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Sample records for amarillo lutjanus argentiventris

  1. Hábitos alimentarios e interacciones tróficas de Anisotremus interruptus (Pisces: Haemulidae) y Lutjanus argentiventris (Pisces: Lutjanidae) en el Pacífico Central Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Ortega,Juan R; Avila-Castro,Elizabeth; Haro-Preciado,Hugo J; Godínez-Domínguez,Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Se obtuvieron estómagos de ejemplares adultos de Anisotremus interruptus y Lutjanus argentiventris para conocer los componentes alimentarios de cada especie y sus interacciones tróficas durante un periodo de surgencia en el Pacífico Central Mexicano. Se identificaron 79 tipos de presas agrupadas en 15 categorías alimentarias. La dieta de A. interruptus está constituida principalmente de microinvertebrados (anfípodos y larvas de crustáceos), holotúridos y ofiuros. L. argentiventris se alimenta...

  2. Hábitos alimentarios e interacciones tróficas de Anisotremus interruptus (Pisces: Haemulidae y Lutjanus argentiventris (Pisces: Lutjanidae en el Pacífico Central Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R Flores-Ortega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron estómagos de ejemplares adultos de Anisotremus interruptus y Lutjanus argentiventris para conocer los componentes alimentarios de cada especie y sus interacciones tróficas durante un periodo de surgencia en el Pacífico Central Mexicano. Se identificaron 79 tipos de presas agrupadas en 15 categorías alimentarias. La dieta de A. interruptus está constituida principalmente de microinvertebrados (anfípodos y larvas de crustáceos, holotúridos y ofiuros. L. argentiventris se alimenta de macroinvertebrados (camarones, cangrejos y estomatópodos, peces y cefalópodos. Ambas especies presentan una estrategia alimentaria generalista y una superposición trófica baja. La dieta de estas especies está relacionada con la apertura de la boca.

  3. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Palvelumallin jalkauttaminen ravintolaan : case : Amarillo Kotka

    OpenAIRE

    Lempinen, Milla

    2012-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee S-ryhmän uutta palvelumallia, ja sen jalkauttamista ruokaravintolaan. Työn toimeksiantaja on Osuuskauppa Ympyrän toimipaikka Amarillo Kotka, joka koki uudistuksen syksyllä 2011. Laajentuvien asiakaspaikkojen ja suurentuvien volyymien myötä ravintola otti käyttöön uuden palvelumallin, jonka palveluprosessin eri työtehtävät on jaettu vuorossa toimiville työntekijöille. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata sujuvaa perehdytystä ja kertoa erilaisista keinoista jalk...

  5. Can Lutjanus purpureus (South red snapper be "legally" considered a red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red snappers (Lutjanus purpureus in Brazil and Lutjanus campechanus in USA and Gulf of Mexico are both under clear effect of overfishing. Because of their high morphological similarity it has already been suggested that they could possibly be considered as a single species. To investigate the degree of similarity and the genetic structure of red snapper populations we constructed a common dataset of partial D-loop mtDNA sequences of L. purpureus from Brazil (Amapá, Pará and Maranhão and L. campechanus from the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses surprisingly depicted high similarity between L. campechanus and L. purpureus, compatible with the hypothesis of a single species of red snapper for the Western Atlantic Ocean. These preliminary but very curious findings open an important discussion regarding the legislation involved on the capture of this overexploited fish resources as well as regarding their taxonomy.

  6. Cryopreservation of mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO G. SANCHES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis. The interaction between three extenders ( pH 6.1; 7.8 and 8.2 , two concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO, 5 and 10% and three cooling rates ( -90; -60 and -30°C.min−1 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed by a factorial experiment. A sample of 30 fishes ( 1,261 ± 449 g collected in the nature was kept in floating net cages. The semen was frozen by using cryogenic straws, in nitrogen vapour and transferred, later, to liquid nitrogen. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The highest sperm motility rate and motility time ( P < 0.05 was achieved by combining extender C ( pH 8.2 with DMSO ( 10% and cooling rate of -60°C.min−1 ( P < 0.05 . The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates higher than 59% validating the present protocol for mutton snapper.

  7. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  8. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage

  9. 1998 researchers' conference proceedings, Amarillo College Business and Industry Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START 1 and 2) signed by the US and the Soviet Union call for a reduction in strategic nuclear warheads to about one-third of 1990 levels and a complete elimination of land-based, multiple-warhead missiles. As a consequence of dismantling nuclear warheads, a significant portion of the inventory of nuclear materials that were formerly parts of deployed weapon systems was designated to be handled and/or stored at the Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. To facilitate research integration between the national laboratories and the universities, the Center has divided its technical activities into seven focus areas. For Nuclear and Other Materials Studies, the focus areas are Materials Science, Plutonium Processing and handling, Nuclear Materials Storage, and analytical Development. The Environment, Safety and Health focus areas are Environmental Restoration and Protection, Safety and Health, and Waste Management. Research projects within each area are presented

  10. Cerro Amarillo rhyolites, advanced AFC in the northern SVZ, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E; Hildreth, W

    2001-01-01

    Cerro Amarillo is a Quaternary medium size (500m high, 2 km 2 ) rhyolite dome complex located close to the Chile-Argentina border, reaching a height of 4162 m, between the headwaters of the Rio Colina and the Nieves Negras Pass. It overlies a broad anticline of thick Middle Jurassic pelites (Alvarez et al., 1997). Thiele (1980) includes this complex in his 'Unidad Volcanica Antigua', a Pleistocene composite map unit made up of andesites and trachyandesites. Ramos et al. (1997), while recognizing its rhyolitic character, assigned a Tertiary age to the lava domes, most likely based on the late Pliocene age of silicic dikes outcropping eastward, in Argentina. Both the lack of younger overlying units and freshness of its components, together with preservation of the unconsolidated, easily eroded pyroclastic deposits at its base, suggest, however, that it is not older than Pleistocene (au)

  11. Tiger Team Assessment of the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    This document contains the findings and associated root causes identified during the Tiger Team Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. This assessment was conducted by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety and Health between October 2 and 31, 1989. The scope of the assessment of the Pantex Plant covered all areas of environment, safety and health (ES H) activities, including compliance with federal, state, and local regulations, requirements, permits, agreements, orders and consent decrees, and DOE ES H Orders. The assessment also included an evaluation of the adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs. The draft findings were submitted to the Office of Defense Programs, the Albuquerque Operations Office, the Amarillo Area Office, and regulatory agencies at the conclusion of the on-site assessment activities for review and comment on technical accuracy. Final modifications and any other appropriate changes have been incorporated in the final report. The Tiger Team Assessment of the Pantex Plant is part of the larger Tiger Team Assessment program which will encompass over 100 DOE operating facilities. The assessment program is part of a 10-point initiative announced by Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins on June 27, 1989, to strengthen environmental protection and waste management activities in the Department. The results of the program will provide the Secretary with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends.

  12. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  13. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  14. Hábitos alimentarios de los peces Lutjanus peru y Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeen Guerrero,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín A Rojas-Herrera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la composición de la dieta del huachinango (Lutjanus peru y del flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus en la costa de Guerrero,México.Los ejemplares se obtuvieron mensualmente de las capturas comerciales en tres regiones de pesca y presentaron intervalos de talla comprendidos entre 130 y 684 mm de longitud horquilla (LHpara el caso de L.peru ,y de 120 a 550 mm para L. guttatus .A partir del número y del peso de los distintos componentes alimentarios,identificados hasta el taxon más bajo posible,se calcularon los porcentajes numéricos (%N,gravimétricos (%Py de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FOque fueron sintetizados como valores de importancia relativa.En los estómagos de L.peru se identificaron 68 ítems alimentarios dentro de los cuales predominan los peces (%P =50.9,los crustáceos (%P =35.6y los moluscos (%P =7.2mientras que el espectro alimentario de L.guttatus estuvo integrado por 88 componentes que incluyeron principalmente peces (%P =50.8y crustáceos (%P =43.4.Ambas especies son depredadoras generalistas,con un amplio espectro de presas.Los valores de los índices de traslape de las dietas de estas especies sugieren que no existe un alto grado de competencia intraespecífica por el alimento.Con el fin de encontrar similitudes en la dieta de estos lutjánidos en varias localidades de México y Costa Rica,se realizó un análisis de conglomerados con los valores de importancia relativa de las presas,publicados en varios trabajos.Se encontró más afinidad en la dieta de aquellas especies que habitan en una misma localidad, que entre organismos de la misma especie distribuidos en diferentes zonas.Se infiere que la disponibilidad de las presas,más que la selectividad por el alimento,determina la dieta de estas especies.Feeding habits of the fishes Lutjanus peru and Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces:Lutjanidaeof Guerrero, México.Diet composition of the Pacific snapper (Lutjanus peru 130-684 mm fork length (FLand the spotted snapper (Lutjanus

  15. Phosphine Exposure Among Emergency Responders - Amarillo, Texas, January 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily M; Patel, Ketki; Victory, Kerton R; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Nogueira, Leticia M; Bojes, Heidi K

    2018-04-06

    Phosphine is a highly toxic gas that forms when aluminum phosphide, a restricted-use pesticide* typically used in agricultural settings, reacts with water. Acute exposure can lead to a wide range of respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and can be fatal (1). On January 2, 2017, the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) was notified by the Texas Panhandle Poison Center of an acute phosphine exposure incident in Amarillo, Texas. DSHS investigated potential occupational phosphine exposures among the 51 on-scene emergency responders; 40 (78.4%) did not use respiratory protection during response operations. Fifteen (37.5%) of these 40 responders received medical care for symptoms or as a precaution after the incident, and seven (17.5%) reported new or worsening symptoms consistent with phosphine exposure within 24 hours of the incident. Emergency response organizations should ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is used during all incidents when an unknown hazardous substance is suspected. Additional evaluation is needed to identify targeted interventions that increase emergency responder PPE use during this type of incident.

  16. Uruguay mining inventory. Geochemical prospecting results of the Amarillo aerial map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Spangenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is about the results of the geochemical prospection carried out on the Amarillo aerial map, it placed in the area 24 of Uruguay (G11 section).This prospection was carried out by Geologic Institute team of Uruguay (IGU) with the technical assistance of BRGM. The Amarillo aerial map covers parts of Isla Cristalina. This is the window of the insular precrambrian shelf and it is surounded by geological formation as paleozoic and other more reecently formations too. The precambrian formation are represented by three big whole groups: metamorphic serial; groups of intrusing granites; and metamorphic rocks

  17. Variation in fatty acid composition of the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in coral reef habitats of the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand trophic ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition and levels were examined in the bigeye snapper Lutjanus lutjanus collected in the Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged from 55.0% to 66.5%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 30.7% to 40.2% while the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 4.8%. Palmitic acid (16:0) was the most common in SAFA, oleic acid (C18:1ω9c) was the dominant in MUFA and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) showed the highest value in PUFA. Fatty acid concentrations, especially in SAFA and MUFA, increased with fish growth, suggesting diet and habitat shifts during the fish life history. Most of the fish had more than 1 of EPA: DHA ratio, which suggested that diets of L. lutjanus tended to be higher trophic organisms such as zooplankton and crustacean in coral ecosystem. The diet shift revealed by the composition and levels of the fatty acid profile revealed potential pattern in the habitat use and migration scale in coral reef environment of L. lutjanus.

  18. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1997--October 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes activities of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium during the quarter. The report describes the Electronic Resource Library; DOE support activities; current and future environmental health and safety programs; pollution prevention and pollution avoidance; communication, education, training, and community involvement programs; and nuclear and other material studies, including plutonium storage and disposition studies.

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in maricultured fish, Lates calcarifer (Barramudi), Lutjanus campechanus (red snapper) and Lutjanus griseus (grey snapper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasyitah Sobihah, Nasri; Ahmad Zaharin, Aris; Khairul Nizam, Mohammad; Ley Juen, Looi; Kyoung-Woong, Kim

    2018-04-01

    Mariculture fish contains a rich source of protein, but some species may bioaccumulate high levels of heavy metals, making them unsafe for consumption. This study aims to identify heavy metal concentration in Lates calcarifer (Barramudi), Lutjanus campechanus (Red snapper) and Lutjanus griseus (Grey snapper). Three species of mariculture fish, namely, L. calcarifer, L. campechanus and L. griseus were collected for analyses of heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) was determined using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution of heavy metals mean concentration in muscle is Zn > Fe > As > Se > Cr > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd for L. calcarifer, Fe > Zn > Cr > As > Ni > Mn > Se > Cu > Pb > Cd for L. campechanus and Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Se > Cu > As > Mn > Pb > Cd for L. griseus. Among all of the species under investigation, the highest concentration of Fe was found in the muscle tissue of L. campechanus (19.985 ± 1.773 mg kg -1 ) and liver tissue of L. griseus (58.248 ± 8.736 mg kg -1 ). Meanwhile, L. calcarifer has the lowest concentration of Cd in both muscle (0.007 ± 0.004 mg kg -1 ) and liver tissue (0.027 ± 0.016 mg kg -1 ). The heavy metal concentration in muscle tissue is below the permissible limit guidelines stipulated by the Food & Agriculture Organization, 1983 and Malaysia Food Act, 1983. The concentration of heavy metals varies significantly among fish species and tissues. L. campechanus was found to have a higher ability to accumulate heavy metals as compared to the other two species (p heavy metals compared to muscle tissue (p heavy metal concentration in mariculture fish must be performed to prevent acute and chronic food intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of meteorologic data differences between the Pantex Plant and Amarillo, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-06-01

    Meteorologic data from the Pantex Plant and from the nearby National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Amarillo, Texas, International Airport were evaluated to determine if the NWS data adequately represented meteorologic conditions at the Pantex Plant. Annual site environmental dose calculations for the Pantex Plant have previously used the NWS data; information from this data comparison helped determine if future environmental dose calculations should use site-specific Pantex meteorologic data. The meteorologic data evaluated were wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability class data were compared for years 1990 and 1991 and found to be very similar. Stability class designations were identical and one class different in 63% and 30%, respectively, of the paired hourly data. An unexpected finding was the preponderance of Class D stability, which occurred approximately 62% of the time in both data sets. The overall effect of meteorological differences between the two locations was evaluated by performing environmental dose assessments using the GENII dose assessment computer code. Acute and chronic releases of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu were evaluated. Results using the NWS Amarillo meteorologic data were approximately one-half of those generated using Pantex meteorologic data. The two-fold difference in dose results is within the uncertainty expected from current dose assessment codes; therefore, the two meteorologic databases can be used interchangeably and prior dose calculation results using the NWS Amarillo data are acceptable.

  1. Uruguay mining inventory. Geochemical prospecting results of the Amarillo aerial map[Study of Uranium geochemical prospection in Uruguay]; Inventario minero del Uruguay. Resultados de la prospeccion geoquimica del fotoplano Amarillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeegers, H; Spangenberg, J

    1981-07-01

    This report is about the results of the geochemical prospection carried out on the Amarillo aerial map, it placed in the area 24 of Uruguay (G11 section).This prospection was carried out by Geologic Institute team of Uruguay (IGU) with the technical assistance of BRGM. The Amarillo aerial map covers parts of Isla Cristalina. This is the window of the insular precrambrian shelf and it is surounded by geological formation as paleozoic and other more reecently formations too. The precambrian formation are represented by three big whole groups: metamorphic serial; groups of intrusing granites; and metamorphic rocks.

  2. Impacto de la conquista inca en la metalurgia de Los Amarillos (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I. Angiorama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos el impacto de la conquista inca en la producción y circulación de objetos metálicos en el asentamiento conocido como Los Amarillos, uno de los más complejos de los localizados en la Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy. Luego comparamos los resultados de nuestras investigaciones con los obtenidos por arqueometalurgos en otros lugares del país, demostrando que las repercusiones de la conquista incaica no han sido las mismas en todos los centros metalúrgicos de la región. Por el contrario, el Imperio reorganizó la producción y la circulación de objetos metálicos aplicando estrategias diferentes en los diversos casos estudiados.

  3. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27

  4. Cultivo del pargo de la mancha Lutjanus guttatus (pisces: Lutjanidae en jaulas flotantes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gutiérrez Vargas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En dos ensayos paralelos realizados frente a Playa Pájaros, en el Golfo de Nicoya, se engordaron pargos manchados (Lutjanus guttatus obtenidos del medio hasta 275 y 485 g, respectivamente, usando fauna de descarte obtenida de barcos camaroneros. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 1,87 y 1,7 g/día, respectivamente, el factor de conversión fue de 7,88 (alimento húmedo o 1,77 (alimento seco. La mortalidad se estimó en un 6% en todo el experimento. Se calcularon los costos de alimentación usando la fauna de descarte.

  5. NEMÁTODOS PARÁSITOS DE Lutjanus synagris (Linneaus, 1758 Y Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828 (PERCIFORMES, LUTJANIDAE EN LAS ZONAS DE SANTA MARTA Y NEGUANJE, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés J.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los nemátodos encontrados en el sistema digestivo de las especies de pargo Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis. Esta investigación se orientó principalmente a la clasificación taxonómica de los parásitos y no a los efectos o patologías que estos puedan ocasionar en los peces. Se tuvo en cuenta que en Colombia los pargos constituyen uno de los recursos de mayor importancia para la comercialización; Lutjanus synagris y Lutjanus analis son especies demersales explotadas a lo largo de toda la región costera e insular del Caribe colombiano. Los tractos digestivos se colectaron de los pargos capturados artesanalmente (nasa, cordel por pescadores de las zonas de Santa Marta y Neguanje; se identificaron los siguientes géneros de nemátodos: Capillaria spp., Contracaecum spp., Cucullanus spp. y Raphidascaris spp.; el último género fue el más representativo.

  6. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.

  7. Use of riverine through reef habitat systems by dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu ) in eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Chaves, Eduardo M.; Minte-Vera, Carolina V.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.

    2011-11-01

    The early life history of Western Atlantic snappers from the Southern hemisphere is largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories) of the dog snapper ( Lutjanus jocu) was examined across the largest South Atlantic reef-estuarine complex (Abrolhos Shelf, Brazil, 16-19° S). Visual surveys were conducted in different habitats across the shelf (estuary, inner-shelf reefs and mid-shelf reefs). Lutjanus jocu showed higher densities on inner-shelf habitats, with a clear increase in fish size across the shelf. Individuals mangrove and rocky habitats) and inner-shelf reefs (particularly shallow fore-reefs and tide pools). Individuals ranging 10-30 cm were broadly distributed, but consistently more abundant on inner-shelf reefs. Individuals between 30 and 40 cm were more common on mid-shelf reefs, while individuals >40 cm were recorded only on mid-shelf reefs. Literature data indicate that individuals ranging 70-80 cm are common on deep offshore reefs. This pattern suggests that the dog snapper performs ontogenetic cross-shelf migrations. Protecting portions of the different habitats used by the dog snapper during its post-settlement life cycle is highlighted as an important conservation and management measure.

  8. Development of immune functionality in larval and juvenile crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus (Bloch 1790

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic development of the immune system in crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch 1790 larvae was histologically and enzymatically studied from hatch to 36 days post-hatch (DPH. Primitive hepatopancreas appeared on 2 DPH and renal tubules started hematopoiesis on 4 DPH. The spleen anlage appeared on 6 DPH and the thymus formed on 14 DPH. Total activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ K+-ATPase gradually increased after hatch, and showed a sharp increase after 29 DPH during the transitional feeding period from Artemia to inert feed. The specific activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX showed a trend of sharp increase and reached the maximum level on 4 DPH when exogenous feeding started, except for Na+ K+-ATPase where the peak occurred on10 DPH. The specific activities of these five enzymes reached the peak during the food transition from rotifers to Artemia, but the total activity of enzymes showed an increasing trend as fish grew. The present study provides new knowledge of the development of functional enzymes relevant to fish larvae immunity, sheds light on the understanding of the change of larval health, and improves hatchery management of crimson snapper. Keywords: Immune system, Enzyme activity, Ontogenetic development, Crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus

  9. Francisella marina sp. nov., etiologic agent of systemic disease in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, piscine francisellosis in various warm, temperate and coldwater fish hosts has been attributed to Francisella noatunensis. From 2015-2016, an undescribed Francisella sp. was recovered during mortality events in cultured spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) off the Pacific coast of ...

  10. Plutonium research and related activities at the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Beard, C.A.; Barnes, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia are reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles. What to do with the materials from thousands of excess nuclear weapons is an important international challenge. How to handle the remaining US stockpile to ensure safe storage and reliability, in light of the aging support infrastructure, is an important national challenge. To help address these challenges and related issues, the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is working on behalf of the State of Texas with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The center directs three major programs that address the key aspects of the plutonium management issue: (1) the Communications, Education, Training and Community Involvement Program, which focuses on informing the public about plutonium and providing technical education at all levels; (2) the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Program, which investigates the key ES and H impacts of activities related to the DOE weapons complex in Texas; and (3) the Nuclear and Other Materials Program, which is aimed at minimizing safety and proliferation risks by helping to develop and advocate safe stewardship, storage, and disposition of nuclear weapons materials. This paper provides an overview of the center's nuclear activities described in four broad categories of international activities, materials safety, plutonium storage, and plutonium disposition

  11. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis in a coral reef fish (Lutjanus carponotatus, Lutjanidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2014-05-25

    Parentage analysis is an important tool for identifying connectivity patterns in coral reef fishes, but often requires numerous highly polymorphic markers. We isolated 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus and describe their integration into three multiplex PCRs. All markers were highly polymorphic with a mean of 24.9 ± 1.8 SE alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.797 ± 0.038 SE across 285 genotyped individuals. Using a simulated dataset, we conclude that the complete marker set provides sufficient resolution to resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations with 99.6 ± 0.1 % accuracy in parentage assignments. This multiplex assay provides an effective means of investigating larval dispersal and population connectivity in this fishery-targeted coral reef fish species and informing the design of marine protected area networks for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management.

  12. Crecimiento de juveniles de pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus utilizando alimento granulado en condiciones de laboratorio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Olivares Paulette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de juveniles de pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus, peso inicial 42g, coeficiente de variación 13,8%, alimentados con alimento granulado, se evaluó en dependencia de la ración por un período de 14 días: Se aplicaron 5 tasas de alimentación entre 0 y 5% del peso corporal/día. La tasa de crecimiento específica aumentó desde valores negativos en ayunas (-0,32% PC/día hasta un máximo de 2,05% PC/día. La tasa óptima de crecimiento se estimó en 1,09% PC/día. El factor de conversión en condiciones de crecimiento óptimo y máximo fue de 0,94 y 1,86, respectivamente.

  13. Estado actual del cultivo de larvas del pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Abdo-de la Parra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus es un pez marino con alta demanda en los mercados de algunos países de Latinoamérica. Debido a su importancia se inició su cultivo en jaulas flotantes usando juveniles silvestres. A partir de la década pasada se iniciaron los primeros estudios para lograr su reproducción en cautiverio y la producción masiva de juveniles que puedan sustentar el cultivo completo. El presente trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos hasta la fecha sobre desove, manejo e incubación de huevos y protocolos de larvicultura del pargo flamenco en Latinoamérica.

