is a very common condition especially in women. Causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of PF are unknown. Recently, a pudendal neuropathy was clinically suspected in women with PF. The goal of our study was to demonstrate, or not, such abnormalities by means electrophysiological testing. Fifty-five patients with PF (45 female and 10 male, mean age 50.2 years) were evaluated. EMG testing with motor unit potential analysis of pelvic floor muscles (bulbocavernosus muscle and striated external anal sphincter), study of bulbocavernosus reflex and pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies (PNTML) were performed. EMG testing was altered in two males out of 10 (20%) and 29/45 females (64%). In women, denervation was found bilateral in 25/29 (86%). Sacral latency was delayed in eight out of 29 (bilateral in five cases, unilateral in three cases) and PNTML altered in 17 cases (13 bilateral alteration, four unilateral). A significant difference (P<0.002 Chi(2) test) was demonstrated between male and female concerning pelvic floor muscles denervation. Pelvic floor muscles denervation was a common feature in women suffering from PF, due to a stretch bilateral pudendal neuropathy. Distal lesions of the pudendal nerves, principally due to a stretch perineal neuropathy, can be imagined as a factor or co-factor of PF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Proctalgia fugax in patients with the irritable bowel, peptic ulcer, or inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W G

    1984-06-01

    One hundred forty-eight patients with gastrointestinal disease, 50 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 49 each with peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease, were interviewed to determine if they had proctalgia fugax (PF) and if the symptom was associated with the IBS. One-third of the patients had PF. It occurred in 51% of females and 12% of males (p less than 0.001). When corrected for sex, PF was no more prevalent in IBS than in peptic ulcer or inflammatory bowel disease. Only two of six previously described IBS symptoms were more prevalent in the PF patients. Attacks occurred in the day in 94%, and one-third of sufferers related them to defecation. The pain was localized in the anus in 90%, occurred less than five times a year in 51%, and lasted less than 1 min in 57%. In most, activity was not interrupted by this pain and only 20% had ever reported it to a physician. PF is very common among patients with abdominal symptoms, but is not related to the IBS. Since it is infrequent, benign, and transient, PF is usually not mentioned to the physician.

  1. Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation. A newly identified condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, M A; Hoyle, C H; Burleigh, D E; Law, P J; Swash, M; Martin, J E; Nicholls, R J; Northover, J M

    1991-03-01

    A newly identified myopathy of the internal anal sphincter is described. In the affected family, at least one member from each of five generations had severe proctalgia fugax; onset was usually in the third to fifth decades of life. Three members of the family have been studied in detail. Each had severe pain intermittently during the day and hourly during the night. Constipation was an associated symptom, in particular difficulty with rectal evacuation. Clinically the internal anal sphincter was thickened and of decreased compliance. The maximum anal canal pressure was usually increased with marked ultraslow wave activity. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter. Two patients were treated by internal anal sphincter strip myectomy; one showed marked improvement and one was relieved of the constipation but had only slight improvement of the pain. The hypertrophied muscle in two of the patients showed unique myopathic changes, consisting of vacuolar changes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive polyglycosan bodies in the smooth muscle fibers and increased endomysial fibrosis. In vitro organ-bath studies showed insensitivity of the muscle to noradrenaline, isoprenaline, carbachol, dimethylpiperazinium, and electrical-field stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide showed staining in a similar distribution to that in control tissue. A specific autosomal-dominant inherited myopathy of the internal anal sphincter that causes anal pain and constipation has been identified and characterized.

  2. Pupillometric analysis for assessment of gene therapy in Leber Congenital Amaurosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melillo Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective techniques to assess the amelioration of vision in patients with impaired visual function are needed to standardize efficacy assessment in gene therapy trials for ocular diseases. Pupillometry has been investigated in several diseases in order to provide objective information about the visual reflex pathway and has been adopted to quantify visual impairment in patients with Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA. In this paper, we describe detailed methods of pupillometric analysis and a case study on three Italian patients affected by Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA involved in a gene therapy clinical trial at two follow-up time-points: 1 year and 3 years after therapy administration. Methods Pupillary light reflexes (PLR were measured in patients who had received a unilateral subretinal injection in a clinical gene therapy trial. Pupil images were recorded simultaneously in both eyes with a commercial pupillometer and related software. A program was generated with MATLAB software in order to enable enhanced pupil detection with revision of the acquired images (correcting aberrations due to the inability of these severely visually impaired patients to fixate, and computation of the pupillometric parameters for each stimulus. Pupil detection was performed through Hough Transform and a non-parametric paired statistical test was adopted for comparison. Results The developed program provided correct pupil detection also for frames in which the pupil is not totally visible. Moreover, it provided an automatic computation of the pupillometric parameters for each stimulus and enabled semi-automatic revision of computerized detection, eliminating the need for the user to manually check frame by frame. With reference to the case study, the amplitude of pupillary constriction and the constriction velocity were increased in the right (treated eye compared to the left (untreated eye at both follow-up time-points, showing stability of

  3. [Amaurosis and contralateral cranial nerve pairs III and VI paralysis after peribulbar block - Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Fábio Caetano Oliveira; Moro, Eduardo Toshiyuki; Ferraz, Alexandre Alberto Fontana

    2016-08-20

    Peribulbar anesthesia (PBA) has emerged as a safer option compared with intraconal retrobulbar block. Still, PBA may not be considered without risk. Numerous complications have been described when performing this technique. This report aims to describe a rare case of amaurosis and contralateral paralysis while attempting to perform a PBA. Male patient, 75-year old, physical status ASA II, undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Sedated with fentanyl and midazolam and subjected to PBA. There were no complications during surgery. After finishing the procedure, the patient reported lack of vision in the contralateral eye. Akinesia of the muscles innervated by the cranial nerve pairs III and VI, ptosis, and medium-sized pupils unresponsive to light stimulus were observed. Four hours after anesthesia, complete recovery of vision and eyelid and eyeball movements was seen in the non-operated eye. During PBA, structures located in the intraconal space can be accidentally hit leading to complications such as described in the above report. Following the technical guidelines and using appropriate size needles may reduce the risk of such complication, but not completely. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Leber’s congenital amaurosis and the role of gene therapy in congenital retinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Sharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA and recent gene therapy advancement for treating inherited retinopathies were extensive literature reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE. Adeno-associated viral vectors were the most utilised vectors for ocular gene therapy. Cone photoreceptor cells might use an alternate pathway which was not reliant of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE derived retinoid isomerohydrolase (RPE65 to access the 11-cis retinal dehydechromophore. Research efforts dedicated on the progression of a gene-based therapy for the treatment of LCA2. Such gene therapy approaches were extremely successful in canine, porcine and rodent LCA2 models. The recombinant AAV2.hRPE65v2 adeno-associated vector contained the RPE65 cDNA and was replication deficient. Its in vitro injection in target cells induced RPE65 protein production. The gene therapy trials that were so far conducted for inherited retinopathies have generated promising results. Phase I clinical trials to cure LCA and choroideremia demonstrated that adeno-associated viral vectors containing RPE genes and photoreceptors respectively, could be successfully administered to inherited retinopathy patients. A phase III trial is presently ongoing and if successful, it will lead the way to additional gene therapy attempts to cure monogenic, inherited retinopathies.

  5. Variations in NPHP5 in Patients With Nonsyndromic Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Senior-Loken Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Edwin M.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Ehlinger, Mary A.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Lam, Byron L.; Fulton, Anne B.; Mullins, Robert F.; Sheffield, Val C.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether mutations in NPHP5 can cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) without early-onset renal disease. Methods DNA samples from 276 individuals with non-syndromic LCA were screened for variations in the NPHP5 gene. Each had been previously screened for mutations in 8 known LCA genes without identifying a disease-causing genotype. Results Nine of the 276 LCA probands (3.2%) harbored 2 plausible disease-causing mutations (7 different alleles) in NPHP5. Four of these have been previously reported in patients with Senior-Loken syndrome (F141del, R461X, H506del, and R489X) and 3 are novel (A111del, E346X, and R455X). All 9 patients had severe visual loss from early childhood but none had overt renal disease in the first decade of life. Two patients were diagnosed with nephronophthisis in the second decade. Retinal imaging studies showed retained photoreceptor nuclei and retinal pigment epithelium integrity mainly in the cone-rich central retina, a phenotype with strong similarities to that of NPHP6 disease. Conclusions Mutations in NPHP5 can cause LCA without early-onset renal disease. Abnormalities observed in the photoreceptor outer segments (a cilial structure) may explain the severe visual loss in NPHP5-associated LCA. Clinical Relevance The persistence of central photoreceptor nuclei despite severe visual loss in NPHP5 disease is encouraging for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:21220633

  6. Leber’s congenital amaurosis and the role of gene therapy in congenital retinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walid; Sharif; Zuhair; Sharif

    2017-01-01

    Leber’s congenital amaurosis(LCA)and recent gene therapy advancement for treating inherited retinopathies were extensive literature reviewed using MEDLINE,Pub Med and EMBASE. Adeno-associated viral vectors were the most utilised vectors for ocular gene therapy. Cone photoreceptor cells might use an alternate pathway which was not reliant of the retinal pigment epithelium(RPE)derived retinoid isomerohydrolase(RPE65)to access the 11-cis retinal dehydechromophore. Research efforts dedicated on the progression of a gene-based therapy for the treatment of LCA2. Such gene therapy approaches were extremely successful in canine,porcine and rodent LCA2 models. The recombinant AAV2.h RPE65v2 adenoassociated vector contained the RPE65 cDNA and was replication deficient. Its in vitro injection in target cells induced RPE65 protein production. The gene therapy trials that were so far conducted for inherited retinopathies have generated promising results. Phase I clinical trials to cure LCA and choroideremia demonstrated that adeno-associated viral vectors containing RPE genes and photoreceptors respectively,could be successfully administered to inherited retinopathy patients. A phase III trial is presently ongoing and if successful,it will lead the way to additional gene therapy attempts to cure monogenic,inherited retinopathies.

  7. Sequential treatment for proctalgia fugax. Mid-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia Solanas, J A; Ramírez Rodríguez, J M; Elía Guedea, M; Aguilella Diago, V; Martínez Díez, M

    2005-07-01

    Proctalgia fugax (PF) is a benign, self-limiting disease characterized by episodes of intense anorectal pain at frequent intervals in the absence of organic proctological disease. Even though PF was described more than a century ago, its etiology remains unclear. Currently there is no information available. Few papers quoting many ways of management have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate patients complaining of this condition and to treat them with sequential therapy. We devised a descriptive, prospective study of patients complaining of acute perianal pain--duration less than 30 minutes--without organic disease or previous perianal surgery since 1996 to 2002 in our Department. We treated these patients using a three-step treatment (1: information, hip bath, benzodiazepines; 2: sublingual nifedipine 10 mg, or topic 0.1% nitroglycerin on demand; 3: internal anal sphincterotomy if hypertrophy of the internal anal sphincter was demonstrated by anal ultrasonography and no improvement was confirmed with the previous steps of treatment). We defined remarkable improvement as a decrease in the number of episodes by half or in pain intensity by 50%. Fifteen patients with an average follow-up of 4 years. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter (IAS) in 5 cases. After the first step of treatment 7 patients improved and 1 patient was cured; after the second step of treatment 3 patients improved and 1 was cured; the third step was applied to 3 patients with a thickened IAS; 1 patient improved and 1 patient was cured. A total resolution of PF is not always possible, but we may improve symptoms and their frequency. Almost 50% of patients in our series improved with the first step of treatment; 30% of our patients had IAS hypertrophy. Anal endosonography can help in the diagnosis of organic diseases or IAS hypertrophy, for which we can perform an internal anal sphincter myectomy.

  8. Long-term effect of gene therapy on Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, James W B; Mehat, Manjit S; Sundaram, Venki; Robbie, Scott J; Barker, Susie E; Ripamonti, Caterina; Georgiadis, Anastasios; Mowat, Freya M; Beattie, Stuart G; Gardner, Peter J; Feathers, Kecia L; Luong, Vy A; Yzer, Suzanne; Balaggan, Kamaljit; Viswanathan, Ananth; de Ravel, Thomy J L; Casteels, Ingele; Holder, Graham E; Tyler, Nick; Fitzke, Fred W; Weleber, Richard G; Nardini, Marko; Moore, Anthony T; Thompson, Debra A; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Michaelides, Michel; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; Stockman, Andrew; Smith, Alexander J; Rubin, Gary; Ali, Robin R

    2015-05-14

    Mutations in RPE65 cause Leber's congenital amaurosis, a progressive retinal degenerative disease that severely impairs sight in children. Gene therapy can result in modest improvements in night vision, but knowledge of its efficacy in humans is limited. We performed a phase 1-2 open-label trial involving 12 participants to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gene therapy with a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2/2 (rAAV2/2) vector carrying the RPE65 complementary DNA, and measured visual function over the course of 3 years. Four participants were administered a lower dose of the vector, and 8 were administered a higher dose. In a parallel study in dogs, we investigated the relationship among vector dose, visual function, and electroretinography (ERG) findings. Improvements in retinal sensitivity were evident, to varying extents, in six participants for up to 3 years, peaking at 6 to 12 months after treatment and then declining. No associated improvement in retinal function was detected by means of ERG. Three participants had intraocular inflammation, and two had clinically significant deterioration of visual acuity. The reduction in central retinal thickness varied among participants. In dogs, RPE65 gene therapy with the same vector at lower doses improved vision-guided behavior, but only higher doses resulted in improvements in retinal function that were detectable with the use of ERG. Gene therapy with rAAV2/2 RPE65 vector improved retinal sensitivity, albeit modestly and temporarily. Comparison with the results obtained in the dog model indicates that there is a species difference in the amount of RPE65 required to drive the visual cycle and that the demand for RPE65 in affected persons was not met to the extent required for a durable, robust effect. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00643747.).

  9. Reversal of Blindness in Animal Models of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Using Optimized AAV2-mediated Gene Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Bennicelli, Jeannette; Wright, John Fraser; Komaromy, Andras; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Hui, Daniel; Chung, Daniel; Rex, Tonia S; Wei, Zhangyong; Qu, Guang; Zhou, Shangzhen; Zeiss, Caroline; Arruda, Valder R

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an optimized adeno-associated virus (AAV; AAV2.RPE65) in animal models of the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Protein expression was optimized by addition of a modified Kozak sequence at the translational start site of hRPE65. Modifications in AAV production and delivery included use of a long stuffer sequence to prevent reverse packaging from the AAV inverted-terminal repeats, and co-injection with a surfactant. The latter allows consis...

  10. Internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: further clinical and radiological characterization in a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, R J; Kamm, M A; Martin, J E

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of a distinctive familial internal anal sphincter myopathy with unique histological and radiological features. A 67-year-old woman presented with a 20-year history of proctalgia fugax and outlet obstruction; other family members were similarly affected. Computed tomograpy and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a grossly hypertrophied internal anal sphincter. Strip myectomy of the sphincter was carried out with improvement in evacuation but little relief of proctalgia. Further relief of symptoms was obtained using oral and transdermal nitrates and a calcium antagonist. Histological examination of the excised muscle revealed hypertrophy and an abnormal arrangement of fibres in whorls; many fibres contained vacuoles with inclusion bodies positive for periodic acid-Schiff. This description of a specific anal sphincter myopathy illustrates the potential importance of histopathological studies of smooth muscle in functional disorders of the gut.

  11. Involvement of LCA5 in Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, Marta; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Vallespín, Elena; López-Molina, María Isabel; Almoguera, Berta; Martín-Garrido, Esther; Tatu, Sorina D; Khan, M Imran; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Brión, María; García-Sandoval, Blanca; Cremers, Frans P M; Carracedo, Angel; Ayuso, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify novel genetic defects in the LCA5 gene underlying Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in the Spanish population and to describe the associated phenotype. Case series. A cohort of 217 unrelated Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive or isolated retinal dystrophy, that is, 79 families with LCA and 138 families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (EORP). A total of 100 healthy, unrelated Spanish individuals were screened as controls. High-resolution homozygosity mapping was performed in 44 patients with LCA using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. Direct sequencing of the LCA5 gene was performed in 5 patients who showed homozygous regions at chromosome 6 and in 173 unrelated individuals with LCA or EORP. The ophthalmic history of 8 patients carrying LCA5 mutations was reviewed and additional examinations were performed, including electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus photography. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, identity-by-descent (IBD) regions, LCA5 mutations, best-corrected visual acuity, visual field assessments, fundus appearance, ERG, and OCT findings. Four novel and 2 previously reported LCA5 mutations have been identified in 6 unrelated families with LCA by homozygosity mapping or Sanger sequencing. Thus, LCA5 mutations have a frequency of 7.6% in the Spanish population. However, no LCA5 mutations were found in 138 patients with EORP. Although most of the identified LCA5 mutations led to a truncated protein, a likely pathogenic missense variant was identified for the first time as a cause of LCA, segregating in 2 families. We also have characterized a novel splicing site mutation at the RNA level, demonstrating that the mutant LCA5 transcript was absent in a patient. All patients carrying LCA5 mutations presented nystagmus, night blindness, and progressive loss of visual acuity and visual field leading to blindness toward the third decade of life. Fundoscopy

  12. AON-mediated Exon Skipping Restores Ciliation in Fibroblasts Harboring the Common Leber Congenital Amaurosis CEP290 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for congenital or early-onset blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (>10% is located deep in intron 26 of the CEP290 gene (c.2991+1655A>G. It creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. In the present study, we show that the use of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs allow an efficient skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients. These data support the feasibility of an AON-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing.

  13. Autosomal-dominant Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Heterozygous CRX Mutation in a Father and Son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot Sadagopan, Karthikeyan; Battista, Robert; Keep, Rosanne B; Capasso, Jenina E; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is most often an autosomal recessive disorder. We report a father and son with autosomal dominant LCA due to a mutation in the CRX gene. DNA screening using an allele specific assay of 90 of the most common LCA-causing variations in the coding sequences of AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, CRX, GUCY2D, RDH12 and RPE65 was performed on the father. Automated DNA sequencing of his son examining exon 3 of the CRX gene was subsequently performed. Both father and son have a heterozygous single base pair deletion of an adenine at codon 153 in the coding sequence of the CRX gene resulting in a frameshift mutation. Mutations involving the CRX gene may demonstrate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern for LCA.

  14. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies ALMS1, IQCB1, CNGA3, and MYO7A Mutations in Patients with Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xia; Wang, Hui; Cao, Ming; Li, Zhe; Chen, Xianfeng; Patenia, Claire; Gore, Athurva; Abboud, Emad B.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.; Lewis, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Mardon, Graeme; Zhang, Kun; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been well documented that mutations in the same retinal disease gene can result in different clinical phenotypes due to difference in the mutant allele and/or genetic background. To evaluate this, a set of consanguineous patient families with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) that do not carry mutations in known LCA disease genes was characterized through homozygosity mapping followed by targeted exon/whole-exome sequencing to identify genetic variations. Among these families, a total o...

  15. Reversal of blindness in animal models of leber congenital amaurosis using optimized AAV2-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennicelli, Jeannette; Wright, John Fraser; Komaromy, Andras; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Mingozzi, Federico; Hui, Daniel; Chung, Daniel; Rex, Tonia S; Wei, Zhangyong; Qu, Guang; Zhou, Shangzhen; Zeiss, Caroline; Arruda, Valder R; Acland, Gregory M; Dell'Osso, Lou F; High, Katherine A; Maguire, Albert M; Bennett, Jean

    2008-03-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an optimized adeno-associated virus (AAV; AAV2.RPE65) in animal models of the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Protein expression was optimized by addition of a modified Kozak sequence at the translational start site of hRPE65. Modifications in AAV production and delivery included use of a long stuffer sequence to prevent reverse packaging from the AAV inverted-terminal repeats, and co-injection with a surfactant. The latter allows consistent and predictable delivery of a given dose of vector. We observed improved electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual acuity in Rpe65 mutant mice. This has not been reported previously using AAV2 vectors. Subretinal delivery of 8.25 x 10(10) vector genomes in affected dogs was well tolerated both locally and systemically, and treated animals showed improved visual behavior and pupillary responses, and reduced nystagmus within 2 weeks of injection. ERG responses confirmed the reversal of visual deficit. Immunohistochemistry confirmed transduction of retinal pigment epithelium cells and there was minimal toxicity to the retina as judged by histopathologic analysis. The data demonstrate that AAV2.RPE65 delivers the RPE65 transgene efficiently and quickly to the appropriate target cells in vivo in animal models. This vector holds great promise for treatment of LCA due to RPE65 mutations.

  16. Antisense Oligonucleotide (AON-based Therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Frequent Mutation in CEP290

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob WJ Collin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is the most severe form of inherited retinal degeneration, with an onset in the first year of life. The most frequent mutation that causes LCA, present in at least 10% of individuals with LCA from North-American and Northern-European descent, is an intronic mutation in CEP290 that results in the inclusion of an aberrant exon in the CEP290 mRNA. Here, we describe a genetic therapy approach that is based on antisense oligonucleotides (AONs, small RNA molecules that are able to redirect normal splicing of aberrantly processed pre-mRNA. Immortalized lymphoblastoid cells of individuals with LCA homozygously carrying the intronic CEP290 mutation were transfected with several AONs that target the aberrant exon that is incorporated in the mutant CEP290 mRNA. Subsequent RNA isolation and reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that a number of AONs were capable of almost fully redirecting normal CEP290 splicing, in a dose-dependent manner. Other AONs however, displayed no effect on CEP290 splicing at all, indicating that the rescue of aberrant CEP290 splicing shows a high degree of sequence specificity. Together, our data show that AON-based therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for CEP290-associated LCA that warrants future research in animal models to develop a cure for this blinding disease.

  17. Plasticity of the human visual system after retinal gene therapy in patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Manzar; Zhang, Hui; Cook, Philip A.; Cyckowski, Laura L.; Shindler, Kenneth S.; Marshall, Kathleen A.; Aravand, Puya; Vossough, Arastoo; Gee, James C.; Maguire, Albert M.; Baker, Chris I.; Bennett, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the visual cortex in response to visual impairment, vision restoration, and environmental interactions comes from animal studies. We evaluated human brain plasticity in a group of patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA), who regained vision through gene therapy. Using non-invasive multimodal neuroimaging methods, we demonstrated that reversing blindness with gene therapy promoted long-term structural plasticity in the visual pathways emanating from the treated retina of LCA patients. The data revealed improvements and normalization along the visual fibers corresponding to the site of retinal injection of the gene therapy vector carrying the therapeutic gene in the treated eye compared to the visual pathway for the untreated eye of LCA patients. After gene therapy, the primary visual pathways (for example, geniculostriate fibers) in the treated retina were similar to those of sighted control subjects, whereas the primary visual pathways of the untreated retina continued to deteriorate. Our results suggest that visual experience, enhanced by gene therapy, may be responsible for the reorganization and maturation of synaptic connectivity in the visual pathways of the treated eye in LCA patients. The interactions between the eye and the brain enabled improved and sustained long-term visual function in patients with LCA after gene therapy. PMID:26180100

  18. Omics in Ophthalmology: Advances in Genomics and Precision Medicine for Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Anneke I

    2016-03-01

    The genomic revolution has had a huge impact on our understanding of the genetic defects and disease mechanisms underlying ophthalmic diseases. Two examples are discussed here. The first is Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe inherited retinal dystrophy leading to severe vision loss in children, and the second is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of vision loss in the elderly. Twenty years ago, the genetic causes of these diseases were unknown. Currently, more than 20 LCA genes have been identified, and genetic testing can now successfully identify the genetic defects in at least 75% of all LCA cases. Gene-specific treatments have entered the clinical trial phase for three LCA genes, and for seven LCA genes gene-specific therapies have been tested in model systems. Age-related macular degeneration is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, more than 40 loci have been identified for AMD, accounting for 15%-65% of the total genetic contribution to AMD. Despite the progress that has been made so far, genetic testing is not yet recommended for AMD, but this may change if we move to clinical trials or treatments that are dependent on an individual's genotype. The identification of serum or plasma biomarkers using other "-omics" technologies may further improve predictive tests and our understanding of the disease mechanisms of AMD. Ultimately, it is anticipated that predictive tests will help to stratify patients for the most suitable therapy, which will enable the development of precision medicine, tailored to individual needs.

  19. Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action You are here ... become narrow and constricted. A variety of pigmentary (color) changes can also occur in the retinal pigment ...

  20. Thrombophilia testing in young patients with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahus, Sidse Høst; Hansen, Anette Tarp; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    The possible significance of thrombophilia in ischemic stroke remains controversial. We aimed to study inherited and acquired thrombophilias as risk factors for ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and amaurosis fugax in young patients. We included patients aged 18 to 50 years with ischemic stroke, TIA or amaurosis fugax referred to thrombophilia investigation at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2012 (N=685). Clinical information was obtained from the Danish Stroke Registry and medical records. Thrombophilia investigation results were obtained from the laboratory information system. Absolute thrombophilia prevalences and associated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported for ischemic stroke (N=377) and TIA or amaurosis fugax (N=308). Thrombophilia prevalences for the general population were obtained from published data. No strong associations were found between thrombophilia and ischemic stroke, but patients with persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant (3%) had an OR at 2.66 (95% CI 0.84-9.15) for ischemic stroke. A significantly higher risk of TIA/amaurosis fugax was found for factor V Leiden heterozygote (12%) (OR: 1.99 (95% CI 1.14-3.28)). No other inherited or acquired thrombophilia was associated with ischemic stroke, TIA or amaurosis fugax. In young patients, thrombophilia did not infer an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Only factor V Leiden heterozygote patients had an increased risk of TIA/amaurosis fugax, and persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant was likely associated with ischemic stroke. We suggest the testing restricted to investigation of persistent presence of lupus anticoagulant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Results at 2 Years after Gene Therapy for RPE65-Deficient Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Severe Early-Childhood-Onset Retinal Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weleber, Richard G; Pennesi, Mark E; Wilson, David J; Kaushal, Shalesh; Erker, Laura R; Jensen, Lauren; McBride, Maureen T; Flotte, Terence R; Humphries, Margaret; Calcedo, Roberto; Hauswirth, William W; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Stout, J Timothy

    2016-07-01

    To provide an initial assessment of the safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing RPE65 (rAAV2-CB-hRPE65) in adults and children with retinal degeneration caused by RPE65 mutations. Nonrandomized, multicenter clinical trial. Eight adults and 4 children, 6 to 39 years of age, with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) or severe early-childhood-onset retinal degeneration (SECORD). Patients received a subretinal injection of rAAV2-CB-hRPE65 in the poorer-seeing eye, at either of 2 dose levels, and were followed up for 2 years after treatment. The primary safety measures were ocular and nonocular adverse events. Exploratory efficacy measures included changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), static perimetry central 30° visual field hill of vision (V30) and total visual field hill of vision (VTOT), kinetic perimetry visual field area, and responses to a quality-of-life questionnaire. All patients tolerated subretinal injections and there were no treatment-related serious adverse events. Common adverse events were those associated with the surgical procedure and included subconjunctival hemorrhage in 8 patients and ocular hyperemia in 5 patients. In the treated eye, BCVA increased in 5 patients, V30 increased in 6 patients, VTOT increased in 5 patients, and kinetic visual field area improved in 3 patients. One subject showed a decrease in BCVA and 2 patients showed a decrease in kinetic visual field area. Treatment with rAAV2-CB-hRPE65 was not associated with serious adverse events, and improvement in 1 or more measures of visual function was observed in 9 of 12 patients. The greatest improvements in visual acuity were observed in younger patients with better baseline visual acuity. Evaluation of more patients and a longer duration of follow-up will be needed to determine the rate of uncommon or rare side effects or safety concerns. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atypical visual loss in giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thystrup, Jan Deichmann; Knudsen, G M; Mogensen, A M

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with atypical ocular involvement due to histologically verified giant cell arteritis are reported. Prior to diagnosis, the first patient had periods of amaurosis fugax. He presented with normal vision. In spite of high-dose systemic corticosteroid therapy, he became blind in the te......Three patients with atypical ocular involvement due to histologically verified giant cell arteritis are reported. Prior to diagnosis, the first patient had periods of amaurosis fugax. He presented with normal vision. In spite of high-dose systemic corticosteroid therapy, he became blind...

  3. Sequential treatment for proctalgia fugax: Mid-term follow-up Tratamiento secuencial para la proctalgia fugaz: Resultados a medio plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gracia Solanas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: proctalgia fugax (PF is a benign, self-limiting disease characterized by episodes of intense anorectal pain at frequent intervals in the absence of organic proctological disease. Even though PF was described more than a century ago, its etiology remains unclear. Currently there is no information available. Few papers quoting many ways of management have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate patients complaining of this condition and to treat them with sequential therapy. Patients and methods: we devised a descriptive, prospective study of patients complaining of acute perianal pain -duration less than 30 minutes- without organic disease or previous perianal surgery since 1996 to 2002 in our Department. We treated these patients using a three-step treatment (1: information, hip bath, benzodiazepines; 2: sublingual nifedipine 10 mg, or topic 0.1% nitroglycerin on demand; 3: internal anal sphincterotomy if hypertrophy of the internal anal sphincter was demonstrated by anal ultrasonography and no improvement was confirmed with the previous steps of treatment. We defined remarkable improvement as a decrease in the number of episodes by half or in pain intensity by 50%. Results: Fifteen patients with an average follow-up of 4 years. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter (IAS in 5 cases. After the first step of treatment 7 patients improved and 1 patient was cured; after the second step of treatment 3 patients improved and 1 was cured; the third step was applied to 3 patients with a thickened IAS; 1 patient improved and 1 patient was cured. Conclusion: a total resolution of PF is not always possible, but we may improve symptoms and their frequency. Almost 50% of patients in our series improved with the first step of treatment; 30% of our patients had IAS hypertrophy. Anal endosonography can help in the diagnosis of organic diseases or IAS hypertrophy, for which we can perform an

  4. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Stimulates Osteopontin Expression in the Vasculature via Endothelin-1 and CREB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Lisa M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Ladenvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    in individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke) when compared to controls. GIP receptor (GIPR) and OPN mRNA levels are higher in carotid endarterectomies from patients with symptoms (stroke, transient ischemic attacks, amaurosis fugax) than in asymptomatic patients...

  5. Cerebro-retinal ischemia after bilateral occlusion of internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogousslavsky, J.; Regli, F.

    1985-01-01

    Six patients with occlusion of internal carotid arteries (ICAs) were prospectively followed during a mean period of 14 months. Prior to demonstration of occlusions, four patients suffered a mild stroke, and three isolated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax. All patients remained alive and with an unchanged functional ability. During follow-up, one patient suffered amaurosis fugax and TIAs followed by a mild stroke, three suffered isolated TIAs or amaurosis fugax, two suffered reversible cerebro-retinal ischemia of more than 24 hours, and one remained symptomfree. In three cases, delayed cerebro-retinal ischemia distal to one of the occluded ICAs was systematically triggered by orthostatic, cardiogenic or iatrogenic hypotension, and resolved after adequate medical treatment or restoration of a functional collateral circulation by endarterectomy of a tightly stenosed ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA), suggesting hemodynamic phenomena. In three cases, micro-emboli originating from a stump or an ulcerated ipsilateral common carotid artery and migrating through well-developed ECA collateral channels explained delayed episodes of ipsilateral TIAs or amaurosis fugax, which disappeared in two cases after adequate anticoagulant therepy was introduced. Bilateral occlusion of ICA may be a relatively benign condition, if the patients are carefully controlled and treated. (orig.)

  6. Caracterización molecular de las formas precoces de distrofia de retina recesivas y esporádicas en población española: amaurosis congénita de Leber y Retinosis pigmentaria de inicio precoz

    OpenAIRE

    Tatu, Sorina Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 27-01-2016 Esta tesis tiene embargado el acceso al texto completo hasta 27-07-2017 Las distrofias hereditarias de la retina (DR) son un conjunto de trastornos que se producen por una degeneración primaria y progresiva de fotorreceptores. Entre ellas, la amaurosis congénita de Leber (LCA) representa la forma más precoz y severa, ocasionando ...

  7. Pathologic implications of severely stenotic carotid artery in disparity to the contralateral asymptomatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacayorin, E.D.; Schwartz, R.A.; Park, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 15 patients (eight women, seven men; age range 56-67 years), arteriography showed severely stenotic internal carotid artery in contrast to the contralateral asymptomatic carotid artery. The patients with recent neurologic manifestations of transient ischemic attack and amaurosis fugax underwent carotid endarterectomy and were subsequently proved to have hemorrhagic atheromatous plaques on gross and histologic examinations. The disparity was unusually significant: 80%-95% stenosis for the symptomatic side, and 0%-20% stenosis for the asymptomatic side. The authors conclude that this arteriographic finding suggests high likelihood of focal subintimal hemorrhage occurring locally; such pathologic change might actually precipitate a cerebroembolic event

  8. PEX1 deficiency presenting as Leber congenital amaurosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelakakis, Helen M.; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I.; Moraitou, Marina S.; Gootjes, Jeannette; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis disorders result from defects in peroxin proteins involved in peroxisomal matrix and membrane protein import. Peroxins are encoded in peroxin protein genes; to date, the PEX genes responsible for all 12 peroxisome biogenesis disorders complementation groups are known. Peroxin

  9. Transient Amaurosis and Diplopia After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşi, Onur; Şahin, Onur; Polat, Mehmet Emrah

    2017-10-01

    A 40-year-old female patient was admitted to the authors' oral and maxillofacial clinic for removal of her lower left second molar under local anesthesia. The patient's medical history revealed that she had cardiac arhythmia and hypertension. Inferior alveolar nerve block was achieved using 2 mL of sefacaine (%3 mepivacaine HCL, without epinephrine). The patient complained of loss of vision in her left eye. All procedures were stopped immediately. Within 2 minutes the patient reported diplopia. All of the symptoms disappeared about 5 minutes after initial observation. Follow-up after 1 day revealed no complications. The procedure was then performed uneventfully.

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Schatz, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    Four patients with radiation-induced optic neuropathies were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. They had received radiation therapy for treatment of pituitary tumors, reticulum cell sarcoma, and meningioma. Two presented with amaurosis fugax before the onset of unilateral visual loss and began hyperbaria within 72 hours after development of unilateral optic neuropathy. Both had return of visual function to baseline levels. The others initiated treatment two to six weeks after visual loss occurred in the second eye and had no significant improvement of vision. Treatment consisted of daily administration of 100% oxygen under 2.8 atmospheres of pressure for 14-28 days. There were no medical complications of hyperbaria. While hyperbaric oxygen is effective in the treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy, it must be instituted within several days of deterioration in vision for restoration of baseline function

  11. Novel compound heterozygous NMNAT1 variants associated with Leber congenital amaurosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemiatkowska, Anna M; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; van Genderen, Maria M

    2014-01-01

    , were screened in 532 additional patients with retinal dystrophies. This cohort encompassed 108 persons with isolated or autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), 271 with isolated or autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and 49 with autosomal dominant RP, as well as 104 persons with LCA...... and associated phenotypes in different types of inherited retinal dystrophies. METHODS: DNA samples of 161 patients with LCA without genetic diagnosis were analyzed for variants in NMNAT1 using Sanger sequencing. Variants in exon 5 of NMNAT1, which harbors the majority of the previously identified mutations...

  12. Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Beltran, William A.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J.; Olivares, Melani B.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Komáromy, András M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2013-01-01

    The first retinal gene therapy in human blindness from RPE65 mutations has focused on safety and efficacy, as defined by improved vision. The disease component not studied, however, has been the fate of photoreceptors in this progressive retinal degeneration. We show that gene therapy improves vision for at least 3 y, but photoreceptor degeneration progresses unabated in humans. In the canine model, the same result occurs when treatment is at the disease stage equivalent to humans. The study ...

  13. Linkage studies and mutation analysis of the PDEB gene in 23 families with Leber congenital amaurosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riess, O; Weber, B; Nørremølle, Anne

    1992-01-01

    as to whether mutations in the human PDEB gene might cause LCA. We have previously cloned and characterized the human homologue of the mouse Pdeb gene and have mapped it to chromosome 4p16.3. In this study, a total of 23 LCA families of various ethnic backgrounds have been investigated. Linkage analysis using...

  14. Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: further clinical and histological characterization in a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, P; Ambrose, N S; Scott, N

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy is a very rare condition, only three families have so far been described in the literature. In this case report further clinical and histological findings of one affected member of one of the above families are presented.

  15. Varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papori Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs, anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. Objectives: To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Material and Methods: Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. Results: We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Conclusion: Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.

  16. [Hypercoagulable workup in ophthalmology. When and what].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Negrete, F J; Casas-Lleras, P; Pérez-López, M; Rebolleda, G

    2009-07-01

    Most ophthalmologic disorders secondary to hypercoagulabe state are due to the confluence of congenital and adquired factors. A systematic workup is mandatory. Most of congenital coagulation disorders cause venous trombosis and are inherited autosomal dominantly. In order of frequency these are factor V Leiden mutation (activated protein C resistance), G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gen and protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III deficiencies. Sickle cell anemia can determine arerial and venous thrombosis. In relation with arterial occlusion, the markers most frequently involved are homcysteine fasting levels and the markers of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Both of them can also determine venous thrombosis. Several acquired factors can lead to hypoercoagulable state, especially hyperhomocysteinemia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hepatic disease, alcohol and tobacco intake, oral contraceptives, immobilization, surgeries and malignancies. In central venous occlusion is only necessary to rule out hyperhomocysteinemia and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in young patients without known risk factors. In central artery occlusion, hypercoagulable workup is only recommended for patients less than 50 years-old with unknown emboli source. In this cases protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III deficiencies, homocystein, sickle cell disease and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome will ruled out. In non arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy hypercoagulable work up is not necessary. In amaurosis fugax without known emboli source, it is recommended to rule out etiologies of arterial occlusion, especially antithrombin III deficiencies, homocystein, sickle cell disease and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

  17. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1mg/kg daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  18. Symptomatic carotid stenosis and stroke risk in patients with transient ischemic attack according to the tissue-based definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Scheef, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Symptomatic carotid stenosis (sCS), a common cause of transient ischemic attack (TIA), is correlated with higher stroke risk. We investigated the frequency and associated factors of sCS in patients with TIA and the association between sCS and stroke risk following TIA. Over a three-year period (2011-2013), 861 consecutive patients with TIA, who were admitted to the Department of Neurology at the University of Lübeck, Germany, were included in a monocenter study and prospectively evaluated. Diagnosis of TIA was in accordance with the tissue-based definition (transient neurological symptoms without evidence of infarction by brain imaging). Of 827 patients (mean age, 70 ± 13.2 years; 49.7% women), 64 patients (7.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%-9.7%) exhibited sCS and 3 patients (0.3%) showed an occlusion of the corresponding internal carotid artery. Logistic regression revealed that sCS was associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6; p = 0.012), amaurosis fugax (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.4-19-4; p definition.

  19. Dissection of internal carotid artery presenting as isolated ischaemic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Oruc

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotid artery dissections are one of the important reasons of cerebrovascular events that are observed before the age of 45. Besides the local findings such as head, neck and face pains, Horner syndrome findings, pulsatile tinnitus and cranial nerve involvements, some other symptoms such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attacks and amaurosis fugax can also be observed in the approximately three quarters of patients. Ischemic optic neuropathy may be seen as %4 in the carotid artery dissections and it mostly accompanies other ischemic local symptoms. It is rare to observe the ischemic optic neuropathy as the first and unique finding in the carotid artery dissections. In this study, a 55 year old male patient with carotid artery dissection was represented. He did not have any other complaint, except the sudden unilateral visual loss and he was sent to our clinics from the opthalmology clinics in order to search for the etiology of ischemic optic neuropathy. It should be kept in mind that there can be a possibility to have carotid artery dissections in patients with unilateral visual loss.

  20. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Suk-Yee; Yeung, Chung-Man; Yu, Wing-Yan; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1mg/kg) daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  1. Vasculitis cerebral cisticercosa y neuropatía óptica isquémica en una paciente con amaurosis unilateral y recuperación ad integrum

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Coronel,Guillermo; Santos Marcial,Edgar; Cabrera Aldana,Eibar Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    La cisticercosis es una parasitósis bien conocida que puede causar una gran cantidad de síndromes. La neuropatía isquémica-óptica es una enfermedad de adultos cuyas causas principales son hipertensión arterial y la diabetes y la arteritis de células gigantes. Presentamos el caso de una estudiante de medicina de 22 años que presentó súbitamente pérdida de la visión en el ojo derecho y después completa ceguera. Los estudios demostraron múltiples cisticercos en el hemisferio derecho. Fue tratada...

  2. Advantage of whole exome sequencing over allele-specific and targeted segment sequencing in detection of novel TULP1 mutation in leber congenital amaurosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yiran; Prokudin, Ivan; Yu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    by targeted segment sequencing of 61 regions in 14 causative genes was performed. Subsequently, exome sequencing was undertaken in the proband, unaffected consanguineous parents and two unaffected siblings. Bioinformatic analysis used two independent pipelines, BWA-GATK and SOAP, followed by Annovar and Snp...

  3. [Stroke. are there any difference between patients with or without patent foramen ovale in left atrial appendage systolic function?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alejandro E; Perrote, Federico; Concari, Ignacio; Brenna, Eduardo J; Lucero, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systolic function of the left atrial appendage (LAA) in a group with and without patent foramen ovale (PFO) who suffered ischemic cerebrovascular events. Between September 2010 and October 2011, 17 patients were referred for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) after suffering a stroke. PFO was defined as the passage of at least one bubble through atrial septum with bubble test. We compared systolic velocity in the appendage between patients with and without PFO and a control group. Were 8 women and 9 men, mean age 54.1 ± 19.5 years and 8 patients were under 55 years of age. All patients had suffered a ischemic cerebrovascular events, 41.2% had stroke, 52.9% transient ischemic attack and amaurosis fugax 5.9%. In the assessment of TEE, 11.8% had atrial septal aneurysm and 35.3% PFO. Mean LAA systolic velocity was 66.3 ± 20.3 cm / sec. There was no difference in systolic velocity of the LAA between patients with and without PFO (67.5 ± 11.8 cm / sec vs 65.7 ± 24.3 cm / sec respectively, p = 0.87). The control group of 8 patients, 5 women and 3 men, mean age 39.5 ± 18 years, had a LAA systolic velocity of 77.6 ± 28.9 cm / sec, no significant differences with ischemic patients. There were no differences in systolic function of the LAA between patients with and without PFO with ischemic cerebrovascular event.

  4. Carotid ultrasonographic and brain computerized tomographic findings in patients with vascular ocular syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushima, Chikage; Shimizu, Souichirou; Takasaki, Masaru; Iwasaki, Takuya; Usui, Masahiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    To clarify the characteristics of cerebrovascular lesions in subtypes of vascular ocular syndrome, including amaurosis fugax (AF), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO), 93 patients with vascular ocular syndrome were studied by means of carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain computerized tomography (CT). The subjects comprised 21 patients with AF, 37 with RAO, and 35 with RVO who were sequentially given these diagnoses by the department of ophthalmology. On the basis of US findings, carotid lesions were defined as the presence of plaque or stenotic changes. CT findings were assessed for the presence and distribution of low-density areas (LDAs). Mean age was similar in each group, ranging from 64.5 to 67.4 years. The RAO group had high rates of men, hypertension, and smokers. US showed that the prevalence of carotid lesions ipsilateral to the affected eye was high in the RAO group and that severe stenosis and ulcerated plaque were present in 28.6% of the AF group and 45.9% of the RAO group. On CT examination, cerebral infarctions appeared as LDAs in about 10% of the patients in each group, and the incidence and distribution of LDAs were similar. Of 13 patients with cerebral infarction, only 2 were presumably due to carotid lesions; the others had a variety of causes. The discrepancy between US and CT findings was attributed to the small number of patients with cerebral infarction, since most patients had visual defects as an initial symptom. Our results suggest that extracranial carotid lesions, considered to be a major risk factor for stroke, should be carefully assessed in patients with AF or RAO to prevent further stroke. (author)

  5. Preoperative White Matter Lesions Are Independent Predictors of Long-Term Survival after Internal Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niku Oksala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs predict long-term survival of conservatively treated acute stroke patients with etiology other than carotid stenosis. In carotid endarterectomy patients, WMLs are associated with severe carotid stenosis and unstable plaques, with the risk of perioperative complications and with increased 30-day perioperative risk of death. However, no data exist on their effect on postoperative long-term survival, a factor important when considering the net benefit from carotid endarterectomy. Whether this effect is independent of classical risk factors and indications for surgery is not known either. We hypothesized that WMLs could be evaluated from preoperative routine computed tomography (CT scans and are predictors of postoperative survival, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of carotid stenosis. Methods: A total of 353 of 481 (73.4% consecutive patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy due to different indications, i.e. asymptomatic stenosis (n = 28, 7.9%, amaurosis fugax (n = 52, 14.7%, transient ischemic attack (n = 135, 38.2% or ischemic stroke (n = 138, 39.1%, from prospective vascular registries during the years 2001-2010 with digital preoperative CT scans, were included in the study. WMLs were rated by a radiologist (Wahlund criteria in a blinded fashion. Internal carotid artery (ICA stenoses were angiographically graded (Results: WML severity could be assessed with a substantial intraobserver agreement (Spearman's rho 0.843, p Conclusions: WMLs in a preoperative CT scan provide a substantially reliable estimate of postoperative long-term survival of carotid endarterectomy patients independent of currently used criteria, i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis.