  14. Two new gonad-infecting Philometra species (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the marine fish Lutjanus vitta (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) off New Caledonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2011), s. 302-310 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Philometra * MARINE FISH * Lutjanus * New Caledonia * South Pacific Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22005

  15. FORRAJE Y GRANO DE HÍBRIDOS DE MAÍZ AMARILLOS PARA VALLES ALTOS DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Tadeo-Robledo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la producción de grano y de forraje en híbridos trilineales amarillos. Se establecieron en el año 2009 tres experimentos, comparando híbridos trilineales amarillos con híbridos comerciales blancos y el híbrido Búho de Asgrow; dos experimentos en el Campo Experimental de Valle de México del INIFAP, donde se evaluó la productividad de grano y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, para evaluación de forraje a una densidad de 70 000 plantas/ha. El análisis combinado para rendimiento detectó diferencias altamente significativas para híbridos, sitios y la interacción híbridos x sitios. El coeficiente de variación fue de 17,7% y la media general de 7113 kg/ha. La comparación de medias ubicó en el primer grupo de significancia a los híbridos de grano blanco comerciales Puma 1167 y Puma 1163 con 9549 kg/ha y 8748 kg/ha, respectivamente. Los híbridos amarillos 501X497 y 501X555 fueron superiores 36,0% y 12,4% con respecto a H-48 y el híbrido testigo. Búho presentó similar rendimiento en materia verde, que Puma 1163 y fue superior (P<0,05 a los otros híbridos evaluados. El híbrido Puma 1163 por su buen rendimiento de grano, materia verde y materia seca se sugiere validarlo a nivel comercial en doble propósito.

  16. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON INTERNAL ORGANS DEVELOPMENT OF MANGROVE SNAPPER, Lutjanus argentimaculatus LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is one of highly economic value of marine fish commodity. Culture of this species has been developed a few years ago. Basic data on biological aspect is still limited whereas those kinds of information are needed. Histological study to determine development of internal organs of the larvae of mangrove snapper was conducted. Amount of 15-20 larvae each from 1 day after DAH hatching (1 DAH up to 30 days after hatching (30 DAH were collected, fixed in Bouin’s solution for 4-6 hours and then transferred into 70% alcohol. The samples were then embedded in paraffin wax and the sections were stained with haematoxylineosin (H&E. Results showed that the eye retina of the mangrove snapper larvae well developed on 3 DAH, whereas their digestive tract was on 5 DAH. Under this condition, the larvae started feeding as showed by present of natural food tissues in the intestine. Development of digestive tract and other internal organs reached their complete form like in adult fish after 20 DAH.

  17. Molecular authentication of Pargo fillets Lutjanus purpureus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae by DNA barcoding reveals commercial fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Veneza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caribbean Red Snapper (Pargo Lutjanus purpureus is the most economically important snapper in Brazil, which is sold, among other forms, as frozen fillets. During the process of transformation into fillets there is the removal of the distinctive morphological traits, being able to favor the substitution by less valued species. In addition, there is no national legislation requiring the insertion of the specific name on the product label. However, according to a Normative Instruction (IN N ° 29/2015 MAPA that correlates the common and specific names of the products destined to the national trade, in Brazil only L. purpureus and L. campechanus can be denominated “Pargo”. Thus, the DNA barcode tool was used to identify the fillets sold in north of Brazil, labeled “Pargo”, with the aid of sequences from the public and control databases. The results showed that among 142 fillets examined, 78% was identified as L. purpureus and 22% as Rhomboplites aurorubens, a snapper with low commercial value in the country, revealing commercial fraud. The molecular identification method successfully used in this study to authenticate fillets snappers may also be used by surveillance authorities in the quality control of processed fish products, towards ensuring consumer rights.

  18. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area.

  19. Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Simone F; Duarte, Yalan F; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2010-09-01

    The mutton snapper Lutjanus analis is an overexploited species of economic importance for the Northeast region of Brazil. To determine the reproductive aspects of the mutton snapper, biological data were sampled from Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará States, between 7 and 200m depth, from February 1997 to December 1999, performed in the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone Study Program (REVIZEE-NE Program). Data on total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and gutted weight (GW) were measured. The gonads were collected and fixed in FAACC for histological analysis on maturational stage and calculation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). A total of 135 fishes were collected; from these, 74 were females and 61 were males. Females were between 28.0 and 69.0cm (TL) and the males between 35.0 and 75.0cm (TL). Mutton snapper are gonochorists, and the spawning season, determined by the maturity stages frequency and the GSI, occurred between November and April, with peak spawning in March. The mature females' minimum length was 28.0cm fork length, smaller than the minimum maturation length previously reported for the species in Cuba. The exploitation status of the species and the biological traits enhances the importance of establishing spatial and seasonal protection measures such as protected areas both in nursery and spawning sites.

  20. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  1. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN FREKUENSI PEMBERIAN PAKAN TERHADAP PERTAMBAHAN BOBOT YUWANA KAKAP MERAH, Lutjanus argentimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Melianawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Frekuensi pemberian pakan merupakan faktor yang penting karena berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan berperanan penting dalam efektivitas penggunaan pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui frekuensi pemberian pakan yang tepat pada pemeliharaan yuwana kakap merah. Hewan uji yang digunakan untuk penelitian adalah yuwana kakap merah, Lutjanus argentimaculatus umur 56 hari dengan bobot awal 0,18 ± 0,03 g sebanyak 180 ekor. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan 12 tangki polyethylene volume 60 L. Rancangan penelitian adalah acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan dalam penelitian ini adalah perbedaan frekuensi pemberian pakan, yaitu (A 2 kali sehari (08:00, 14:00; (B 4 kali sehari (08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00; (C 6 kali sehari (08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00; dan (D 8 kali sehari (08:00, 09:30, 11:00, 12:30, 14:00, 15:30, 17:00, 18:30. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan frekuensi pemberian pakan berpengaruh nyata (P0,05. Frekuensi pemberian pakan delapan kali sehari dengan interval waktu setiap 1,5 jam menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot dan laju pertumbuhan harian yuwana kakap merah yang paling besar serta nisbah konversi pakan yang terendah dan efisiensi pakan yang tertinggi. Feeding frequency was an important factor that gave the influence to growth and also for effectiveness using the feed. This research was aimed to get the information about effective feeding frequency on rearing of mangrove snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus juvenile. This research was using12 polyethylene tank of 60 L in volume and 180 juvenile of 56 days old with 0.18 ± 0.03 grams of body weight. Complete random design with four treatments and three replicates was used in this research. The treatment was different feeding frequency, i.e.: (A 2 times perday (08:00, 14:00; (B 4 times perday (08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00; 6 times perday (08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00; dan 8 times perday (08:00, 09:30, 11:00, 12

  2. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Osteichthyes: Lutjanidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 9 (2014), s. 3299-3307 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bay of Bengal * Lutjanus * parasite * Philometra Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  3. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M.

    2012-01-01

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  4. Estimates of deep drainage rates at the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Richmond, M.C.; Wigmosta, M.S.; Kelley, M.E.

    1998-04-01

    In FY 1996, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Battelle Columbus Operations (BCO) in their ongoing assessment of contaminant migration at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. The objective of this report is to calculate deep drainage rates at the Pantex Plant. These deep drainage rates may eventually be used to predict contaminant loading to the underlying unconfined aquifer for the Pantex Plant Baseline Risk Assessment. These rates will also be used to support analyses of remedial activities involving surface alterations or the subsurface injection withdrawal of liquids or gases. The scope of this report is to estimate deep drainage rates for the major surface features at the Pantex Plant, including ditches and playas, natural grassland, dryland crop rotation, unvegetated soil, and graveled surfaces. Areas such as Pantex Lake that are outside the main plant boundaries were not included in the analysis. All estimates were derived using existing data or best estimates; no new data were collected. The modeling framework used to estimate the rates is described to enable future correlations, improvements, and enhancements. The scope of this report includes only data gathered during FY 1996. However, a current review of the data gathered on weather, soil, plants, and other information in the time period since did not reveal anything that would significantly alter the results presented in this report

  5. Biología reproductiva del pargo Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en el Pacífico central mexicano Reproductive biology of the Golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in the central Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lucano-Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los escasos antecedentes del efecto de las pesquerías y manejo del pargo Lutjanus inermis, es importante conocer la época reproductiva para el establecimiento de temporadas de veda, ya que la biomasa de los peces en fase de reproducción, es usada como punto de referencia para evaluar la condición del stock explotado y para establecer futuros niveles de captura. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar algunos aspectos reproductivos como proporción sexual, época reproductiva, talla de madurez de L. inermis en las costas de Jalisco, México. Durante 1999-2008, se llevaron a cabo muestreos mensuales de los ejemplares capturados por la pesca artesanal en las bahías de Navidad, Tenacatita y Chamela (Jalisco, México. Se recolectaron 311 (53.1% hembras y 275 (46.9% machos y, la proporción de sexos (1:0.88 no presentó diferencia significativa. El intervalo de longitud total fue 14.4 a 37.0cm y el peso total de 48 a 575g. L. inermis presentó los máximos valores del IGS en dos periodos, febrero-abril y septiembre-noviembre, también en estos periodos se presentaron los mayores porcentajes de organismos en estadio de maduración. El ovario presentó el tipo de desarrollo asincrónico y se reconocieron siete fases del desarrollo de los ovocitos. En los testículos se observó el tipo de desarrollo lobular, se observaron espermatozoides en el centro de los cistos y en el conducto recolector. La talla de madurez (L50 fue de 23.9cm LT para hembras y 23.6cm LT para machos. Considerando el periodo de muestreo de este estudio, los antecedentes descritos podrían ser de utilidad en la formulación de planes o estrategias de manejo de esta especie.Reproductive biology of the Golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in the central Mexican Pacific. Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource

  6. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and surrounding area Amarillo, Texas. Date of survey: October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1981-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and Pantex Lake areas in October, 1979. The Pantex Plant survey covered an area of approximately 64 km 2 . The Pantex Lake survey area was approximately 2 km 2 . Both areas were surveyed at an altitude of 46 m (150 feet) with lines spaced at 91 m (300 foot) intervals. Several passes were also made over the shipping areas at the Amarillo International Airport. An array of sodium iodide detectors were mounted in a helicopter to collect gamma ray spectral data. As expected, the spectral data indicated the presence of several areas containing man-made sources

  7. Reproducción y crecimiento del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L Soto Rojas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las pesquerías más importantes en el Golfo de Nicoya es la del pargo mancha (Lutjanus guttatus; su captura se realiza con diversas artes y principalmente por la flota artesanal. Estudiamos especímenes de la captura comercial artesanal entre el 2002 y 2006. Se analizaron las relaciones morfométricas para aplicar la ecuación P = aLb; el análisis del estado de madurez gonadal se hizo macroscópicamente; se determinó la edad a través de la lectura de anillos anuales de los otolitos sagitales y los parámetros de crecimiento fueron aplicados en la ecuación de von Bertalanffy: L (t = * [1-exp (-K*(t-t0]. La relación longitud total-peso total es y = 0.0236x 2.8153 y longitud total-peso eviscerado y = 0.0216x2.8129; las relaciones simplificadas correspondientes fueron y = 0.0173x3 y y = 0.0162x3. La reproducción es todo el año con dos picos en marzo y setiembre (época seca y lluviosa, respectivamente. La proporción macho-hembra es 1:1. Se generó para la población del Golfo de Nicoya una clave edad-talla donde su utilidad se presenta como adecuada hasta los 6 años de edad. La curva de crecimiento von Bertalanffy es L (t=65,9(1-e -0,13(t+2,66.Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x2.8153 and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x2.8129. Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season and September (rainy season. Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy

  8. Komposisi Asam Lemak, Angka Peroksida, dan Angka TBA Fillet Ikan Kakap (Lutjanus sp pada Suhu dan Lama Penyimpanan Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Husain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has a high nutritional value and is a major food source in many countries. Fish lipid has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5n-3 and docosahexsanoic acid (DHA; 22: 6n-3. The objective of this research was to determine fatty acids composition of snapper (Lutjanus sp fillet and its damage during the storage process. The results showed that total of the saturated fatty acids (SFA increased from 4.35% to 25.55%, 28.06%, 32.73%, and 61.75% during storage at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, respectively. Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA were 23.72%, 23.69%, 14.4%, 22.66%, and 29.4% at storage temperature of 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Total PUFA decreased from 25.06% to 15.98%, 14.99%, 10.32%, and 8.84% at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Peroxide value, as primary peroxide of snapper fillet, increased about 10.60 times with an increased in storage temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C. Value of TBA increased 6.60 times with an increased in temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C during 45 days. ABSTRAK Ikan memiliki nilai gizi tinggi dan merupakan sumber makanan utama di banyak negara. Lipid ikan memiliki kandungan tinggi asam tak jenuh ganda (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid, PUFA, terutama asam eikosapentanoat (EPA; 20:5n-3 dan asam docosahexsanoat (DHA; 22:6n-3. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi asam lemak fillet ikan kakap (Lutjanus sp dan kerusakan akibat proses penyimpanan. Hasil analisis asam lemak jenuh (Saturated Fatty Acid, SFA menunjukkan bahwa asam lemak jenuh meningkat dari 4,35% menjadi 25,55%, 28,06%, 32,73%, dan 61,75% selama penyimpanan pada 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Total asam lemak tak jenuh (Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acid, MUFA adalah 23,72%, 23,69, 14,4%, 22,66%, dan 29,4% pada penyimpanan 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Sedangkan total PUFA turun dari 25,05% menjadi 15,98%, 14,99%, 10,32%, dan

  9. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND LIPID ON THE GROWTH OF RED SNAPPER, Lutjanus sebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Red snapper, Lutjanus sebae is favored in mariculture activities because it has a relatively good market and price. Technology for big scale seed production of this species has been developed and is now adequate to supply seed for grow-out activities. However, the availability of artifical diets for L. sebae is still a major constraint for grow-out production. Data on optimum dietary protein and lipid requirements for this fish as a basic information in feed development is not available yet. The objective of the present study was to find out dietary protein and lipid requirements for juvenile of L. sebae. A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted in 24 fiberglass tanks, 200 L volume. Each tank was equipped with a flow-through water system. Twenty five hatchery-produced juveniles of L. sebae (43.1 g BW were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. The fish were fed with the experimental diets twice everyday at a level of 3% of biomass for the first 4 weeks, and then 2% of biomass afterward. Twelve experimental diets were prepared in form of dry pellet containing casein and fish meal as the main protein sources. Experimental diet had 4 levels of crude protein (32%, 37%, 42%, and 47% and each protein level consisted of 3 levels of lipid (7%, 12%, and 17%. The experiment employed factorial method with completely random design using 12 combination treatments and 2 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that there was no significant effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed consumption, and feed efficiency of tested fish. Growth and feed efficiency of fish fed on diet containing 42% and 47% crude protein were significantly higher than that of fish fed on diet containing 32% and 37% crude protein. High lipid content in the diet (17% resulted in poor growth and poor feed efficiency. This data indicates that Lutjanus sebae has limited ability to utilize dietary lipid as an energy

  10. Confiabilidad de la detección de problemas de desarrollo mediante el semáforo de la prueba de Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil: ¿es diferente un resultado amarillo de uno rojo?

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Ortega-Ríosvelasco, Fernando; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Pizarro-Castellanos, Mariel; Buenrostro-Márquez, Guillermo; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La prueba Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil (EDI) es un instrumento de tamizaje de problemas en el desarrollo diseñado y validado en México. La calificación obtenida se expresa como semáforo. Se consideran positivos tanto el resultado amarillo como el rojo, aunque se plantea una intervención diferente para cada uno. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de la prueba EDI para discriminar entre los niños identificados con semáforo amarillo y los identificados con r...

  11. Revisión de registros y notas de Pingüino Rey (Aptenodytes patagonicus) y el Pingüino Penacho Amarillo (Eudyptes chrysocome) en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Barquete, Viviane; Bugoni, Leandro; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo P.; Adornes, Andrea C.

    2006-01-01

    En este estudio se presenta una revisión de hallazgos previos y nuevos registros del Pingüino Rey (Aptenodytes patagonicus) y del Pingüino Penacho Amarillo (Eudyptes chrysocome) en la costa de Brasil. En total se registraron seis individuos de Pingüino Rey y diez de Pingüino de Penacho Amarillo. Tanto juveniles como adultos de las dos especies fueron encontrados en las playas, especialmente en Rio Grande do Sul, sur de Brasil. Los registros de Pingüino Rey están restringidos al verano, mientr...

  12. Trophic and reproductive ecology of Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, on natural and artificial reefs in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemian, M. J.; Wetz, J. J.; Brewton, R. A.; Downey, C. H.; Stunz, G. W.

    2016-02-01

    Energy exploration in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) has resulted in the addition of numerous oil and gas production rigs that have added structurally complex habitat to an area otherwise dominated by bare bottom. The impact of these artificial structures on fish populations is largely unknown and there is ongoing debate about their functionality. Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), an ecologically and economically important sportfish to the region, use natural as well as the artificial reefs created by standing and reefed (toppled or cutoff) oil and gas rigs. However, little is known about how trophic and reproductive characteristics of Red Snapper vary over these multiple habitat types. We analyzed stable isotopic composition (δ13C, δ 15N) of epaxial muscle and compared reproductive potential of Red Snapper (155-855 mm TL) from standing rigs, reefed rigs, and natural hard-bottom habitats off Texas. Red Snapper from standing rig sites were isotopically enriched in δ 15N compared to lower relief habitats, suggesting they were feeding at a higher trophic level on standing rigs. While gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and comparative histology implied a similar spawning season among structure types, GSI was highest for both sexes at standing rigs. These initial results suggest that while standing rigs appear to provide more enriched food resources leading to higher Red Snapper reproductive capacity, the productivity of this species is similar between currently permitted rig decommissioning options (i.e., cutoff and toppled rigs) and natural hard-bottom habitats in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Influence of the temperature on the early larval development of the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru (Nichols & Murphy, 1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Estrada-Godínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru, is a commercially important species throughout its distribution range, making it a good alternative for aquaculture; however, there is few information regarding environmental conditions and their influence on early development of this species. Temperature is one of the main factors affecting embryo and larval development in marine fishes. In this paper, the effects of different temperatures upon hatching rate, growth, consumption of yolk sac and oil droplet and the formation of the digestive system and eye pigmentation were evaluated in larvae of this species under experimental conditions. Eggs incubated between 20 and 32°C showed hatching rates higher than 90%. However, larvae maintained at 26°C showed significantly larger notochord length and were the first to complete the pigmentation of the eyes and the formation of the digestive system when still possessing enough reserves in the yolk sac. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it is recommended that the incubation of eggs and larval rearing in Pacific red snapper takes place between 25 and 26°C.

  14. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  15. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  16. CRECIMIENTO, ACUMULACIÓN DE MACRONUTRIENTES Y PRODUCCIÓN DE MELÓN CANTALOUPO Y AMARILLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN WALDIR MENDOZA-CORTEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fueron conducidos dos experimentos individuales en el municipio de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Se empleó dos cultivares de melón, ‘Olimpic express’ (del tipo Cantaloupo e ‘Iracema’ (del tipo Amarillo, para evaluar el crecimiento y la acumulación de macronutrientes, bajo el diseño de bloques al azar con siete tratamientos (épocas de muestreo y tres repeticiones. Los muestreos de plantas fueron realizados a los 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 y 56 días después del trasplante (DDT. El crecimiento fue lento hasta 28 DDT en ambos cultivares evaluados, intensificándose en el periodo siguiente, alcanzando a los 56 DDT, 246.4g planta-1, en ‘Olimpic express’,y 266.9 g planta-1, en ‘Iracema’, siendo la materia seca (MS de los frutos correspondientes a 60% y 64% de la MS total, respectivamente. Mayores acumulaciones de N, P y K fueron obtenidos en los frutos, mientras de Ca, Mg y S en las hojas. Al final del ciclo, en ‘Olimpic express’, cuya productividad fue de 32 t ha-1, fueron acumulados 173.4, 110.1, 101.1, 26.9, 15.6 y 13.5 kg ha-1 de K, Ca, N, Mg, S y P, respectivamente, y en ‘Iracema’, cuya productividad fue de 38 t ha-1, fueron acumulados 136.0, 93.9, 84.1, 22.6, 15.4 y 9.5 kg ha-1 de K, N, Ca, Mg, S y P, respectivamente. En relación al total acumulado, las exportaciones de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S en los frutos fueron de 61, 73, 66, 9, 35 y 39% (‘Olimpic express’y 58, 70, 55, 6, 33 y 41% (‘Iracema’. Con una menor producción de frutos y una mayor acumulación de nutrientes, ‘Olimpic express’ ha demostrado ser menos eficiente en el uso de nutrientes que ‘Iracema’.