  6. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Elizabeth; Fonville, Susanne; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; Brouwers, Paul J A M; Mulder, Laus J M M; Lingsma, Hester F; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; den Hertog, Heleen M

    2015-08-05

    Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility, safety, and effects on glucose metabolism of metformin and sitagliptin in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke and impaired glucose tolerance. We will also assess whether a slow increase in metformin dose and better support and information on this treatment will reduce the incidence of side effects in these patients. The Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke trial (MAAS trial) is a phase II, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment. Non-diabetic patients (n = 100) with a recent (TIA, amaurosis fugax or minor ischemic stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤ 3) and impaired glucose tolerance, defined as 2-hour post-load glucose levels between 7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L after repeated standard oral glucose tolerance test, will be included. Patients with renal or liver impairment, heart failure, chronic hypoxic lung disease stage III-IV, history of lactate acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis, pregnancy or breastfeeding, pancreatitis and use of digoxin will be excluded. The patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:2 ratio to metformin, sitagliptin or "no treatment." Patients allocated to metformin will start with 500 mg twice daily, which will be slowly increased during a 6-week period to a twice daily dose of 1000 mg. Patients allocated to sitagliptin will be treated with a daily fixed dose of 100 mg. The study has been registered as NTR 3196 in The Netherlands Trial Register. Primary outcomes include percentage still on treatment, percentage of (serious) adverse events, and the baseline adjusted difference in 2-hour post-load glucose levels at 6 months. This study will give more

  7. Non-traumatic neurological emergencies: imaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Iris; Reith, Wolfgang [Department of Neuroradiology, Saarland University Clinic, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide with almost one-third of all cardiovascular deaths ascribed to stroke. Imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) provide tremendous insight into the pathophysiology of acute stroke. Computed tomography is considered the most important initial diagnostic study in patients with acute stroke, because underlying structural lesions, such as tumor, vascular malformation, or subdural hematoma, can mimic stroke clinically. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the ability to visualize changes in diffusion within minutes after the onset of ischemia and has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with stroke syndrome. Territories with diffusion and perfusion mismatch may define tissues at risk, but with potential recovery. An alternative strategy with CT technology uses rapid CT for dynamic perfusion imaging, with similar goals in mind. Angiography can be performed in the hyperacute stage if thrombolytic therapy is being considered. Indications for diagnostic angiography include transient ischemic attacks in a carotid distribution, amaurosis fugax, prior stroke in a carotid distribution, a high-grade stenotic lesion in a carotid artery, acquiring an angiographic correlation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) concerning stenotic findings. In 50% of all angiograms performed in the hyperacute stage, occlusion of a vessel is observed; however, the need for angiography has been made less necessary due to the improvements of MRA, duplex ultrasound, and CTA. Numerous etiologies can lead to infarction. In children, pediatric stroke is very uncommon. The most common cause is an embolus from congenital heart disease with right-to-left shunts. Also a dissection of large extracranial vessels may result in cerebral infarction, and although the brain is equipped with numerous venous drainage routes

  8. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy: a secondary analysis of CREST, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Brajesh K; Beach, Kirk W; Roubin, Gary S; Lutsep, Helmi L; Moore, Wesley S; Malas, Mahmoud B; Chiu, David; Gonzales, Nicole R; Burke, J Lee; Rinaldi, Michael; Elmore, James R; Weaver, Fred A; Narins, Craig R; Foster, Malcolm; Hodgson, Kim J; Shepard, Alexander D; Meschia, James F; Bergelin, Robert O; Voeks, Jenifer H; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G

    2012-09-01

    In the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST), the composite primary endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period or ipsilateral stroke thereafter did not differ between carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis. A secondary aim of this randomised trial was to compare the composite endpoint of restenosis or occlusion. Patients with stenosis of the carotid artery who were asymptomatic or had had a transient ischaemic attack, amaurosis fugax, or a minor stroke were eligible for CREST and were enrolled at 117 clinical centres in the USA and Canada between Dec 21, 2000, and July 18, 2008. In this secondary analysis, the main endpoint was a composite of restenosis or occlusion at 2 years. Restenosis and occlusion were assessed by duplex ultrasonography at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months and were defined as a reduction in diameter of the target artery of at least 70%, diagnosed by a peak systolic velocity of at least 3·0 m/s. Studies were done in CREST-certified laboratories and interpreted at the Ultrasound Core Laboratory (University of Washington). The frequency of restenosis was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and was compared during a 2-year follow-up period. We used proportional hazards models to assess the association between baseline characteristics and risk of restenosis. Analyses were per protocol. CREST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004732. 2191 patients received their assigned treatment within 30 days of randomisation and had eligible ultrasonography (1086 who had carotid artery stenting, 1105 who had carotid endarterectomy). In 2 years, 58 patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (Kaplan-Meier rate 6·0%) and 62 who had carotid endarterectomy (6·3%) had restenosis or occlusion (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·63-1·29; p=0·58). Female sex (1·79, 1·25-2·56), diabetes (2·31, 1·61-3·31

  9. Non-traumatic neurological emergencies: imaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Iris; Reith, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide with almost one-third of all cardiovascular deaths ascribed to stroke. Imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) provide tremendous insight into the pathophysiology of acute stroke. Computed tomography is considered the most important initial diagnostic study in patients with acute stroke, because underlying structural lesions, such as tumor, vascular malformation, or subdural hematoma, can mimic stroke clinically. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the ability to visualize changes in diffusion within minutes after the onset of ischemia and has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with stroke syndrome. Territories with diffusion and perfusion mismatch may define tissues at risk, but with potential recovery. An alternative strategy with CT technology uses rapid CT for dynamic perfusion imaging, with similar goals in mind. Angiography can be performed in the hyperacute stage if thrombolytic therapy is being considered. Indications for diagnostic angiography include transient ischemic attacks in a carotid distribution, amaurosis fugax, prior stroke in a carotid distribution, a high-grade stenotic lesion in a carotid artery, acquiring an angiographic correlation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) concerning stenotic findings. In 50% of all angiograms performed in the hyperacute stage, occlusion of a vessel is observed; however, the need for angiography has been made less necessary due to the improvements of MRA, duplex ultrasound, and CTA. Numerous etiologies can lead to infarction. In children, pediatric stroke is very uncommon. The most common cause is an embolus from congenital heart disease with right-to-left shunts. Also a dissection of large extracranial vessels may result in cerebral infarction, and although the brain is equipped with numerous venous drainage routes

  10. Use of botulinum A toxin for proctalgia fugax—a case report of successful treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriou, Marios; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Kofina, Konstantinia; Efthimiadis, Christoforos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Proctalgia fugax is considered as intermittent anal pain of unknown etiology; a variety of treatments have been used, without, however, permanent results. Injection of botulinum A toxin is recently suggested as an alternative option. We present the case of a woman presenting proctalgia fugax that was untreatable through other current forms of treatment. After two administrations of botulinum A toxin, 80 units and 100 units each, the patient remained asymptomatic on 8-month follow-up ...

  11. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ... Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish ...

  12. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ... Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish ...

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ... Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos ...

  14. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ... Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos ...

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded ...

  16. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Glaucoma Embedded ...

  17. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive ...

  18. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive ...

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino ... Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision ...

  20. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish ... Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  1. Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... degenerate. Forms of RP and related diseases include Usher syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, among ...

  2. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity ...

  3. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity ...

  4. Use of botulinum A toxin for proctalgia fugax—a case report of successful treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriou, Marios; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Efthimiadis, Christoforos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Proctalgia fugax is considered as intermittent anal pain of unknown etiology; a variety of treatments have been used, without, however, permanent results. Injection of botulinum A toxin is recently suggested as an alternative option. We present the case of a woman presenting proctalgia fugax that was untreatable through other current forms of treatment. After two administrations of botulinum A toxin, 80 units and 100 units each, the patient remained asymptomatic on 8-month follow-up control. Botulinum A toxin injection can reduce internal anal sphincter pressure, leading to relief of symptoms, and seems a promising option with minimal morbidity in cases on proctalgia fugax that does not respond to other current treatments. PMID:29218214

  5. Functional disorders of the anus and rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, W; Wald, A; Diamant, N; Enck, P; Pemberton, J; Rao, S

    1999-01-01

    In this report the functional anorectal disorders, the etiology of which is currently unknown or related to the abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles, are discussed. These disorders include functional fecal incontinence, functional anorectal pain, including levator ani syndrome and proctalgia fugax, and pelvic floor dyssynergia. The epidemiology of each disorder is defined and discussed, their pathophysiology is summarized and diagnostic approaches and treatment are suggested. Some suggestions for the direction of future research on these disorders are also given.


Keywords: fecal incontinence; pelvic floor dyssynergia; anismus; proctalgia fugax; levator ani syndrome; constipation; Rome II PMID:10457046

  6. Simultaneous Mutation Detection in 90 Retinal Disease Genes in Multiple Patients Using a Custom-designed 300-kb Retinal Resequencing Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Judith C.; Bakker, Arne 1; Kulumbetova, Jamilia; Moutaoukil, Youssef; Smeets, Bert; Verheij, Joke; Kroes, Hester Y.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Schooneveld, Mary; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Florijn, Ralph J.

    Purpose: To develop a high-throughput, cost-effective diagnostic strategy for the identification of known and new mutations in 90 retinal disease genes. Design: Evidence-based study. Participants: Sixty patients with a variety of retinal disorders, including Leber's congenital amaurosis, ocular

  7. Targeted ablation of Crb2 in photoreceptor cells induces retinitis pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Celso Henrique; Pellissier, Lucie P; Vos, Rogier M; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seide, Christina; Beck, Susanne C; Klooster, J.; Furukawa, Takahisa; Flannery, John G; Verhaagen, J.; Seeliger, Mathias W; Wijnholds, J.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the Crumbs homolog-1 (CRB1) gene is mutated in autosomal recessive Leber congenital amaurosis and early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. In mammals, the Crumbs family is composed of: CRB1, CRB2, CRB3A and CRB3B. Recently, we showed that removal of mouse Crb2 from retinal progenitor cells, and

  8. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic analysis of a consanguineous Pakistani family with Leber congenital amaurosis identifies a novel mutation in GUCY2D gene. Muzammil Ahmad Khan Verena Rupp Muhammad Ayaz Khan Muhammad Pervaiz Khan Muhammad Ansar Christian Windpassinger. Research Note Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp ...

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  10. Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  12. CRB2 acts as a modifying factor of CRB1-related retinal dystrophies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellissier, L.P.; Lundvig, D.M.S.; Tanimoto, N.; Klooster, J.; Vos, R.M.; Richard, F.; Sothilingam, V.; Garrido, M. Garcia; Bivic, A. le; Seeliger, M.W.; Wijnholds, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CRB1 gene lead to retinal dystrophies ranging from Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) to early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP), due to developmental defects or loss of adhesion between photoreceptors and Muller glia cells, respectively. Whereas over 150 mutations have been found, no

  13. CRB2 acts as a modifying factor of CRB1-related retinal dystrophies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellissier, Lucie P; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Klooster, J.; Vos, Rogier M; Richard, Fabrice; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Le Bivic, André; Seeliger, Mathias W; Wijnholds, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CRB1 gene lead to retinal dystrophies ranging from Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) to early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP), due to developmental defects or loss of adhesion between photoreceptors and Müller glia cells, respectively. Whereas over 150 mutations have been found, no

  14. Functional disorders of the anus and rectum

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, W; Wald, A; Diamant, N; Enck, P; Pemberton, J; Rao, S

    1999-01-01

    In this report the functional anorectal disorders, the etiology of which is currently unknown or related to the abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles, are discussed. These disorders include functional fecal incontinence, functional anorectal pain, including levator ani syndrome and proctalgia fugax, and pelvic floor dyssynergia. The epidemiology of each disorder is defined and discussed, their pathophysiology is summarized and diagnostic approaches and tr...

  15. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  16. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-13

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  17. Patient characteristics and treatment outcome in functional anorectal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Gary K; Suliman, Amna; Vaizey, Carolynne J

    2011-07-01

    Functional anorectal pain occurs in the absence of any clinical abnormality. It is common and disabling; it has previously been reported in only a few studies involving small patient numbers. This study aimed to report the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for patients with functional anorectal pain. Patient demographics, clinical history, and tests results for all referrals for anorectal physiological testing between 1997 and 2009 were prospectively recorded. For patients with functional anorectal pain, further information was gained from clinical notes. Clinical history, anorectal physiology, and radiological imaging data were recorded for all patients; treatment outcome was noted for patients treated and followed up at the present unit. One hundred seventy patients, 99 female, with a median age of 48 years (range, 18-86), were studied. Patients were classified as having chronic proctalgia (pain duration ≥20 min, 158 patients) or proctalgia fugax (pain duration proctalgia fugax had a higher internal anal sphincter thickness and resting pressure than patients with chronic proctalgia, whereas patients with a family history of similar symptoms were more likely to have proctalgia fugax and higher resting pressures and internal anal sphincter thickness compared with those without a family history of these symptoms. Patients referred for treatment underwent a range of interventions including biofeedback (29 patients, 17 improved), tricyclic antidepressants (26 patients, 10 improved), Botox injection (9 patients, 5 improved), and sacral nerve stimulation (3 patients, 2 improved). Biofeedback had the greatest treatment effect, especially in patients with defecatory dysfunction. Biofeedback is beneficial in the subset of patients with functional anorectal pain and difficulty with defecation. Tricyclic antidepressants, Botox, and sacral nerve stimulation may also have a role.

  18. Common anorectal disorders: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Weiser, Kirsten

    2009-10-01

    Anorectal disorders affect men and women of all ages. Their management is not limited to the evaluation and treatment of hemorrhoids. Rather, a spectrum of anorectal disorders ranges from benign and irritating (pruritus ani) to potentially life-threatening (anorectal cancer). Symptoms are nonspecific, which can make the evaluation of patients difficult. In addition, treatment can be frustrating because clinicians are hamstrung by a lack of well-designed, prospective, clinical trials. Some of the most common anorectal disorders include fecal incontinence, pelvic floor dyssynergia, anal fissures, pruritus ani, proctalgia fugax, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. This article provides an update on the evaluation and treatment of common anorectal disorders.

  19. [Acute anal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    Acute anal pain is a common proctological problem. A detailed history together with the clinical examination are crucial for the diagnosis. An acute perianal vein thrombosis can be successfully excised within the first 72 hours. Acute anal fissures are best treated conservatively using stool regulation and topical medications reducing the sphincter spasm. A chronic anal fissure needs surgery. Perianal abscesses can very often be incised and drained in local anesthesia. Proctalgia fugax and the levator ani syndrome are exclusion diagnoses and are treated symptomatically.

  20. New concept of functional anorectal disorders. In relation to newly published ROME III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    In newly published Rome III, Functional anorectal disorders are divided into 7 disorders. F1 Functional fecal incontinence is divided into staining, soiling, seepage and leakage in the degree and urge and passive incontinences in the dynamics, of which the former is dysfunction of the rectum and the latter of the anus. For the treatment, the most effective is biofeedback therapy (BF). F2 Functional anorectal pain is divided into F2a Chronic proctalgia, F2a1 Levator ani syndrome, F2a2 Unspecified functional anorectal pain and F2b Proctalgia fugax. F2a1 Levator ani syndrome is defined as a pain caused by traction of the levator ani, but in my experience, only 4 (3.5%) among 116 cases accorded to the criteria making us dubious of the definition. As for F2b Proctalgia fugax, the cause has not yet been found. In these two F2a, various treatments are tried without significant effectiveness due perhaps to the unknown pathogenesis which I assume to be the neuralgia of pudendal nerve. F3 Functional defecation disorders consist of F3a Dyssynergic defecation and F3b Inadequate defecatory propulsion of which, the former is caused by paradoxical contraction or inadequate relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles and the latter caused by inadequate propulsive force in defecation. Their treatments are BF and defecatory enforcement. (author)

  1. Frequency of functional bowel disorders among healthy volunteers in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, Max; Ortíz, Orianna; Santiago-Lomeli, Mariana; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Morgan, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Mexico using the Rome II criteria is unknown. The Rome II Modular Questionnaire (RII-MQ) was translated into Spanish in coordination with the Rome Committee and their Latin American program. Volunteers were recruited by advertisement in Mexico City, and administered the RII-MQ. The study population consisted of 324 healthy volunteers, with a mean age of 35.7; 66% were female. The most prevalent disorders were heartburn 35%, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 35%, functional bloating 21%, proctalgia fugax 21%, and functional constipation 19%. Based on gender, IBS-C was 4 times more frequent in females than males (19 vs. 4.6%) and functional bloating 3 times more frequent (10 vs. 3.7%). Differences according to occupation included a higher prevalence of ulcer-like dyspepsia (p = 0.04), IBS-C (p = 0.018) and proctalgia fugax (p = 0.034) among students. This is the first study to use RII-MQ to determine the prevalence of FBD in urban Mexico. The prevalence of IBS was significant and is related to a number of factors, including the stress of living in an overpopulated city. Selection bias is likely operative. A community-based study is warranted. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. [The migraine of Immanual Kant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Hoff, P; Sass, H

    2000-07-01

    The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) suffered, since his forties, from a migraine with aura which showed a significant exacerbation in his seventies, coinciding with the onset of symptoms of a senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. Recorded symptoms of Kant's migraine include recurrent scintillating scotomas, one episode of diplopia, two episodes of complete amaurosis and frequent headaches described as oppressions of the head. The said symptoms of Kant's migraine can be traced not only in his letters and in accounts of his contemporary biographers, but also in the philosopher's published work.

  3. Investor Outlook: Focus on Upcoming LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Investor interest in gene therapy has increased substantially over the past few years, and the next major catalyst for the field is likely to be Spark Therapeutics's phase III trial for the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders). Analysis of the approach from the basic genetics, underlying visual mechanisms, clinical data, and commercialization considerations helps frame investor expectations and the potential implications for the broader field.

  4. Diplopia after inferior alveolar nerve block: case report and related physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tae Min

    2015-06-01

    Although inferior alveolar nerve block is one of the most common procedures performed at dental clinics, complications or adverse effects can still occur. On rare occasions, ocular disturbances, such as diplopia, blurred vision, amaurosis, mydriasis, abnormal pupillary light reflex, retrobulbar pain, miosis, and enophthalmos, have also been reported after maxillary and mandibular anesthesia. Generally, these symptoms are temporary but they can be rather distressing to both patients and dental practitioners. Herein, we describe a case of diplopia caused by routine inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia, its related physiology, and management.

  5. [Progress in research on pathogenic genes and gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Cao, Cong; Sun, Jiji; Gao, Tao; Liang, Xiaoyang; Nie, Zhipeng; Ji, Yanchun; Jiang, Pingping; Guan, Minxin

    2017-02-10

    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), including retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Cone-Rod degenerations, inherited macular dystrophy, Leber's congenital amaurosis, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy are the most common and severe types of hereditary ocular diseases. So far more than 200 pathogenic genes have been identified. With the growing knowledge of the genetics and mechanisms of IRDs, a number of gene therapeutic strategies have been developed in the laboratory or even entered clinical trials. Here the progress of IRD research on the pathogenic genes and therapeutic strategies, particularly gene therapy, are reviewed.

  6. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  7. Reversão de amaurose por neuropatia óptica em orbitopatia de Graves após descompressão orbitária: relato de caso Reversal of blindness due to Graves' optic neuropathy after orbital decompression: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor Rios Leme

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma paciente portadora de orbitopatia de Graves com baixa visual no olho esquerdo há 9 meses e amaurose no direito há 20 dias secundária à neuropatia óptica. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada descompressão orbitária bilateral ínfero-medial por via transconjuntival. RESULTADOS: Após a cirurgia a paciente evoluiu lentamente com melhora progressiva da acuidade visual, obtendo 20/20 em ambos os olhos ao cabo de 10 meses. CONCLUSÕES: A descompressão orbitária é eficaz em restabelecer a visão em casos de amaurose por neuropatia óptica da orbitopatia de Graves com até 20 dias de instalação.PURPOSE: To describe a patient with Graves' orbitopathy who presented with loss of vision of the left eye for 9 months and amaurosis of the right eye for 20 days. METHODS: Bilateral inferomedial transnconjunctival orbital decompression was performed. RESULTS: After orbital decompression, vision slowly improved and ten months after the surgery the vision was normal in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Orbital decompression can reestablish optic nerve function at least 20 days after amaurosis.

  8. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  9. Article Commentary: What was Glaucoma Called before the 20th Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Leffler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena , or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”.

  10. Pain Management in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vigano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common feature in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. An abnormally low visceral sensory threshold, as well as a number of central, spinal and peripheral pain-modulating abnormalities, have been proposed for this syndrome. Clinical aspects of pain associated with irritable esophagus, functional dyspepsia, biliary dysmotility, inflammatory bowel syndrome and proctalgia fugax are reviewed. Because of its unclear pathophysiology, pain expression is the main target for the successful assessment and management of symptomatic FGID. The sensory, cognitive and affective components of pain intensity expression need to be addressed in the context of a good physician-patient rapport. A multidisciplinary team approach is ideal for the smaller subset of patients with severe and disabling symptoms. Although pharmacotherapy may target specific functional disorders, the role of behavioural techniques and psychotherapy appears much more important for pain management in FGID. Functional performance and quality of life improvement, rather than pain intensity, are the main therapeutic goals in these patients.

  11. [Anorectal pain in children: rare or rarely recognised?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, Laura J H; Engelberts, Adèle C; van den Elzen, Annette P M

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal pain is a common symptom, often as part of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Children seldom present with this complaint. Proctalgia fugax and chronic proctalgia are both anorectal pain syndromes but differ in duration and frequency of episodes and in pain characteristics. No research has been conducted on anorectal pain syndromes in children. We present two patients. Firstly, an 8-year-old girl who suffered from anorectal cramps. We found no underlying cause apart from constipation. The symptoms disappeared spontaneously. The second concerned an 8-year-old boy who presented with recurrent anorectal cramps. He was diagnosed with celiac disease. Anorectal dysfunction and visceral hypersensitivity have been described in adult celiac patients. Symptoms of anorectal pain in children are rare probably because it often remains unrecognised. Noninvasive diagnostic methods and interventions are preferred in paediatric medicine. Screening for celiac disease in children with anorectal pain episodes should be considered.

  12. Perianal pain as a presentation of lumbosacral neurofibroma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Mehdi; Aghaii, Mahboubeh; Mamarabadi, Mansoureh

    2014-12-01

    Rectal and perianal pain is a common problem. Most people have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. It usually manifests as mild discomfort, but sometimes the pain can be so severe that it is incapacitating. A 59-year-old woman admitted with a 2-year history of paroxysmal perianal pain underwent a full work-up including proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, full colonoscopy, and barium enema that were unremarkable. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium showed an intradural-extramedullary lesion at the level of L5. The pathologic diagnosis was a neurofibroma. She underwent surgery, and after a few weeks she felt well and medication was no longer needed for her paroxysmal pain. Although one should consider the usual causes of colorectal pain such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, proctalgia fugax, and chronic perianal pain syndrome, we should keep in mind that some referral pain may mimic local pathologies and should be evaluated properly.

  13. Chronic perineal pain: current pathophysiological aspects, diagnostic approaches and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andromanakos, Nikolaos P; Kouraklis, Grigorios; Alkiviadis, Kostakis

    2011-01-01

    Chronic perineal pain is the anorectal and perineal pain without underlying organic disease, anorectal or endopelvic, which has been excluded by careful physical examination, radiological and endoscopic investigations. A variety of neuromuscular disorders of the pelvic floor lead to the different pathological conditions such as anorectal incontinence, urinary incontinence and constipation of obstructed defecation, sexual dysfunction and pain syndromes. The most common functional disorders of the pelvic floor muscles, accompanied by perineal pain are levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, myofascial syndrome and coccygodynia. In the diagnosis of these syndromes, contributing to a thorough history, physical examination, selected specialized investigations and the exclusion of organic disease with proctalgia is carried out. Accurate diagnosis of the syndromes helps in choosing an appropriate treatment and in avoiding unnecessary and ineffective surgical procedures, which often are performed in an attempt to alleviate the patient's symptoms.

  14. Moraea intermedia and M. vuvuzela (Iridaceae-Iridoideae, two new species from western South Africa, and some nomenclatural changes and range extensions in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species in the largely sub-Saharan genus Moraea Mill. (± 205 spp. from its centre of diversity in the winter rainfall region of southern Africa. Moraea intermedia, from north-central Namaqualand near Springbok, is a member of the small section Tubiflorae (now eight species, remarkable in its growth habit with a long basal intemode. leaves clustered at the first aerial node, and Moraea-type stamens and style branches but subequal tepals with very short claws that clasp only the base of the filament column. Moraea vuvuzela. a member of series Galaxia of the Galaxia group of the genus (now 17 species, has deeply fringed stigma lobes, filaments free in the upper 1 mm, ± prostrate, lanceolate leaves and. remarkable for the series, dark brown to purple markings near the base of the tepal limbs. In the unusually variable M.fugax, currently with two subspecies, new collections of subsp. fugax co-occurring but on different soils with subsp.  filicaulis, cast doubt on their current treatment as members of the same species. We now favour recognition of the diminutive subsp.filicaulis as a separate species, M. filicaulis. In the M iripetala group we recommend recognition of the early blooming M. punctata, described in 1892 and later subsumed in M. iripetala but readily distinguished by the long inner  tepals broader in the midline and short, relatively broad, plane rather than channelled leaves. We also report small but significant range extensions for M. barkerae, M. macrocarpa and M. tricolor.

  15. Localized nasal cavity, sinus, and massive bilateral orbital involvement by human T cell leukemia virus 1 adult T cell lymphoma, with epidermal hypertrophy due to mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Laveaux

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available HTLV1 adult T cell lymphoma occurs tends to be widely disseminated and aggressive, with only brief responses to chemotherapy. Aside from cervical adenopathy, involvement of head and neck structures is uncommon and orbital involvement rare. We report a case of nasal cavity HTLV lymphoma with massive bilateral orbital involvement and proptosis, resulting in complete left and partial right eye amaurosis. No other sites of disease were found. Response to chemotherapy was rapid and complete, with almost complete restoration of vision and oculo-motor function; the patient has remained in remission for one year. An associated problem was striking bilateral hypertrophic, hyperkeratotic eyelid and breast lesions due to mite infestation. 

  16. Genetics in Ophthalmology III – Posterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, posterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and retinoblastoma, mitochondrial diseases, retinal dysplasia, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, gyrate atrophy, Alström disease, ocular albinism, optic nerve hypoplasia, anophthalmia/microphthalmia and Leber’s congenital amaurosis are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 386-92

  17. Potential of Gene Editing and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) in Treatment of Retinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine; Fields, Mark A; Del Priore, Lucian V

    2017-12-01

    The advent of gene editing has introduced the ability to make changes to the genome of cells, thus allowing for correction of genetic mutations in patients with monogenic diseases. Retinal diseases are particularly suitable for the application of this new technology because many retinal diseases, such as Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), are monogenic. Moreover, gene delivery techniques such as the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been optimized for intraocular use, and phase III trials are well underway to treat LCA, a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration, with gene therapy. This review focuses on the use of gene editing techniques and another relatively recent advent, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and their potential for the study and treatment of retinal disease. Investment in these technologies, including overcoming challenges such as off-target mutations and low transplanted cell integration, may allow for future treatment of many debilitating inherited retinal diseases.

  18. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in retinal degenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-Qian; Tang, Luo-Sheng; Yoshida, Shigeo; Zhou, Ye-Di

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy is a potentially effective treatment for retinal degenerative diseases. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been developed as a new genome-editing tool in ophthalmic studies. Recent advances in researches showed that CRISPR/Cas9 has been applied in generating animal models as well as gene therapy in vivo of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). It has also been shown as a potential attempt for clinic by combining with other technologies such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this review, we highlight the main points of further prospect of using CRISPR/Cas9 in targeting retinal degeneration. We also emphasize the potential applications of this technique in treating retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:28503441

  19. An unusual case of a serious blunt injury of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optic nerve avulsion is a serious injury of the eye. The objective of the paper was to present the peculiarity of the eye injury caused by a penetrating orbital wound with foreign body being retained in the orbit. Case report. A 15-year-old boy who sustained injury by chain link is presented. While he was turning the chain round in his hand, the last link broke off, piercing the lower lid, penetrated the left orbital cavity and remained behind the eyeball at the top of orbit. While passing towards the top of the orbit, the foreign body caused a blunt injury of the eyeball and avulsion of the ocular nerve. The accurate localization of the foreign body was verified by X-ray and CT imaging. The foreign body was removed through the entry wound. The eye injury resulted in amaurosis. Conclusion. This injury was one of those that could have been prevented.

  20. Pathways of seizure propagation from the temporal to the occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julia; Dubeau, François; Olivier, André; Andermann, Frederick

    2008-12-01

    Propagation of ictal epileptic discharges influences the clinical appearance of seizures. Fast propagation from the occipital to temporal lobe has been well described, but until now the reverse direction of spread has not been emphasized. We describe two patients who experienced ictal propagation from temporal to occipital regions. One case presented with amaurosis during a seizure with temporal onset and temporal-occipital spread. In the second, temporal-occipital spread was documented during a seizure, which continued in the occipital lobe for six minutes. Depth electrode studies suggested the temporal ictal onset of seizures in both patients. Propagation from temporal to occipital lobe structures must be considered in the assessment of patients who have seizures with both temporal and occipital features. The propagation may have predictive value for their surgical outcome. The underlying anatomical structure might be the inferior longitudinal fasciculus.

  1. [Extrapontine osmotic myelinolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Federico A; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Ramírez, Fabián

    2005-06-01

    Extrapontine osmotic myelinolysis is a rare nervous system complication. Symptoms of this malady were presented during the clinical examination of a 49-year-old alcoholic male, who arrived at the hospital emergency room in a state of cardiorespiratory arrest. After resuscitation methods were applied, the patient was found in metabolic acidosis (pH 7.014) and was treated with sodium bicarbonate. Forty-eight hours later, sodium levels in the patient had risen from 142 to 174 mEq/l. During the period of clinical observation, the patient showed signs of cognitive impairment, disartria, bilateral amaurosis, hyporeflexia and right-half body hemiparesias. After 72 hours, computer tomography was applied; this showed a bilateral lenticular hypodensity with internal and external capsule compromise. One month later, when the patient was referred to another institution for rehabilitation, the patient showed cognitive impairment, bilateral optic atrophy, residual disartria, bradikynesia and double hemiparesia.

  2. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  3. Improvement and decline in vision with gene therapy in childhood blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Cideciyan, Artur V; Roman, Alejandro J; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B; Heon, Elise; Hauswirth, William W

    2015-05-14

    Retinal gene therapy for Leber's congenital amaurosis, an autosomal recessive childhood blindness, has been widely considered to be safe and efficacious. Three years after therapy, improvement in vision was maintained, but the rate of loss of photoreceptors in the treated retina was the same as that in the untreated retina. Here we describe long-term follow-up data from three treated patients. Topographic maps of visual sensitivity in treated regions, nearly 6 years after therapy for two of the patients and 4.5 years after therapy for the third patient, indicate progressive diminution of the areas of improved vision. (Funded by the National Eye Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00481546.).

  4. Using Stem Cells to Model Diseases of the Outer Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Yvon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal degeneration arises from the loss of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide with limited effective treatment options. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC-derived retinal cells and tissues from individuals with retinal degeneration is a rapidly evolving technology that holds a great potential for its use in disease modelling. IPSCs provide an ideal platform to investigate normal and pathological retinogenesis, but also deliver a valuable source of retinal cell types for drug screening and cell therapy. In this review, we will provide some examples of the ways in which IPSCs have been used to model diseases of the outer retina including retinitis pigmentosa (RP, Usher syndrome (USH, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, gyrate atrophy (GA, juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL, Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD and age related macular degeneration (AMD.

  5. Bilateral posterior RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Elolf, Erck; Brueggemann, Ines; Gademann, Guenther; Galazky, Imke; Bartels, Claudius

    2010-01-01

    Radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) is a rare but severe consequence of radiation therapy that is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, specifically therapy with vincristine or nitrosoureas. However, there is very little evidence regarding the occurrence of RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. The case of a 63 year old woman with glioblastoma multiforme and concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide is described. Due to a slight depressive episode the patient also took hypericum perforatum. Five months after cessation of fractionated radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide (cumulative dose of 11040 mg) the patient developed bilateral amaurosis due to RION. Tumor regrowth was excluded by magnetic resonance imaging. After the application of gadolinium a pathognomonic contrast enhancement of both prechiasmatic optic nerves could be observed. In this patient, the occurrence of RION may have been the result of radiosensitization by temozolomide, which could have been strengthened by hypericin. Consequently, physicians should avoid a concomitant application of hypericum perforatum and radiochemotherapy

  6. Unilateral Vision Loss after a Dental Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Mohammed H.; Wiegand, Annette; Storch, Marcus; Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Intraoral local anesthetics are widely used for performing painless dental treatments; however, in some cases, they may cause ocular complications such as meiosis, diplopia, nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, and amaurosis. Mostly, the symptoms disappear after several hours; rarely, they have a prolonged character. We describe the case of a 38-year-old young man who had reduced vision in the left eye 5 days after having received intraoral local anesthesia. A diagnosis of cilioretinal artery occlusion with optic disc swelling was made. Ten weeks later, the patient's visual acuity had increased to 20/20, and the swelling of the optic disc had subsided. Although various possible mechanisms for ocular complications after intraoral local anesthetic administration were suggested in the literature, the exact etiology remains unclear. In this case, inadvertent intravascular injection is believed to be the cause. PMID:29681838

  7. Regenerative Medicine: Solution in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjie; Stern, Jeffrey H; Temple, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The retina, like other central nervous system tissues, has poor regenerative properties in humans. Therefore, diseases that cause retinal cell loss, such as Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, typically result in permanent visual impairment. Stem cell technologies have revolutionized our ability to produce neural cells in abundant supply. Much stem cell research effort is focused on producing the required cell types for cell replacement, or to generate disease-in-a-dish models to elucidate novel disease mechanisms for therapeutic development. Here we review the recent advances in stem cell studies relevant to producing RPE and retinal cells, and highlight future directions.

  8. Using Stem Cells to Model Diseases of the Outer Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, Camille; Ramsden, Conor M; Lane, Amelia; Powner, Michael B; da Cruz, Lyndon; Coffey, Peter J; Carr, Amanda-Jayne F

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degeneration arises from the loss of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide with limited effective treatment options. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (IPSC)-derived retinal cells and tissues from individuals with retinal degeneration is a rapidly evolving technology that holds a great potential for its use in disease modelling. IPSCs provide an ideal platform to investigate normal and pathological retinogenesis, but also deliver a valuable source of retinal cell types for drug screening and cell therapy. In this review, we will provide some examples of the ways in which IPSCs have been used to model diseases of the outer retina including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Usher syndrome (USH), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), gyrate atrophy (GA), juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) and age related macular degeneration (AMD).

  9. [Molecular genetics of pigmentary retinopathies: identification of mutations in CHM, RDS, RHO, RPE65, USH2A and XLRS1 genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, C P; Griffoin, J M; Bazalgette, C; Lasquellec, L; Duval, P A; Bareil, C; Beaufrère, L; Bonnet, S; Eliaou, C; Marlhens, F; Schmitt-Bernard, C F; Tuffery, S; Claustres, M; Arnaud, B

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the occurrence and inheritance of various types of pigmentary retinopathy in patients followed at the outpatient clinic in the university hospital, Montpellier, France. To characterize genes and mutations causing these conditions. Ophthalmic examination and various visual tests were performed. Mutations were sought from genomic DNA by PCR amplification of exons associated with single-strand conformation analysis and/or direct sequencing. Among 315 patients over an 8-year period, cases of retinitis pigmentosa (63.2%), Usher's syndrome (10.2%), Stargardt's disease (5.4%), choroideremia (3.2%), Leber's congenital amaurosis (3.2%), congenital stationary night blindness (2.9%), cone dystrophy (2.5%), dominant optic atrophy (1.9%), X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (1.6%), Best's disease (1.6%), and others (4.3%) were diagnosed. In retinitis pigmentosa, inheritance could be determined in 54.2% of the cases including dominant autosomic (26.6%), recessive autosomic (22.6%), and X-linked cases (5%) while it could not be confirmed in 45.7% of the cases (simplex cases in the majority). For the 6 examined genes, mutations were found in 22 out of 182 propositus (12.1%). Analysis of phenotype-genotype correlations indicates that in retinitis pigmentosa, RDS is more frequently associated with macular involvement and retinal flecks, RHO with regional disease, and RPE65 with the great severity of the disease with some cases of Leber's congenital amaurosis. Identification of genes may help in diagnosis and in genetic counseling, especially in simplex cases with retinitis pigmentosa. In this latter condition, molecular diagnosis will be necessary to rationalize future treatments.

  10. [ERG diagnosis and differential diagnosis: results of examination over 6 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemeyer, G; Stähli, P

    1996-05-01

    This study reviews the patient material first from the point of view of referral diagnosis. Secondly, we focus on difficulties in selective differential diagnoses. 1501 patients underwent electroretinographic (ERG) testing from 1989 to 1994, amounting to 1815 ERG recordings, including follow-up examinations. The technique applied is full-field, single flash ERG with selective stimulation of the rod- and of the cone-systems. In 3.8% (57 cases) the ERG was performed under general anesthesia in outpatients. Tapetoretinal degenerations, toxic retinal side effects, inflammatory disease and ocular trauma represented, in this order, the major groups of referral diagnoses aside from unclear visual loss. The documentation or the exclusion of tapetoretinal degeneration represented the largest share (57%) of the application of the diagnostic procedure. 171 cases of isolated retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and 33 cases of syndromic RP were identified. Frequent and rare diagnostic entities and their differential diagnoses within this group are discussed. Inevitably, a number of diagnostic decisions remain problematic, in particular at the first examination. These diagnostic difficulties are addressed also and include the differentiation between RP sine pigmento and congenital amaurosis Leber in infants, RP with macular involvement vs. cone-rod degeneration, unilateral RP vs. postinflammatory conditions, and progressive cone dystrophy vs. achromatopsia, cone-rod degeneration or Stargardt's disease. Frequent and meaningful indications for ERG recording and difficult diagnostic decisions arise from this review of a relatively large group of patients. A number of diagnoses can hardly, if not at all be established without ERG testing. These include retinal cause of visual loss in infants, congenital amaurosis Leber, RP sine pigmento, early stages of RP, carrier status in XL RP and in choroideremia, progressive cone dystrophy, toxic retinopathy without fundus changes, retinal involvement

  11. [Changes introduced into the recent International Classification of Headache Disorders: ICHD-III beta classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvis, Robert; Mas, Natàlia; Roig, Carles

    2015-01-16

    The International Headache Society (IHS) has published the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta), the most commonly used guide to diagnosing headaches in the world. To review the recent additions to the guide, to explain the new entities that appear in it and to compare the conditions that have had their criteria further clarified against the criteria in the previous edition. We have recorded a large number of clarifications in the criteria in practically all the headaches and neuralgias in the classification, but the conditions that have undergone the most significant clarifications are chronic migraine, primary headache associated with sexual activity, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks, new daily persistent headache, medication-overuse headache, syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. The most notable new entities that have been incorporated are external-compression headache, cold-stimulus headache, nummular headache, headache attributed to aeroplane travel and headache attributed to autonomic dysreflexia. Another point to be highlighted is the case of the new headaches (still not considered entities in their own right) included in the appendix, some of the most noteworthy being epicrania fugax, vestibular migraine and infantile colic. The IHS recommends no longer using the previous classification and changing over to the new classification (ICHD-III beta) in healthcare, teaching and research, in addition to making this new guide as widely known as possible.

  12. Chronic idiopathic anal pain. Results of a diagnostic-therapeutic protocol in a colorectal referral unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armañanzas, Laura; Arroyo, Antonio; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; López, Alberto; Santos, Jair; Moya, Pedro; Gómez, María Amparo; Candela, Fernando; Calpena, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its study and management still lack a standardized protocol. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results obtained with the diagnostic-therapeutic protocol established in our service. We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CIAP at the Colorectal Unit of the General University Hospital of Elche, between 2005 and 2011. We evaluated 57 patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal pain for functional anorectal disease (FAD). After the application of our diagnostic protocol, final diagnosis of chronic anal pain (CAP) was achieved in 43 cases (75%), including 22 cases of descending perineum syndrome, 12 of proctalgia fugax, 2 of pudendal neuritis and 7 of coccydynia. In 14 patients exclusion diagnosis of CIAP was established. Among the therapies used on patients with CIAP, biofeedback combined with conservative measures improved symptoms in 43% of the cases. Sacral nerve stimulation was assessed in patients who did not respond to other treatments. Through proper anamnesis, physical examination and complementary tests, a specific diagnosis of the cause of CAP by FAD can be achieved, reducing exclusion diagnosis of CIAP to 25% of cases. Conservative measures combined with biofeedback achieved an improvement in pain in more than 40% of the cases of CIAP in our study. Sacral nerve stimulation can be considered as a treatment option in refractory cases. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Anorectal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S. C.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the following common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals, and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into 3 subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in levator ani syndrome there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by ≥2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with ≥2 features of impaired evacuation, that is, abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test, or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes 2 subtypes: dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating levator ani syndrome and defecatory disorders. PMID:27144630

  14. Epidemiology of uninvestigated gastrointestinal symptoms in adolescents: a population-based study applying the Rome II questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Sahand; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Baghizadeh, Somayyeh; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2010-07-01

    : Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in early life contribute to a lower quality of life and more persistent GI symptoms during the rest of life. Epidemiologic data on adolescence GI disorders are scarce. We aimed to perform a population-based study to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in adolescents and their relation to sex, age, and socioeconomic status. : A multistage random sample of Tehran middle and high school students (ages 14-19 years) was selected. A validated Persian version of the Rome II questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of different GI disorders as well as demographic socioeconomic variables. : A total of 1436 participants were enrolled in the study, 736 (51.3%) of whom were men. Mean (SD) age was 16.9 (1.8) years. The frequency of at least 1 GI symptom was 32.4%. The 4 most prevalent GI symptoms were bloating (16.9%), heartburn (4.9%), incontinence (4.3%), and irritable bowel syndrome (4.1%). Bloating, irritable bowel syndrome, and proctalgia fugax were significantly more common in girls (P < 0.05). Incontinence was significantly more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status levels (P = 0.01). In logistic regression, age was a risk factor for abdominal bloating and dysphagea and a protective factor for incontinence. : Our study indicates that GI symptoms are common among adolescents. Girls are more prone to these disorders. Special psychological and medical interventions are necessary for high-risk groups.

  15. Clinical features of unspecified functional bowel disorder in servicemen from a Chinese army unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin YAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate clinical manifestation of unspecified functional bowel disorder (UFBD, the features of coexistence with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID and its relationship with psychological factors and sleep disturbance in the Chinese Army servicemen. Methods cFGIDs were diagnosed based on the Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire. The subjects were 189 servicemen with UFBD (UFBD group and 372 without FGID (control group. All subjects completed symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90 and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. Results 'Have to rush to the toilet when having a desire to defecate' was the most frequent symptom of UFBD (93.7%. More than one half of UFBD patients had the symptom 'a feeling of incomplete emptying as bowel movements' or 'straining during bowel movements'. Twenty-eight percent of UFBD subjects had combined FGID (namely cFGID. Among them, the most frequent was proctalgia fugax (7.9%, followed by cyclic vomiting syndrome (6.3%, functional fecal incontinence (6.3%, functional dyspepsia (4.8% and belching (4.8%. The UFBD group scored significantly higher than the control group in the global severity index (GSI and in all SCL-90 subscales (P0.05. Conclusion Pathogenesis of UFBD may be closely correlated with psychiatric and psychological factors and sleep disturbance. cFGID are associated with an increased severity of psychopathological features. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.15

  16. Sleep quality and functional gastrointestinal disorders. A psychological issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Mary, Florence; Bon, Cyriaque; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Airinei, Gheorghe; Benamouzig, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Sleep disorders are often associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This study aims to evaluate the association of sleep disorders with specific FGIDs and to assess the related importance of psychological disorders. We included 1009 consecutive patients with FGIDs (70.9% females). The patients completed a Rome III questionnaire and after a psychological evaluation on anxiety and depression they were classified according to their sleep disorders using a 7-point grading scale: Groups 1-3, drowsiness (severe, moderate, mild); Group 4, no change; Groups 5-7, insomnia (mild, moderate, severe). Multinomial logistic regression using sleep group as a dependent variable with no sleep change as reference and body mass index, FGIDs, anxiety and depression as independent variables were used for statistical analysis. Altogether 667 (66.1%) patients reported changes in sleep disorders, of whom 487 (48.3%) had decreased sleep and 180 (17.8%) had increased sleep while 342 (33.9%) reported no change. Depression was lower in patients with no change in sleep pattern and increased with the severity of their sleep disorder (P proctalgia fugax. Sleep disorders are associated with FGIDs, especially in the presence of depressive symptoms. © 2018 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Functional Anorectal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish Sc; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-03-25

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into three subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome (LAS) and unspecified anorectal pain the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in LAS there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by >2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with >2 features of impaired evacuation i.e., abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes two subtypes; dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating LAS and defecatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Presacral abscess as a rare complication of sacral nerve stimulator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, A; Ayyar, S; Varia, H; Pettit, S

    2017-03-01

    A 50-year-old man with intractable anal pain attributed to proctalgia fugax underwent insertion of a sacral nerve stimulator via the right S3 vertebral foramen for pain control with good symptomatic relief. Thirteen months later, he presented with signs of sepsis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large presacral abscess. MRI demonstrated increased enhancement along the pathway of the stimulator electrode, indicating that the abscess was caused by infection introduced at the time of sacral nerve stimulator placement. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, and the sacral nerve stimulator and electrode were removed. Attempts were made to drain the abscess transrectally using minimally invasive techniques but these were unsuccessful and CT guided transperineal drainage was then performed. Despite this, the presacral abscess progressed, developing enlarging gas locules and extending to the pelvic brim to involve the aortic bifurcation, causing hydronephrosis and radiological signs of impending sacral osteomyelitis. MRI showed communication between the rectum and abscess resulting from transrectal drainage. In view of the progressive presacral sepsis, a laparotomy was performed with drainage of the abscess, closure of the upper rectum and formation of a defunctioning end sigmoid colostomy. Following this, the presacral infection resolved. Presacral abscess formation secondary to an infected sacral nerve stimulator electrode has not been reported previously. Our experience suggests that in a similar situation, the optimal management is to perform laparotomy with drainage of the presacral abscess together with simultaneous removal of the sacral nerve stimulator and electrode.