  17. Drogodependencia, Bruxismo y Trastornos Témporo-Mandibulares: Análisis comparativo en dos poblaciones: Muestra Nacional y población en tratamiento por consumo problemático de drogas en Portal Amarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riva

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar prevalencia de Bruxismo y Trastornos Temporomandibulares (TTM en dos poblaciones: muestra de Uruguay y de pacientes en tratamiento por consumo problemático de drogas en Portal Amarillo. Método: Dos estudios descriptivos, analíticos y transversales, uno nacional y otro en Portal Amarillo. Resultados: Portal Amarillo: síntomas TTM 67,6%, síntomas bruxismo 33,8%, signos TTM actual 42,3%, signos bruxismo actual o pasado 47,9%. Muestra nacional: síntomas TTM 61,3%, síntomas bruxismo 27,7%, signos TTM actual 37,3%, signos bruxismo actual o pasado 67,5%. Conclusiones: Tendencia a mayor prevalencia de TTM y Bruxismo actual en Portal Amarillo que en muestra uruguaya. En los aspectos que dan cuenta de signos de Bruxismo actual o pasado, prevalencia mayor en la población uruguaya. Nuevas investigaciones deberían revisar los efectos de la medicación administrada para el tratamiento de adicciones previo y durante su administración. En tanto recomendamos la instalación de dispositivos oclusales como medida para minimizar los efectos secundarios sobre las estructuras del sistema masticatorio

  18. Evaluación de la pesquería de Lutjanus peru (Pisces: Lutjanidae de Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Santamaría

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available La pesquería del huachinango Lutjanus peru, que se explota cerca de Acapulco, México, fue evaluada a través de muestreos de los desembarcos y de datos de captura. Se aplicó el paquete de programas Fisat para evaluar los parámetros de crecimiento del modelo de von Bertalanffy (K= 0.1442; to= -0.23; L = 80.8 cm; W = 6.824 Kg y reconstruir la estructura por edades en la población en nueve años de datos de captura. El coeficiente de mortalidad natural M según varios métodos, oscila entre 0.14 y 0.38. El tamaño de cada cohorte a través del tiempo, evaluado con el método de análisis de la población virtual (VPA, estima una población de 5.2*10(6 peces explotados con una biomasa media de 8,454 t. La intensidad de explotación F, oscila entre 0.06 y 1.13 y depende del valor de M que se elija; según esto, se puede concluir que el recurso se encuentra subexplotado si el valor de M es bajo, o bien que se encuentra sobreexplotado si el valor elegido de M es alto. El modelo de rendimiento por recluta señala que hay sobrepesca de reclutas por que gravita sobre animales muy chicos (tc Red snapper (Lutjanus peru fishery was analyzed from landings and catch records. Stock age structure was reconstructed after the parameter values of the von Bertalanffy growth model, the length-weight relationship, ages and the natural mortality coefficient through each of nine years of catch records. The Fisat software package was applied to assess population parameters, whose estimates are, for the von Bertalanffy growth model, K = 0.1442 to 0.38; to = -0.2; L = 87 cm; W = 9.4 Kg , and the natural mortality coefficient (M after several methods (0.14 to 0.38. Cohort size was assessed by the virtual population analysis (VPA, estimating population size in 5.2*10(6 fish with a biomass of 8 454 tonnes. Current fishing mortality F, ranges from 0.06 to 1.13, depending upon the chosen M value; according to this, when the M value used is low, the results suggest that the

  19. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK BUAH MERAH, Pandanus conoideus Lam DAN CAROPHYLL PINK DALAM RANSUM PAKAN YUWANA IKAN KAKAP MERAH, Lutjanus sebae

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    Titiek Aslianti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan kakap merah, Lutjanus sebae termasuk komoditas budidaya yang banyak diminati konsumen. Kualitas benih untuk pembesaran selain ditentukan dari ukuran dan performansi fisik, juga berdasarkan warna ikan. Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan 4 perlakuan pakan yang diperkaya dengan Minyak Buah Merah (MBM dan Carophyll Pink (CP yaitu: (A 10 mL MBM/kg pakan; (B 10 mL MBM+1,4 g CP/kg pakan; (C 1,4 g CP/kg pakan, dan (D Kontrol. Hewan uji adalah yuwana kakap merah dengan rata-rata panjang dan bobot tubuh awal 11,32±0,76 cm dan 37,56±7,22 g. Ikan ditempatkan dalam bak fiber kapasitas 5 m3 dengan kepadatan 200 ekor/bak dan diberi pakan 2 kali sehari secara ad libitum serta dipelihara selama 2 bulan dengan pergantian air 200%-300%/hari. Kualitas yuwana diamati pada akhir penelitian melalui pengukuran panjang dan bobot tubuh, sedangkan performansi warna diamati dengan kamera digital dan dianalisis secara diskriptif menggunakan Microsoft Adobe Photoshop 8. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa MBM dan CP dapat dimanfaatkan dalam ransum pakan guna meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan performansi warna yuwana kakap merah. Pakan yang mengandung 10 mL MBM+1,4 g CP menghasilkan sintasan 94%, kenaikan pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot mutlak 58,92% dan 281%, konversi pakan 0,82 serta performansi yuwana berwarna merah cerah dengan nilai persentase rata-rata sebesar 89,58%±0,07%. Red emperor snapper, Lutjanus sebae is one of high demanded cultured fishes. The quality of seeds does not only depend on size and performance of fish, but also depends on fish color. A feeding experiment was conducted during two-months period by adding red fruit oil (RFO and carophyll pink (CP to every kilogram of pellet fed as the treatment i.e. (A 10 mL RFO/kg feed; (B 10 mL RFO+1.4 g CP/kg feed; (C 1.4 g CP /kg feed and (D Control. Two hundred seeds with initial total length of 11.32±0.76 cm and 37.56±7.22 g of body weight were stocked in a fiber glass tank of 5 m3. Feeding frequency was

  20. Fuentes y dosis de nitrógeno en la productividad del maíz amarillo duro bajo dos sistemas de siembra

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor Alvarez, Raúl; Escuela de Post Grado, Especialidad de Producción Agrícola, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Chura Chuquija, Julián; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Calderón Mendoza, Constantino; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Sevilla Panizo, Ricardo; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Blas Sevillano, Raúl; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.

    2017-01-01

    Dado que el nitrógeno es el nutriente más importante para alcanzar altos rendimientos del cultivo de maíz, en el Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria-INIA (La Molina, Lima, Perú), se investigó la respuesta del cultivo de maíz amarillo duro a la fertilización nitrogenada con dos fuentes de insumo nitrogenado (sintético y orgánico) y con dos sistemas de siembra con riego por goteo en un suelo de textura franco arenoso, pH ligeramente alcalino y bajo en materia orgánica. Los tratamientos se ...

  1. Evaluation of P-101 course Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Amarillo, Texas, May 7, 1991--May 17, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R W

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the DOE Safety Training Institute's course, Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE,'' which was conductd May 7, 1991 -- May 17, 1991 at Amarillo, Texas. The first part of the report summaries the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course and provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments in Appendix A. The second part summarizes results from the final examination designed to measure the knowledge gained from the course. The third part of the report summarizes course modifications and recommendations for improvement. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction was very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students' expectations of the course. Examination results on the final examination indicate that appropriate knowledge was gained by students attending the course.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  3. Biología reproductiva del pargo Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en el Pacífico central mexicano

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    Gabriela Lucano-Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los escasos antecedentes del efecto de las pesquerías y manejo del pargo Lutjanus inermis, es importante conocer la época reproductiva para el establecimiento de temporadas de veda, ya que la biomasa de los peces en fase de reproducción, es usada como punto de referencia para evaluar la condición del stock explotado y para establecer futuros niveles de captura. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar algunos aspectos reproductivos como proporción sexual, época reproductiva, talla de madurez de L. inermis en las costas de Jalisco, México. Durante 1999-2008, se llevaron a cabo muestreos mensuales de los ejemplares capturados por la pesca artesanal en las bahías de Navidad, Tenacatita y Chamela (Jalisco, México. Se recolectaron 311 (53.1% hembras y 275 (46.9% machos y, la proporción de sexos (1:0.88 no presentó diferencia significativa. El intervalo de longitud total fue 14.4 a 37.0cm y el peso total de 48 a 575g. L. inermis presentó los máximos valores del IGS en dos periodos, febrero-abril y septiembre-noviembre, también en estos periodos se presentaron los mayores porcentajes de organismos en estadio de maduración. El ovario presentó el tipo de desarrollo asincrónico y se reconocieron siete fases del desarrollo de los ovocitos. En los testículos se observó el tipo de desarrollo lobular, se observaron espermatozoides en el centro de los cistos y en el conducto recolector. La talla de madurez (L50 fue de 23.9cm LT para hembras y 23.6cm LT para machos. Considerando el periodo de muestreo de este estudio, los antecedentes descritos podrían ser de utilidad en la formulación de planes o estrategias de manejo de esta especie.

  4. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Food habits of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Doncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44 y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17. El análisis gravimétrico (%P mostró que entre las categorías con mayor peso se encontraron: Gastropoda (31,8%; 51,7 g y Farfantepenaeus spp. (17,5%o; 28,5 g. La frecuencia de ocurrencia (%>FO mostró que: Portunus spp. (25,8%>; 17 estómagos y S. intermedia (10,5%>; 7 estómagos fueron las presas más frecuentes. Según el %>IIR, las categorías más representativas en la dieta fueron Portunus spp. (43,0%> y Gastropoda (13,4%>. Se identificaron cuatro categorías como presas principales: Portunidae (837,06, Gastropoda (260,29, Squillidae (234,66 y Penaeidae (218,05, dos como presas secundarias: Sicyoniidae (126,35 y Trichiuridae (75,64 y las demás como presas circunstanciales. La distribución espacial de la amplitud del nicho trófico y de las tallas de L. synagris, permitió identificar dos zonas: la primera entre Riohacha y Dibulla con los valores más altos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,64 a 1,00 denotando predadores generalista y donde se registraron las tallas menores y la segunda, entre Riohacha y Punta Gallinas con los valores más bajos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,00 a 0,23, donde los individuos mostraron alto grado de especialización en la dieta y las tallas mayores.This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspeets of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with

  5. Hábitos alimentarios de Lutjanus peru (Pisces: Lutjanidae en las costas de Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Santamaría Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen los hábitos alimentarios del huachinango del Pacífico Lutjanus peru en la costa sur del estado de Guerrero, México. Estos datos son importantes para el manejo de las pesquerías locales. A partir de capturas comerciales, se recolectaron 385 estómagos llenos (206 de hembras y 179 de machos en total, mensualmente, durante 1993 y 1994. El contenido estomacal se identificó hasta el nivel de especie cuando fue posible. Los elementos alimentarios se agruparon taxonómicamente, y se cuantificaron, se pesaron y se obtuvo la frecuencia de aparición. Se calculó el índice de importancia relativa (IIR del total de la muestra, por meses, por sexos y tallas. Se obtuvieron 42 elementos alimentarios en total, en 1993, y 43 en 1994. En 1993 La dieta estuvo constituida por peces, crustáceos y moluscos. El agrupamiento de las especies, géneros o familias presa produjo 14 grupos alimentarios, de la siguiente forma: Moluscos, Anfípodos, Copépodos, Estomatópodos, Penaeus vannamei, Larvas de braquiuros, Larvas de estomatópodos, Larvas de la familia Albuneidae, Otros crustáceos, Anchoa ischana, Anchoa lucida, Otros peces, Salpas, Moni. Anchoa ischana dominó el espectro trófico ambos años. Pero, los Anfípodos, Anchoa lucida y Otros peces tuvieron índices importantes en 1994. Existió una gran variabilidad en la composición de la dieta de cada mes. Sin embargo, los crustáceos en conjunto dominaron la dieta de febrero a agosto de 1993. En 1994, los crustáceos sólo fueron dominantes en marzo y agosto. No se encontraron diferencias en la dieta de peces inmaduros, machos y hembras. La dieta del huachinango del Pacífico varía con el crecimiento, aunque siempre se encuentran los mismos grupos de alimento. En la fase adulta, en clases de longitud mayores a 261 mm LF, existe un cierto grado de especialización, ya que consumen más peces, principalmente engráulidos.In this paper we describe the feeding habits of the Red

  6. Biochemical and physicochemical analysis of fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) by-product using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, H.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acid- and alkali-process on biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of fish protein isolate from red snapper (Lutjanus sp) by-product was evaluated. Protein recovered by alkali process (16.79%) was higher compared to acid process (13.75%). Reduction of lipid content and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) exhibited in both treatments indicated both process improved fish protein isolate recovered from red snapper by-product. In addition, the increasing of water holding capacity and oil binding capacity were observed. However, high peroxide value of fish protein isolate was showed in both treatment. This finding indicated that acid and alkali process can be used as a useful method to recover proteins from red snapper by-product. Alkali process gave a protein isolate with better overall quality compared to acid process.

  7. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  8. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile dog snapper Lutjanus jocu (Bloch and Shneider, 1801 (Lutjanidae in intertidal mangrove creeks in Curuçá estuary (Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijane Pantoja Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet and feeding ecology of juvenile dog snapper (Lutjanus jocu were investigated in 92 specimens collected in four intertidal mangrove creeks of Curuçá estuary, Northern Brazil, between September 2003 and July 2004. No significant differences in total length were found between the sampling months. Feeding intensity was high as indicated by high stomach fullness index and low vacuity index. The most important prey was Penaeidae, followed by Grapsidae and Porcellanidae. The diet of juvenile dog snapper showed clear seasonal differences. Specimens from dry season (September and November and dry / wet season transition (January, were specialists feeding exclusively on Penaeidae. However, the specimens from wet season (March and May and wet /dry season transition (July that consumed mainly Grapsidae, Penaeidae and Porcellanidae were generalist. These seasonal changes in diet could be related to variations in food availability.A dieta e a ecologia alimentar de juvenis de Lutjanus jocu foram verificadas em 92 espécimes coletados em quatro canais de maré do estuário do rio Curuçá, Norte do Brasil, entre setembro de 2003 e julho de 2004. O comprimento total dos peixes coletados não apresentou diferenças significativas entre os meses amostrados. A intensidade alimentar foi elevada conforme indicado pelos altos valores do índice de repleção estomacal e os baixos valores do índice de vacuidade. A presa mais importante foi Penaeidae, seguida por Grapsidae e Porcellanidae. A dieta de juvenis de L. jocu apresentou diferenças sazonais evidentes. Os espécimes da estação seca (setembro e novembro e transição seca/chuvosa (janeiro foram considerados especialistas alimentando-se exclusivamente de Penaeidae. No entanto, os espécimes da estação chuvosa (março e maio e da transição chuvosa/seca (julho, que alimentaram-se principalmente de Grapsidae, Penaeidae e Porcellanidae, foram considerados generalistas. Esta mudança sazonal na dieta

  10. Crecimiento en jaulas del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869 con dos tipos de dieta en Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, Colombia

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    Edgardo Andrés Banguera Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para dar continuidad al “Programa de desarrollo de la maricultura en el Pacífico colombiano” adelantado por la Universidad del Pacífico, en un cerramiento natural ubicado en la vereda La Sierpe, Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, se comparó la tasa de crecimiento de 204 ejemplares silvestres de pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus , alimentados con pescado fresco y concentrado comercial al 35% en proteína, con peso y longitud total promedio de 13,79 cm y 32,21 g, respectivamente. El trabajo se realizó por espacio de 40 días en cuatro jaulas flotantes, de 3 x 1,5 x 0,75 m, dos para cada tratamiento, a densidades de 15 individuos/m 3 , utilizando el 12% de la biomasa corporal para el suministro de los alimentos a evaluar; el crecimiento se analizó mediante los siguientes índices: IPD = Incremento en Peso Diario; TCE = Tasa de Crecimiento Específico. Los peces alcanzaron un peso promedio final de 64,9±5,9 y 58,49±5,9 g para el alimento natural y balanceado comercial respectivamente, lo cual es equivalente a un IPD de 0.8 y 0.7 g/d y una TCE de 1,58 y 1,67 g/d, valores considerados buenos teniendo en cuenta su etapa de desarrollo y comparaciones con otros estudios realizados en Colombia. Los peces aceptaron los dos tipos de alimento de manera satisfactoria, durante el período de cultivo y mostraron gran tolerancia a la manipulación, resistencia a las enfermedades y a las fluctuaciones de la calidad del agua, en especial la salinidad. Los resultados señalan que existen diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre los dos tratamientos a favor del alimento natural. Los índices de sobrevivencia fueron de 90,2% para peces alimentados con pescado fresco y 85,3% para los alimentados con concentrado. Se concluye que el pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus presenta una importante ventaja para su cultivo como es la fácil aceptación de un concentrado comercial. pero el crecimiento de los peces alimentados con este producto fue

  11. Hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus a partir de 175 ejemplares (9.8 y 58.0 cm LT, recolectados entre enero y diciembre del 2000 en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador. L. guttatus es un depredador carnívoro oportunista bentónico. La biomasa total fue de 260.5g. Los crustáceos, representados por seis familias (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, constituyeron el 50.4% de la biomasa total. Numéricamente, la especie que más consumió el pargo mancha fue Portunus asper. Especimenes menores de 16 cm LT consumen preferentemente crustáceos. Después de los 24 cm y hasta los 44 cm el espectro alimenticio se ve diversificado con la inclusión de peces y moluscos. El 59.5% de los estómagos contenían restos (escamas, exoesqueletos y rostros de camarones con una biomasa de 47.8 g. Se discute sobre la importancia comercial de este recurso y de la ausencia de una estrategia de manejoA total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using pushnet and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, were the most abundant group; they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL, at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine, in different ways, percentage frequency of

  12. Temperature and diet effect on the pepsin enzyme activities, digestive somatic index and relative gut length of Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801

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    Sabuj Kanti Mazumder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated experiment was performed on juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus to investigate the effect of temperature and diet in their pepsin activities in relation with digestive somatic index (IDS and relative gut length (RGL. One hundred twenty L. malabaricus juvenile (13–15 cm were equally distributed among four exposed temperature treatments (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C representing their seasonal range and to account for end of century predicted temperatures, and two diets as commercial pellet and natural shrimp. After 7 days of acclimation period fish were reared for 30 days in twenty four 400 l glass aquaria at a stocking density of 5 fish tank−1. All treatments were three replications. The result showed that, IDS and RGL gradually decreased with increasing temperature up to 30 °C and again increase at 34 °C. And the values were also higher in pellet feeding fish than shrimp feeding fish at all the temperatures. Alternatively, in pepsin activity, an increased activity was seen between 26 °C to 30 °C and this activity was significantly higher than the 22 °C and 34 °C (P < 0.05. In general, highest pepsin activity was observed among fish which fed on a natural shrimp diet reared at temperature 30 °C (5.47 ± 1.60 U mg protein−1, followed by those at 26, 34 and 22 °C (P < 0.05 at both diet however, no mortalities were observed. These results could be used as a basis for selecting a suitable diet for maximizing the growth and sustainable aquaculture coping with global warming.

  13. Estimación de parámetros biológico-pesqueros para el pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. (ING

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    Mauricio Vargas Barquero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus is one of the most important demersal species of the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. This demersal fish is caught mainly by the artesanal fleet with gill nets and bottom long lines in the external zone of the Nicoya Gulf, producing around 62 tonnes in 1996. Nevertheless not much attention have been paid to the study of this species. According to national statics the tendency in recent years for the spotted snapper is to decrease in landings as well as in size of capture. This could be a sign of overexploitation of this species which lead us to the development of the present study. The degree of exploitation exerted on this population was quantified through the estimation of the instantaneous rate of total, natural and fishing mortality: 1.2, 0.6 and 0.6/year, respectively. This means that this population is completely exploited and that no further fishing effort should be applied to this stock. As part of this study the sex ratio was estimated, which did not depart significantly from 1:1. The total length vs. total weight relationship was also estimated and no sex related differences were found, which supports the idea that this species presents no sexual dimorphism. Length at first maturity for the population was 33 ± 3 cm total length. The Von Bertalanffy growth parameters, L∞ and k, 67 cm and 0.30/years respectively, show that the spotted snapper is a slow growing species with a longevity of around 10 years.

  14. A new species of Trichosomoididae (Nematoda) from skin of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), on the Texas-Louisiana shelf, northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Ray, Candis L; Cook, Melissa; Grace, Mark A; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Eggs and larvae of Huffmanela oleumimica n. sp. infect red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860), were collected from the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (28°16'36.58″N, 93°03'51.08″W) and are herein described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs in skin comprised fields (1-5 × 1-12 mm; 250 eggs/mm(2)) of variously oriented eggs deposited in dense patches or in scribble-like tracks. Eggs had clear (larvae indistinct, principally vitelline material), amber (developing larvae present) or brown (fully developed larvae present; little, or no, vitelline material) shells and measured 46-54 μm (x = 50; SD ± 1.6; n = 213) long, 23-33 (27 ± 1.4; 213) wide, 2-3 (3 ± 0.5; 213) in eggshell thickness, 18-25 (21 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass width, and 36-42 (39 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass length with protruding polar plugs 5-9 (7 ± 0.6; 213) long and 5-8 (6 ± 0.5; 213) wide. Fully developed larvae were 160-201 (176 ± 7.9) long and 7-8 (7 ± 0.5) wide, had transverse cuticular ridges, and were emerging from some eggs within and beneath epidermis. The new species differs from its congeners by having eggs 110 μm long with transverse cuticular ridges. The eggs lack a spindle-shaped envelope, polar filaments, and eggshell ridges. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela from a snapper (Lutjanidae) or from the Gulf of Mexico. A table of egg and larval characteristics, hosts, and localities for Huffmanela spp. is provided.

  15. Continuation application for the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a higher education consortium consisting of Texas A and M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas at Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the 5 tasks to be covered under this project and compiles budget information. Task 1 is to establish a Plutonium Information Resource, which has been established in Amarillo, Texas. Task 2, Advisory Functions, coordinates studies and activities relating to the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Task 3, Environmental, Public Health, and Safety, supports soil remediation activities. Task 4, Education and Outreach, is supporting four programs: K--12 education improvement in science and math courses; Academic intervention to identify and encourage high ability high school and middle school students with potential to become scientists and engineers; Graduate education evaluation; and Public outreach programs. Task 5, Plutonium and other Materials Studies, is currently funding two projects for the disposition of high explosives: a feasibility study of burning a mixture of high explosives and other materials in a commercial coal-fired power plant and synthesis of diamond by shock compression of bucky ball with explosives

  16. Continuation application for the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a higher education consortium consisting of Texas A and M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas at Austin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-29

    This report describes the 5 tasks to be covered under this project and compiles budget information. Task 1 is to establish a Plutonium Information Resource, which has been established in Amarillo, Texas. Task 2, Advisory Functions, coordinates studies and activities relating to the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Task 3, Environmental, Public Health, and Safety, supports soil remediation activities. Task 4, Education and Outreach, is supporting four programs: K--12 education improvement in science and math courses; Academic intervention to identify and encourage high ability high school and middle school students with potential to become scientists and engineers; Graduate education evaluation; and Public outreach programs. Task 5, Plutonium and other Materials Studies, is currently funding two projects for the disposition of high explosives: a feasibility study of burning a mixture of high explosives and other materials in a commercial coal-fired power plant and synthesis of diamond by shock compression of bucky ball with explosives.

  17. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

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    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  18. Desarrollo osteológico de la columna vertebral y del complejo caudal de larvas de Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae en condiciones de cultivo

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    Luz Estela Rodríguez-Ibarra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El pargo flamenco (Lutjanus guttatus es una especie de importancia comercial en México con un gran potencial para su cultivo. El estudio osteológico en estadios tempranos de esta especie bajo condiciones controladas, es una herramienta importante para el conocimiento de su estructura ósea normal y poder detectar las malformaciones que se puedan presentar. El objetivo del presente trabajo se realizó para conocer y describir el desarrollo osteológico normal de la columna vertebral y el complejo caudal de 540 larvas de 2.1 a 17.5mm de longitud total (LT bajo condiciones de cultivo a 28°C, 5.74mg/L de oxígeno y 32.2UPS de salinidad. Diariamente se tomó una muestra de 15 organismos desde el día uno hasta el 36 después de la eclosión (DDE y se procesaron con las técnicas de clareado y tinción de cartílago (azul aciano y hueso (rojo alizarina para llevar a cabo la descripción de las estructuras. La columna vertebral se divide en región abdominal con diez vértebras y región caudal compuesta por 14 vértebras incluido el urostilo. El desarrollo del esqueleto axial inicia con la formación de los arcos neurales y hemales a los 3.8mm de LT. A los 4.1mm de LT empieza la formación de los hipurales y parahipural que son elementos caudales. Entre los 5.3 y 5.8mm de LT se observó en pre-flexión y flexión del notocordio y la formación de todos los hipurales. La osificación de las vértebras en la región abdominal y en algunos arcos neurales inició a los 9.5mm de LT. A los 10.2mm de LT se osificó la región caudal y todos los arcos neurales y hemales. A los 11.2mm LT se osificaron todas las vértebras abdominales con sus respectivos arcos neurales y los parapófisis, mientras que los elementos del esqueleto caudal que se osificaron fueron los hipurales, parahipurales y las espinas hemales modificadas. A los 15.5mm de LT se osificaron los radios de la aleta caudal y 12 espinas neurales y 3 hemales. El proceso de osificación de las

  19. Estudio de la prevalencia de la comorbilidad entre el distrés psicológico y el abuso de drogas en usuarios del Portal Amarillo, Montevideo - Uruguay

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    Diana Domenech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La comorbilidad psiquiátrica en personas con trastorno por consumo de alcohol y otras drogas tiene alta prevalencia, impacta en la salud individual y familiar y genera mayores costos. Este estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, multicéntrico, transversal, estima la prevalencia de la comorbilidad del distrés psicológico en 134 pacientes mayores de 18 años en tratamiento en el Portal Amarillo de Montevideo - Uruguay. Describe las características sociodemográficas, consumo de drogas, funcionalidad familiar, y grado de satisfacción de la población usuaria. Para la recolección de datos se usaron los cuestionarios EULAC-CICAD, K-10 y APGAR-familiar. La prevalencia de distrés severo y muy severo fue de un 71.6%; el 90.6% refirió estar satisfecho con la atención recibida y el 48% percibió que su familia no presentaba disfunción. Por ende, es necesario contemplar la presencia de comorbilidad psiquiátrica en el abordaje de usuarios con trastorno por consumo de sustancias en Centros de tratamiento.

  20. Population connectivity among geographic variants within the Lutjanidae (Pisces of the Mexican Pacific coast through fish scale shape recognition

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    Ana L. Ibáñez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish scale shape was used to identify geographic variants among Lutjanidae (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru. Specimens were collected from three different geographic areas, north to south of the tropical Pacific coast of Mexico: Puerto Vallarta (PV, Manzanillo (MA and Caleta de Campos (CC. Configuration of landmark coordinates of fish scales were scaled, translated and rotated using generalized procrustes analysis, followed by principal components analysis of resulting shape coordinates. Principal component scores were submitted to cross-validated discriminant analysis to determine the efficacy of scale landmarks for discrimination by geographic variants. This was done with shape and form (shape plus size. PV and MA were recognized as one population different from the CC sampling area. Using only shape (without size, identification rates predicted geographic variant membership much better than chance (91.3%, 70.6% and 85.4% for L. argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru, respectively, and taking size into account, classification is somewhat improved (90.6%, 80.1% and 87.5% for L. argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru, respectively. Consistency of the two populations for the three species shows non-fortuitous events. Population discrimination confirmed previous genetic studies that show a zoogeographic barrier between the North Equatorial Current and the California Current. The method is non-destructive, fast and less expensive than genetic analysis, thus allowing screening of many individuals for traceability of fish.

  1. Comparación de harina de chontaduro entero (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K contra alimentos balanceados y maíz amarillo como fuentes de nutrientes en la alimentación de pollos de engorde

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    Cruz P. Julián F.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Para elaborar la harina los frutos pre-cocidos se trozaron y secaron al sol. Se obtuvo 50 % de harina por kilogramo de fruto. La harina de chontaduro entero se ofreció separada de la harina de pescado a grupos de 10 pollos sin sexar de la línea Arbor Acres desde la primera semana de edad. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar y estuvo constituido por cuatro tratamientos: la ración balanceada que sirvió como testigo y O (T2, 50 (T3 Y 100 % (T4 de sustición del maíz amarillo por harina de chontaduro. Con la ración testigo los pollos alcanzaron los mayores pesos y el mayor consumo; los pollos con el mayor nivel de harina de chontaduro disminuyeron el consumo pero alcanzaron mayor peso que los de T 2 y T3. En el aspecto de costos, el testigo obtuvo los mejores resultados en la época de baja cosecha, pero fue superado por T4 en la época de alta cosecha de frutos de chontaduro.The whole chontaduro meal was obtained simple process which permitted conserve of the nutritional value. Efficiency of the meal were 50 % of fruit weight. The whole chontaduro meals were offered with fish meal to four groups of ten unsexed "Arbor Acres" broiler chicks one day old. Since the first weeks the chicks received 1I1etreatments diets. Four treatments were compared: control (T¡,100% yellow corn +fish meal (T2, 50% yellow com +50% whole chontaduro meal + fish meal (T3 and 100 % whole chontaduro meal + fish meal (T4 Feed consumption (10 weeks were: 7,563.30 (T1, 7228.50 (T2,7156.50(T3 and 7100.90 g (T4. Body weight were: 2605.00 (T ¡, 1 717.50 (T2, 1 718.50: (T3 and 1 780.50 9 (T 4. Net entry into high production of fruit of T4 to overcome the concentrate food.

  2. Variabilidad Oceanográfica en el Ecuador y su utilización para la planificación de la maricultura oceánica de las especies Pargo, Lutjanus guttatus, y Huayaipe, Seriola rivoliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Chavarría

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe una relación directa entre el comportamiento de las especies marinas y las condiciones oceanográficas en las que se desarrollan, lo cual hace indispensable un análisis de tales condiciones para la planificación y análisis de factibilidad técnica y ambiental de proyectos de maricultura. El mar ecuatoriano por encontrarse a ambos lados de la línea ecuatorial, y en el lado oriental del Océano Pacífico, presenta particularidades que deben ser consideradas y que pueden, en una fase inicial, ser abordadas desde la descripción de las masas de agua y la macro circulación de la zona como los ejes principales que caracterizan sus aguas. Aun cuando las aguas ecuatorianas son consideradas como propicias para el cultivo de especies tropicales como Pargo, Lutjanus guttatus, y Huayaipe, Seriola rivoliana, en estructuras confinadas mar afuera, la planificación de una maricultura oceánica sostenible debe considerar la variabilidad climática local que, a diferencia de otros países del Pacífico Sudeste, se manifiesta principalmente en la dirección latitudinal, con influencia prolongada de aguas subtropicales en el sector sur. Este trabajo muestra a través del análisis de la variabilidad oceanográfica ecuatoriana, distintos escenarios, en escalas espaciales y temporales, que pudieran representar mejores condiciones para el desarrollo de la maricultura oceánica, o en el otro extremo posibles escenarios de riesgo.

  3. Ligamentum flavum hematoma: a case report and literature review Hematoma del ligamento amarillo: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura Hematoma de ligamento amarelo: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Sfreddo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to present a rare case of ligamentum flavum hematoma in the lumbar region, discuss its physiopathology and treatment and review the literature. A woman aged 68 presented with neurogenic claudication due to degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis that evolved into a sudden worsening with cauda equina syndrome. The magnetic resonance imagining (MRI showed signs of degeneration of the lumbar spine, with a narrow spinal canal from L2 to S1, anterolisthesis L4 L5 and an expansive lesion hyperintense on T1-weighted and hypointense on T2-weighted images considered compatible with hematoma in the topography of the yellow ligament in L1-L2. The patient underwent laminectomy and lumbar fixation. Her evolution was good in the postoperative period and at 18 months of follow-up hse walked alone, despite the pain that is controlled with simple medications. Even though rare, it seems that ligamentum flavum hematoma has a relationship with the degeneration and rupture of small vessels associated with micro trauma to the spine. Its physiopathology is not well defined and treatment is similar to other spine compression processes.El objetivo es presentar un caso raro de un hematoma ligamento flavum en la región lumbar, discutir su fisiopatología y el tratamiento y revisión de la literatura. Una mujer de 68 años presentó claudicación neurogénica debido a la espondilolistesis lumbar degenerativa y que se convirtió en un repentino empeoramiento con el síndrome de cauda equina. Una imagen de resonancia magnética (RM mostró signos de degeneración de la columna lumbar, con canal espinal estrecho de L2 a S1, anterolistesis L4 L5 y en la L1-L2, un proceso expansivo redondeado e hiperintenso en T1 y hipointenso en los bordes en T2, compatible con hematoma en la topografía del ligamento amarillo. La paciente fue sometida a laminectomía y fijación lumbar. Su evolución fue buena en el postoperatorio y, a los 18 meses de seguimiento caminaba sola, a

  4. Comparative analysis of diet composition and its relation to morphological characteristics in juvenile fish of three lutjanid species in a Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo M. Aguilar-Betancourt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main goal of this research was to investigate the differences in diet composition among three species of the genus Lutjanus inhabiting a coastal lagoon as juveniles. The working hypothesis was that these species feed on a common base of food resources and therefore, some niche overlap is present in terms of general diet composition. However, changes in the trophic niche with size and differences in some morphological traits among species explain observed differences in diet. Fish were collected during 42 sampling trips conducted regularly from February 2011 to January 2012 using several types of fishing gear. Total number of analyzed stomachs was 288 for Lutjanus argentiventris from 2.3 to 19.9 cm total length (TL; 178 for Lutjanus colorado ranging from 2.4 to 30.1 cm TL; and 183 for Lutjanus novemfasciatus with 1.2 to 20.0 cm TL. Results indicate that juveniles of all three lutjanid species share a general diet based on decapods and fishes. However, L. novemfasciatus has a more piscivorous habit, which can be explained by a more slender body shape and larger teeth, characteristics, which increase fish catching performance. Larger fish of all three species eat larger prey, which is consistent with the optimum foraging theory.

  5. Mitochondrial signatures revealed panmixia in Lutjanus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    mangrove red snapper is most valued food fish along the Indo-Pacific region. ... conservation of genetic diversity of our natural resources is beneficial in genetic ... to be fast evolving (1.3% per million years) and used to detect the population ...

  6. Análisis económico del sistema de producción de maíz amarillo en el valle del medio y bajo Sinú, departamento de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpa Malvin

    2005-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    En este trabajo se analizo la economia de la produccion de maiz amarillo (Zea mayz en el valle del medio y bajo rio Sinu, en el departamento de Cordoba (Colombia, con informacion procedente de una encuesta a 1.417 agricultores, realizada en el semestre A de 2001. Los resultados indican que la mayor oferta proviene de los

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pantex Facility, Amarillo, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Pantex Facility, conducted November 3 through 14, 1986.The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialist, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Pantex Facility. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Pantex Facility, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Pantex Facility Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey for the Pantex Facility. 65 refs., 44 figs., 27 tabs

  8. Building 12-42F modification, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Environment Assessment (EA) has been prepared pursuant to the implementing regulations to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which require federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of a proposed action to determine whether that action requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or if a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) can be issued. NEPA requires that an EA provide an interdisciplinary review of the proposed action in order to identify possible preferable alternatives and to identify mitigative measures that will prevent environmental impacts. If it is determined that the proposed action will have unavoidable significant environmental impact, then as EIS shall be prepared. The proposed project is to modify Building 12-42F and entry into the Sandia Pantex Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory. The modification's primary function is to provide additional space for testing and monitoring equipment to support the activities in the existing Building 12-42F. The modification will also facilitate the reconfiguration of the personnel offices, break room and conference area. The proposed Building 12-42F modification relates to the interiors of Buildings 12-42F and 12-42A. These buildings contain a centrifuge and associated testing and monitoring equipment. The proposed addition will encompass the existing entry into Building 12-42A. Building 12-42A will be accessed through the proposed Building 12-42F modification

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pantex Facility, Amarillo, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Pantex Facility, conducted November 3 through 14, 1986.The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialist, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Pantex Facility. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Pantex Facility, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Pantex Facility Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey for the Pantex Facility. 65 refs., 44 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. A dor durante a punção do canal vertebral e sua relação com a inervação do ligamento amarelo, da dura-máter e do ligamento longitudinal posterior El dolor durante la punción del canal vertebral y su relación con la inervación del ligamento amarillo, de la dura-máter y del ligamento longitudinal posterior Pain during spinal canal puncture and its relationship with ligamentum flavum, dura-mater and posterior longitudinal ligament innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    2004-12-01

    écnica. La solución anestésica no deberá ser inyectada para evitar una posible lesión de la raíz nerviosa o de la médula espinal. Se debe retroceder la aguja y alterar su dirección antes de nuevo avance. El relato de dolor es totalmente imposible si el paciente está adormecido bajo influencia de la anestesia general y, por este motivo, es recomendable que bloqueos sean realizados con el paciente consciente. El dolor solamente es referido cuando la punta de la aguja o la punta del catéter se desvían del plano medio sagital para alcanzar el compartimiento peridural antero-lateral, pudiendo, de esta forma tocar las radículas nerviosas situadas próximas a los forames intervertebrales. Excluyéndose los estudios sobre la inervación de la piel, del tejido celular subcutáneo y del ligamento interespinoso, el objetivo de este trabajo es el de rever la inervación de algunas estructuras del canal vertebral: del ligamento amarillo, del ligamento longitudinal posterior, de la dura-máter y del disco intervertebral. CONTENIDO: Estudios sobre la inervación del canal vertebral serán presentados en esta revisión de la literatura, con la intención de querer entender la razón del origen del dolor durante la punción del canal raquidiano. CONCLUSIONES: El ligamento amarillo es desprovisto de inervación, explicando la ausencia de dolor durante su punción. Otros dolores, durante la punción, pueden ser atribuidos al nervio de Luschka que inerva el ligamento longitudinal posterior y la porción ventral de la dura-máter.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain during spinal puncture is a warning that needle tip has touched a nervous structure. If patients refer pain during puncture, it is mandatory to interrupt the technique. Anesthetic solution should not be injected to prevent potential nervous root or spinal cord injury. Needle should be drawn back and have its direction changed before a new advance is attempted. Pain complain is totally impossible if patients are asleep under the

  11. Interacciones tróficas de las seis especies de peces más abundantes en la pesquería artesanal en dos bahías del Pacífico Central Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R Flores Ortega

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los componentes tróficos de las seis especies de peces más importantes en la captura de la pesquería artesanal en las Bahía de Navidad y Chamela, ubicadas en la costa de Jalisco, México. Las especies estudiadas fueron Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, Lutjanus argentiventris y Mulloidichthys dentatus. Se consideraron dos periodos de estudio de acuerdo a las pautas hidroclimáticas y los patrones de producción biológica en la zona: periodo de influencia de la Contracorriente Norecuatorial (T1, y periodo de influencia de la Corriente de California (T2. En Bahía de Navidad se identificaron 78 presas en total para las seis especies. En el periodo comprendido entre julio y diciembre (T1 se identificaron 64 presas y 45 de enero a junio (T2. En Bahía de Chamela se identificaron 93 presas, encontrando 74 presas en el periodo T1 y 60 presas para el periodo T2. El mayor número de presas se encontró en M. dentatus con 34 presas en el periodo T1 de Bahía de Chamela y el menor número fue en H. flaviguttatum en T1 de Bahía de Navidad con solo 7 presas. Los crustáceos fueron las presas de mayor presencia en la dieta, seguidos por peces, moluscos, poliquetos y equinodermos, en ambos periodos y sitios de muestreo. Las seis especies analizadas se consideran como especialistas, dados los bajos valores del índice de amplitud de nicho en ambos periodos y sitios de muestreo.Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific. We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1 North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1 and 2 California Current CC period influence (T2. In Bahía de

  12. Un niño amarillo cumplirá cien años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Johnny Vargas Durán

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La caricatura ya cumplió el centenar de años y se constituyó en un vehículo idóneo para la divulgación masiva, para la creación de toda una mitologías de héroes a su alrededor, conformando un amplio espectro ideológico en la batalla por el poder económico, político y social en el mundo moderno.

  13. Paleo relief study of insular shelf electric sounding in Amarillo level basin Rivera distric in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium project the geophysical team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE members have carried out a study of insular shelf morphology. It was a sedimentary basin level in the middle of the Isla Cristalina. The following topics were developed: geographical location, geologic framework, developed works and materials, methods and results

  14. Environmental Assessment for Hazardous Waste Staging Facility, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared pursuant to the implementing regulations to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which require federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of a proposed action to determine whether that action requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or if a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) can be issued. The Pantex Plant does not possess permanent containerized waste staging facilities with integral secondary containment or freeze protection. Additional deficiencies associated with some existing staging facilities include: no protection from precipitation running across the staging pads; lack of protection against weathering; and facility foundations not capable of containing leaks, spills or accumulated precipitation. These shortcomings have raised concerns with respect to requirements under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Deficiencies for these waste staging areas were also cited by a government audit team (Tiger Team) as Action Items. The provision for the staging of hazardous, mixed, and low level waste is part of the no-action altemative in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the integrated ER/WM program. Construction of this proposed project will not prejudice whether or not this integration will occur, or how

  15. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1--July 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Progress is reported on research projects related to the following: Electronic resource library; Environment, safety, and health; Communication, education, training, and community involvement; Nuclear and other materials; and Reporting, evaluation, monitoring, and administration. Technical studies investigate remedial action of high explosives-contaminated lands, radioactive waste management, nondestructive assay methods, and plutonium processing, handling, and storage.

  16. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1--October 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes activities of the Center under the following topical sections: Electronic resource library; Environmental restoration and protection; Health and safety; Waste management; Communication program; Education program; Training; Analytical development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  17. 40 CFR 81.133 - Amarillo-Lubbock Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... County, Collingsworth County, Crosby County, Dallam County, Deaf Smith County, Dickens County, Donley...

  18. Amarillo National Resource Center for plutonium. Work plan progress report, November 1, 1995--January 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cluff, D. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Center operates under a cooperative agreement between DOE and the State of Texas and is directed and administered by an education consortium. Its programs include developing peaceful uses for the materials removed from dismantled weapons, studying effects of nuclear materials on environment and public health, remedying contaminated soils and water, studying storage, disposition, and transport of Pu, HE, and other hazardous materials removed from weapons, providing research and counsel to US in carrying out weapons reductions in cooperation with Russia, and conducting a variety of education and training programs.

  19. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emyr Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  20. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus from the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Potts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136 from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June. Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95; W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95; TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99; and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99, where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79 (n = 136. Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42.

  1. Helminth parasite communities of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus from the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Serna F. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of L. guttatus from Mazatlan Bay (MB and Banderas Bay (BB, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, were studied during two consecutive years. A total of 536 fish were collected and 19 parasite taxa registered (six digeneans, two cestodes, nine nematodes, and two monogeneans. Infection levels of common helminth species (Helicometrina nimia, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Ancyrocephalidae gen. sp. and Microcotyloides incisa as well as the infracommunity indices varied significantly between MB and BB, and among dry and rainy seasons; however, no clear seasonal patterns were observed. Pseudoterranova larvae appeared frequently in MB, possibly because of the presence of the California sea lion in this locality. Similarity analysis did not show a clear separation of parasite species composition between both localities, which suggest that fish samples came from a single population of L. guttatus.

  2. Waste utilization of red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) fish bone to improve phosphorus contents in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, S.; Iswanto, B.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to get the idea that bone waste will be the P content enhancer in compost so that the compost produced meets the standard P levels specified in SNI 19-7030-2004 which regulating compost quality standard. Nutrient levels were obtained in fish bone meal (FBM) are C (3.35%), N (0.48%), P (30.90%) and K (0.02%). Effects of fish bone meal to the rising levels of P in the compost has been known. P levels of compost B, C, D, and E increased at 428.57; 542.85; 657.14 and 914.28% against the compost A (blank). FBM ideal addition indicated in compost B, as much as 15 gr, with a P content of 0.37% and has been passed according standards (0.10% for P). C/N ratio decreased over the 21 days period of composting, with the greatest decline was compost E with a ratio of 16:1. Highest nitrogen (N) levels recorded respectively in compost B and C with value of 1.09% and the lowest of recorded N content was compost A, D and E (1.08%). N content in all samples of compost were eligible minimum N of 0.40%. Carbon (C) is the highest recorded in compost B; 20.20% and the lowest in the compost E; 17.34%. Highest and lowest C levels on the compost has met the minimum C of 9.80%. Composting is done in a bucket as an aerobic composter (with air holes), compost pile turnover for each sample is controlled as much as once/2 days. Mesophilic period (23-450C) occurs during the 21-day period of composting. Compost B has P content of 0.37%, so it has fulfilled the provisions of SNI 19-7030-2004 about the recommended compost standard.

  3. Egg quality traits and predictors of embryo and fry viability in red snapper Lutjanus campechanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bardon-Albaret

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of red snapper eggs is highly variable and unpredictable in aquaculture, leading to high mortality during early larval rearing. In this work, the viability of red snapper eggs was monitored from fertilization until unfed larvae expired because of exhaustion of vitelline reserves to determine egg quality traits in this species. The spawns were obtained via strip spawning wild-caught females following hormonal induction with chorionic gonadotropin. Females were induced immediately after capture (wild group, n = 17 or held captive for the entire maturation period prior to induction (captive group, n = 7. Candidate predictors of egg quality measured on the female parent at the time of induction or on the spawn at ovulation were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The fertilization rate, the hatching rate, and the duration of survival of unfed larvae post hatch were weakly correlated to each other (-0.23 < r < −0.08, revealing occurrence of distinct and independent components of egg quality. Spawns from captive females were characterized by a longer latency interval between hormonal induction and ovulation, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rates, as compared to those from wild females. Among the wild brood fish, a positive correlation was observed between the age of the female and the hatching rate. The best model optimized during stepwise multiple regression analysis of hatching rate data only explained 34% of the variance for this trait and no model could be optimized for the prediction of fertilization rate or the duration of survival post hatch. These results highlight the need to develop alternative egg quality measures to predict the viability of fry with confidence.

  4. Effect of Protein-Based Edible Coating from Red Snapper (Lutjanus sp.) Surimi on Cooked Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostini, I.; Ibrahim, B.; Trilaksani, W.

    2018-02-01

    Surimi can be used as a raw material for making protein based edible coating to protect cooked shrimp color. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers preference level on cooked shrimp which coated by surimi edible coating from red snapper and to know the microscopic visualization of edible coating layer on cooked shrimp. The treatments for surimi edible coating were without and added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract. Application of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp was comprised methods (1) boiled then coated and (2) coated then boiled. Edible coating made from surimi with various concentrations which were 2, 6, 10 and 14% of distillated water. The analysis were done using hedonic test and microscopic observation with microscope photographs. Effect of surimi edible coating on cooked shrimp based on the hedonic and colour test results showed that the 14% surimi concentration, added by sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) extract on edible coating was the most preferable by panellist and giving the highest shrimp colour. The edible coating surimi application on cooked shrimp which gave the best result was processed by boiling followed by coating.

  5. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis in a coral reef fish (Lutjanus carponotatus, Lutjanidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    simulated dataset, we conclude that the complete marker set provides sufficient resolution to resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations with 99.6 ± 0.1 % accuracy in parentage assignments. This multiplex assay provides an effective means

  6. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron; Remocion de amarillo remazol con arcillas modificadas con hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Gomez T, A. P.

    2012-07-01

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive, hydrogen peroxide and distilled water to determine their regeneration behaviors. Any desorption process was not observed when the clays were treated with distilled water. The regeneration was best accomplished with Fenton reactive, the sorption increased in about 300% in comparison with the original capacity. The iron modified montmorillonite shows a better sorption behavior after regeneration than the unmodified montmorillonite KSF. (Author)

  7. Análisis de la dinámica del Humedal Juan Amarillo (Colombia y su sostenibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Angela López Quintero

    2007-01-01

    y respaldado por el sistema económico del cual el hombre hace parte. Si bien esto implica una inversión, está plenamente justificada por las ganancias que se reciben a cambio, tal como se demuestra con el estudio de los principales flujos de energía y el contenido emergético asociado a estos flujos. Adicionalmente, constituye en primer lugar en un deber del hombre sustituir lo que en cierto momento deterioró, y en segundo lugar es obligación de la administración distrital en proporcionar ambientes sanos para la comunidad. El hombre es ahora el principal actor que regula las relaciones energéticas de los componentes del sistema, es decir, los flujos energéticos que determinan la sostenibilidad, y consecuentemente, explican el comportamiento del sistema y la naturaleza de sus fluctuaciones; por lo tanto, este agente artificial es el factor determinante para su funcionamiento.