  19. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacological, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should be avoided, and surgical treatment has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FiberNet--a new embolic protection device for carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C; Franke, J; Bertog, S C; Woerner, V; Ghasemzadeh-Asl, S; Sievert, H

    2014-05-01

    Though distal filter protection during carotid stenting reduces the risk of cerebrovascular events, periprocedural stroke remains a risk despite their broad usage. This observation may be related to the pore size of common filters. The FiberNet distal filter system is unique by its very small pore size (40 µm) as well as its low profile and flexibility. Little data is available regarding the clinical performance and safety of this device. The aim was the evaluation of the safety of the FiberNet embolic protection system during carotid artery stenting. All consecutive patients treated with carotid stenting at our institution using the FiberNet device were systematically followed. Primary endpoint was the rate of all death and stroke within 30 days of the procedure. Carotid artery stenting using the FiberNet embolic protection system was performed in 54 patients. The procedure was technical successful in all patients. Three patients (5.5%) had a TIA. Amauosis fugax occurred in two patients (3.7%). One patient (1.9%) had a minor stroke with hemiparesis of the left arm and face which resolved completely within 48 hr after the procedure. No patient died or suffered a major stroke. The safety and feasibility of the FiberNet distal protection system appears to be at least equivalent to that reported in studies using conventional distal filter protection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cytospora species from Populus and Salix in China with C. davidiana sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Li; Lu, Quan; Decock, Cony; Li, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2015-05-01

    Poplar and willow plantations have become widespread in China, in order to meet national economic and environmental needs. The emergence of several pathogens is enhanced by climatic change and associated human factors. Species of Cytospora are well-known pathogens on poplar and willow, and cause stem cankers and diebacks. In the present study, we conducted a survey of Cytospora species occurring on Populus spp. and Salix spp. in China. We used morphological examination and phylogenetic inferences, based on the DNA sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2) and partial β-tubulin gene, to identify six Cytospora species occurring on poplar and willow. Five of these species belonged to known taxa, viz. Cytospora chrysosperma (asexual state of Valsa sordida), Cytospora translucens (asexual state of Leucostoma translucens), Cytospora fugax (asexual state of Valsa salicina), Cytospora atrocirrhata, and Cytospora kantschavelii. Our study yielded a new species, Cytospora davidiana sp. nov., on poplar. The new species is characterized by typical torsellioid conidiomata. An additional Cytospora sp. 1, which formed a distinct clade in the phylogenetic inferences, remains unnamed; the paucity of available materials prevented phenotypical characterization. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical features of paralytic strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical features of paralytic strabismus and analyze its etiology.METHODS: Eighty-nine cases(97 eyeswere diagnosed with paralytic strabismus and recruited in this study in the Department of Ophthalmology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University between July 2008 and February 2013. The clinical data were recorded including the general and ophthalmic history, symptom, visual acuity, fundus, pupil, eyelid, visual field, eye movement, synoptophore, acting countervail head, ultrasound of eyeball and ocular muscle, color Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid artery, orbital computed tomography(CT, brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI, blood biochemistry and immunologic tests.RESULTS: The medical history disclosed that among these cases, hypertension in 36 cases, diabetic mellitus in 28 cases, hyperlipidemia in 19 cases, heart diseases in 17 cases, ischemic cerebrovascular disease in 12 cases and hyperthyroidism in 3 cases. Symptoms included vertigo in 47 cases and binocular temporal amaurosis in 36 cases. The horizontal restriction was manifested in 38 cases 45 eyes, vertical restriction in 42 cases with 42 eyes, and horizontal-and-vertical restriction in 9 cases with 10 eyes. CONCLUSION: Brain vascular ischemic disease is one of the top reasons causing paralytic strabismus. Systemic disease history was found in a high proportion of the cases. It is of great essence to detect the life-threatening ischemia of vertebrobasilar artery system and take priority for treatment.

  4. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis as a strategy to prevent having a child born with an heritable eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahalom, Claudia; Macarov, Michal; Lazer-Derbeko, Galit; Altarescu, Gheona; Imbar, Tal; Hyman, Jordana H; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Blumenfeld, Anat

    2018-05-21

    In developed countries, genetically inherited eye diseases are responsible for a high percentage of childhood visual impairment. We aim to report our experience using preimplantation genetic diagnostics (PGD) in order to avoid transmitting a genetic form of eye disease associated with childhood visual impairment and ocular cancer. Retrospective case series of women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and PGD due to a familial history of inherited eye disease and/or ocular cancer, in order to avoid having a child affected with the known familial disease. Each family underwent genetic testing in order to identify the underlying disease-causing mutation. IVF and PGD treatment were performed; unaffected embryos were implanted in their respective mothers. Thirty-five unrelated mothers underwent PGD, and the following hereditary conditions were identified in their families: albinism (10 families); retinitis pigmentosa (7 families); retinoblastoma (4 families); blue cone monochromatism, achromatopsia, and aniridia (2 families each); and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, Norrie disease, papillorenal syndrome, primary congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma, Usher syndrome type 1F, and microphthalmia with coloboma (1 family each). Following a total of 88 PGD cycles, 18 healthy (i.e., unaffected) children were born. Our findings underscore the importance an ophthalmologist plays in informing patients regarding the options now available for using prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis to avoid having a child with a potentially devastating genetic form of eye disease or ocular cancer. This strategy is highly relevant, particularly given the limited options currently available for treating these conditions.

  5. Retinal Diseases Caused by Mutations in Genes Not Specifically Associated with the Clinical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    Full Text Available When seeking a confirmed molecular diagnosis in the research setting, patients with one descriptive diagnosis of retinal disease could carry pathogenic variants in genes not specifically associated with that description. However, this event has not been evaluated systematically in clinical diagnostic laboratories that validate fully all target genes to minimize false negatives/positives.We performed targeted next-generation sequencing analysis on 207 ocular disease-related genes for 42 patients whose DNA had been tested negative for disease-specific panels of genes known to be associated with retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis, or exudative vitreoretinopathy.Pathogenic variants, including single nucleotide variations and copy number variations, were identified in 9 patients, including 6 with variants in syndromic retinal disease genes and 3 whose molecular diagnosis could not be distinguished easily from their submitted clinical diagnosis, accounting for 21% (9/42 of the unsolved cases.Our study underscores the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of retinal disorders and provides valuable reference to estimate the fraction of clinical samples whose retinal disorders could be explained by genes not specifically associated with the corresponding clinical diagnosis. Our data suggest that sequencing a larger set of retinal disorder related genes can increase the molecular diagnostic yield, especially for clinically hard-to-distinguish cases.

  6. C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Remans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.

  7. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in TULP1 Induced Retinal Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn P Lobo

    Full Text Available Inherited retinal disorders (IRDs result in severe visual impairments in children and adults. A challenge in the field of retinal degenerations is identifying mechanisms of photoreceptor cell death related to specific genetic mutations. Mutations in the gene TULP1 have been associated with two forms of IRDs, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA. TULP1 is a cytoplasmic, membrane-associated protein shown to be involved in transportation of newly synthesized proteins destined for the outer segment compartment of photoreceptor cells; however, how mutant TULP1 causes cell death is not understood. In this study, we provide evidence that common missense mutations in TULP1 express as misfolded protein products that accumulate within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing prolonged ER stress. In an effort to maintain protein homeostasis, photoreceptor cells then activate the unfolded protein response (UPR complex. Our results indicate that the two major apoptotic arms of the UPR pathway, PERK and IRE1, are activated. Additionally, we show that retinas expressing mutant TULP1 significantly upregulate the expression of CHOP, a UPR signaling protein promoting apoptosis, and undergo photoreceptor cell death. Our study demonstrates that the ER-UPR, a known mechanism of apoptosis secondary to an overwhelming accumulation of misfolded protein, is involved in photoreceptor degeneration caused by missense mutations in TULP1. These observations suggest that modulating the UPR pathways might be a strategy for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Prior surgical intervention and tumor size impact clinical outcome after precision radiotherapy for the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed our long-term experience with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with meningioma of the optic nerve sheath (ONSM). Between January 1991 and January 2010, 40 patients with ONSM were treated using FSRT. Of these, 19 patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment, and 21 patients were treated after surgical resection. The median target volume was 9.2 ml, median total dose was 54 Gy in median single fractions of 1,8 Gy. Local progression-free survival was 100%. Median survival after FSRT was 60 months (range 4-228 months). In all patients overall toleration of FSRT was very good. Acute toxicity was mild. Prior to RT, 29 patients complained about any kind of visual impairment including visual field deficits, diplopia or amaurosis. Prior surgical resection was identified as a negative prognostic factor for visual outcome, whereas patients with larger tumor volumes demonstrated a higher number of patients with improvement of pre-existing visual deficits. Long-term outcome after FSRT for ONSM shows improved vision in patients not treated surgically prior to RT; moreover, the best improvement of visual deficits are observed in patients with larger target volumes. The absence of tumor recurrences supports that FSRT is a strong alternative to surgical resection especially in small tumors without extensive compression of normal tissue structures

  9. Pharmacotherapy of retinal disease with visual cycle modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rehan M; Gregori, Ninel Z; Ciulla, Thomas A; Lam, Byron L

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacotherapy with visual cycle modulators (VCMs) is under investigation for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt macular dystrophy (SMD) and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), all blinding diseases that lack effective treatment options. Areas covered: The authors review investigational VCMs, including oral retinoids, 9-cis-retinyl-acetate (zuretinol) and 9-cis-β-carotene, which restore 11-cis-retinal levels in RP and LCA caused by LRAT and RPE65 gene mutations, and may improve visual acuity and visual fields. Therapies for SMD aiming to decrease accumulation of toxic Vitamin A dimers and lipofuscin in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) include C20-D3-vitamin A (ALK-001), isotretinoin, VM200, emixustat, and A1120. Mouse models of SMD show promising data for these treatments, though proof of efficacy in humans is currently lacking. Fenretinide and emixustat are investigational VCMs for dry AMD, though neither has been shown to reduce geographic atrophy or improve vision in human trials. A1120 prevents retinol transport into the RPE and may spare the side effects typically seen in VCMs (nyctalopia and chromatopsia) per mouse studies. Expert opinion: Oral VCMs may be feasible treatment options for degenerative retinal diseases based on pre-clinical and some early clinical studies. Further trials are warranted to assess their efficacy and safety in humans.

  10. Gene therapy and genome surgery in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James E; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H

    2018-06-01

    Precision medicine seeks to treat disease with molecular specificity. Advances in genome sequence analysis, gene delivery, and genome surgery have allowed clinician-scientists to treat genetic conditions at the level of their pathology. As a result, progress in treating retinal disease using genetic tools has advanced tremendously over the past several decades. Breakthroughs in gene delivery vectors, both viral and nonviral, have allowed the delivery of genetic payloads in preclinical models of retinal disorders and have paved the way for numerous successful clinical trials. Moreover, the adaptation of CRISPR-Cas systems for genome engineering have enabled the correction of both recessive and dominant pathogenic alleles, expanding the disease-modifying power of gene therapies. Here, we highlight the translational progress of gene therapy and genome editing of several retinal disorders, including RPE65-, CEP290-, and GUY2D-associated Leber congenital amaurosis, as well as choroideremia, achromatopsia, Mer tyrosine kinase- (MERTK-) and RPGR X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, X-linked retinoschisis, Stargardt disease, and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

  11. Gene therapy for inherited retinal and optic nerve degenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicholas A; Morral, Nuria; Ciulla, Thomas A; Bracha, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The eye is a target for investigational gene therapy due to the monogenic nature of many inherited retinal and optic nerve degenerations (IRD), its accessibility, tight blood-ocular barrier, the ability to non-invasively monitor for functional and anatomic outcomes, as well as its relative immune privileged state.Vectors currently used in IRD clinical trials include adeno-associated virus (AAV), small single-stranded DNA viruses, and lentivirus, RNA viruses of the retrovirus family. Both can transduce non-dividing cells, but AAV are non-integrating, while lentivirus integrate into the host cell genome, and have a larger transgene capacity. Areas covered: This review covers Leber's congenital amaurosis, choroideremia, retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Stargardt disease, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Achromatopsia, and X-linked retinoschisis. Expert opinion: Despite great potential, gene therapy for IRD raises many questions, including the potential for less invasive intravitreal versus subretinal delivery, efficacy, safety, and longevity of response, as well as acceptance of novel study endpoints by regulatory bodies, patients, clinicians, and payers. Also, ultimate adoption of gene therapy for IRD will require widespread genetic screening to identify and diagnose patients based on genotype instead of phenotype.

  12. [Gene Therapy for Inherited RETINAL AND OPTIC NERVE Disorders: Current Knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuďáková, Ľ; Kousal, B; Kolářová, H; Hlavatá, L; Lišková, P

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of current gene therapy clinical trials for monogenic and optic nerve disorders.The number of genes for which gene-based therapies are being developed is growing. At the time of writing this review gene-based clinical trials have been registered for Leber congenital amaurosis 2 (LCA2), retinitis pigmentosa 38, Usher syndrome 1B, Stargardt disease, choroideremia, achromatopsia, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and X-linked retinoschisis. Apart from RPE65 gene therapy for LCA2 and MT-ND4 for LHON which has reached phase III, all other trials are in investigation phase I and II, i.e. testing the efficacy and safety.Because of the relatively easy accessibility of the retina and its ease of visualization which allows monitoring of efficacy, gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disorders represent a very promising treatment option. With the development of novel therapeutic approaches, the importance of establishing not only clinical but also molecular genetic diagnosis is obvious.Key words: gene therapy, monogenic retinal diseases, optic nerve atrophy, mitochondrial disease.

  13. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  14. Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-07-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  15. Visual electrophysiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Brecelj

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.

  16. Mielinólisis osmótica extrapóntica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La mielinólisis osmótica extrapóntica es una complicación rara del sistema nervioso central. Se presentan los hallazgos clínicos de un paciente de 49 años, alcohólico, que ingresó al servicio de urgencias en paro cardiorrespiratorio. Después de las maniobras de reanimación, el paciente se encontró en acidosis metabólica (pH 7,014 y fue tratado con bicarbonato de sodio. Cuarenta y ocho horas después, el sodio aumentó de 142 a 174 mEq/l. Durante el curso clínico, el paciente presentó signos de compromiso cognitivo, disartria, amaurosis bilateral, hiporreflexia y hemiparesia doble de predominio en el hemicuerpo derecho. La tomografía computarizada, tomada a las 72 horas de inicio del cuadro, evidenció hipodensidad lenticular bilateral con compromiso de las cápsulas internas y externas. Un mes después el paciente continuó con compromiso cognoscitivo, atrofia óptica bilateral, disartria residual, bradicinesia y hemiparesia doble.

  17. Intravitreal Injection of Splice-switching Oligonucleotides to Manipulate Splicing in Retinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for neonatal blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (c.2991+1655A>G; 10–15% creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. Recently, we reported that splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO allow skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients, supporting the feasibility of a SSO-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing. Here, we present data in the wild-type mouse, which demonstrate that intravitreal administration of 2’-OMePS-SSO allows selective alteration of Cep290 splicing in retinal cells, including photoreceptors as shown by successful alteration of Abca4 splicing using the same approach. We show that both SSOs and Cep290 skipped mRNA were detectable for at least 1 month and that intravitreal administration of oligonucleotides did not provoke any serious adverse event. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of SSO should be considered to bypass protein truncation resulting from the c.2991+1655A>G mutation as well as other truncating mutations in genes which like CEP290 or ABCA4 have a mRNA size that exceed cargo capacities of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved adeno-associated virus (AAV-vectors, thus hampering gene augmentation therapy.

  18. Complications associated with prone positioning in elective spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, J Mason; Palumbo, Mark A; Haque, Maahir; Eberson, Craig P; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-04-18

    Complications associated with prone surgical positioning during elective spine surgery have the potential to cause serious patient morbidity. Although many of these complications remain uncommon, the range of possible morbidities is wide and includes multiple organ systems. Perioperative visual loss (POVL) is a well described, but uncommon complication that may occur due to ischemia to the optic nerve, retina, or cerebral cortex. Closed-angle glaucoma and amaurosis have been reported as additional etiologies for vision loss following spinal surgery. Peripheral nerve injuries, such as those caused by prolonged traction to the brachial plexus, are more commonly encountered postoperative events. Myocutaneous complications including pressure ulcers and compartment syndrome may also occur after prone positioning, albeit rarely. Other uncommon positioning complications such as tongue swelling resulting in airway compromise, femoral artery ischemia, and avascular necrosis of the femoral head have also been reported. Many of these are well-understood and largely avoidable through thoughtful attention to detail. Other complications, such as POVL, remain incompletely understood and thus more difficult to predict or prevent. Here, the current literature on the complications of prone positioning for spine surgery is reviewed to increase awareness of the spectrum of potential complications and to inform spine surgeons of strategies to minimize the risk of prone patient morbidity.

  19. RE-EDUCATIVE METHOD IN THE PROCESS OF MINIMIZING OF AUTOAGRESIVE WAYS OF BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad GLUMBIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoagressive behavior is a relatively frequent symptom of mental disturbances and behavior disturbances which are the subject of professional engagement of clinically oriented defectologists. In the process of rehabilitation numerous methods are used, from behavioral to psychopharmacological ones by which the above mentioned problems are eliminated of softened.The paper deals with four children with different diagnosis (autism, disintegrative psychosis, Patau syndrome and amaurosis that have the same common denominator-mental retardation and autoagression.We have tried to point out-by the description of a study case as well as the ways od work with these children-an application possibly of the particular methods of general and special re-education of psychomotorics in the process of autoagressive ways of behavior minimizing.The paper gives the autor’s notion of indications for re-educative method application with in the multihandicapped children population. Defectological treatment discovers new forms of existence in the existential field, not only to the retarded child but also to the very therapist. Epistemological consequences of the mentioned transfer are given in details in the paper.

  20. Greek mythology: the eye, ophthalmology, eye disease, and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios

    2007-06-01

    In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.

  1. Efficiency of using rituximab in a patient with generalized granulomatosis with polyangiitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulazyk Malikovna Koilubaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic vasculitides (SVs are characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels wall; the spectrum of their clinical manifestations depends on the type, extent, and location of affected vessels and the activity of systemic inflammation. The etiology of most primary SVs is unknown. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs are implicated in its pathogenesis. The presence of ANCAa in patients' serum and the correlation of their level with the severity of clinical manifestations served as a basis for identifying a subgroup of systemic necrotizing vasculitides associated with ANCA synthesis: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg – Strauss syndrome. GPA is characterized by systemic granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis involving the small vessels of the upper respiratory tract, lung, and kidney.The paper describes a case of difficult diagnosis and successful rituximab (RTM treatment of generalized GPA in a 45-year-old female patients. The disease occurred with local damage to the upper respiratory tract, granulomatous inflammation of the pulmonary vessels to form multiple infiltrates with lung tissue destruction elements and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Despite intensive immunosuppressive treatment, there was a rapid GPA progression with the further development of respiratory failure, which had been induced by stenotic laryngitis subglottica leading to tracheostoma. Damage to the organ of vision could lead to severe complications, including amaurosis. RMT was shown to be effective in treating generalized GPA with a poor prognosis.

  2. Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadao Maeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual cycle is a sequential enzymatic reaction for vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, occurring in the outer layer of the human retina and is essential for the maintenance of vision. The central source of retinol is derived from dietary intake of both retinol and pro-vitamin A carotenoids. A series of enzymatic reactions, located in both the photoreceptor outer segment and the retinal pigment epithelium, transform retinol into the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, regenerating visual pigments. Retina specific proteins carry out the majority of the visual cycle, and any significant interruption in this sequence of reactions is capable of causing varying degrees of blindness. Among these important proteins are Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT and retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (RPE65 known to be responsible for esterification of retinol to all-trans-retinyl esters and isomerization of these esters to 11-cis-retinal, respectively. Deleterious mutations in these genes are identified in human retinal diseases that cause blindness, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Herein, we discuss the pathology of 11-cis-retinal deficiency caused by these mutations in both animal disease models and human patients. We also review novel therapeutic strategies employing artificial visual chromophore 9-cis-retinoids which have been employed in clinical trials involving LCA patients.

  3. Homozygosity mapping and targeted sanger sequencing reveal genetic defects underlying inherited retinal disease in families from pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleeha Maria

    Full Text Available Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD.We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, retinitis pigmentosa (RP, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB, or cone dystrophy (CD. We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families.Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1.Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future.

  4. Unravelling the Complexity of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies Molecular Testing: Added Value of Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Bernardis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the clinical utility of targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for the diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (IRDs, a total of 109 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 88 IRD affected probands and 21 healthy relatives. Clinical diagnoses included Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA, Stargardt Disease (STGD, Best Macular Dystrophy (BMD, Usher Syndrome (USH, and other IRDs with undefined clinical diagnosis. Participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination followed by genetic counseling. A custom AmpliSeq™ panel of 72 IRD-related genes was designed for the analysis and tested using Ion semiconductor Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS. Potential disease-causing mutations were identified in 59.1% of probands, comprising mutations in 16 genes. The highest diagnostic yields were achieved for BMD, LCA, USH, and STGD patients, whereas RP confirmed its high genetic heterogeneity. Causative mutations were identified in 17.6% of probands with undefined diagnosis. Revision of the initial diagnosis was performed for 9.6% of genetically diagnosed patients. This study demonstrates that NGS represents a comprehensive cost-effective approach for IRDs molecular diagnosis. The identification of the genetic alterations underlying the phenotype enabled the clinicians to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. The results emphasize the importance of molecular diagnosis coupled with clinic information to unravel the extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of these diseases.

  5. Bilateral posterior RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gademann Guenther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION is a rare but severe consequence of radiation therapy that is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, specifically therapy with vincristine or nitrosoureas. However, there is very little evidence regarding the occurrence of RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. Case Presentation The case of a 63 year old woman with glioblastoma multiforme and concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide is described. Due to a slight depressive episode the patient also took hypericum perforatum. Five months after cessation of fractionated radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide (cumulative dose of 11040 mg the patient developed bilateral amaurosis due to RION. Tumor regrowth was excluded by magnetic resonance imaging. After the application of gadolinium a pathognomonic contrast enhancement of both prechiasmatic optic nerves could be observed. Conclusions In this patient, the occurrence of RION may have been the result of radiosensitization by temozolomide, which could have been strengthened by hypericin. Consequently, physicians should avoid a concomitant application of hypericum perforatum and radiochemotherapy.