  8. The Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly progress detailed report, 1 November 1996--31 January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Progress for this quarter is given for each of the following Center programs: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) advisory function (DOE and state support); (3) environmental, public health and safety; (3) communication, education, and training; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Both summaries of the activities and detailed reports are included.

  9. Proceedings of the AESOP conference. [Association for Energy Systems, Operations, and Programming, Amarillo, Texas, April 18--20, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    Individual abstracts were prepared for 22 of the items in these proceedings. The remaining two have already been cited in ERA, and can be located by referring to CONF-780423- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  10. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 15. The purpose of Regulatory Amendment 15 and this final rule is to provide socio-economic benefits... griseus Mahogany snapper, Lutjanus mahogoni Dog snapper, Lutjanus jocu Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris...

  11. Temporal Assessment of Natural Radionuclide Bioaccumulation by the Cubera Snapper Fish (Lutjanus Cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828) from the Brazilian Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W. S. [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Mineiros (UTM), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG and Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Depto. de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense UFF, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Depto. de Biologia Marinha, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), and Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Py, Jr., D. A. [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Mineiros (UTM), Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    The present study aims to assess the seasonal variation in the accumulation of the isotopes {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the cubera snapper fish from the coast of the state of Ceara (Brazil). The fish was caught in January (six specimens), June (eight) and September (seven). The uranium and thorium were analysed by electrodeposition, followed by alpha spectrometry. The isotopes of radium and lead were selectively co-precipitated and measured by gross alpha radiometry for {sup 226}Ra and gross beta radiometry for {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. No seasonal variations could be observed neither for the uranium and thorium isotopes nor for the {sup 226}Ra isotope. For {sup 228}Ra, the activity concentration in February was equal to that of September, and both were higher than in June. For {sup 210}Pb, the situation was different: the month of February showed a lower activity concentration than in June, which in turn was lower than in September. (author)

  12. ACUICULTURA DE PARGO LA MANCHA LUTJANUS GUTTATUS (STEINDACHNER, 1869 EN COSTA RICA DENTRO DE UN ENFOQUE ECOSISTÉMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Herrera-Ulloa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La sobreexplotación pesquera y la búsqueda de alternativas ante la pobreza crónica han llevado a explorar el campo de la maricultura por medio de un enfoque ecosistémico se abrieron dos procesos paralelos: una estrategia e; investigación en laboratorio para el levantamiento larval de peces marinos tropicales y una estrategia de comanejo para desarrollar el cultivo de peces marinos tropicales. El pargo la mancha muestra gran potencial de producción de larvas y posterior cultivo en el mar. No mostró respuestas positivas a la inducción por medio de hormonas, el desarrollo de un ambiente adecuado para su reproducción espontánea, permitió tener desoves frecuentes y de calidad. La fase de levantamiento larval mostró contratiempos por el tamaño reducido de las larvas de pargo la mancha el manejo en tanques apropiados y el uso de enriquecedores permitieran mejorar los procesos y llegar a incrementar la producción de alevines. El enfoque ecosistémico permitió abrir los espacios necesarios que permitieron la operación de un proyecto piloto. La granja se creó con un enfoque productivo, pero también para turismo rural. Overfishing and the search for alternatives to it, led us to the explore mariculture as an option using an ecosystem-based approach through two parallel processes: an in-laboratory research strategy for larval rearing of tropical marine fish, and a strategy of co-management to develop tropical marine fish aquaculture. The spotted rose snapper shows great potential for larvae production and cage culture. This species showed no responses to hormone induction; however, the set up of a suitable environment allowed frequent, high-quality spontaneous spawnings. The larval rearing phase presented problems due to the small size of the larvae; although, management in appropriate tanks and the use of enrichments improved the processes, increasing the production of juveniles. This ecosystem approach allowed the operation of a profitable farm pilot project with a productive approach, but with rural tourism in mind as well.

  13. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  14. 75 FR 82272 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... West Valley Forge Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406. Texas: Potter and Randall City of Amarillo (10..., City of The Amarillo Globe- Amarillo, P.O. Box 1971, News. Amarillo, TX 79105. Brazoria Unincorporated... 480076 1185P). August 16, 2010; Martin, Mayor, City of The Alvin Sun. Manvel, P.O. Box 187, Manvel, TX...

  15. Historiatietojen hyödyntäminen keittiölogistiikassa : case: Osuuskauppa Hämeenmaa Majoitus- ja ravitsemustoimiala, Amarillo Lahti

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhala, Ville

    2012-01-01

    Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on historiatietojen hyödyntäminen keittiölogistiikassa. Tavoitteena on luoda historiatietoon perustuva työkalu, jonka avulla ravintola pystyy tehostamaan omaa tilausprosessiaan sekä vähentämään viikottaista raaka-ainehävikkiä ja rytmittämään esivalmisteiden tekoa. Työn toimeksiantaja on Osuuskauppa Hämeenmaa Majoitus- ja ravitsemustoimiala. Teoriaosa koostuu työn keskeisimpien käsitteiden purkamisesta. Työn kannalta oleellisia käsitteitä o...

  16. Sistema electrocoagulación-sorción en continuo para Remoción de Colorantes, verde malaquita y remazol amarillo en Solución Acuosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Díaz, Josué Alonso.

    2015-01-01

    Se consideran aguas residuales al agua que ha sido utilizada en las actividades diarias de una ciudad (doméstica, comerciales, industriales y de servicios). Las aguas residuales provenientes de las industrias textiles presentan una gran contaminación por colorantes, deteriorando así la calidad del agua y causando un efecto nocivo al medio ambiente. Se acoplaron dos operaciones unitarias (proceso electrocoagulación y sorción) en un continuo para el tratamiento de soluciones acuosas con colora...

  17. Removal of yellow 5 by a zeolitic material conditioned with iron; Remocion de amarillo 5 por un material zeolitico acondicionado con hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara C, A.

    2010-07-01

    The waste waters are at the present time a serious problem because are contaminated by diverse industrial wastes among which are azo dyes used to dye a lot of products, and although there are various methods for the removal of these colorants do not are effective sufficiently, so that diverse techniques more sophisticated have been proposed, such as the elimination by sorption processes. Zeolites are materials found in various regions of Mexico and due to have a good sorption capacity are used to remove metals. In this paper a zeolitic material of the Chihuahua State was conditioned with FeCl{sub 3} and used for remove yellow 5 (tartrazine) in aqueous solutions, also the sorption capacity of modified zeolite with FeCl{sub 3} was examined for the azo dy yellow 5 in aqueous solutions. The sorption kinetics results was adapted to the pseudo second order model, indicating that the process is chemisorption, the sorption isotherms at different temperatures were adjusted to the Langmuir-Freundlich model, which usually it is adapt to systems with heterogeneous adsorbents. On the other hand, the ph value of the aqueous solutions does not affect on the sorption of this dye by the zeolitic material. (Author)

  18. Paleo relief study of insular shelf electric sounding in Amarillo level basin Rivera distric in Uruguay[Study of Uranium geochemical prospection in Uruguay]; Estudio del paleorelieve del zocalo por sondeos electricos al nivel de la cuenca de Amarillo Dpto. de Rivera Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, J

    1983-07-01

    In the framework of the Uranium project the geophysical team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE members have carried out a study of insular shelf morphology. It was a sedimentary basin level in the middle of the Isla Cristalina. The following topics were developed: geographical location, geologic framework, developed works and materials, methods and results.

  19. Temporal and spatial comparisons of the reproductive biology of northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) collected a decade apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaw, Dannielle H; Cowan, James H; Jackson, Melissa W

    2017-01-01

    In studies done a decade apart, we provide evidence of a recent shift toward a slower progression to sexual maturity as well as reduced egg production, especially among young, small female red snapper, in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). Slower maturation rates (among fish ≤6 years old), lower GSI values and decreased spawning frequency were observed, and were especially pronounced in the northwestern Gulf. Furthermore, an Index of Reproductive Importance showed that young fish (ages 2-7) are contributing far less to the spawning stock in recent years, while older fish (>8 years) are contributing more, when compared to fish from the same age groups sampled in the previous decade. Coincident with these changes in reproductive output, fishing pressure has steadily declined gulf-wide, and spawning stock biomass and spawning potential ratio have increased. Thus, it is possible that the age structure of the red snapper stock is becoming less truncated, or that reproductive effort observed is due to the temporary influence of recent strong year classes produced in 2004 and 2006 as they begin to reach full reproductive potential. If the latter is true, careful documentation of the stock's reproductive dynamics during a time of population growth provides new understanding at the meta-population spatial and decadal temporal scales. In contrast, if the former is true, a truncated age structure due to overharvest can limit the productivity of the Gulf red snapper stock. In addition, we have learned that red snapper females in the northwestern Gulf collected on natural reefs and banks have much higher reproductive output than those on artificial reefs in the form of standing and toppled oil and gas platforms, thus making the need to know the relative abundance of females found on these disparate habitats an important next step toward better-understanding factors impacting the reproductive dynamics of this species.

  20. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper

  1. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti, E-mail: sabujsau@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University of Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Das, Simon Kumar, E-mail: skdas-maa@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  2. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Solís, D.; Moravec, František; Tuz Paredes, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2007), s. 1132-1135 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dentiphilometra * Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  3. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, N.P.; Yanes-Roca, C.; Main, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2013), s. 124-130 ISSN 2213-2244 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961250 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mangrove snapper * Fisheries * Juvenile pathology * Glomerulonephritis * Mortality * Myxozoa Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  4. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, M.; Fajer-Avila, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 355-369 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dracunculoidea * parasitic nematode * fish parasites * marine fishes * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  5. 76 FR 58411 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ..., Mayor, City of Antonio Express- San Antonio, P.O. Box News. 839966, San Antonio, TX 78283. Collin (FEMA.... Potter and Randall (FEMA City of Amarillo (10- August 20, 2010; The Honorable Debra August 13, 2010...- Amarillo, P.O. Box 1971, News. Amarillo, TX 79105. Rockwall (FEMA Docket No.: B- City of Rockwall (10...

  6. Composición por especies y tallas de los peces en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Pacífico central mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar González-Sansón

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las lagunas costeras son consideradas áreas de crianza importantes para muchas especies de peces costeros. La laguna costera Barra de Navidad (3.76km² es importante para la economía local y soporta un desarrollo turístico y pesquerías artesanales. Sin embargo, el rol de esta laguna en la dinámica de las poblaciones de peces costeros es poco conocido. Los objetivos de la investigación fueron: caracterizar el agua de la laguna y las condiciones climáticas relacionadas, elaborar el elenco sistemático de la ictiofauna y estimar la proporción de juveniles en el total de individuos capturados de las especies más abundantes. Las operaciones de recolecta de peces se realizaron entre marzo 2011 y febrero 2012. Se utilizaron varios artes de pesca diferentes que incluyeron atarraya, chinchorro playero y redes de agalla con cuatro tamaños de malla diferentes. Se midieron las variables físicas y químicas en épocas de lluvias y de secas. La laguna es euhalina (salinidad 30-40 ups la mayor parte del tiempo, aunque en determinados periodos cortos puede tener características mixopolihalinas (salinidad 18-30 ups. Las concentraciones de clorofila y nutrientes indican que la laguna está eutrofizada. La temperatura media del agua varió estacionalmente de 24.9°C (abril, pleamar a 31.4°C (octubre, bajamar. Se recolectaron en total 36 448 individuos, pertenecientes a 92 especies, de las cuales 31 tienen una relevancia ecológica con base en el número de individuos capturados. Las especies dominantes fueron: Anchoa spp. (44.6%, Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%, Eucinostomus currani (8.1%, Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%, Mugil curema (5.2% y Opisthonema libertate (4.5%. La laguna es un hábitat de juveniles importante para 22 de las 31 especies más abundantes. Estas incluyeron algunas especies de importancia comercial como los pargos (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado y L. novemfasciatus, el robalo (Centropomus nigrescens y la lisa (Mugil curema. Otras

  7. Detección del virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla (OYDV y el virus latente común del ajo (GCLV en ajo (Allium sativum L costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Vannesa Guillén Watson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades virales son responsables de pérdidas importantes en el rendimiento del cultivo de ajo alrededor del mundo, ya que limitan su producción. En esta investigación se analizó material de ajo costarricense para determinar la incidencia de los virus: Garlic Common Latent Virus (GCLV y Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV, mediante la técnica DAS-ELISA, con el fin de conocer el estado fitosanitario del material criollo. Se utilizaron bulbos de campo de apariencia normal (N, normales con túnica amarilla (TA y con deformaciones (D; y hojas de campo normales (N, sintomáticas (S y con presencia de posibles vectores  virales (VT. Se analizaron vitroplantas producto de la introducción de ápices de 1,0 y 0,5cm de longitud procedentes de dientes normales (N y con túnica amarilla (TA; así como dos lotes de bulbillos obtenidos in vitro de introducciones de ápices de 1,0cm de largo a partir de bulbos de apariencia normal. Se encontró que el 33% de los bulbos de campo analizados para GCLV fueron positivos (TA, mientras que OYDV se detectó en el 100%, sin importar la apariencia. El 100% de las hojas fue positivo para GCLV, y para OYDV soloaquellas de apariencia normal (33%. El 100% de las vitroplantas no presentaron infección de GCLV, mientras que para OYDV solo las introducidas de ápices de 1,0cm provenientes de bulbos con túnica amarillenta no mostraron incidencia. Se determinó GCLV en el 100% de lasmuestras para ambos lotes de bulbificación in Vitro, y OYDV solo en el 50%. Se concluye que los virus OYDV y GCLV están presentes en el ajo costarricense y se detectaron mediante la técnica DASELISA, con una alta incidencia en el material local y con infección diferencial según el órgano analizado. Se recomienda combinar diversas metodologías junto con el cultivo de ápices in vitro, para obtener mayor eficacia en la limpieza viral, lo que contribuiría a incrementar el valor y potenciar el cultivo de la semilla local.

  8. Well-Integrity Survey (Phase II) of Abandoned Homestead Water Wells in the High Plains Aquifer, Former Pantex Ordnance Plant and Texas Tech Research Farm Near Amarillo, Texas, 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivers, Glenn A

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methods used and the results obtained during a field search for abandoned homestead sites and water wells at the former Pantex Ordnance Plant and Texas Tech Research Farm (Pantex site...

  9. 75 FR 23608 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Potter County. 287 and South Parsley Road. Playa Lake 6 Approximately 1,000 feet +3624 City of Amarillo... feet +3596 City of Amarillo, northeast of the Unincorporated Areas of intersection of Parsley Potter... County. intersection of Highway 287 and South Parsley Road. Playa Lake 4 At the intersection of +3699...

  10. Télédétection par satellite et SIG pour l'analyse des déplacements des chenaux dans le delta actif de la Rivière Jaune en ChineTeledetección satelitária y SIG para analizar cambios en el desplazamiento de causes en el delta activo del Río Amarillo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Damen, Michiel C. J.; van Zuidam, Robert A.

    Channel migration in deltaic lowlands tends to be complicated by marine processes and intensified cultural practices. Understanding the ways in which river channels have migrated through time is critical to tackling many geomorphologic and river management problems. Because of large magnitude and rapid rates of change, special surveillance systems are needed to efficiently measure and monitor channel migration. This study presents an application of geographic information technologies for the study of channel migration in the active Yellow River Delta, China. The main source of data was a series of time-sequential Landsat images spanning a period of approximately 19 years. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to support modernized channel position mapping and measurement. The spatio-temporal changes of river banks and channel centerlines were systematically examined, and an attempt was made to relate these computational results with appropriate natural and human processes affecting the delta. This study demonstrates the utility of satellite remote sensing integrated with a GIS in investigating channel migration.

  11. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Thorrold, Simon R.; Houghton, Leah A.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    . Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton

  12. Phentermine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... paternal- exposures- pregnancy/ pdf/ . References: Aronne LJ. 1998. Obesity. Womens Health Issues 82(1):161- 181. Hale TW. 2008. Medications and Mothers’ Milk, 13th ed. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing. Johnson KA, ...

  13. Partially populated catalogue of measured properties of field sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This catalogue documents the construction, monitoring, and mixture information of 11 test sections: four in SH 15 in the north Amarillo, three in US 62 in Childress, and four in Loop 820 in Fort Worth.

  14. Betaxantinas de Opuntia como colorante alimentario natural: caracterización, purificación y proyección tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Fernández, Pedro José

    2016-01-01

    [ESP] Debido a las crecientes restricciones en el uso de los colorantes alimentarios, la presente Tesis Doctoral se plantea respondiendo a la necesidad de las empresas de formular y diseñar colorantes alimentarios amarillos naturales de naturaleza hidrosoluble, y que además de aportar color, también posean demostradas propiedades como sustancias bioactivas beneficiosas para la salud. Como alternativa a los colorantes amarillos sintéticos se propone el empleo de un extracto colorante procedent...

  15. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efecto citotóxico del extracto metanólico de tres ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sobre líneas celulares HeLa y HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de compuestos naturales con actividad citotóxica y antitumoral es una de las prioridades actuales de la lucha contra el cáncer; motivo por el cual el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la actividad citotóxica de los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos negro, morado y amarillo de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca sobre las líneas celulares HeLa (Human Epithelial Carcinoma y HT-29 (Human Colon Adenocarcinoma. Se determinó que la concentración inhibitoria del 50% del crecimiento celular (IC50 para la línea celular HT-29, con los ecotipos negro, morado y amarillo fue de 8,32 mg/ml, 9,28 mg/ml y 0,487 mg/ml respectivamente, mientras que para la línea celular HeLa fue de 2,4 mg/ml, 1,93 mg/ml y 0,66 mg/ml respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se evaluó un EM del ecotipo amarillo con dos años de almacenamiento (10 ºC determinándose como IC50 4,29 mg/ml para HT-29 y 4,17 mg/ml para HeLa. Se concluye que el efecto citotóxico del ecotipo amarillo sobre HT-29 y HeLa fue superior al mostrado por los ecotipos negro y morado; que la línea celular más sensible a los ecotipos amarillo, negro y morado es HeLa, y que el EM del ecotipo amarillo conservó sus propiedades citotóxicas pese al tiempo de almacenamiento, aunque éstas disminuyeron.

  17. A Study of Some Problems in Network Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sudeep Uday

    2013-01-01

    Red snapper, "Lutjanus campechanus," were sampled with hook and line at natural (n = 33) and artificial (n = 27) reef sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico from 2009-2011. Stomachs (n = 708) were extracted and their contents preserved for gut content analysis, and muscle tissue samples (n = 200) were dissected and frozen for stable…

  18. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, Lane, Mutton and Yellowtail Snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    pargo prieto, pargo, criollo , vivaneau sorbe (Cervigon pargo dienton, pargo de piedra, 1966, Fisher 1978) pargo moreno, vivaneau sarde grise, aquadera... criollo , Lutjanus 1970-79. Florida landings, analis. Cent. Invest. Pesq. annual summary 1969-1978. U.S. uba. Nota 2:1-16. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. Curr

  19. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lemon, Negaprion brevirostris Nurse, Ginglymostoma cirratum Scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini Smooth..., Lutjanus analis Nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum Queen snapper, Etelis oculatus Red grouper, Epinephelus... and will not become effective until approval has been given by the Office of Management and Budget. ...

  20. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. P. VIJAYAGOPAL. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 179-187 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Mitochondrial signatures revealed panmixia in Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål 1775) · A. GOPALAKRISHNAN N. VINEESH SHIHAB ISMAIL MUKTHA ...

  1. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Table 2 of Appendix A to Part 622—Caribbean Reef Fish Lutjanidae—Snappers Unit 1 Silk snapper, Lutjanus... adscensionis Graysby, Epinephelus cruentatus Creole-fish, Paranthias furcifer Unit 4 Red grouper, Epinephelus... striatus Redspotted hawkfish, Amblycirrhitus pinos Flying gurnard, Dactylopterus volitans Atlantic...

  2. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  3. Piip ja Tuut ootavad Amarillosse ja Coca-Cola Plazasse perepäevale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Kord kuus, septembrist 2004 kuni 2005.a. maini korraldatavatest perepäevadest. C-C Plazas on perepäevade ajal kavas eriprogramm ja enne või pärast filmi on pered oodatud Viru hotelli restorani Amarillo, kus kavas spetsiaalne lasteprogramm klounidelt Piip ja Tuut

  4. 21 CFR 510.600 - Names, addresses, and drug labeler codes of sponsors of approved applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, ST7 1XW, United Kingdom 043264 ECO LLC, 8209 Hollister Ave., Las Vegas... Beef Technologies LTD, P.O. Box 9262, Amarillo, TX 79105 047126 Mid-Continent Agrimarketing, Inc., 8833... 068882 Technology Transfer, Inc., 33 East Broadway, suite 190, Columbia, MO 65203 067647 Teva Animal...

  5. tant sorghum grain as energy source in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORD, J.E., 1977. Availability of methionine and lysine in sorghum grain in relation to the tannin content. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36, 124A. HALE, W.H. & PROUTY, F.L., 1980.Current status of grain process- ing: Efficiency of processing systems. Proc. 8th Annual Texas Beef. Conj., Amarillo, Texas. HALE, W.H., TAYLOR, B., SABA, ...

  6. 76 FR 17857 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Amarillo, Texas (``City'') for the purchase of a 5 horsepower (HP) non-clog submersible pump, with NSF... circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review and recommendations... Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA. This...

  7. Mining inventory of Uruguay : Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the aim of Uruguay Uranium prospecting in this document has been summarized the following items: lithostratigraphy, background, economics aspects, radiation measuring, geochemistry, geophysics in Yerba Sola, Magnolia, Paso Amarillo, La Mercedes, Puntas de Abrojal, Las Chircas, La Divisa, Chuy, Apretado and Frayle Muerto

  8. Mining inventory of Uruguay: Uranium report of synthesis annexes GQE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is about place, analysis and radiometric results in Amarillo, Acegua, Alborada,Arbolito,Caraguata,Centurion,Cerro de las Cuentas, Cuchilla de Ombu, Fraile Muerto, Las Flores, Lechiguana, Melo, Moirones, La Paloma de Durazno,Paso Mazangano, Paso del Minuano, Paso Pereira, Paso del Puerto, Paso San Diego, Polanco, Porrua, Sierra de los Rios, Tacuari, Vichadero, MoironesZanja Honda

  9. Mining inventory of Uruguay : Uranium; Inventario Minero Nacional : Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    With the aim of Uruguay Uranium prospecting in this document has been summarized the following items: lithostratigraphy, background, economics aspects, radiation measuring, geochemistry, geophysics in Yerba Sola, Magnolia, Paso Amarillo, La Mercedes, Puntas de Abrojal, Las Chircas, La Divisa, Chuy, Apretado and Frayle Muerto.

  10. LQAI_Cuali_G4_Bario (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Sanz, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Análisis cualitativo inorgánico. Marcha Analítica del carbonato sódico. Ensayos de identificación de bario en el Grupo IVBa (II)Reprecipitación de sulfato de barioPrecipitación de cromato de bario (amarillo)

  11. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  12. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-07-01

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  13. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, June Ferraz; Gonçalves, Aline Mariane; Fernandez, Wellington Silva; Silbiger, Helcy Lylian Nogueira; Fiadi, Carla Bertolucci; Schmidt, Thassya Christina dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM) were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and...

  14. Inventory of the tropical coral reef fishes in Wondama Bay regency, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiyani, K. D. P.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Teluk Wondama Regency is one of the areas in West Papua that is part of the Cendrawasih Bay National Park due to its potential of coral fishes. Until now, there is no thorough information that gives the potential diversities of coral fishes species can be found in the waters, and one of the attempts to find out is to carry out an inventory. Inventories were conducted from March to May 2016 in Rariei and Auri (Roon District), Numamuran (Duairi District), Nusrowi (Rumberpon District) and Waprak (Roswar District). The results of these inventories found 28 species of coral fishes in Rariei consisting of 8 genus (Balistapus, Synodus, Pentapodus, Thalassoma, Zebrasoma, Amblyglyphidodon, Chaetodon and Labroides) in Rariei, 11 genus (Abudefduf, Chaetodon, Amphiprion, Cheilinus, Dascyllus, Chromis, Parastromateus, Priacanthus, Epinephelus, Nemipterus and Lutjanus) in Namamuran, 11 genus in Nusrowi (Halichoeres, Pomacentrus, Dischistodus, Heniochus, Amblyglyphidodon, Arothron, Parupeneus, Lutjanus, Plectropomus, Epinephelus and Acanthurus), 4 genus in the waters of Waprak (Parupeneus, Pomacentrus, Chaetodon and Amblyglyphidodon) and 10 genus in Auri (Lutjanus, Pomacentrus, Amphiprion, Chaetodon, Chromis, Dascyllus, Zanclus, Halichoeres, Siganus and Amblyglyphidodon)

  15. Assessment of aircraft risk reduction at Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.T.; Hedtke, R.; Fike, D.; Diniz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an aircraft crashing into the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex plant facility has been of concern in risk assessments. In response to public concerns, and in an effort to reduce risks associated with overflights of Pantex, several changes to navigational aids at Amarillo International Airport have been implemented. For over one year, a radar airspace monitor and recording system has been connected to the airport surveillance radar at Amarillo to record the flight paths, aircraft types, and traffic density of aircraft in the vicinity of the Pantex plant. The data has provided a better understanding of the overflight risk at Pantex as well as a means to measure the effectiveness of risk reduction efforts

  16. Estimated transportation routes to a candidate salt repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of possible highway and rail transportation routes within Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico for shipments of spent fuel to the candidate repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Two cases are examined for highway shipments. The initial case analyzes shipments following the Department of Transportation's HM-164 regulations for shipment of spent fuel. The second case analyzes normal commercial routes. Three rail cases are also examined. Each case analyzes potential routes that would be used based for different access spurs into the repository site. Two appendices are included which examine additional scenarios generated by restricting routes from passing through various metropolitan areas. The major finding is that most shipments to the Deaf Smith site will pass through Amarillo, Texas. There are few, if any, feasible alternative routes which would significantly reduce the amount of traffic passing through Amarillo

  17. Caracterización de germoplasma de cebollín (Allium cepa var. Aggregatum, en el municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Rodríguez García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron y estudiaron 18 accesiones de cebollín (Allium cepa var Aggregatum entre los productores del municipio Gibara se plantaron en las fincas de los productores de la CCS Mario Muñoz Gibara. El estudio se realizo en el período comprendido de enero del 2005 a diciembre del 2006, con el objetivo de realizar una caracterización del germoplasma para determinar las variedades existentes en del municipio. Entre los principales resultados obtenidos se identificaron dos variedades en el agroecosistema: Bola Roja de bulbos de color rojo violáceo, redondos globoso y pungencia fuerte y la variedad Amarillo Largo de bulbos amarillo naranja, fusiformes-oblongos y de pungencia media.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A.

    1997-01-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties 'Amarillo de Quillabamba' and 'Nemanete'. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a 137 Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Analysis of a Partial MOX Core Design with Tritium Targets for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Adams, Marvin L. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-04-19

    This report constitutes tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the task To study the effects of using WG MOX fuel in tritium-producing LWR” of the subproject Water Reactor Options for Disposition of Plutonium. The principal investigators of this subproject are Naeem M. Abdurrahman of the University of Texas at Austin and Marvin L. Adams of Texas A&M University. This work was sponsored by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium.

  20. Un caso de xantismo parcial en Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae del sur de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Béarez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus. Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A [Biology Dept., National Agriculture Univ., La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1997-07-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties `Amarillo de Quillabamba` and `Nemanete`. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a {sup 137}Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs.

  2. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with cachexia and hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Subhan Ahmed,2 Ruba A Halloush31Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, 3Amarillo Pathology Group, Amarillo, TX, USAAbstract: Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis. The majority of infections involving this dimorphic fungus are asymptomatic. Manifestations in symptomatic patients are diverse, ranging from flu-like illness to a more serious disseminated disease. We present here a case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking a metastatic cancer. We reviewed the literature for cases of disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with hypercalcemia, focusing particularly on clinical presentation, risk factors predisposing for fungal infection, and outcome. We report a case of a 65-year-old diabetic male who presented with unexplained weight loss and hypercalcemia. Multiple brain space-occupying lesions and bilateral adrenal enlargement were evident on imaging studies. Biopsies showed caseating granulomas with budding yeast, consistent with histoplasmosis. The patient's symptoms resolved after liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy. Granulomatous diseases, including fungal infections, should be considered alongside malignancies, in patients with similar presentation.Keywords: disseminated histoplasmosis, hypercalcemia

  3. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  4. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  5. Papel de la vacuola parasitófora de macrófagos de ratón infectados por Leishmania amazonensis en la adquisición de moléculas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Cortázar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Leishmania son parásitos intracelulares de macrófagos, confinados encompartimentos denominados vacuolas parasitóforas. La permeabilidad de este compartimentodepende de su interacción con el tráfico vesicular y transportadores presentes en su membrana. Objetivo. En este trabajo se estudió la permeabilidad de la membrana de la vacuola parasitóforaen la línea celular J774.A1 infectada con Leishmania amazonensis, in situ y en compartimentosaislados. Materiales y métodos. El aislamiento de vacuolas parasitóforas se hizo por gradiente dedensidad. La permeabilidad de la membrana de estas se valoró por distribución de sondasfluorescentes y electrofisiología. Para establecer indirectamente el transporte de protones seusó naranja de acridina. La presencia de transportadores ABC sensibles a probenecid seestableció con amarillo lucifer y calceína. Por primera vez con la técnica de patch-clamp seregistraron corrientes en la membrana de este compartimento aislado. Resultados. La vacuola parasitófora colorea de rojo con naranja de acridina indicando un pHácido. Concentra amarillo lucifer a través de un transportador sensible a probenecid, peroexcluye la sonda calceína. Vacuolas aisladas se marcan de rojo con naranja de acridina yconcentran amarillo lucifer a través de un transportador sensible a probenecid. Estas vacuolasexcluyeron calceína y presentaron en su membrana una corriente iónica que se activa adiferencias de potencial cercanas a 60 mV, con una conductancia de 46 ± 3 pS. Conclusiones. Se pueden aislar vacuolas parasitóforas con propiedades de permeabilidadque preservan mecanismos de transporte similares a los encontrados in situ. Se registra porprimera vez la presencia de una corriente iónica poco selectiva en la membrana de estecompartimiento.

  6. Efectos de dos sistemas de producción en el contenido de minerales en el fruto de Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Hernández Katty Julia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción orgánico y/o ecológico tienen como objetivo garantizar la sostenibilidad y la renovación de base natural, mediante la limitación del uso de productos de síntesis química para favorecer el ambiente y la salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, se estudió el efecto de los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional sobre el contenido de nutrientes minerales del fruto del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds, durante el proceso de maduración. Las determinaciones se realizaron en la Universidad de Córdoba (Montería, Colombia con el fin de establecer las diferencias en el contenido de minerales en los frutos en ambos sistemas y en diferentes estados de maduración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5 y cinco repeticiones. Los factores fueron: sistema de producción y estado de maduración; los cinco niveles del segundo factor correspondieron a los grados de maduración: verde-oscuro (V, verde-claro (VC, amarillo-verde (AV, amarillo (A y muy amarillo (MA. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que entre ambos sistemas de producción y en distintos grados de maduración, se presentan diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en los contenidos de calcio, magnesio, potasio, sodio, hierro y zinc.

  7. Determinación absorciométrica de fósforo en plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Rendina, Alicia Elena; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    1988-01-01

    p.127-130 Se describen tres metodologías para la valoración de fósforo en vegetales. Al comparar los valores obtenidos de fósforo para cada técnica y observando la concordancia significativa entre los mismos se propone hacer una mineralización húmeda de la muestra y de terminar el contenido de fósforo mediante la medición espectrofotométrica del complejo amarillo de fosfovanadomolibdeno.

  8. Implementing robotics in the Department of Energy Dismantlement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, as our nuclear stockpile has decreased, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been working rapidly to safely dismantle weapons returned by the military. In order to be retired, weapons must be returned to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. There they are reduced to their component parts. Although many of these parts are not hazardous, some, including certain explosive assemblies and radioactive materials, are sufficiently hazardous so that special handling systems are necessary. This paper will describe several of these systems developed by Sandia for Pantex and their technical basis

  9. Evaluación de la resistencia genética de especies de Passiflora spp A Fusarium spp, agente causal de la “Secadera”

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Aramburo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    El maracuyá amarillo Passiflora edulis Sims var flavicarpa Degener, representa un renglón importante en la fruticultura colombiana, por su aceptación en el mercado nacional y por su potencial de exportación. El departamento del Valle del Cauca es considerado como el de mayor participación en la producción nacional de esta fruta, a pesar que los cultivos presentan alta incidencia de una enfermedad vascular conocida como secadera, causado por el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae.

  10. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Rodrigo; Rubén Valdivieso; Silvia Suárez; Rosa Oriondo; Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabete...

  11. Histology of Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marín-Bravo, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las característica...

  12. Spatial analysis of the impacts of the Chaitén volcano eruption (Chile) in three fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, H.; Iroumé, A.; Picco, L.; Mohr, C. H.; Mazzorana, B.; Lenzi, M. A.; Mao, L.

    2016-08-01

    The eruption of the Chaitén volcano in May 2008 generated morphological and ecological disturbances in adjacent river basins, and the magnitude of these disturbances depended on the type of dominant volcanic process affecting each of them. The aim of this study is to analyse the morphological changes in different periods in river segments of the Blanco, El Amarillo and Rayas river basins located near the Chaitén volcano. These basins suffered disturbances of different intensity and spatial distribution caused by tephra fall, dome collapses and pyroclastic density currents that damaged hillslope forests, widened channels and destroyed island and floodplain vegetation. Changes continued to occur in the fluvial systems in the years following the eruption, as a consequence of the geomorphic processes indirectly induced by the eruption. Channel changes were analyzed by comparing remote images of pre and post-eruption conditions. Two periods were considered: the first from 2008 to 2009-2010 associated with the explosive and effusive phases of the eruption and the second that correspond to the post-eruption stage from 2009-2010 to 2013. Following the first phases channel segments widened 91% (38 m/yr), 6% (7 m/yr) and 7% (22 m/yr) for Blanco, Rayas and El Amarillo Rivers, respectively, compared to pre-eruption condition. In the second period, channel segments additionally widened 42% (8 m/yr), 2% (2 m/yr) and 5% (4 m/yr) for Blanco, Rayas and El Amarillo Rivers, respectively. In the Blanco River 62 and 82% of the islands disappeared in the first and second period, respectively, which is 6-8 times higher than in the El Amarillo approximately twice the Rayas. Sinuosity increased after the eruption only in the Blanco River but the three study channels showed a high braiding intensity mainly during the first post-eruption period. The major disturbances occurred during the eruptive and effusive phases of Chaitén volcano, and the intensity of these disturbances reflects the

  13. Actividad aminopetidásica ligada a membrana de bacterias GRAM-negativas : prueba de la P-nitroanilina para la estimación de la carga bacteriana de carne picada

    OpenAIRE

    López Tomás, Luis Ángel

    2004-01-01

    La prueba de la p-nitroanilina se basa en la actividad aminopeptidásica de las bacterias gram negativas, responsables de la alteración de los productos conservados en refrigeración y capaces de transformar la l-alanina-p-nitroanilida (incolora) en p-nitroanilina (de color amarillo), detectable por espectrofotometría UV a 390 nm. En este trabajo se pone a punto la técnica de la p-nitroanilina para carnes picadas desarrollando un procedimiento que recupere suficientes bacterias y que elimine la...

  14. Cirrosis hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1956-03-01

    Full Text Available De Kirrhos que significa color amarillo naranja que es el color más frecuente de los hígados cirróticos y debido al depósito del hierro en el tejido conectivo. No tiene ninguna relación con scirrhus, pero generalmente se interpreta cirrosis como sinónimo de duro. Toda enfermedad crónica hepática termina en cirrosis. Es esencialmente una enfermedad histológica de la célula hepática y no del tejido conjuntivo.

  15. Effect of bio activators’ application and manual fruit thinning on yield and quality of melon (Cucumis melo L.) grown under protected cultivation in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Sánchez, Tania; Monge-Pérez, José Eladio

    2015-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del raleo manual de frutos y de la aplicación de los bioactivadores Algamix y Engordone sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del melón amarillo var. JMX-902. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto a la firmeza del fruto, concentración de sólidos solubles totales, peso del fruto, rendimiento total, peso del fruto comercializable, rendimiento comercializable, y rendimiento por planta. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos para el nú...

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de bioactivadores y del raleo manual de frutos sobre el rendimiento y la calidad de melón (Cucumis melo L .) bajo cultivo protegido en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Sánchez, Tania; Monge-Pérez, José Eladio

    2015-01-01

    ResumenSe evaluó el efecto del raleo manual de frutos y de la aplicación de los bioactivadores Algamix y Engordone sobreel rendimiento y la calidad del melón amarillo var. JMX-902. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto a la firmeza del fruto, concentración de sólidos solubles totales, peso del fruto, rendimiento total, peso del fruto comercializable, rendimiento comercializable, y rendimiento por planta. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos para...

  17. Don Germán

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  18. Sistema de reintegración cromática asistido por medios transferibles obtenidos por procedimientos fotomecánicos : aplicación en la restauración de pintura de caballete

    OpenAIRE

    Roja de la Roja, José Manuel de la

    2012-01-01

    El sistema se basa en la reintegración cromática mediante tricomia, asistido por medios transferibles mediante presión. Consiste en la reproducción del color a reintegrar en las lagunas de una obra pictórica mediante transferencia y superposición de únicamente tres colores amarillo, magenta y cian, con sus correspondientes porcentajes, previamente identificados en unas tablas cromáticas de referencia la posibilidad de transferir en las lagunas de forma conjunta los múltiples signos que consti...

  19. PREVALENCIA EN EL CONOCIMIENTO Y USO DE LA ACUPUNTURA EN LA CIUDAD DE MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ GALINDO, MARIBEL

    2009-01-01

    LA ACUPUNTURA ES UNO DE LOS PROCEDIMIENTOS MEDICOS MAS ANTIGUOS Y MAS FRECUENTEMENTE USADOS EN EL MUNDO, ORIGINADA EN CHINA HACE MAS DE 2000 ANOS, LA FUENTE MAS TEMPRANA DE LA TEORIA DE LA ACUPUNTURA LA CONSTITUYE EL HUANG DI NEI JING EL PRIMER CANON DEL EMPERADOR AMARILLO, OBRA QUE CONSTA DE DOS PARTES: EL SUWEN QUE SIENTA LAS BASES TEORICAS FUNDAMENTALES DE LA MEDICINA TRADICIONAL CHINA (MTCH) Y EL LINGSHU QUE DISCUTE ESPECIALMENTE LA TEORIA BASICA DE LA ACUPUNTURA. LAS VERSIONES MAS ANTIG...

  20. A case of partial xanthism in a marblefish Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae) from southern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Béarez, Philippe; Treviño, Hugo Treviño; Huamani, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus). Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile. A yellow skinned jerguilla (Aplodactylus punctatus) is reported for the first time from Ilo, Southern Peru. This condition of skin, in which yellow colorat...

  1. DOE Human Reliability Program Removals Report 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results of the comprehensive data analysis and assessment of all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) facilities that have positions requiring workers to be certified in the Human Reliability Program (HRP). Those facilities include: Albuquerque, Amarillo, DOE Headquarters, Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Oakland, and Savannah River. The HRP was established to ensure, through continuous review and evaluation, the reliability of individuals who have access to the DOE's most sensitive facilities, materials, and information

  2. Application of neutron radiation inspection at the Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron radiographic capability has been established at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, which is operated for the Department of Energy by Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co. A 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator is employed as the neutron source. Neutron radiation inspection techniques have been developed to detect and observe discontinuities in explosive materials encased in aluminum, lead, steel and combinations of these casement materials. These data demonstrate that the capability exists for obtaining satisfactory neutron radiographs of many explosive-loaded components. Additional work will be performed in order to further determine applicable capabilities of the 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator. (Auth.)

  3. APLICACIÓN DE LA FOTOCATÁLISIS OXIDATIVA CON ZnO Y LUZ SOLAR PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA CONTAMINADA CON COLORANTES INDUSTRIALES

    OpenAIRE

    ORTIZ ROMERO, DERLY DAVID

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo aplicar la fotocatálisis oxidativa con ZnO como fotocatalizador y luz solar para el tratamiento de agua contaminada con colorantes industriales. Para este fin; se validaron las técnicas analíticas necesarias para efectuar la investigación en los colorantes Amarillo Oro K–2R, Ácido Carmínico y Rodamina B; los métodos mostraron respuesta lineal, sensible y precisa para los tres colorantes; asimismo se realizó monitorización de la intensidad de...

  4. Ictericia Neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco de la Fuente, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    El motivo que ha llevado a la realización de este trabajo fin de grado sobre el tema de la ICTERICIA NEONATAL se debe a la elevada frecuencia de su aparición en la población. Un porcentaje elevado de RN la padecen al nacer siendo, en la mayor parte de los casos, un proceso fisiológico resuelto con facilidad debido a una inmadurez del sistema hepático y a una hiperproducción de bilirrubina. La ictericia neonatal es la pigmentación de color amarillo de la piel y mucosas en ...

  5. Don Germán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  6. Lumbalgia, ortesis y calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez-Teijon, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Los sistemas estabilizadores pasivos de la columna son los ligamentos y el disco, y los activos los músculos. Entre los ligamentos de la columna uno de los más interesantes, en términos biomecánicos, es el ligamento amarillo. Su gran cantidad de fibras elásticas le da su color característico y le permite actuar como un resorte almacenando energía durante la flexión y posteriormente ayudando a los músculos durante la extensión. Su capacidad elástica le impide protruir dentro...

  7. Mucormycosis in two community hospitals and the role of infectious disease consultation: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yue Dai,1 James W Walker,1 Ruba A Halloush,2 Faisal A Khasawneh3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 2Amarillo Pathology Group, 3Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USA Background: Mucorales are ubiquitous filamentous fungi that can cause a devastating, invasive infection. This order has become an increasingly important pathogen during the last two decades, due to the dramatic increase in patients with predisposing factors. The aim of this retrospective study was to report the clinical characteristics, therapeutic options, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with mucormycosis in community hospitals in Amarillo, Texas, and to reflect on the role of infectious disease (ID physicians in managing this potentially life-threatening problem. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients hospitalized with mucormycosis in two community hospitals in Amarillo between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2011. Results: Ten patients were diagnosed with mucormycosis during the study period, with a mean age of 58.8 years. There were five cases of pulmonary infection, two cases of cutaneous infection, two cases of rhinocerebral infection, and one case of gastrointestinal infection. Poorly controlled diabetes was the most common risk factor, identified in six patients, followed by hematological malignancy, immunosuppression, and trauma. ID physicians were consulted in all cases, albeit late in some cases. Nine patients received antifungal therapy, and five patients received surgical debridement. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B were prescribed for eight patients, used alone in two cases, and combined with caspofungin and posaconazole in one and five cases, respectively. One patient was treated with posaconazole alone. Eight patients were discharged from the hospital alive. The mortality rate at 6-month

  8. Hacia una teoría socialista del racismo

    OpenAIRE

    West, Cornel

    1996-01-01

    Debería ser aparente que las prácticas racistas dirigidas hacia personas de color negro, café, amarillo y rojo son un elemento integral de la historia de los Estados Unidos, como lo son actualmente de su cultura y sociedad. Esto no sólo significa que los americanos han heredado actitudes y prejuicios racistas, sino más importante, es que las formas institucionales de racismo están incrustadas en la sociedad americana, tanto de manera visible como invisible.

  9. Quiste epidérmico de inclusión de párpado. Presentación de 2 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Eréndira Güemez Sandoval; Fátima Cedillo Azuela; Rosalba García Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    El quiste epidérmico de inclusión o quiste epidermoide es una lesión intraepitelial, redonda u ovalada, de color amarillo, de crecimiento progresivo y consistencia suave; de diversa etiología, se origina por la proliferación de las células epidérmicas superficiales dentro de la dermis y su contenido es queratina. Se presenta frecuentemente en los párpados. El diagnóstico se realiza por la clínica y por el estudio histopatológico; el tratamiento es con escisión quirúrgica completa.

  10. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1996--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This report from the Amarillo National REsource Center for PLutonium provides research highlights and provides information regarding the public dissemination of information. The center is a a scientific resource for information regarding the issues of the storage, disposition, potential utilization and transport of plutonium, high explosives, and other hazardous materials generated from nuclear weapons dismantlement. The center responds to informational needs and interpretation of technical and scientific data raised by interested parties and advisory groups. Also, research efforts are carried out on remedial action programs and biological/agricultural studies.

  11. Reference Manual: Navy Message Words and Word Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-29

    8217 NRL MEMORANDUM REPORT 4673 5 ALVIN 7 ALWAYS 3 ALYWIN 58 AM 1 AMARILLO 29 AMAYA 3 AMAZON 3 AMAZONE I AMAZONIA 11 AMBASSADOR 4 AMBIENT I AMBIGUITY 5...2 INVESTIGATE 3 INVESTIGATING 9 INVESTIGATION 1 INVESTIGATIONS 2 INVESTIGATIVE I INVESTMENT 8 INVITATION 6 INVITE I I INVITED 2 INVITES 6 INVOKE 2...MADDALENA I MADDEN 89 MADE 3 MADISON I MADRE 2 MADRID 11 MAERSK 2 MAESTRA 2 MAF 4 MAG I MAGAZINE I MAGGIORE 3 MAGILL 2 MAGNOLIA I MAGNUS I MAGSAYSAY 2

  12. Estudio De Factibilidad Y Viabilidad De Un Proyecto De Inversión Para La Creación De Una Empresa Que Elabore Alimento Balanceado Para Pollos De Engorde En El Cantón Babahoyo De La Provincia De Los Ríos.