  6. NMNAT1 variants cause cone and cone-rod dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Benjamin M; Symes, Richard; Goel, Himanshu; Dinger, Marcel E; Bennetts, Bruce; Grigg, John R; Jamieson, Robyn V

    2018-03-01

    Cone and cone-rod dystrophies (CD and CRD, respectively) are degenerative retinal diseases that predominantly affect the cone photoreceptors. The underlying disease gene is not known in approximately 75% of autosomal recessive cases. Variants in NMNAT1 cause a severe, early-onset retinal dystrophy called Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). We report two patients where clinical phenotyping indicated diagnoses of CD and CRD, respectively. NMNAT1 variants were identified, with Case 1 showing an extremely rare homozygous variant c.[271G > A] p.(Glu91Lys) and Case 2 compound heterozygous variants c.[53 A > G];[769G > A] p.(Asn18Ser);(Glu257Lys). The detailed variant analysis, in combination with the observation of an associated macular atrophy phenotype, indicated that these variants were disease-causing. This report demonstrates that the variants in NMNAT1 may cause CD or CRD associated with macular atrophy. Genetic investigations of the patients with CD or CRD should include NMNAT1 in the genes examined.

  7. Clinical presentation of multiple cerebral emboli and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO as signs of cardiac myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Galvez-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myxomas are benign tumors of endocardial origin that usually occur in the left atrium. Trans-thoracic echocardiography is the diagnostic method of choice, and early surgical removal is the preferred method of treatment.We present a patient whose history of cerebral emboli and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO led to a diagnosis of cardiac myxoma.Neuroimaging studies showed multiple infarcts in the region of the left middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Ophthalmic examination showed gross retinal pallor compatible with left central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO.The etiology of stroke was investigated by performing trans-thoracic echocardiography, which showed a mass in the left atrium compatible with cardiac myxoma. Complete removal of the cardiac tumor was performed by open-heart surgery.Fortunately, after a period of rehabilitation, the patient’s hemiparesis almost completely resolved, but the loss of vision OS remained unchanged.Many cases of myxoma are accompanied by constitutional symptoms, such as anemia, fever and weight loss, which allow for a diagnosis to made before serious complications such as embolism occur. Unfortunately, in some patients, such as ours, the absence of signs and symptoms allows the myxoma to pass completely unnoticed until the first embolic event occurs. Keywords: Cardiac myxoma, Central retinal artery occlusion, Cerebral emboli, Amaurosis

  8. Gene therapy: light is finally in the tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huibi; Molday, Robert S; Hu, Jim

    2011-12-01

    After two decades of ups and downs, gene therapy has recently achieved a milestone in treating patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). LCA is a group of inherited blinding diseases with retinal degeneration and severe vision loss in early infancy. Mutations in several genes, including RPE65, cause the disease. Using adeno-associated virus as a vector, three independent teams of investigators have recently shown that RPE65 can be delivered to retinal pigment epithelial cells of LCA patients by subretinal injections resulting in clinical benefits without side effects. However, considering the whole field of gene therapy, there are still major obstacles to clinical applications for other diseases. These obstacles include innate and immune barriers to vector delivery, toxicity of vectors and the lack of sustained therapeutic gene expression. Therefore, new strategies are needed to overcome these hurdles for achieving safe and effective gene therapy. In this article, we shall review the major advancements over the past two decades and, using lung gene therapy as an example, discuss the current obstacles and possible solutions to provide a roadmap for future gene therapy research.

  9. KMeyeDB: a graphical database of mutations in genes that cause eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Takashi; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Mitsuyama, Susumu; Ohno-Nakamura, Saho; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Minoshima, Shinsei

    2010-06-01

    KMeyeDB (http://mutview.dmb.med.keio.ac.jp/) is a database of human gene mutations that cause eye diseases. We have substantially enriched the amount of data in the database, which now contains information about the mutations of 167 human genes causing eye-related diseases including retinitis pigmentosa, cone-rod dystrophy, night blindness, Oguchi disease, Stargardt disease, macular degeneration, Leber congenital amaurosis, corneal dystrophy, cataract, glaucoma, retinoblastoma, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Usher syndrome. KMeyeDB is operated using the database software MutationView, which deals with various characters of mutations, gene structure, protein functional domains, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers, as well as clinical data for each case. Users can access the database using an ordinary Internet browser with smooth user-interface, without user registration. The results are displayed on the graphical windows together with statistical calculations. All mutations and associated data have been collected from published articles. Careful data analysis with KMeyeDB revealed many interesting features regarding the mutations in 167 genes that cause 326 different types of eye diseases. Some genes are involved in multiple types of eye diseases, whereas several eye diseases are caused by different mutations in one gene.

  10. Assessment of different virus-mediated approaches for retinal gene therapy of Usher 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanda S; Diemer, Tanja; Williams, David S

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1B, which is characterized by congenital deafness and progressive retinal degeneration, is caused by the loss of the function of MYO7A. Prevention of the retinal degeneration should be possible by delivering functional MYO7A to retinal cells. Although this approach has been used successfully in clinical trials for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA2), it remains a challenge for Usher 1B because of the large size of the MYO7A cDNA. Different viral vectors have been tested for use in MYO7A gene therapy. Here, we review approaches with lentiviruses, which can accommodate larger genes, as well as attempts to use adeno-associated virus (AAV), which has a smaller packaging capacity. In conclusion, both types of viral vector appear to be effective. Despite concerns about the ability of lentiviruses to access the photoreceptor cells, a phenotype of the photoreceptors of Myo7a-mutant mice can be corrected. And although MYO7A cDNA is significantly larger than the nominal carrying capacity of AAV, AAV-MYO7A in single vectors also corrected Myo7a-mutant phenotypes in photoreceptor and RPE cells. Interestingly, however, a dual AAV vector approach was found to be much less effective.

  11. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F

    2008-01-01

    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  12. Epidemiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders diagnosed according to Rome II criteria: an Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P M; Talley, N J; Burke, C; Koloski, N A

    2006-01-01

    Population-based studies of the prevalence of all functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) using the Rome II criteria are lacking. It is also not certain whether subjects who meet the Rome II criteria for an FGID are different in terms of demographic and psychological characteristics from those subjects meeting exclusively the more restrictive Rome I criteria. To determine whether using the more restrictive Rome I criteria would result in a more biologically determined group of FGID than when the Rome II is applied. Subjects included individuals aged 18 years and older (n = 1,225) from the Penrith population who were initially surveyed with the Penrith District Health Survey in 1997. Subjects were sent a self-report questionnaire that contained items on gastrointestinal symptoms applying the Rome II criteria. Subjects were also assessed on psychological and personality factors and on physical and mental functioning. A total of 36.1% (n = 275) of respondents was diagnosed with an FGID according to Rome II criteria. The five most prevalent FGID were functional heartburn (10.4%), irritable bowel syndrome (8.9%), functional incontinence (7.6%), proctalgia fugax (6.5%) and functional chest pain (5.1%). Subjects meeting Rome II only criteria for FGID scored significantly higher on measures of psychological caseness and emotionality than Rome I only subjects, and these were independently associated with meeting Rome I only versus Rome II only criteria for FGID. The Rome II criteria FGID are common and do not appear to identify a vastly different group of FGID sufferers compared with the earlier Rome I criteria.

  13. WHAT HAPPENS TO INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AFTER PERIBULBAR ANAESTHESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Segharipuram Ranganathan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Most of intraocular surgeries are done under local anaesthesia. The peribulbar anaesthesia provides adequate anaesthesia and akinesia. There is no reported intraoperative and/or postoperative amaurosis. The peribulbar anaesthesia provides adequate anaesthesia and akinesia. The disadvantages of it are the larger quantity of the aesthetic agent. Increasing the bulk load on the globe and a reported rise of intraocular pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of fifty cases was conducted in patients who received peribulbar anaesthesia undergoing cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation and their intraocular pressures were noted and studied after giving the peribulbar anaesthesia all given by the same surgeon. RESULTS This study did show that the peribulbar anaesthesia increases the intraocular pressure in all the cases. The external ocular compression indeed helps to dissipate the anaesthetic load thereby reducing the enormous rise in IOP, which is only expected if you recollect the fact that the eyeball occupies one sixth of the total volume of the orbit that is 5 mL and 30 mL. The volume of peribulbar anaesthesia (6 mL does add its effects to increase the IOP. Hence, a properly planned post peribulbar compression helps to minimise the transient rise in IOP. CONCLUSION Summarising the study, it is better to give peribulbar injection initially followed by external ocular compression after a delay of at least 2 to 5 minutes. It is also advised that an initial compression maybe given in slightly risk cases, so that the peribulbarinduced rise may not be alarming. The anaesthetic solution maybe fragmented and the second injection maybe delayed by 5 minutes or omitted if good akinesia and anaesthesia are achieved already.

  14. The main clinical symptoms of multiple sclerosis at the children in the debut. Own observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko T.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: evaluate first clinical signs of MS for early diagnosis and prevention of disability. Patients and methods. There are results of examination of 9 patients (5 boys, 4 girls aged 15 to 17 years, who sought a neurological department NDSL «OKHMATDYT» during 2014 for further diagnosis & treatment. Researches included a general clinical examination, immunological parameters, visual evoked potentials, CT, MRI with contrast of brain and spinal cord. Data analysis was performed according to McDonald criteria. Results. The complaints are presented in all cases of violation of the sensitivity of the limbs (numbness of limbs mainly in the left part of a body as a result of stress, during the studies at school, after physical exercises, against a background of full health. Later, they were accompanied by paresis of facial muscles in the central-type, by the central amaurosis of both eyes, by the periodic urinary incontinence in the last 7 years, lower spastic paraparesis and left-side hemiparesis. Clinically: nistahmoyid in extreme abduction of the eyeballs, asymmetry of reflexes, abnormal volatility of iambic signs, violation of statics and coordination. In the first case there were detected 7 exacerbations. In MRI of the brain was detected multiple hiperintense foci of periventricular and subcortical mostly (8 cases, spread to the spinal cord (2 cases. At the previous stages was diagnosed herpes infection, subacute encephalitis, brain volumetric process, ADEM, acute myelitis, tuberous sclerosis, CVA. After the examination in conditions of highly specialized branch was established in RS for appropriate treatment. Conclusions. 1. The manifestation of MS among children 15–17 year old mostly presented monosymptomatic and sensitivity violation almost in all cases. 2. Characteristic remitting and relapsing-remitting-relapsing course of MS, cerebral form (in 2 cases cerebrovascular spinal. 3. A clearly shown dissemination in space and time

  15. Braille use among Norwegian children from 1967 to 2007: trends in the underlying causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augestad, Liv Berit; Klingenberg, Oliv; Fosse, Per

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence, diagnoses and time trends among Norwegian children that have received education in braille from 1967 to 2007. We used a retrospective population-based study design. The health care system is free for all inhabitants in Norway. We included all children that had received braille education the last four decades. From each student's record, we abstracted year born, country of birth, gender, year diagnosed, diagnosis, classification of visual impairment and type of reading media. We identified 287 children (137 girls and 150 boys) that had received braille education over the last 40 years. Of these, 262 (91.3%) children were born in Norway, 145 (53.7%) were diagnosed within the first year of life and 59 (20.6%) from age of one to five. The most frequent diagnoses were Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP), Juvenile Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (JNCL), Lebers Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Among the children, 63% (N = 170) used braille only, 9% (N = 25) braille and print, but priority braille, and 27% (N = 73) braille and print, priority print. The number of children with ROP using braille had a peak in 1977, then the number declined. The number diagnosed with LCA increased from 1987 to 1992. The number of braille users among children diagnosed with JNCL tended to increase substantially after 1992. Braille education seemed to be dependent of trends in diagnoses as well as trends in recommendations from professional educators. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. [Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and monogenic inherited eye diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavatá, L; Ďuďáková, Ľ; Trková, M; Soldátová, I; Skalická, P; Kousal, B; Lišková, P

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established application of genetic testing in the context of in vitro fertilization. PGD is an alternative method to prenatal diagnosis which aims to prevent the transmission of an inherited disorder to the progeny by implanting only embryos that do not carry genetic predisposition for a particular disease. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of eye disorders for which PGD has been carried out. The European literature search focused on best practices, ethical issues, risks and results of PGD for inherited eye disorders. PGD is performed for a number of ocular disorders; a prerequisite for its application is however, the knowledge of a disease-causing mutation(s). The main advantage of this method is that the couple is not exposed to a decision of whether or not to undergo an abortion. Qualified counselling must be provided prior to the PGD in order to completely understand the risk of disability in any child conceived, consequences of disease manifestation, and advantages as well as limitations of this method. In the group of non-syndromic eye diseases and diseases in which ocular findings dominate, PGD has been performed in European countries for aniridia, choroideremia, congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles, Leber congenital amaurosis, ocular albinism, retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked retinoschisis, Stargardt disease, blepharophimosis-ptosis-inverse epicanthus syndrome and retinoblastoma. Sexing for X-linked or mitochondrial diseases has been carried out for blue cone monochromatism, choroideremia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, macular dystrophy (not further specified), Norrie disease, X-linked congenital stationary night blindness, X-linked retinoschisis and nystagmus (not further specified). In recent years, there has been an increase in potential to use PGD. The spectrum of diseases for this method has widened to include severe inherited eye diseases

  17. Dog as a model in studies on human hereditary diseases and their gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, Marek

    2014-03-01

    During the last 15 years spectacular progress has been achieved in knowledge on the dog genome organization and the molecular background of hereditary diseases in this species. A majority of canine genetic diseases have their counterparts in humans and thus dogs are considered as a very important large animal model in human biomedicine. Among canine monogenic diseases with known causative gene mutations there are two large groups classified as retinal dystrophies and lysosomal storage diseases. Specific types of these diseases are usually diagnosed in a single or several breeds. A well known disorder, restricted to a single breed, is congenital stationary night blindness described in Briards. This disease is a counterpart of Leber amaurosis in children. On the other hand, one of the most common monogenic human diseases (Duchenne muscular dystrophy), has its canine counterparts in several breeds (e.g., the Golden retriever, Beagle and German short-haired pointer). For some of the canine diseases gene therapy strategy was successfully applied, e.g., for congenital stationary night blindness, rod-cone dystrophy and muccopolysaccharydoses type I, IIIB and VII. Since phenotypic variability between the breeds is exceptionally high, the dog is an interesting model to study the molecular background of congenital malformations (e.g., dwarfism and osteoporosis imperfecta). Also disorders of sexual development (DSD), especially testicular or ovotesticular DSD (78,XX; SRY-negative), which is widely distributed across dozens of breeds, are of particular interest. Studies on the genetic background of canine cancers, a major health problem in this species, are also quite advanced. On the other hand, genetic studies on canine counterparts of major human complex diseases (e.g., obesity, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus) are still in their infancy. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish

  18. Identification of mutations in the AIPL1, CRB1, GUCY2D, RPE65, and RPGRIP1 genes in patients with juvenile retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, J C; Florijn, R J; ten Brink, J B; Loves, W; Meire, F; van Schooneveld, M J; de Jong, P T V M; Bergen, A A B

    2005-11-01

    To identify mutations in the AIPL1, CRB1, GUCY2D, RPE65, and RPGRIP1 genes in patients with juvenile retinitis pigmentosa. Mutation analysis was carried out in a group of 35 unrelated patients with juvenile autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP), Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), or juvenile isolated retinitis pigmentosa (IRP), by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography followed by direct sequencing. All three groups of patients showed typical combinations of eye signs associated with retinitis pigmentosa: pale optic discs, narrow arterioles, pigmentary changes, and nystagmus. Mutations were found in 34% of in CRB1 (11%), GUCY2D (11%), RPE65 (6%), and RPGRIP1 (6%). Nine mutations are reported, including a new combination of two mutations in CRB1, and new mutations in GUCY2D and RPGRIP1. The new GUCY2D mutation (c.3283delC, p.Pro1069ArgfsX37) is the first pathological sequence change reported in the intracellular C-terminal domain of GUCY2D, and did not lead to the commonly associated LCA, but to a juvenile retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. The polymorphic nature of three previously described (pathological) sequence changes in AIPL1, CRB1, and RPGRIP1 was established. Seven new polymorphic changes, useful for further association studies, were found. New and previously described sequence changes were detected in retinitis pigmentosa in CRB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1; and in LCA patients in CRB1, GUCY2D, and RPE65. These data, combined with previous reports, suggest that LCA and juvenile ARRP are closely related and belong to a continuous spectrum of juvenile retinitis pigmentosa.

  19. Using CRISPR-Cas9 to Generate Gene-Corrected Autologous iPSCs for the Treatment of Inherited Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnight, Erin R; Gupta, Manav; Wiley, Luke A; Anfinson, Kristin R; Tran, Audrey; Triboulet, Robinson; Hoffmann, Jeremy M; Klaahsen, Darcey L; Andorf, Jeaneen L; Jiao, Chunhua; Sohn, Elliott H; Adur, Malavika K; Ross, Jason W; Mullins, Robert F; Daley, George Q; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2017-09-06

    Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for autologous cell replacement. However, for many inherited diseases, treatment will likely require genetic repair pre-transplantation. Genome editing technologies are useful for this application. The purpose of this study was to develop CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing strategies to target and correct the three most common types of disease-causing variants in patient-derived iPSCs: (1) exonic, (2) deep intronic, and (3) dominant gain of function. We developed a homology-directed repair strategy targeting a homozygous Alu insertion in exon 9 of male germ cell-associated kinase (MAK) and demonstrated restoration of the retinal transcript and protein in patient cells. We generated a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) approach to excise a major contributor to Leber congenital amaurosis, the IVS26 cryptic-splice mutation in CEP290, and demonstrated correction of the transcript and protein in patient iPSCs. Lastly, we designed allele-specific CRISPR guides that selectively target the mutant Pro23His rhodopsin (RHO) allele, which, following delivery to both patient iPSCs in vitro and pig retina in vivo, created a frameshift and premature stop that would prevent transcription of the disease-causing variant. The strategies developed in this study will prove useful for correcting a wide range of genetic variants in genes that cause inherited retinal degeneration. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The gene therapy revolution in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saikhan, Fahad I

    2013-04-01

    The advances in gene therapy hold significant promise for the treatment of ophthalmic conditions. Several studies using animal models have been published. Animal models on retinitis pigmentosa, Leber's Congenital Amaurosis (LCA), and Stargardt disease have involved the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to deliver functional genes into mice and canines. Mice models have been used to show that a mutation in cGMP phosphodiesterase that results in retinitis pigmentosa can be corrected using rAAV vectors. Additionally, rAAV vectors have been successfully used to deliver ribozyme into mice with a subsequent improvement in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. By using dog models, researchers have made progress in studying X-linked retinitis pigmentosa which results from a RPGR gene mutation. Mouse and canine models have also been used in the study of LCA. The widely studied form of LCA is LCA2, resulting from a mutation in the gene RPE65. Mice and canines that were injected with normal copies of RPE65 gene showed signs such as improved retinal pigment epithelium transduction, visual acuity, and functional recovery. Studies on Stargardt disease have shown that mutations in the ABCA4 gene can be corrected with AAV vectors, or nanoparticles. Gene therapy for the treatment of red-green color blindness was successful in squirrel monkeys. Plans are at an advanced stage to begin clinical trials. Researchers have also proved that CD59 can be used with AMD. Gene therapy is also able to treat primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in animal models, and studies show it is economically viable.

  1. Genetic testing for retinal dystrophies and dysfunctions: benefits, dilemmas and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenekoop, Robert K; Lopez, Irma; den Hollander, Anneke I; Allikmets, Rando; Cremers, Frans P M

    2007-07-01

    Human retinal dystrophies have unparalleled genetic and clinical diversity and are currently linked to more than 185 genetic loci. Genotyping is a crucial exercise, as human gene-specific clinical trials to study photoreceptor rescue are on their way. Testing confirms the diagnosis at the molecular level and allows for a more precise prognosis of the possible future clinical evolution. As treatments are gene-specific and the 'window of opportunity' is time-sensitive; accurate, rapid and cost-effective genetic testing will play an ever-increasing crucial role. The gold standard is sequencing but is fraught with excessive costs, time, manpower issues and finding non-pathogenic variants. Therefore, no centre offers testing of all currently 132 known genes. Several new micro-array technologies have emerged recently, that offer rapid, cost-effective and accurate genotyping. The new disease chips from Asper Ophthalmics (for Stargardt dystrophy, Leber congenital amaurosis [LCA], Usher syndromes and retinitis pigmentosa) offer an excellent first pass opportunity. All known mutations are placed on the chip and in 4 h a patient's DNA is screened. Identification rates (identifying at least one disease-associated mutation) are currently approximately 70% (Stargardt), approximately 60-70% (LCA) and approximately 45% (Usher syndrome subtype 1). This may be combined with genotype-phenotype correlations that suggest the causal gene from the clinical appearance (e.g. preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium suggests the involvement of the CRB1 gene in LCA). As approximately 50% of the retinal dystrophy genes still await discovery, these technologies will improve dramatically as additional novel mutations are added. Genetic testing will then become standard practice to complement the ophthalmic evaluation.

  2. The Role of Gene Therapy in the Treatment of Retinal Diseases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, C; Gallenga, C E; Bolletta, E; Perri, P

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy represents the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into patient cells with the aim of treating an underlying disease. Over the past 2 decades this new therapy has made substantial progress owing to better understanding of the pathobiologic basis of various diseases coupled with growth of gene transfer biotechnologies. The eye, in particular, represents a suitable target for such therapy due to the immune privilege provided by the blood-ocular barrier, the ability to directly visualize, access and locally treat the cells and the minimal amount of vector needed given the size of this organ. It is not surprising therefore that several clinical trials are now ongoing in this field. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on gene therapy for retinal diseases, discussing differences in treatment strategies, vector designs and surgical techniques. Research was performed on PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Home Genetic Reference. We additionally utilized the internet database for genetics of retinal diseases, the portal for rare diseases and orphan drugs and the NCBI database Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. No restriction was applied on the language of publications. We present the available results of current active clinical trials for inherited retinal disease such as Leber's congenital amaurosis type 2, choroideremia, Stargardt disease, achromatopsia and juvenile X-linked retinoschisis. We also illustrate a new approach of this therapy for the treatment of much more common ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Gene therapy represents an emerging and promising therapeutic approach for the treatment not only of rare inherited retinal diseases but also much more common retinal pathologies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Lentiviral expression of retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (RetGC1 restores vision in an avian model of childhood blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Williams

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is a genetically heterogeneous group of retinal diseases that cause congenital blindness in infants and children. Mutations in the GUCY2D gene that encodes retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (retGC1 were the first to be linked to this disease group (LCA type 1 [LCA1] and account for 10%-20% of LCA cases. These mutations disrupt synthesis of cGMP in photoreceptor cells, a key second messenger required for function of these cells. The GUCY1*B chicken, which carries a null mutation in the retGC1 gene, is blind at hatching and serves as an animal model for the study of LCA1 pathology and potential treatments in humans.A lentivirus-based gene transfer vector carrying the GUCY2D gene was developed and injected into early-stage GUCY1*B embryos to determine if photoreceptor function and sight could be restored to these animals. Like human LCA1, the avian disease shows early-onset blindness, but there is a window of opportunity for intervention. In both diseases there is a period of photoreceptor cell dysfunction that precedes retinal degeneration. Of seven treated animals, six exhibited sight as evidenced by robust optokinetic and volitional visual behaviors. Electroretinographic responses, absent in untreated animals, were partially restored in treated animals. Morphological analyses indicated there was slowing of the retinal degeneration.Blindness associated with loss of function of retGC1 in the GUCY1*B avian model of LCA1 can be reversed using viral vector-mediated gene transfer. Furthermore, this reversal can be achieved by restoring function to a relatively low percentage of retinal photoreceptors. These results represent a first step toward development of gene therapies for one of the more common forms of childhood blindness.