    OpenAIRE

    CEDEÑO MENDOZA, PEDRO ANTONIO; MARIA DE LOURDES, SALAZAR MAZAMBA

    2011-01-01

    La producción y consumo de carne de pollo en el mundo, en el Ecuador y en el cantón Babahoyo, constituye una de las actividades más relevantes en el contexto nutricional de la población humana, en virtud de su gran aporte a lo largo de toda la cadena agroalimentaria, desde la producción agrícola de materias primas como maíz amarillo y sub productos agroindustriales del arroz y la soya, hasta la elaboración de alimentos balanceados y la generación de productos terminados como la carne de poll...

  13. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mazaika, R.R.; Phillips, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, Pantex requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conduct a series of ecological surveys to provide baseline information for designing detailed ecological studies on the various ecosystems present at the Pantex plant site near Amarillo, Texas. To this end, PNL scientist and technicians visited the site at different times to conduct investigations and collect samples: July 6--13: birds, small mammals, general habitat assessment; August 10--14: wetland vegetation, birds, small mammals, Playa invertebrates; and September 7--11: birds, small mammals. This report presents the results of these three surveys

  14. Change in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Accuracy with Age of Input Data from the Global Forecast System (GFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    were downloaded from the University of Wyoming’s weather website (http://www.weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html). An alternative site is the RAOB...Midwest US Amarillo, TX AMA 2016-01-02-12 37.12, –98.66 Dodge City, KS DDC and Lamont, OK LMN 2016-02-10-12 Norman, OK OUN...0-, 24-, 48-, 72-, or 96-h forecast from the same day, 1, 2, 3, or 4 days earlier, respectively. For example, for a 12 Coordinated Universal Time

  15. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  17. Monogenea of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Vidal-Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the monogeneans of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll detected 16 species already reported from the Indo-West Pacific faunal region. A total of 653 individual fish from 44 species were collected from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Eighteen species of fish were infected with monogeneans. The monogenean species recovered were: Benedenia hawaiiensis on Acanthurus xanthopterus, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus and Rhinecanthus aculeatus; Ancyrocephalus ornatus on Arothron hispidus; Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae on Lutjanus fulvus; Euryhaliotrema grandis on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema acanthuri on Acanthurus triostegus; Haliotrema aurigae on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema dempsteri on Acanthurus xanthopterus; Haliotrema minutospirale on Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Haliotrematoides patellacirrus on Lutjanus monostigma; Neohaliotrema bombini on Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Abudefduf sordidus; Acleotrema girellae and Acleotrema parastromatei on Kyphosus cinerascens; Cemocotylella elongata on Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus and Caranx papuensis; Metamicrocotyla macracantha on Crenimugil crenilabris; and Pseudopterinotrema albulae on Albula glossodonta. All these monogenean–host combinations represent new geographical records. The monogenean species composition of the Palmyra Atoll is similar to that of the Hawaiian Islands. However, the number of species recovered was lower compared with other localities within the Indo-West Pacific, perhaps due to the geographical isolation of Palmyra Atoll.

  18. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-02-22

    In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  19. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Australia, including description of four new species and erection of Digitiphilometroides gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Barton, Diane P

    2018-04-16

    The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp. from the ovary of the goldbanded jobfish Pristipomoides multidens (Day) (Perciformes: all Lutjanidae); and Digitiphilometroides marinus (Moravec et de Buron, 2009) comb. n. from the body cavity of the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Rachycentridae). Digitiphilometroides gen. n. is established based on the presence of unique digital cuticular ornamentations on the female body. New gonad-infecting species, P. arafurensis and P. mawsonae, are characterised mainly by the length of spicules (252-264 µm and 351-435 µm, respectively) and the structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. papillicaudata is characterised mainly by the body length (70 mm) of gravid female, extent of the oesophageal gland, size of caudal projections and the location in the host. Dentiphilometra malabarici differs from congeners mainly in the arrangement of circumoral teeth (in a single row), extent of the oesophageal gland and the absence of sclerotised teeth or protuberances on the oesophageal lobes in the mouth. Digitiphilometroides marinus has not previously been reported from fishes in Australian waters.

  20. Control of parasites in cultured marine finfishes in Southeast Asia--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, L T

    1997-10-01

    Mariculture in Southeast Asia began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly during the 1980s, with the commercial hatchery production of the seabass Lates calcarifer. Other important cultured species were Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus malabaricus, Lutjanus johni, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Intensification in the polyculture of these species and the large-scale international movement of fingerlings or juveniles, as well as the rapid expansion and concentration of fish farms, have caused severe problems resulting from parasitic infections. Infections in maricultured fish are predominantly caused by monoxenous parasites, in particular the capsalid and diplectanid monogeneans. Heteroxenous blood parasites also successfully maintained transmission in the culture system despite their requirement for an intermediate host. Prophylactic chemical treatments helped to reduce parasitic infection but did not eliminate them and once introduced into the floating netcage culture system, these parasites managed to maintain their transmission successfully. Despite the current lack of information regarding the biology of many parasites affecting cultured marine fishes, it nevertheless is possible to develop methodologies to produce an integrated health management system specifically designed to the needs of the mariculture practiced in the Southeast Asian region. This system is important and should include a sequence of prophylaxes, adequate nutrition, sanitation, immunization and an effective system of marketing for farmed fishes.

  1. Origins of the Salado, Seven Rivers, and San Andres salt margins in Texas and New Mexico: Revision 1: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S.D.; Murphy, P.J.

    1987-02-01

    The present boundaries of the San Andres, Seven Rivers, and Salado salts generally lie along the periphery of the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins. Various geologic mechanisms occurring singularly or in combination determined the positions of the salt margins. These mechanisms include nondeposition of salt and syndepositional and postdepositional dissolution. In New Mexico, San Andres units pinch out against the Pedernal and Sierra Grande Uplifts, indicating that nondeposition established the original salt margins there. Syndepositional dissolution of exposed Upper San Andres salts occurred in response to Guadalupian upwarp of the basin margins. Triassic erosion differentially removed Permian salt-bearing formations along the uplifts. Late Tertiary dissolution is indicated by fill of north-south trending collapse valleys. In Texas, Guadalupian upwarp along the Amarillo Uplift caused pinchout of Units 2 and 3 in the Lower San Andres and influenced the deposition of subsequent salt-bearing strata. The discontinuity of Upper San Andres evaporites across the Amarillo Uplift suggests syndepositional dissolution. Along the eastern and northeastern basin margin, dissolution may have accompanied Triassic erosion of locally uplifted Upper Permian strata. Tertiary dissolution is recognized beneath anomalously thick Ogallala Formation sections that overlie collasped Permian strata. 49 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Teste do reflexo vermelho: forma de prevenção à cegueira na infância Test del reflejo rojo: forma de prevención de la ceguera en la niñez Red reflex: prevention way to blindness in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sousa Carvalho de Aguiar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório, quantitativo, que objetivou investigar o resultado e as gradações de cor do teste do reflexo vermelho em recém-nascidos (RN. Amostra composta de 180 RN de uma maternidade em Fortaleza-CE. Destes, 156 tiveram resultado "não alterado" e 24 "suspeito". Quanto ao aspecto do reflexo, em 144 RN a coloração foi a mesma nos dois olhos, enquanto em 35 apresentou-se vermelha, em 33, laranja avermelhada, em 46, alaranjada, em 24, amarelo claro, em 6 amarela com manchas esbranquiçadas centrais. Dos casos suspeitos, o reflexo mostrou-se amarelo claro com manchas esbranquiçadas ou rajadas. O enfermeiro treinado é um dos profissionais competentes para realizar o teste, podendo desempenhar importante papel na Unidade Neonatal com ações de prevenção de alterações oculares na infância.Estudio exploratorio, cuantitativo, que tuvo como objeto investigar el resultado y las gradaciones de color del test del reflejo rojo en recién nacidos (RN. La muestra constó de 180 RN de una maternidad en Fortaleza-CE. De estes, 156 presentaron resultado "no alterado" y 24 "sospechoso". Cuanto al aspecto del reflejo, 144 RN presentaron la misma coloración en los dos ojos, de estes 35 presentó rojo, 33 naranja rojizo, 46 anaranjado, 24 amarillo claro, 6 amarillo con manchas blanquecinas centrales. De los casos sospechosos, el reflejo presentó amarillo claro con manchas blanquecinas con rayas. El enfermero entrenado para realizar el test del reflejo rojo puede desempeñar importante papel en la Unidad Neonatal con acciones de prevención de alteraciones oculares en la niñez.This study had as objective to investigate the result and the colour gradation of red reflex test in newborns (NB. It is a exploratory, quantitative study and the sample was 180 NB from maternity ward in Fortaleza-CE. From this, 156 showed result "no altered" and 24 "suspect". About the aspect of red reflex, 144 NB showed the same coloration in the two eyes, in 35 of

  3. Rare parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) from Egyptian Red Sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-10-01

    Two rare species of parasitic copepods belonging to the genus Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from Red Sea fishes, caught at El-Tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Adult females of Lernanthropus sanguineus Song & Chen, 1976 were found on the gills of snapper Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål). This species was known only from its original description based on material from Chinese waters. Adult females of Lernanthropus triangularis Pillai, 1963 were obtained from the gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskål). Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters and both host records are new.

  4. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  5. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  6. Preselección de especies para la piscicultura marina en el Pacífico Sur de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Escárcega Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada la diversidad de peces en el Pacífico Sur de México y el deterioro que enfrenta más de 50% de las pesquerías que en él existen, se requiere identificar a las especies con los mayores atributos acuícolas para promover su conservación y el desarrollo regional. Se analizaron 36 especies sobre tres precondiciones básicas: valor comercial, eurihalinidad y talla. Resultaron como especies de primera elección: el robalo prieto (Centropomus nigrescens, el mero (Epinephelus itajara y el guachinango del Pacífico (Lutjanus peru. La pesca constituye la mayor fuente de impacto ecológico en los océanos. La piscicultura marina tropical representa una vertiente productiva a impulsarse en México.

  7. Diversity and Abundance of a Tropical Fishery on the Pacific Shelf of Michoacán, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J.; Sánchez, P.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-10-01

    This study was undertaken on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Some 22 523 individual fish were sampled, representing two classes, 154 genera, 64 families and 257 species in a total area of 50 km 2. The species Lutjanus guttatus, Scomberomorus sierra, Cynoscion reticulatus, Sphyrna lewini, Arius platypogonand Caranx caninuswere the most numerically abundant, amounting to 53·2% of the whole sample. Two models for sample size analysis and richness prediction were used. From these, the forecast for a theoretical doubling of the level of sampling effort (90 days) was 297 and 331. The Shannon diversity indexes in summer (June-August) and winter (December-February) were significantly different (paired t-test, PUPGMA) indicated two climatic periods and three species assemblages. In addition, the nodal fidelity analysis agreed with the importance of the winter season in the study area. Two El Niño/southern oscillation incidences from 1986-87 and 1991-93 occurred during the sampling period.

  8. First record of Microsporeans and Myxosporeans (Protozoa) infecting some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coasts of the Emirates and Qatar with a description of Myxobolus Arabicus n. sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardousha, M.; El-Tantawy, S.

    2002-01-01

    During a comprehensive survey carried out on helminth parasites of Arabian Gulf fishes mainly from the coasts of Emirates and Qatar, two microsporeans and three myxosporeans Protozoa were reported and described for the first time. The microsporeans included Nosema sauridae and Glugea stephani. Nosema sauridae was very common among lizard fish Saurida undosquamis which were caught from the Emirati coasts (56%) and also Qatari coasts (28%). Glugea stephani infected Psettodes erumei at the Emirati coasts with a prevalence of 10%. The myxosporideans comprised Myxobolus arabicus n. sp. from the body cavity of Plectorhynchus schotaf (Emirati coasts, 11%), Kudoa sp. from the musculature of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Emirati coasts, 8%) and also the heart wall of Caranx malabricus (Qatari coasts, 11%) and Henneguya sp. from the gills and mouth skin of Epinephelus tauvina (Emirati coasts, 7%). Fresh cysts and spores were described and photographed in situ. (author)

  9. Artificial reefs as a conservation tool: biodiversity assessment and perspectives in SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soeth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs (ARs has been suggested as a possible tool for reef fish restoration and biodiversity rehabilitation. In Brazil, and since 1996, ARs has been implemented in the continental shelf between latitudes of 25.6-25.8 S. Underwater visual censuses (UVC of fishes were conducted from 2010 to 2015 at both artificial (AR and natural rocky (NR reefs to assess similarity at local sites. NR were natural formations with an average depth of 10 meters, and UVC were performed between 6 to 8 meters. Protected AR (PAR were installed between the years 1996 to 2001 at depths ranging from 15 to 18 meters. It consist of a total of 1788 hollow blocks (2.4-3.6 m2 divided into eleven groups. Non protected AR (NPAR have been implemented between the years 2010 and 2012 at depths between 9 to 12 meters. It consist of a total of 2832 rectangular hollow blocks (1.2 m2 distributed in 10 parallel groups near the coastal line. Since 2013, NR and PAR were classified as marine protected areas (MPAs. A total of 69 fish species, distributed in 38 families and 10 orders were recorded during the UVC. PERMANOVA analysis showed a decreasing similarity between the NPAR and PAR (20.3%, NR and PAR (15.9%, and NR and NPAR (10.5%. The density of fish showed a strong correlation with the ARs, probably due to a higher perimeter-to-area ratio. Species richness and Shannon diversity index were correlated with NR, such as taxonomic distinctness was correlated to NPAR. Pielou's evenness index and taxonomic diversity were negatively correlated with PAR. Five threatened species (following IUCN, Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelus marginatus, Hyporthodus niveatus, Lutjanus cyanopterus and Lutjanus analis were recorded, which were noticeably more abundant in PAR, namely the former. The hereby data suggested the importance of the implementation of artificial reefs for conservation purposes, namely within MPAs.

  10. Fish assemblage of the Mamanguape Environmental Protection Area, NE Brazil: abundance, composition and microhabitat availability along the mangrove-reef gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josias Henrique de Amorim Xavier

    Full Text Available Reefs, mangroves and seagrass biotopes often occur in close association, forming a complex and highly productive ecosystem that provide significant ecologic and economic goods and services. Different anthropogenic disturbances are increasingly affecting these tropical coastal habitats leading to growing conservation concern. In this field-based study, we used a visual census technique (belt transects 50 m x 2 m to investigate the interactions between fishes and microhabitats at the Mamanguape Mangrove-Reef system, NE Brazil. Overall, 144 belt transects were performed from October 2007 to September 2008 to assess the structure of the fish assemblage. Fish trophic groups and life stage (juveniles and adults were recorded according to literature, the percent cover of the substrate was estimated using the point contact method. Our results revealed that fish composition gradually changed from the Estuarine to the Reef zone, and that fish assemblage was strongly related to the microhabitat availability, as suggested by the predominance of carnivores at the Estuarine zone and presence of herbivores at the Reef zone. Fish abundance and diversity were higher in the Reef zone and estuary margins, highlighting the importance of structural complexity. A pattern of nursery area utilization, with larger specimens at the Transition and Reef Zone and smaller individuals at the Estuarine zone, was recorded for Abudefduf saxatilis, Anisotremus surinamensis, Lutjanus alexandrei, and Lutjanus jocu. Our findings clearly suggests ecosystem connectivity between mangrove, seagrass and reef biotopes, and highlighted the importance of Mamanguape Mangrove-Reef System as a priority area for conservation and research, whose habitat mosaics should be further studied and protected.

  11. Description and culture of a new myxomycete, Licea succulenticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosquera, Juan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new succulenticolous myxomycete of the genus Licea is described based on material from Spain (the Canary Islands, Mexico and the US A. It is very similar to L. biforis but differs in its smaller sporophores. and its bigger orange-yellow spores.The spores have a thick wall that is thinner and lighter towards one side. These differentiating characters were stable in spore to spore culture on agar.Se describe una nueva especie de Myxomycetes, perteneciente al genero Licea, que se desarrolla en plantas suculentas. Los materiales proceden de Esparia (Islas Canarias, Mexico y Estados Unidos. Se parece a L biforis pero difiere en sus pequenos esporoforos y en sus esporas mayores, amarillo-naranjas, con una gruesa pared que gradualmente hacia un lado se adelgaza y se vuelve mas palida. La estabilidad de estos caracteres ha quedado demostrada por el cultivo de espora a espora en laboratorio.

  12. [Establish and manage a National Resource Center for plutonium, Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.

    1995-06-27

    The initial phase of the Plutonium Information Resource is well under way. Board members developed linkages with Russian scientists and engineers and obtained names of technical team members. Nuclear proposals were reviewed by the Nuclear Review Group, and the proposals were modified to incorporate the review group`s comments. Portions of the proposals were approved by the Governing Board. Proposals for education and outreach were reviewed by the Education Proposal Review Group, considered by the Governing Board and approved. The Senior Technical Review Group met to consider the R&D programs associated with fissile materials disposal. A newsletter was published. Progress continued on the high explosives demonstration project, on site-specific environmental work, and the multiattribute utility analysis. Center offices in Amarillo were furnished, equipment was purchased, and the lease was modified.

  13. Propiedades físico-mecánicas del fruto y del sistema fruto-pedúnculo del café variedad Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Tobón Elizabeth

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Nacional de Investigación de café CENICAFE, se estudió para café cereza variedad Colombia de frutos amarillos y rojos, de 2,3 y 4 años en estado de maduración verde, pintón y maduro, las propiedades físicas y mecánicas del sistema fruto-pedúnculo: dimensiones de los frutos, peso, momento de inercia con respecto a los tres ejes(x, y, z, longitud, diámetro y rigidez del pedúnculo, fuerza de tracción y momentos flectores y torsores necesarios para el desprendimiento de los frutos.

  14. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolyatko, V. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russia)

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject “Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium.” This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  15. Contenido de fósforo fítico, actividad fitásica y absorción del fósforo de cereales en pollos

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Glenn; Godoy, Susmira; Chicco, Claudio F.

    2009-01-01

    Se determinó el contenido de fósforo total, fósforo fítico y actividad fitásica intrínseca del trigo duro, maíz amarillo y un sorgo alto en taninos y, en pollos de 4 semanas de edad, se midió la retención neta aparente del fósforo total y del fósforo fítico de los tres cereales, así como la actividad fitásica de la mucosa del intestino delgado de las aves. El contenido de fósforo total y del fósforo fítico fue similar a los valores generalmente reseñados para estos granos. La actividad fitási...

  16. Heterogeneidad del color en formulaciones de merkén elaboradas a partir de ecotipos de ají (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. "Cacho de cabra"

    OpenAIRE

    Leonelli Cantergiani, Gina N; Díaz Becerra, Christian M; Tighe Neira, Ricardo M; Castillo Rubio, Claudia G; Pardo Díaz, Fernando L.; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó la heterogeneidad del color en cinco muestras de merkén formuladas a partir de ecotipos de ají, Capsicum annuum L., cv. "Cacho de cabra" cultivados en la Región de La Araucanía y Región del Maule, Chile. La evaluación se realizó mediante la extracción y cuantificación del contenido de carotenoides. Las variables evaluadas en la cuantificación de carotenoides fueron carotenoides rojos (R) y carotenoides amarillo-naranja (A). Además, se utilizó el sistema de col...

  17. Los sindicatos blancos de Monterrey (1931-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Ramírez Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sindicatos blancos son el equivalente mexicano a los sindicatos amarillos de Francia y España y a los planes de representación del empleado de Estados Unidos y Canadá. De ellos se dice que son organismos obreros sometidos a la voluntad de los patrones, que los crean y dirigen. En México, esta clase de sindicatos eran hasta hace poco un fenómeno regional, restringido a la ciudad de Monterrey, donde han tenido su mayor desarrollo. Sin embargo, coincidiendo con la crisis y reorganización del sindicalismo mexicano y la apertura del sistema político nacional, han crecido en número e influencia política. En este artículo se ofrece un resumen histórico de este movimiento.

  18. Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, C.; Kirby, G.; Jordan, D.; Lawrence, J.H.; Wiesner, W.; Kosovec, A.; Swanson, R.K.; Smith, R.T.; Johnson, C.C.; Hodson, H.O.

    1976-04-01

    Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly distributed winds of relatively high velocity, with average wind power density of 0.53 kW/m/sup 2/ at 30 m height at Amarillo, Texas, a representative location. The annual period of calm is extremely low. Three separate compressed air storage systems with good potential were analyzed in detail, and two potential pumped-hydro facilities were identified and given preliminary consideration. Aquifer storage of compressed air is a promising possibility in the region.

  19. Deaf Smith County air quality analysis: Letter report: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Air quality impacts due to site characterization, and repository construction and operation activities were evaluated in the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas environmental assessment (EA). The analyses on which the impact assessments are based made with dispersion models recommended by the EPA for such applications, meteorological data from a nearby representative National Weather Service station at Amarillo, Texas, and available background air quality data from an urban monitoring location. Maximum offsite concentrations of total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide were estimated for periods of maximum emissions identified for each pollutant. Estimates of total annual salt deposition resulting from repository salt handling operations were also made. 36 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs

  20. Cantharellus gallaecicus (Blanco-Dios Olariaga, comb. & stat. nov (Cantharellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariaga, Ibai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cantharellus gallaecicus comb. & stat. nov. is proposed, after the examination of its holotype and additional material. Based on the characters observed in all the studied material (i.e., thinwalled hyphae of the pileipelis, minute basidiomata with white to grey pileus, and surface that turns yellow when bruised it is considered that C. gallaecicus is more closely related to C. romagnesianus than to C. cibarius.Se propone Cantharellus gallaecicus comb. & stat. nov. tras revisar su holótipo y material adicional disponible. Dado que todo el material examinado posee hifas del pileipelis de pared delgada, basidiomas pequeños con píleo de blanco a gris, y superficie que vira a amarillo al roce, se considera que C. gallaecicus es una especie más estrechamente relacionada con C. romagnesianus que con C. cibarius.

  1. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 12: Pantex site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. DOE Pantex Plant is located in the panhandle of Texas approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The Plant site was originally constructed in 1942 for conventional shell- and bomb-loading. In 1950, this Plant began to perform nuclear explosives operations. Today, the Pantex Plant is operated by Mason ampersand Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant functions include (1) final assembly of new nuclear explosives; (2) maintenance, modification, and quality assurance testing of nuclear explosives already in the military stockpile; (3) disassembly of nuclear explosives that are no longer required in the military stockpile; and (4) interim storage of nuclear explosives components. This report presents results of an environmental, safety, and health assessment of the Pantex Plant for the storage of plutonium

  2. Interim storage of dismantled nuclear weapon components at the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidice, S.J.; Inlow, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    Following the events of 1989 and the subsequent cessation of production of new nuclear weapons by the US, the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex has shifted from production to dismantlement of retired weapons. The sole site in the US for accomplishing the dismantlement mission is the DOE Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. Pending a national decision on the ultimate storage and disposition of nuclear components form the dismantled weapons, the storage magazines within the Pantex Plant are serving as the interim storage site for pits--the weapon plutonium-bearing component. The DOE has stipulated that Pantex will provide storage for up to 12,000 pits pending a Record of Decision on a comprehensive site-wide Environmental Impact Statement in November 1996

  3. AAA - University Fellowship Program for 2001: Process, Progress and Prospects (Report on the Solicitation and Award of AAA-UFP Fellowships)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Freddie; Dixon, Cathy

    2002-01-01

    The AAA University Fellowship Program (AAA-UFP) was developed by the Amarillo National Research Center (ANRC) in fiscal year 2001 for The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology (NE), Office of Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA). The AAA-UFP provides financial support for science and engineering students to pursue master's degrees in areas that support the AAA Program. Each fellow's thesis research must relate to the AAA program and must be approved by the Department of Energy. ANRC manages the AAA-UFP program and managed the solicitation in an open and competitive process, resulting in the award of 10 fellowships. This paper discusses the process, the response, results and recommendations for subsequent program years. (authors)

  4. Novedades en el uso del barniz de flúor. Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Perona Miguel de Priego

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los barnices fluorados se utiliza en la odontologia desde hace mucho tiempo demostrando ser eficaz en la inhibición de la desmineralización del esmalte y promoción de la remineralización del mismo, una presentación tradicional es de color amarillo/naranja que siempre ha sido de cuestionar por los padres de familia si se está realizando una profilaxis dental porque aplicar uma sustancia de color sobre los dientes. Se presenta la técnica de um nuevo barniz transparente en un niño de 5 años de edad que presentaba lesiones de manchas blancas y su control a los 21 días.