  4. Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved to adapt a commercial 3(rd generation OCT system to obtain and quantify high-resolution morphological sections of the mouse retina which so far required in vitro histology. OCT and histology were compared in models with developmental defects, light damage, and inherited retinal degenerations. In conditional knockout mice deficient in retinal retinoblastoma protein Rb, the gradient of Cre expression from center to periphery, leading to a gradual reduction of retinal thickness, was clearly visible and well topographically quantifiable. In Nrl knockout mice, the layer involvement in the formation of rosette-like structures was similarly clear as in histology. OCT examination of focal light damage, well demarcated by the autofluorescence pattern, revealed a practically complete loss of photoreceptors with preservation of inner retinal layers, but also more subtle changes like edema formation. In Crb1 knockout mice (a model for Leber's congenital amaurosis, retinal vessels slipping through the outer nuclear layer towards the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE due to the lack of adhesion in the subapical region of the photoreceptor inner segments could be well identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that with the OCT we were able to detect and analyze a wide range of mouse retinal pathology, and the results compared well to histological sections. In addition, the technique allows to follow individual animals over time, thereby reducing the numbers of study animals needed, and to assess dynamic processes like edema formation. The results clearly indicate that OCT has the potential to revolutionize the future design of respective short- and long-term studies, as well as the preclinical

  5. THE NUMERICAL REPRESENTATION OF CHILDREN WITH DAMAGED EYESIGHT ON THE TERRITORY OF SKOPJE AND WORK ORGANIZATION WITH THIS POPULATION AT PRESCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana TALEVSKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The binocular function of the eyesight as a process develops as early as the first years of life.Taking into consideration the great number of inherent factors, which disturb the normal development of the eye-sight function, and the great number of causes of damages in the prenatal and natal period, the question of early detection of the reasons, diagnostics and treatment are of utmost importance.That’s possible, only if there is a cooperation among persons that are in the closest contacts with the child:· the mother;· the pediatrician;· the nurse;· the ophthalmologist;· the educator and· the physician.It’s not so necessary to talk about the importance of the sight in the human life, i.e. the importance of the binocular function of the children sight, from the early age when their psycho-physical development is the most flourishing.The importance of the early detection, diagnostics and treatment of the damaged eyesight is great. Especially, this is of great importance for ambliopia, which can be hardly detected at this early period, but it can be easily and successfully treated. We say it is hard to detect because of the delusion and inertness of parents, just during early years from birth to the 3 year, that the child is small and it’s too early to start a treatment.On the contrary, practice has shown that this time is lost and hardly can be compensate, either in means of cure of ambliopia and treatment or rehabilitation of amaurosis.The numerical data of children with damaged eyesight on the territory of Skopje and the need of organized work with this population of children at preschool age will be confirmed and enclosed.

  6. Distilling a Visual Network of Retinitis Pigmentosa Gene-Protein Interactions to Uncover New Disease Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boloc

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a highly heterogeneous genetic visual disorder with more than 70 known causative genes, some of them shared with other non-syndromic retinal dystrophies (e.g. Leber congenital amaurosis, LCA. The identification of RP genes has increased steadily during the last decade, and the 30% of the cases that still remain unassigned will soon decrease after the advent of exome/genome sequencing. A considerable amount of genetic and functional data on single RD genes and mutations has been gathered, but a comprehensive view of the RP genes and their interacting partners is still very fragmentary. This is the main gap that needs to be filled in order to understand how mutations relate to progressive blinding disorders and devise effective therapies.We have built an RP-specific network (RPGeNet by merging data from different sources: high-throughput data from BioGRID and STRING databases, manually curated data for interactions retrieved from iHOP, as well as interactions filtered out by syntactical parsing from up-to-date abstracts and full-text papers related to the RP research field. The paths emerging when known RP genes were used as baits over the whole interactome have been analysed, and the minimal number of connections among the RP genes and their close neighbors were distilled in order to simplify the search space.In contrast to the analysis of single isolated genes, finding the networks linking disease genes renders powerful etiopathological insights. We here provide an interactive interface, RPGeNet, for the molecular biologist to explore the network centered on the non-syndromic and syndromic RP and LCA causative genes. By integrating tissue-specific expression levels and phenotypic data on top of that network, a more comprehensive biological view will highlight key molecular players of retinal degeneration and unveil new RP disease candidates.

  7. Targeting iodothyronine deiodinases locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ma, Hongwei; Belcher, Joshua; Butler, Michael R; Redmond, T Michael; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have implicated thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in cone photoreceptor viability. Using mouse models of retinal degeneration, we found that antithyroid treatment preserves cones. This work investigates the significance of targeting intracellular TH components locally in the retina. The cellular TH level is mainly regulated by deiodinase iodothyronine (DIO)-2 and -3. DIO2 converts thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3), which binds to the TH receptor, whereas DIO3 degrades T3 and T4. We examined cone survival after overexpression of DIO3 and inhibition of DIO2 and demonstrated the benefits of these manipulations. Subretinal delivery of AAV5-IRBP/GNAT2-DIO3, which directs expression of human DIO3 specifically in cones, increased cone density by 30-40% in a Rpe65 -/- mouse model of Lebers congenital amaurosis (LCA) and in a Cpfl1 mouse with Pde6c defect model of achromatopsia, compared with their respective untreated controls. Intravitreal and topical delivery of the DIO2 inhibitor iopanoic acid also significantly improved cone survival in the LCA model mice. Moreover, the expression levels of DIO2 and Slc16a2 were significantly higher in the diseased retinas, suggesting locally elevated TH signaling. We show that targeting DIOs protects cones, and intracellular inhibition of TH components locally in the retina may represent a novel strategy for retinal degeneration management.-Yang, F., Ma, H., Belcher, J., Butler, M. R., Redmond, T. M., Boye, S. L., Hauswirth, W. W., Ding, X.-Q. Targeting iodothyronine deiodinases locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. © FASEB.

  8. Atypical clinical presentation and long-term survival in a patient with optic nerve medulloepithelioma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora-Salvador Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medulloepithelioma is a rare congenital tumor of the primitive medullary neuroepithelium. A significant proportion of patients with medulloepithelioma arising from the optic nerve die from intracranial spread or cerebral metastasis. Because it has no known distinct clinical features and because of its low frequency, this tumor presents within the first two to six years of life and is usually misdiagnosed clinically as a different type of optic nerve tumor. Here, we describe a new and atypical case of medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve in a 12-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, he is the oldest reported patient to present with this disease and, now as an adult, has the longest documented period of disease-free survival. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian boy with headache and unilateral amaurosis was referred for a presumed optic nerve glioma to our hospital. A computed tomography scan showed optic nerve enlargement, and fundoscopy showed a whitish mass at the optic disc. Our patient had been followed at his local hospital for four years for an 'optic disc cyst' with no change or progression. He experienced mild progressive visual impairment during that period. He was admitted for resection, and a histopathological analysis revealed a medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve. Supplemental orbital radiotherapy was performed. He remained disease-free for 25 years. Conclusions Medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve can clinically mimic more common pediatric tumors, such as optic glioma, meningioma, or retinoblastoma. Thus, medulloepithelioma should be included in the differential diagnoses of pediatric optic nerve lesions. Fundoscopy in these patients may provide relevant information for diagnosis. Anterior optic nerve medulloepitheliomas may behave differently from and have a better prognosis than medulloepitheliomas that have a more posterior location. Our case report illustrates that long-term survival can be

  9. Autofluorescence Imaging With Near-Infrared Excitation:Normalization by Reflectance to Reduce Signal From Choroidal Fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously developed reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging (RAFI) methods involving near-infrared (NIR) excitation to image melanin-based fluorophores and short-wavelength (SW) excitation to image lipofuscin-based flurophores. Here, we propose to normalize NIR-RAFI in order to increase the relative contribution of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorophores. Methods. Retinal imaging was performed with a standard protocol holding system parameters invariant in healthy subjects and in patients. Normalized NIR-RAFI was derived by dividing NIR-RAFI signal by NIR reflectance point-by-point after image registration. Results. Regions of RPE atrophy in Stargardt disease, AMD, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, and Leber congenital amaurosis as defined by low signal on SW-RAFI could correspond to a wide range of signal on NIR-RAFI depending on the contribution from the choroidal component. Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy tended to always correspond to high signal on NIR reflectance. Normalizing NIR-RAFI reduced the choroidal component of the signal in regions of atrophy. Quantitative evaluation of RPE atrophy area showed no significant differences between SW-RAFI and normalized NIR-RAFI. Conclusions. Imaging of RPE atrophy using lipofuscin-based AF imaging has become the gold standard. However, this technique involves bright SW lights that are uncomfortable and may accelerate the rate of disease progression in vulnerable retinas. The NIR-RAFI method developed here is a melanin-based alternative that is not absorbed by opsins and bisretinoid moieties, and is comfortable to view. Further development of this method may result in a nonmydriatic and comfortable imaging method to quantify RPE atrophy extent and its expansion rate. PMID:26024124

  10. The Pathway From Genes to Gene Therapy in Glaucoma: A Review of Possibilities for Using Genes as Glaucoma Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of diseases with gene therapy is advancing rapidly. The use of gene therapy has expanded from the original concept of re-placing the mutated gene causing the disease to the use of genes to con-trol nonphysiological levels of expression or to modify pathways known to affect the disease. Genes offer numerous advantages over conventional drugs. They have longer duration of action and are more specific. Genes can be delivered to the target site by naked DNA, cells, nonviral, and viral vectors. The enormous progress of the past decade in molecular bi-ology and delivery systems has provided ways for targeting genes to the intended cell/tissue and safe, long-term vectors. The eye is an ideal organ for gene therapy. It is easily accessible and it is an immune-privileged site. Currently, there are clinical trials for diseases affecting practically every tissue of the eye, including those to restore vision in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis. However, the number of eye trials compared with those for systemic diseases is quite low (1.8%). Nevertheless, judg-ing by the vast amount of ongoing preclinical studies, it is expected that such number will increase considerably in the near future. One area of great need for eye gene therapy is glaucoma, where a long-term gene drug would eliminate daily applications and compliance issues. Here, we review the current state of gene therapy for glaucoma and the possibilities for treating the trabecular meshwork to lower intraocular pressure and the retinal ganglion cells to protect them from neurodegeneration. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  11. Application of a high-throughput genotyping method for loci exclusion in non-consanguineous Australian pedigrees with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel L; De Roach, John N; McLaren, Terri L; Hewitt, Alex W; Hoffmann, Ling; Lamey, Tina M

    2012-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited blindness, caused by progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina, and affects approximately 1 in 3,000 people. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in gene therapy for RP and related diseases, making genetic characterization increasingly important. Recently, high-throughput technologies have provided an option for reasonably fast, cost-effective genetic characterization of autosomal recessive RP (arRP). The current study used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method to exclude up to 28 possible disease-causing genes in 31 non-consanguineous Australian families affected by arRP. DNA samples were collected from 59 individuals affected with arRP and 74 unaffected family members from 31 Australian families. Five to six SNPs were genotyped for 28 genes known to cause arRP or the related disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Cosegregation analyses were used to exclude possible causative genes from each of the 31 families. Bidirectional sequencing was used to identify disease-causing mutations in prioritized genes that were not excluded with cosegregation analyses. Two families were excluded from analysis due to identification of false paternity. An average of 28.9% of genes were excluded per family when only one affected individual was available, in contrast to an average of 71.4% or 89.8% of genes when either two, or three or more affected individuals were analyzed, respectively. A statistically significant relationship between the proportion of genes excluded and the number of affected individuals analyzed was identified using a multivariate regression model (pA) and USH2A in two families (c.2276 G>T). This study has shown that SNP genotyping cosegregation analysis can be successfully used to refine and expedite the genetic characterization of arRP in a non-consanguineous population; however, this method is effective only when DNA samples are

  12. The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J; Morgan, Jessica I W; Merigan, William H; Sliney, David H; Sparrow, Janet R; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    The photoreceptor/RPE complex must maintain a delicate balance between maximizing the absorption of photons for vision and retinal image quality while simultaneously minimizing the risk of photodamage when exposed to bright light. We review the recent discovery of two new effects of light exposure on the photoreceptor/RPE complex in the context of current thinking about the causes of retinal phototoxicity. These effects are autofluorescence photobleaching in which exposure to bright light reduces lipofuscin autofluorescence and, at higher light levels, RPE disruption in which the pattern of autofluorescence is permanently altered following light exposure. Both effects occur following exposure to visible light at irradiances that were previously thought to be safe. Photopigment, retinoids involved in the visual cycle, and bisretinoids in lipofuscin have been implicated as possible photosensitizers for photochemical damage. The mechanism of RPE disruption may follow either of these paths. On the other hand, autofluorescence photobleaching is likely an indicator of photooxidation of lipofuscin. The permanent changes inherent in RPE disruption might require modification of the light safety standards. AF photobleaching recovers after several hours although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not yet clear. Understanding the mechanisms of phototoxicity is all the more important given the potential for increased susceptibility in the presence of ocular diseases that affect either the visual cycle and/or lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, knowledge of photochemical mechanisms can improve our understanding of some disease processes that may be influenced by light exposure, such as some forms of Leber’s congenital amaurosis, and aid in the development of new therapies. Such treatment prior to intentional light exposures, as in ophthalmic examinations or surgeries, could provide an effective preventative strategy. PMID:22085795

  13. Unilateral optic neuropathy following subdural hematoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte Otto W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Unilateral optic neuropathy is commonly due to a prechiasmatic affliction of the anterior visual pathway, while losses in visual hemifields result from the damage to brain hemispheres. Here we report the unusual case of a patient who suffered from acute optic neuropathy following hemispherical subdural hematoma. Although confirmed up to now only through necropsy studies, our case strongly suggests a local, microcirculatory deficit identified through magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Case presentation A 70-year-old Caucasian German who developed a massive left hemispheric subdural hematoma under oral anticoagulation presented with acute, severe visual impairment on his left eye, which was noticed after surgical decompression. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations indicated sinistral optic neuropathy with visual acuity reduced nearly to amaurosis. Ocular pathology such as vitreous body hemorrhage, papilledema, and central retinal artery occlusion were excluded. An orbital lesion was ruled out by means of orbital magnetic resonance imaging. However, cerebral diffusion-weighted imaging and T2 maps of magnetic resonance imaging revealed a circumscribed ischemic lesion within the edematous, slightly herniated temporomesial lobe within the immediate vicinity of the affected optic nerve. Thus, the clinical course and morphologic magnetic resonance imaging findings suggest the occurrence of pressure-induced posterior ischemic optic neuropathy due to microcirculatory compromise. Conclusion Although lesions of the second cranial nerve following subdural hematoma have been reported individually, their pathogenesis was preferentially proposed from autopsy studies. Here we discuss a dual, pressure-induced and secondarily ischemic pathomechanism on the base of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics which may remain unconsidered by computed tomography.

  14. Bicistronic lentiviruses containing a viral 2A cleavage sequence reliably co-express two proteins and restore vision to an animal model of LCA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Verrier

    Full Text Available The disease processes underlying inherited retinal disease are complex and are not completely understood. Many of the corrective gene therapies designed to treat diseases linked to mutations in genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells restore function to these cells but fail to stop progression of the disease. There is growing consensus that effective treatments for these diseases will require delivery of multiple therapeutic proteins that will be selected to treat specific aspects of the disease process. The purpose of this study was to design a lentiviral transgene that reliably expresses all of the proteins it encodes and does so in a consistent manner among infected cells. We show, using both in vitro and in vivo analyses, that bicistronic lentiviral transgenes encoding two fluorescent proteins fused to a viral 2A-like cleavage peptide meet these expression criteria. To determine if this transgene design is suitable for therapeutic applications, we replaced one of the fluorescent protein genes with the gene encoding guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1 and delivered lentivirus carrying this transgene to the retinas of the GUCY1*B avian model of Leber congenital amaurosis-1 (LCA1. GUCY1*B chickens carry a null mutation in the GC1 gene that disrupts photoreceptor function and causes blindness at hatching, a phenotype that closely matches that observed in humans with LCA1. We found that treatment of these animals with the 2A lentivector encoding GC1 restored vision to these animals as evidenced by the presence of optokinetic reflexes. We conclude that 2A-like peptides, with proper optimization, can be successfully incorporated into therapeutic vectors designed to deliver multiple proteins to neural retinal. These results highlight the potential of this vector design to serve as a platform for the development of combination therapies designed to enhance or prolong the benefits of corrective gene therapies.

  15. Exome sequencing of index patients with retinal dystrophies as a tool for molecular diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Corton

    Full Text Available Retinal dystrophies (RD are a group of hereditary diseases that lead to debilitating visual impairment and are usually transmitted as a Mendelian trait. Pathogenic mutations can occur in any of the 100 or more disease genes identified so far, making molecular diagnosis a rather laborious process. In this work we explored the use of whole exome sequencing (WES as a tool for identification of RD mutations, with the aim of assessing its applicability in a diagnostic context.We ascertained 12 Spanish families with seemingly recessive RD. All of the index patients underwent mutational pre-screening by chip-based sequence hybridization and resulted to be negative for known RD mutations. With the exception of one pedigree, to simulate a standard diagnostic scenario we processed by WES only the DNA from the index patient of each family, followed by in silico data analysis. We successfully identified causative mutations in patients from 10 different families, which were later verified by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analyses. Specifically, we detected pathogenic DNA variants (∼50% novel mutations in the genes RP1, USH2A, CNGB3, NMNAT1, CHM, and ABCA4, responsible for retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, achromatopsia, Leber congenital amaurosis, choroideremia, or recessive Stargardt/cone-rod dystrophy cases.Despite the absence of genetic information from other family members that could help excluding nonpathogenic DNA variants, we could detect causative mutations in a variety of genes known to represent a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes in 83% of the patients analyzed. Considering the constant drop in costs for human exome sequencing and the relative simplicity of the analyses made, this technique could represent a valuable tool for molecular diagnostics or genetic research, even in cases for which no genotypes from family members are available.

  16. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongwei; Yang, Fan; Butler, Michael R; Belcher, Joshua; Redmond, T Michael; Placzek, Andrew T; Scanlan, Thomas S; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism. Recent studies have implicated TH signaling in cone photoreceptor viability. Using mouse models of retinal degeneration, we demonstrated that antithyroid drug treatment and targeting iodothyronine deiodinases (DIOs) to suppress cellular tri-iodothyronine (T3) production or increase T3 degradation preserves cones. In this work, we investigated the effectiveness of inhibition of the TH receptor (TR). Two genes, THRA and THRB , encode TRs; THRB 2 has been associated with cone viability. Using TR antagonists and Thrb2 deletion, we examined the effects of TR inhibition. Systemic and ocular treatment with the TR antagonists NH-3 and 1-850 increased cone density by 30-40% in the Rpe65 -/- mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis and reduced the number of TUNEL + cells. Cone survival was significantly improved in Rpe65 -/- and Cpfl1 (a model of achromatopsia with Pde6c defect) mice with Thrb2 deletion. Ventral cone density in Cpfl1/Thrb2 -/- and Rpe65 -/- / Thrb2 -/- mice was increased by 1- to 4-fold, compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, the expression levels of TR were significantly higher in the cone-degeneration retinas, suggesting locally elevated TR signaling. This work shows that the effects of antithyroid treatment or targeting DIOs were likely mediated by TRs and that suppressing TR protects cones. Our findings support the view that inhibition of TR locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration management.-Ma, H., Yang, F., Butler, M. R., Belcher, J., Redmond, T. M., Placzek, A. T., Scanlan, T. S., Ding, X.-Q. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. © FASEB.

  17. [Long-term follow-up of patients with suprasellar germinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauditz, Juergen; Lochs, Herbert; Ventz, Manfred

    2007-10-15

    Suprasellar germinomas are rare intracranial neoplasms, which mainly occur in children and adolescents and manifest with endocrine symptoms and/or compression syndromes. The clinical, hormonal and morphological findings as well as treatment and complications were investigated in seven patients (six male, one female) with germinomas. Mean age at diagnosis was 19.7 years (range 15-32 years). First disease-related symptoms were diabetes insipidus (three patients), loss of libido (two patients), pseudopubertas praecox (one patient), and dwarfism (one patient). However, decisive symptoms leading to final diagnosis were visual disturbances (five patients), pubertas tarda (one patient), and hypogonadism (one patient). All patients were treated by transcranial radiation with a dose of 40-54 Gy. One patient received additional chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (PEI). Patients were followed up for 14.6 years (range 7-27 years). Intracranial and pulmonary relapses were observed in two patients. Panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus were seen in all patients after treatment. Two patients suffered from loss of vision, two further patients from unilateral amaurosis. One patient developed epilepsy and persistent cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up shows that two patients died from recurrent disease and decompensated liver cirrhosis, respectively. The other patients are long-term survivors. Full social integration with employment was possible in one case. Suprasellar germinomas cause endocrine symptoms during early tumor stages, however, diagnosis is generally established when ocular symptoms related to tumor compression are already present. Long-term survival is characterized by panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and, partly, ocular or cerebral defects.

  18. Neurocisticercose e síndrome de lennox-gastaut: relato de caso Neurocysticercosis and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA AGAPEJEV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma menina que, aos 2 anos de idade, apresentou a forma epiléptica, hidrocefálica e encefalítica da neurocisticercose, diagnosticada por exame do líquido cefalorraqueano e tomografia computadorizada de crânio, evolução com crises polimórficas, episódios de descompensação da hipertensão intracraniana por obstrução do sistema de derivação ventriculoperitoneal, retardo no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e cegueira até que, aos 10 anos de idade, foi diagnosticada síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut. Atualmente, a paciente tem 16 anos, apresenta sequelas neurológicas e crises parciais complexas com automatismos, parcialmente controladas com o uso de clobazan e oxcarbazepina. A primeira associação de neurocisticercose e síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut foi descrita em 1973, por Frochtengarten & Scarante, em uma menina com quadro clínico semelhante ao do caso relatado.Report of a girl with the epileptic, hydrocephalic and encephalitic form of neurocysticercosis, diagnosed by cerebrospinal flui and computed tomography exams, during her second year of life and an evolution with multiple types of seizures, prolonged periods of intracranial hypertension due to obstruction in the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, psicomotor regression and blindness until she was 10 years old, when the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was diagnosed. Nowadays the patient is 16 years old and presents complex partial seizures with automatism not completely controlled with clobazan and oxcarbazepine, associated to left spastic hemiparesis, universal hyperreflexia, psychomotor agitation, self-mutilation, amaurosis and severe mental retardation. The association between neurocysticercosis and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was first described in 1973 by Frochtengarten & Scarante in a Brazilian girl with a similar clinical picture.

  19. Classificação diagnóstica dos portadores de doenças degenerativas de retina, integrantes dos grupos Retina São Paulo e Retina Vale do Paraíba Diagnostic classification of retinal degenerative diseases São Paulo and Vale Retina groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichard Unonius

    2003-08-01

    ,5% eram casos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: Destaca-se assim a importância desta classificação como a primeira referência nacional dos padrões de hereditariedade das distrofias retinianas do país. Este é o primeiro passo para se proceder em seguida a classificação genético-molecular baseada no seqüenciamento de cada gene responsável por cada um dos padrões de herança. A freqüência de cada tipo específico é semelhante à encontrada em outros trabalhos epidemiológicos de outros países.PURPOSE: To organize a regional data bank of all individuals that have retinal degenerative diseases, with the aim to classify each patient according to the type of distrophy and pattern of inheritance. METHODS: During the meeting of the São Paulo Retina Group on May 5th, 2001, two hundred and forty-three persons were registered, part of whom provided information concerning ocular, personal and family history and family tree. Ninety-three patients were asked about age, origin, type of dystrophy, family history and family tree information, type of inheritance, other systemic abnormalities and complementary examination. They were classified according to the diagnosis and pattern of inhe-ritance. RESULTS: The distrophies found in the registered two hundred and forty-three patients, were: retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Usher syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis and choroideremia. Of the ninety-three patients examined on the same day, sixty-two had retinitis pigmentosa, thirteen had Stargardt disease, thirteen had Usher syndrome, three had Leber congenital amaurosis and two had choroideremia. The inheritance pattern of the patients with retinitis pigmentosa was autosomal dominant in 4 cases (7%, autosomal recessive in twenty cases (32%, X-linked recessive in 7 cases (11%. Twenty-nine cases were isolated (47% and two had an indeterminate pattern of inheritance (3%. Of the Stargardt disease patients, three (23% were autosomal recessive and ten (77% were isolated cases. Of the

  20. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C 29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C 31 or C 33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Inguinal hernia vs. arthritis of the hip in sporting adolescents--case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzheimer, R G; Gresser, U

    2007-07-26

    Chronic pain in the hip, groin or thigh can be caused by a wide spectrum of diseases posing extended diagnostic problems. We describe the case of a 10-years old child with chronic pain in the groin with gait restriction for more than six months without successful classification and treatment. The girl suffered from heavy pain in the groin after a sporting contest which forced her to walk with walking sticks and to avoid climbing stairs. Within six months she was examined by pediatric, orthopedic, pediatric surgery, pediatric orthopedic, radiology, pediatric rheumatology specialists. Working diagnoses were transient synovitis (coxitis fugax), arthritis, streptococcal arthritis, Morbus Perthes, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis. She was treated with antibiotics and ibuprofen in high dosage. Repeated laboratory tests and imaging studies (ultrasound, x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging) of the hip and pelvis did not support any of these diagnoses. Six months after beginning of the complaints the girl was presented by her mother to our institution. The physical examination showed a sharp localized pain in the groin, just in the region of the inguinal ligament with otherwise free hip movement. There was no visible inguinal hernia. The family history for hernia was positive. After infiltration of the ilioinguinal nerve the girl had a complete long-lasting disappearance of pain and gait disturbance. This led to the diagnosis of inguinal hernia with nerve entrapment. After hernia repair and neurolysis/neurectomy there was a continuous state of disappearance of pain and gait disturbances. To avoid such a diagnostic dilemma one should always discuss all possible causes. Non-visible inguinal hernia may be more common in females than previously thought. Nerve entrapment as a cause of groin pain has been well described. The relationship of the start of complaints with sporting activity, a positive family history for inguinal hernia, a lack of signs of inflammation and bone

  2. Linear headache: a recurrent unilateral head pain circumscribed in a line-shaped area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Tian, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xian-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Qun; Liu, Ying; Lu, Ya-Nan; Pan, Qing-Qing

    2014-06-26

    A headache circumscribed in a line-shaped area but not confined to the territory of one particular nerve had ever been described in Epicrania Fugax (EF) of which the head pain is moving and ultrashort. In a 25-month period from Feb 2012 to Mar 2014, we encountered 12 patients with a paroxysmal motionless head pain restricted in a linear trajectory. The head pain trajectory was similar to that of EF, but its all other features obviously different from those of EF. We named this distinctive but undescribed type of headache linear headache (LH). A detailed clinical feature of the headache was obtained in all cases to differentiate with EF, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and cranial neuralgia. Similarities and differences in clinical features were compared between LH and migraine. The twelve LH patients (mean age 43.9 ± 12.2) complained of a recurrent, moderate to severe, distending (n = 9), pressure-like (n = 3) or pulsating (n = 3) pain within a strictly unilateral line-shaped area. The painful line is distributed from occipital or occipitocervical region to the ipsilateral eye (n = 5), forehead (n = 6) or parietal region (n = 1). The pain line has a trajecory similar to that of EF but no characteristics of moving. The headache duration would be ranged from five minutes to three days, but usually from half day to one day in most cases (n = 8). Six patients had the accompaniment of nausea with or without vomiting, and two patients had the accompaniment of ipsilateral dizziness. The attacks could be either spontaneous (n = 10) or triggered by noise, depression and resting after physical activity (n = 1), or by stress and staying up late (n = 1). The frequency of attacks was variable. The patients had well response to flunarizine, sodium valproate and amitriptyline but not to carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. LH is different from EF, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and cranial neuralgia, but it had couple of features similar to that of migraine. The

  3. [Anorexia with sinus bradycardia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-fang; Xu, Ling; Chen, Bao-xia; Cui, Ming; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-02-18

    As anorexia patients always go to the psychiatric clinic, little is concerned about the occurrence of sinus bradycardia in these patients for cardiologists and psychiatrists. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between anorexia and sinus bradycardia, and the feature analysis, differential diagnosis and therapeutic principles of this type of sinus bradycardia. We report a case of sinus bradycardia in an anorexia patient with the clinical manifestations, laboratory exams, auxiliary exams, therapeutic methods, and her prognosis, who was admitted to Peking University Third Hospital recently. The patient was a 19-year-old female, who had the manifestation of anorexia. She lost obvious weight in a short time (about 15 kg in 6 months), and her body mass index was 14.8 kg/m(2). The patient felt apparent palpitation, chest depression and short breath, without dizziness, amaurosis or unconsciousness. Vitals on presentation were notable for hypotension, and bradycardia. The initial exam was significant for emaciation, but without lethargy or lower extremity edema. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with her heart rate being 32 beats per minute. The laboratory work -up revealed her normal blood routine, electrolytes and liver function. But in her thyroid function test, the free thyroid (FT) hormones 3 was 0.91 ng/L (2.3-4.2 ng/L),and FT4 was 8.2 ng/L (8.9-18.0 ng/L), which were all lower; yet the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was normal 1.48 IU/mL (0.55-4.78 IU/mL). Ultrasound revealed her normal thyroid. Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, fear of gaining weight or distorted perception of body image, and amenorrhea. Anorexia patients who lose weight apparently in short time enhance the excitability of the parasympathetic nerve, and inhibit the sympathetic nerve which lead to the appearance of sinus bradycardia, and functional abnormalities of multiple systems such as hypothyroidism. But this kind of sinus

  4. [Early therapeutic trials for retinitis pigmentosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufier, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Non syndromic forms of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) constitute a collection of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited retinal degenerative diseases. They are characterized by a bilateral progressive visual loss susceptible to cause blindness. These diseases are transmitted through pedigrees according to all known modes of inheritance. They are bilateral and usually start during infancy. However, very early clinical presentations exist, such as those observed in children affected by Leber Congenital Amaurosis, as well as late onset autosomal dominant forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The characteristic clinical aspect of the rod-cone RP dystrophies is marked by alterations of the peripheral retina associated with a night blindness and a progressive narrowing of the visual field. The ophthalmoscopic examination of RP patients commonly reveals thin retinal arteries and scattered pigmentary accumulations. In contrast, there are cone rod retinal dystrophies whose onset is marked by a decreased visual acuity before the appearance of any visual field alteration. Some forms of RPs display an ocular fundus devoid of any pigmentary alteration. Syndromic forms of RPs are not uncommon. The association of deafness with RP is detected in nearly 30% of the patients. Other associations with RP can include mental deficiency, facial dysmorphy, microcephaly, obesity, kidney deficiency, immune deficiencies, metabolic disorders. The existence of such syndromic forms of RP localizes RPs at the crossroad of several medical specialties. A long lasting collaboration between our department of ophthalmology and the department of medical genetics of the Necker-Sick Children Hospital has allowed us to establish numerous genotype-phenotype correlations, especially in LCA and Stargardt's disease. ABCR gene mutations cause Stargardt disease. ABCR mutations may also cause some types of Ages Related Macular Degenerations (AMD). Nowadays, there is no known efficient therapy available for

  5. Neurossífilis atípica: Relato de caso Atypical neurosyphilis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Leite Gastal

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo é baseado na observação de um caso de neurossífilis no serviço de internação da Clínica Olivé Leite em agosto-1992. A paciente, do sexo feminino e com 31 anos de idade, foi admitida por apresentar quadro de psicose orgânica no qual predominavam sintomas de tipo deterioração cognitiva (síndrome demencial, associados a elementos paranoides (alucinações e delírios. A investigação diagnóstica evidenciou testes imunológicos positivos para sífilis no sangue e no LCR. Destaca-se este caso pelos seguintes aspectos peculiares: forma da apresentação clínica, gravidade dos sintomas (amaurose e severo déficit cognitivo, sexo, idade e por ser este o primeiro caso diagnosticado no serviço desde 1968 (data do último registro de caso de neurossífilis no seu Banco de Dados. Após penicilinoterapia e seguimento de 9 meses, a paciente apresenta algumas melhoras, caracterizadas por: diminuição da sintomatologia produtiva de tipo alucinatória e delirante, diminuição do déficit cognitivo em termos de orientação e maior produtividade nas atividades sociais e comportamentais.The present study is based on the observation of a case at the inpatient service of Clinica Olivé Leite in August 1992. A 31 years old female patient, showing cognitive deterioration and demential syndrome associated with paranoid elements (hallucination and delirium, was admitted as a case of organic psychosis. Diagnostic investigation evidenced positive tests for syphilis in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The following peculiar aspects are emphasized in this case: severe clinical presentation, severe presentation symptoms (amaurosis and a severe cognitive deficit, sex, age, and for being the first case diagnosed in the service since 1968 (occasion in wich the last neurosyphilis case was registered in its data bank. In the following nine months, after penicillin therapy, the patient showed some improvement characterized by a reduction of

  6. Prescreening whole exome sequencing results from patients with retinal degeneration for variants in genes associated with retinal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant L

    2017-12-01

    heterozygous mutation identified that would cause recessive disease and 13% had no obviously pathogenic variants and no family members available to perform segregation analysis. Eleven subjects are good candidates for novel gene discovery. Two de novo mutations were identified that resulted in dominant retinal degeneration.Conclusion: Whole exome sequencing allows for thorough genetic analysis of candidate genes as well as novel gene discovery. It allows for an unbiased analysis of genetic variants to reduce the chance that the pathogenic mutation will be missed due to incomplete or inaccurate family history or analysis at the early stage of a syndromic form of retinal degeneration. Keywords: retinal degeneration, genetic diagnosis, retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis, cone–rod dystrophy, whole exome sequencing

  7. Conhecimento leigo sobre doença vascular encefálica Lay knowledge about stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Matos Nóvak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A magnitude das doenças vasculares encefálicas (DVE, com a sua prevalência, gravidade e elevados índices de morbi-mortalidade, faz com que se busquem formas de prevenção e de diagnóstico precoce. Considerando que as informações sobre os fatores de risco e os sintomas de DVE, pelos doentes de risco e pela população em geral, tem um papel preponderante nesta estratégia de tratamento, os autores buscaram conhecer qual o grau deste conhecimento em um grupo populacional amplo e variado. Assim, aplicou-se em 500 pessoas leigas um questionário de que constavam questões sobre os fatores de risco e sobre os sintomas de DVE com termos não médicos. Os resultados da análise estatística mostraram surpreendente conhecimento sobre os fatores de risco, a par de menor reconhecimento sobre os sintomas e sinais de doença vascular. Os autores detalham os achados e comentam sobre este aspecto importante das DVE.The significance of the risk factors and the rapid diagnosis of encephalic vascular disease (EVD is the reason for this research, where the authors decided to register and analyze the non-medical people knowledge about these risk factors and the symptoms of this group of disease. For this purpose a questionnaire with questions about these facts was applied to 500 voluntaries without pre-selection, 72.6% of them with ages between 16-35 years old, and the answers analyzed by statistical methods. The authors recognized that the risk factors has a good level of knowledge by this population (87.8 % for hypertension, 76.8 % for smoking, 70.8 % for obesity, 68.7 % for sedentary persons, 66.7 % to stress, 66.3 % to alcohol ingest, 60.7 % for fat diet, 59 % to illicit drugs while the signs and symptoms of EVD has a minor level of knowing and correction: lost sensitivity 70.3 %, headache 64.2 %, twisted mouth 59.5 %, lost or altered speech 57.5 %, dizziness 56 %, syncope 51.7 %, amaurosis 50.3 %, disequilibrium 45 %, deafness 31.2 %, weakness 41

  8. Two novel mutations in the EYS gene are possible major causes of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Hosono

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease including autosomal recessive (ar, autosomal dominant (ad, and X-linked inheritance. Recently, arRP has been associated with mutations in EYS (Eyes shut homolog, which is a major causative gene for this disease. This study was conducted to determine the spectrum and frequency of EYS mutations in 100 Japanese arRP patients. To determine the prevalence of EYS mutations, all EYS exons were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification, and sequence analysis was performed. We detected 67 sequence alterations in EYS, of which 21 were novel. Of these, 7 were very likely pathogenic mutations, 6 were possible pathogenic mutations, and 54 were predicted non-pathogenic sequence alterations. The minimum observed prevalence of distinct EYS mutations in our study was 18% (18/100, comprising 9 patients with 2 very likely pathogenic mutations and the remaining 9 with only one such mutation. Among these mutations, 2 novel truncating mutations, c.4957_4958insA (p.S1653KfsX2 and c.8868C>A (p.Y2956X, were identified in 16 patients and accounted for 57.1% (20/35 alleles of the mutated alleles. Although these 2 truncating mutations were not detected in Japanese patients with adRP or Leber's congenital amaurosis, we detected them in Korean arRP patients. Similar to Japanese arRP results, the c.4957_4958insA mutation was more frequently detected than the c.8868C>A mutation. The 18% estimated prevalence of very likely pathogenic mutations in our study suggests a major involvement of EYS in the pathogenesis of arRP in the Japanese population. Mutation spectrum of EYS in 100 Japanese patients, including 13 distinct very likely and possible pathogenic mutations, was largely different from the previously reported spectrum in patients from non-Asian populations. Screening for c.4957_4958insA and c.8868C>A mutations in the EYS gene may therefore be very effective for the genetic testing

  9. RETINOBASE: a web database, data mining and analysis platform for gene expression data on retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léveillard Thierry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The retina is a multi-layered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye and acts at the interface of input light and visual perception. Its main function is to capture photons and convert them into electrical impulses that travel along the optic nerve to the brain where they are turned into images. It consists of neurons, nourishing blood vessels and different cell types, of which neural cells predominate. Defects in any of these cells can lead to a variety of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis and glaucoma. Recent progress in genomics and microarray technology provides extensive opportunities to examine alterations in retinal gene expression profiles during development and diseases. However, there is no specific database that deals with retinal gene expression profiling. In this context we have built RETINOBASE, a dedicated microarray database for retina. Description RETINOBASE is a microarray relational database, analysis and visualization system that allows simple yet powerful queries to retrieve information about gene expression in retina. It provides access to gene expression meta-data and offers significant insights into gene networks in retina, resulting in better hypothesis framing for biological problems that can subsequently be tested in the laboratory. Public and proprietary data are automatically analyzed with 3 distinct methods, RMA, dChip and MAS5, then clustered using 2 different K-means and 1 mixture models method. Thus, RETINOBASE provides a framework to compare these methods and to optimize the retinal data analysis. RETINOBASE has three different modules, "Gene Information", "Raw Data System Analysis" and "Fold change system Analysis" that are interconnected in a relational schema, allowing efficient retrieval and cross comparison of data. Currently, RETINOBASE contains datasets from 28 different microarray experiments performed

  10. Impact of set-aside management on soil mesofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Mazza, Giuseppe; Mocali, Stefano; Bazzoffi, Paolo; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    (MI) resulted significantly higher in set-aside managements than in conventional crops in Fagna and Metaponto sites. In contrast, Caorle was characterized by a significant soil degradation (prevalence of extreme colonizers) and any increase of MI values in the set-aside have been not detected. About microarthropods, the taxa richness was significantly higher in set-aside managements than conventional crops in all the sites sampled. QBS index showed the same trend, but the differences were not significant. Caorle site was characterized by a lack of balance in the relative abundance among soil microarthropods taxa. In particular, set-aside managements showed a strong prevalence of an aggressive ants Solenopsis fugax (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In conclusion, the best results were observed in Fagna and Metaponto sites, where MI and QBS values increased under set-aside management as compared to the conventional. Further analyses will be carried out over a long period to better understand the possible correlation between the enhancement of the organic matter observed in the soils less degraded and the biological quality improvement.

  11. Mechanical injuries of the eyeball: Frequency, structure, and possibility of the prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2006-01-01

    , etc. According to months in a year and days in a week, the injuries were almost evenly distributed. Considering the period of a day, even 77.4% of the injuries occurred during daytime, from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. The highest percentage - 43.5% - of the injuries occurred while working something out of working place, while 24.5% of injuries were inflicted at working places. On admission, the majority of patients - 32.9% had visual acuity L+P+, but this visual acuity ranged from amaurosis to 1.0. There were 746 (45.4% contusion injuries and 870 (53.0% penetrating injuries. The rest were the injuries of other ocular adnexa. The majority of primary wound managements were performed in the first 24 hours of the injury - 67.1%. Conclusion. It may be concluded that working population and students are most commonly injured, and that men are five times more frequently injured than women; then, a piece of wood, sharp objects and glass are the most often causes of injury; the number of contusion and penetrating injuries is equal, and that required primary surgical wound management is most often performed in the first 24 hours from the injury. Further analysis of these factors suggests that many of these injuries could have been prevented, and consequently long-term treatment and treatment costs could have been evaded. Most important is that permanent disability due to visual impairment or even blindness of the injured eye could have been avoided.

  12. Canine and human visual cortex intact and responsive despite early retinal blindness from RPE65 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Aguirre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RPE65 is an essential molecule in the retinoid-visual cycle, and RPE65 gene mutations cause the congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA. Somatic gene therapy delivered to the retina of blind dogs with an RPE65 mutation dramatically restores retinal physiology and has sparked international interest in human treatment trials for this incurable disease. An unanswered question is how the visual cortex responds after prolonged sensory deprivation from retinal dysfunction. We therefore studied the cortex of RPE65-mutant dogs before and after retinal gene therapy. Then, we inquired whether there is visual pathway integrity and responsivity in adult humans with LCA due to RPE65 mutations (RPE65-LCA.RPE65-mutant dogs were studied with fMRI. Prior to therapy, retinal and subcortical responses to light were markedly diminished, and there were minimal cortical responses within the primary visual areas of the lateral gyrus (activation amplitude mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 0.07% +/- 0.06% and volume = 1.3 +/- 0.6 cm(3. Following therapy, retinal and subcortical response restoration was accompanied by increased amplitude (0.18% +/- 0.06% and volume (8.2 +/- 0.8 cm(3 of activation within the lateral gyrus (p < 0.005 for both. Cortical recovery occurred rapidly (within a month of treatment and was persistent (as long as 2.5 y after treatment. Recovery was present even when treatment was provided as late as 1-4 y of age. Human RPE65-LCA patients (ages 18-23 y were studied with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Optic nerve diameter (3.2 +/- 0.5 mm was within the normal range (3.2 +/- 0.3 mm, and occipital cortical white matter density as judged by voxel-based morphometry was slightly but significantly altered (1.3 SD below control average, p = 0.005. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in human RPE65-LCA patients revealed cortical responses with a markedly diminished activation volume (8.8 +/- 1.2 cm(3 compared to controls

  13. Distrofias retinianas da infância: análise retrospectiva Retinal dystrophies in childhood: retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Andrade Maestrini

    2004-12-01

    distrofias retinianas da infância são um grupo heterogêneo de doenças que se manifestam por meio de sintomas inespecíficos. Uma análise cuidadosa dos sintomas, o exame oftalmológico completo e os exames complementares, principalmente ERG, testes de visão de cores e campo visual, podem ser úteis em seu diagnóstico.PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features and the results of diagnostic methods in all patients with diagnosis of one of the following retinal dystrophies: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, achromatopsia, cone distrophy or cone-rod distrophy, examined at the Low Vision Department of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, in the period of 1992 to 2003. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of charts of 40 patients. Ten had LCA, 17 had achromatopsia, 6 had cone distrophy and 7 had cone-rod distrophy. RESULTS: Visual acuity was extremely low in patients with LCA, ranging from 20/710 to light perception. The mean value for achromatopsia was 20/200, 20/280 for cone distrophy and 20/260 for cone-rod distrophy. High hyperopia was the most common refractional error in LCA patients. Hyperopia was more frequent in cases of achromatopsia and cone distrophy, while in cone-rod distrophy myopia predominated. Fundoscopy was altered in most cases of LCA, cone distrophy and rod-cone distrophy, and normal in most cases of achromatopsia. Oculodigital sign and enophtalmus were found only in LCA patients while photofobia and color vision defects prevailed in other groups. Nistagmus and strabismus were frequent findings in all groups. There was a high incidence of delayed neuro-psycho-motor development in LCA patients. Two of them had also associated genetic syndromes. Patients presented symptoms very early in life in LCA and achromatopsia, while in cone and cone-rod distrophies symptoms appeared later, but never after the age of 10. Consanguinity and positive familial history were strongly associated in all groups. The ERG was extinct in LCA, showed reduced photopic response in