  5. Urticaria pigmentosa de presentación atípica en la infancia: Reporte de un caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Moll-Manzur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La Urticaria Pigmentosa es el tipo más frecuente de mastocitosis cutáneas de inicio en la edad pediátrica, representando el 75% de los casos. Se presenta con máculas y/o pápulas de color amarillo a café-rojizo, usualmente con signo de Darier positivo y prurito. El 88% presenta compromiso de tronco. En este artículo compartimos el caso de una Urticaria Pigmentosa con presentación atípica: predominio de cara y sin compromiso de tronco.  Posteriormente realizamos una revisión de las mastocitosis cutáneas pediátricas.

  6. [Establish and manage a National Resource Center for plutonium, Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.

    1995-01-01

    The initial phase of the Plutonium Information Resource is well under way. Board members developed linkages with Russian scientists and engineers and obtained names of technical team members. Nuclear proposals were reviewed by the Nuclear Review Group, and the proposals were modified to incorporate the review group's comments. Portions of the proposals were approved by the Governing Board. Proposals for education and outreach were reviewed by the Education Proposal Review Group, considered by the Governing Board and approved. The Senior Technical Review Group met to consider the R ampersand D programs associated with fissile materials disposal. A newsletter was published. Progress continued on the high explosives demonstration project, on site-specific environmental work, and the multiattribute utility analysis. Center offices in Amarillo were furnished, equipment was purchased, and the lease was modified

  7. OXIDACIÓN POR VÍA HÚMEDA CATALÍTICA DE EFLUENTES INDUSTRIALES EMPLEANDO UN CATALIZADOR DE Pt SOPORTADO EN NANOTUBOS DE CARBONO DE PARED MÚLTIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ovejero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la efectividad de la oxidación por vía húmeda catalítica para tratar aguas residuales industriales en un reactor por lote. Para ello se han realizado ensayos con un contaminante modelo, el colorante básico Amarillo Directo 11 empleando como catalizador platino soportado en nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple (Pt/MWNT. Así mismo se ha realizado el tratamiento de dos efluentes industriales. Los resultados muestran tanto la alta efectividad del tratamiento en presencia del catalizador, como una importante disminución del carbono orgánico total y de la toxicidad en el efluente final. Se concluye que el proceso se ha demostrado eficaz tanto para el tratamiento del colorante básico ensayado, como en los dos efluentes residuales industriales.

  8. El Artista y la Enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Urbina Joiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    «Pienso asumir sin rodeos mi oficio de loco, así como Degas ha tomado la forma de un notario.»

    Van Gogh en carta a su hermano Théo (24 de marzo de 1889.

    Virginia Woolf y Vincent Van Gogh, trágicos genios del arte, son quizá las figuras que más encarnan ante el público occidental la antigua pregunta que todavía permanece: ¿La enfermedad crea al artista? Tras un brote psicótico, Virginia Woolf dijo haber escuchado cantar a los pájaros en griego, y años más tarde lo incluyó en la caracterización de Septimus, protagonista en La Señora Dalloway:

    Los hombres no deben cortar los árboles. Hay un Dios. (Anotaba estas revelaciones al dorso de sobres. Cambia el mundo. Nadie mata por odio. Hazlo saber (lo escribió. Esperó. Escuchaba. Un gorrión, encaramado en la barandilla de enfrente, canturreó: «¡Septimus, Septimus!», cuatro o cinco veces, y, siguió cantando, sacando una a una las notas, cantando con voz nueva y también penetrante, con palabras griegas… 

    Por su parte, Van Gogh escribió en la segunda carta a su hermano Théo, en septiembre de 1889:

    El segador está terminado […] Es todo amarillo, salvo unas líneas de colinas violetas, de un amarillo pálido y rubio. A mí eso me divierte, después de haberlo visto así a través de las rejas de hierro de una casa de locos. 

  9. Aspectos histomorfométricos y cuantitativos del ovario de Patagioenas maculosa (Aves, Columbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las variaciones estructurales y cuantitativas del ovario de Patagioenas maculosa (Temminck, 1813 durante el ciclo anual 2005 - 2006. Treinta y cinco hembras adultas se capturaron en el Departamento Río Primero (Córdoba, Argentina. Las gónadas se extrajeron, pesaron y fijaron en formol tamponado a pH 7.0 y procesaron de acuerdo a la técnica de inclusión en parafina. En la mayoría de las aves el análisis morfohistológico del ovario reveló un notorio desarrollo de la gónada desde mayo a febrero, observándose 4 ó 5 folículos vitelogénicos amarillos ≥ de 4 mm y folículos preovulatorios. El incremento del peso gonadal con un valor máximo en setiembre y octubre concordó con las características morfológicas de la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Luego de la ovipostura, los escasos folículos en desarrollo y abundantes folículos postovulatorios y atrésicos indicaron el comienzo de la regresión ovárica. En los meses de marzo y abril, el ovario exhibió el aspecto del reposo gonadal con abundantes ovocitos primarios, folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos blancos ≤ 2 mm, escasos folículos vitelogénicos amarillos ≥ 2 mm y folículos atrésicos pequeños. El peso mínimo fue registrado en marzo. De los resultados se infiere que P. maculosa ovipone durante la mayor parte del año y que la prolongada actividad gonadal de esta ave estaría relacionada con la gran disponibilidad de alimento en el área de muestreo.

  10. CRUZAS DIALÉLICAS ENTRE POBLACIONES NATIVAS DE MAÍZ DE YUCATÁN Y POBLACIONES MEJORADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Segura

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG y específica (ACE de dos dialelos formados cada uno con cinco poblaciones de maíz. El primer dialelo incluyó poblaciones precoces: Nalxoy Blanco, Nalxoy Amarillo, Xmehen-nal de Yaxcabá, V-533 y VS-536. El segundo incluyó maíces tardíos y precoces: Dzit-Bacal de Kantunil, Dzit-Bacal de Presumida, Dzit-Bacal de Bulukax, V-533 y VS-536. Se usaron bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones, 10 cruzas F1 y cinco progenitores por dialelo. Los datos se analizaron con el Método 2, Modelo I de Griffing. Para rendimiento de grano, en poblaciones precoces, la ACG explicó 86% de la variación y la ACE 14%. Las poblaciones VS-536, Nalxoy Blanco y Nalxoy Amarillo presentaron ACGs  de 0.21, 0.18 y 0.10. Con base en la ACE la mejor cruza fue Nalxoy Blanco x VS-536 (0.27. Para rendimiento de grano en poblaciones tardías, la ACG contribuyó con 78% de la variación y ACE con 22%. El mejor progenitor fue Dzit-Bacal de Bulukax (ACG = 0.21 y las mejores cruzas  Dzit-Bacal de Bulukax x VS-536 (ACE = 0.54 y Dzit-Bacal de Kantunil x VS-536 (ACE = 0.10. Los materiales más rendidores fueron combinaciones de poblaciones nativas x variedades mejoradas, propuestos como base para programas de mejoramiento.

  11. Ancestral Rocky Mountian Tectonics: A Sedimentary Record of Ancestral Front Range and Uncompahgre Exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) encompass multiple crustal provinces with characteristic crystallization ages across the central and western US. Two driving mechanisms have been proposed to explain ARM deformation. (1) Ouachita-Marathon collision SE of the ARM uplifts has been linked to an E-to-W sequence of uplift and is consistent with proposed disruption of a larger Paradox-Central Colorado Trough Basin by exhumation of the Uncompahgre Uplift. Initial exhumation of the Amarillo-Wichita Uplift to the east would provide a unique ~530 Ma signal absent from source areas to the SW, and result in initial exhumation of the Ancestral Front Range. (2) Alternatively, deformation due to flat slab subduction along a hypothesized plate boundary to the SW suggests a SW-to-NE younging of exhumation. This hypothesis suggests a SW-derived Grenville signature, and would trigger uplift of the Uncompahgre first. We analyzed depositional environments, sediment dispersal patterns, and sediment and basement zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He ages in 3 locations in the Paradox Basin and Central Colorado Trough (CCT). The Paradox Basin exhibits an up-section transition in fluvial style that suggests a decrease in overbank stability and increased lateral migration. Similarly, the CCT records a long-term progradation of depositional environments from marginal marine to fluvial, indicating that sediment supply in both basins outpaced accommodation. Preliminary provenance results indicate little to no input from the Amarillo-Wichita uplift in either basin despite uniformly westward sediment dispersal systems in both basins. Results also show that the Uncompahgre Uplift was the source for sediment throughout Paradox Basin deposition. These observations are inconsistent with the predictions of scenario 1 above. Rather, they suggest either a synchronous response to tectonic stress across the ARM provinces or an SW-to-NE pattern of deformation.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade nutricional em espécies de pescado mais produzidas no Estado da Bahia Quality evaluate nutritional the fisches more consumed in State of Bahia - Brazil

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    Graciele de Queiroz Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos fatores podem contribuir para a variabilidade na composição das diferentes espécies de pescado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo, identificar as espécies de pescado mais produzidas no Estado da Bahia, avaliar seu valor nutricional e realizar um levantamento das empresas beneficiadoras de pescado do Estado. Um questionário foi aplicado às beneficiadoras de pescado para a caracterização das empresas. Segundo a Bahia Pesca (2005, as espécies mais produzidas são: o camarão-rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis, representando 21,8% da produção estadual; a sardinha (Opisthonema oglinum, 10,2%; os vermelhos com as espécies guaiúba (Ocyurus chrysurus e o ariacó (Lutjanus synagris, 6,6%; seguidos pela tainha (Mugil spp., 4,1%. De acordo com o valor nutricional das espécies analisadas, a guaiúba foi considerada melhor para o consumo, por possuir menor teor de lipídios totais (0,82% e gordura saturada (28,74%. A produção de 43% das beneficiadoras de pescado do Estado da Bahia está entre 10 e 50 ton/mês e a principal dificuldade apresentada foi a falta de investimento do governo no setor.Several factors can contribute to the variability in the composition of the different species of fish. The objective of this work was to identify the most frequently consumed fish species in the State of Bahia to evaluate their nutritional value and to compile a list of fish processing companies in the State. A questionnaire was applied to the companies to characterize them. According to Bahia Pesca (2005, the most frequently consumed species are the shrimp-rose (Penaeus brasiliensis, accounting for 21.8% of the state production, the sardine (Opisthonema oglinum,10.2%, and the reds, especially guaiúba (Ocyurus chrysurus and ariacó (Lutjanus synagris, 6.6%, followed by the mullet (Mugil spp., 4.1%, respectively. Considering the nutritional value of the analyzed fish, the guaiúba was considered the best for consumption due to its smaller content of

  13. Kajian awal kadar merkuri (Hg dalam ikan dan kerang di Teluk Kao, Pulau Halmahera

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    Edward Edward

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of Hg  in some species of fish and mussels harvested from Kao Bay . Fish and mussels samples were purchased from fishermen at Kao Bay  in November 2015. The Hg concentration was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS.The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg was found in gurara fish (Nemipterus japonicus  that is 0.98 ppm, followed by suo fish  (Sphyraena jello  0.89 ppm,  tatameri fish (Gazza minuta  0.38 ppm, gaca fish (Lutjanus argentimaculatus 0.31 ppm, totodi fish (Synodus foetens  0.24 ppm,  bubara fish (Caranx sp 0, 19 ppm, ngafi fish (Stolephorus indicus 0.19 ppm and biji nangka fish (Upeneus vittatus 0.15 ppm. In the shelfish meat, the highest concentration of Hg is found in the blood mussels (Anadara granosa, that is 0.42 ppm, and then followed by papaco (Telescopium telescopium 0.05 ppm. The concentration of Hg in all samples of fish and shelfish were below from the threshold value for seafood fish and shellfish of 0.5 ppm and 1.0 ppm, respectively. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kadar Hg dalam beberapa jenis ikan dan kerang yang ada di Teluk Kao dalam kaitannya dengan kesehatan makanan hasil laut. Contoh ikan dan kerang di beli dari nelayan di Teluk Kao pada bulan November 2015. Kadar Hg  diukur dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (AAS. Hasilnya menunjukkan kadar Hg tertinggi dalam ikan dijumpai dalam daging ikan gurara (Nemipterus japonicus yakni 0,98 ppm, selanjutnya diikuti oleh ikan suo (Sphyraena jello 0,89 ppm, ikan tatameri (Gazza minuta 0,38 ppm, ikan gaca (Lutjanus argentimaculatus 0,31 ppm, ikan totodi (Synodus foetens 0,24 ppm, ikan bubara (Caranx sp 0,19 ppm, ikan ngafi (Stolephorus indicus  0,19 ppm, dan ikan biji nangka (Upeneus vittatus 0,15 ppm. Dalam daging kerang kadar Hg tertinggi dijumpai dalam kerang darah (Anadara granosa yakni 0,42 ppm selanjutnya dikuti oleh kerang papaco (Telescopium

  14. Estabilización de disoluciones acuosas de riboflavina por solapamiento espectral Stabilization of aqueous solution of Riboflavin by spectral overlapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gallardo Cabrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la fotoestabilización de la riboflavina en disolución acuosa a través de solapamiento espectral. En estudios previos se determinó que la longitud de onda a 445 nm promueve la degradación de la riboflavina, por eso se escogieron los colorantes que mejor eficiencia de absorción presentaran a esta longitud de onda. El estudio de fotoprotección consistió en determinar y comparar las constantes de velocidad (k0 de las reacciones de fotodegradación de la riboflavina en disoluciones (80 µM en presencia y ausencia de colorantes a diferentes concentraciones: tartrazina (40, 58, 71 y 187 µM, amarillo ocaso (80, 160, 442 y 1 600 µM y amarillo de quinoleína (80,133, 160 y 1 600 µM. Las cinéticas se realizaron irradiando las muestras en una cámara de simulación solar a 250 W.m-2, a diferentes tiempos y cuantificando la riboflavina residual, mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Las constantes de velocidad (k0 se determinaron mediante el método integral. En ausencia de colorantes la fotodegradación de la riboflavina obedece a una cinética de orden cero (k0= 0,0012 mg.mL-1×min-1 con un 79,9 % de degradación tras 20 min de exposición a la luz. En presencia de colorantes la estabilidad de la riboflavina mejora significativamente con el aumento de la concentración del colorante empleado; sin embargo, se encontró que el amarillo de quinoleína a bajas concentraciones (The photostabilization of Riboflavin (RF in aqueous solution was evaluated through spectral overlap. Previous studies established that wavelength at 445nm promoted RF degradation; hence dyes that exhibited high absorption performance at 445 nm were selected. The photoprotection study consisted in determining and comparing the rate constants (k0 of the RF photodegradation reactions in solutions (80 µM, both in presence and absence of dyes at different concentrations: tartrazine (40, 58, 71 y 187 µM, sunset yellow (80, 160, 442 y 1 600 µM and

  15. EFECTO DEL GRADO DE MADUREZ Y LAS CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FISICOQUÍMICAS DE LA PAPAYA HÍBRIDO POCOCÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardina Umaña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cosechó en Cariari (Guápiles, papaya Híbrido Pococí con 4 grados de maduración, con el objetivo de conocer cambios en las características físico-químicas que ocurren en la fruta bajo 2 condiciones de almacenamiento: 1 22°C y 85% humedad relativa (temperatura ambiente y 2 14°C y 95% humedad relativa, durante 14 días, seguidos de 9 días a 22°C y 85% humedad relativa. Los valores de la tasa respiratoria al inicio del almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente fueron bajos (6,3-13,3 ml.kg-1.h-1 de CO2, con importante alza entre el día 3 y 5, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas entre tratamientos a partir del día 7. Los frutos cosechados con grado 3, alcanzaron al menos un 75% de amarillo en el día 7, mientras que frutos de grado 1, en el día 9. A partir del día 5, no se presentaron diferencias en firmeza de cáscara entre los grados 1, 2 y 3. Se registraron valores de firmeza en pulpa menores a 20 N (relacionados con madurez de consumo, en los días 7 (grado 2 y grado 3 y 9 (grado 1. Después de salir del almacenamiento a 14°C, la respiración de los grados 1, 2 y 3 fue estadísticamente igual, con aumento importante en el día 5 del almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Se observó un incremento rápido en el porcentaje de amarillo entre los días 3 y 7 hasta alcanzar, todos los grados, porcentajes superiores al 75% en el día 7. A la salida del almacenamiento en frío, se encontró una pérdida importante de firmeza de la cáscara hasta 83% y de la pulpa hasta 90%. Los grados brix al momento de cosecha estuvieron comprendidos entre 7,9 y 11,3, con poca variación durante el almacenamiento, situación parecida a lo que se presentó con la acidez titulable.

  16. Complejidad de los precios nacionales de productos hortícolas e índices económicos mensuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Valdez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Las series históricas de los precios mensuales de los productos agrícolas, índices nacionales de precios para el consumidor y el productor, y las tasas de cambio entre pesos mexicanos y dólares estadounidenses pueden ser caracterizados por la dimensión fractal estadística D, estimada mediante la pendiente de los variogramas geoestadísticos a escala log-log, suponiendo que las relaciones entre las varianzas promedio y los incrementos de tiempo son descritas por una ley potencial. Este supuesto corresponde al concepto de autoafinidad. La D es un indicador de la predecibilidad: valores de 1 a 1.5 indican que es factible hacer predicciones de valores de la serie en estudio, mientras que valores >1.5 hasta 2 indican un comportamiento sumamente errático y que los valores son impredecibles. Las series de precios mensuales de ajo blanco, cebolla bola, col media, durazno amarillo y frijol flor de mayo tienen varianza finita, mientras que el resto de variables tienen varianza infinita a priori. La serie del precio mensual de ajo es descrita por una D = 1.46 ± 0.179, lo cual significa que su comportamiento es muy parecido al de la función fractal de movimiento Browniano. Valores de D > 1.5 se asocian a las series de precios de chile ancho seco y guayaba (D = 1.542 ± 0.069, D = 1.692 ± 0.157, respectivamente, así que esas distribuciones son caóticas porque en ellas un incremento positivo es seguido por uno negativo y viceversa, a grado tal que la variación de corto plazo es la dominante. Las series de precios mensuales de otros productos, índices nacionales de precios mensuales para el consumidor y el productor, y tasas de cambio (pesos mexicanos por dólar estadounidense a fin de mes y promedio mensual son descritas por Ds < 1.5; por lo tanto, las variaciones de largo plazo o tendencias son las persistentes. Especialmente, los valores de D para los índices nacionales de precios no son diferentes de los valores de dimensión topológica de

  17. Efecto del extracto acuoso de maca sobre la función cognitiva en ratas recién destetadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca, Lepidium meyenii walp, es una planta que crece en las alturas de los andes peruanos; es usada como alimento, por su valor nutricional y sus propiedades etnomedicinales, unidos a la fertilidad y vitalidad. En la actualidad, se ha incrementado el interés público en los polifenoles, que tendrían efecto inhibitorio sobre la actividad acetilcolinesterasa y butirilcolinesterasas, y de esta manera se mejoraría las funciones cognitivas, aunque los mecanismos aún no han sido dilucidados. Por esta razón, se ha propuesto que la maca es un adaptógeno, que aumenta la energía, resistencia y reduce el estrés. Objetivos: Demostrar y evaluar el efecto energizante de la maca amarilla sobre la memoria y el aprendizaje por medio de pruebas bioquímicas, en un modelo animal de ratas destetadas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas recién destetadas y extracto acuoso de maca amarillo. Intervenciones: A ratas recién destetadas se les administró extracto acuoso de maca amarillo (0,4 mg, 0,8 mg y 1,2 mg/g de peso, durante 15 días, y luego se les sometió a la prueba de aprendizaje espacial acuática de Morris. También, se tomó muestras de cerebro para determinaciones bioquímicas. Principales medidas de resultados: Mejoría del aprendizaje y la memoria. Resultados: Se encontró inhibición de la butirilcolinesterasa, cuando se administró dosis crecientes de maca, excepto el grupo que recibió 0,8 mg/g. Los niveles de lipoperoxidación en el cerebro (daño oxidativo disminuyeron al incrementar la dosis de maca; así mismo, los tiempos (s en hallar la plataforma en la prueba de Morris disminuyeron al incrementar la dosis de maca amarilla. La concentración de glutatión en el cerebro se incrementó con la administración de maca, pero sin ser significativo. Conclusiones

  18. Estudio bacteriológico de la Pasteurella pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Colichón

    1942-10-01

    Full Text Available Un considerable número de cepas de P. pestis aisladas en el Perú han sido estudiadas bacteriológicamente y los resultados obtenidos pueden ser resumidos en la forma siguiente: 2 cepas entre 148 estudiadas en caldo produjeron franco enturbiamiento del medio. La liquefación de la gelatina, la producción de indol y acetil metilcarbinol fueron negativos para todas las cepas estudiadas. En las condiciones ordinarias puede haber débil producción de SH2 por muy pocas cepas; en cambio, en el agar-Martín-infusión-extracto hepático la producción de SH2 ocurre en el mayor número de cepas, y en un considerable número de ellas en forma notablemente intensa. La temperatura de incubación es decisiva en la producción de hidrógeno sulfurado. Salvo una excepción la reducción del azul de metileno fue negativa para las cepas estudiadas, en esta misma forma la reducción de nitratos a nitritos, la producción de ácido nitroso y reacción del rojo de metilo fueron positivas para las cepas de P. pestis probadas. Todas las cepas estudiadas dieron reacción de catalasas positiva y no desarrollaron en ácido úrico, ni en medio de Koser. La acción de la P. pestis sobre los carbohidratos fue dividida en los siguientes grupos: Carbohidratos atacados constantemente con producción de ácido, no gas; ellos son: glucosa, maltosa, manita, xilosa, salicina y leche tornasolada. Carbohidratos constantemente no atacados, como son: sacarosa, rafinosa, dulcita, inosita, glicerina y dextrina. Carbohidratos, inconstantemente atacados y son: rhamnosa, trehalosa, lactosa, sorbita y arabinosa. En condiciones adecuadas de cultivo, muchas cepas pueden desarrollar en papa, entre las que desarrollaron se observaron algunas que producen pigmentación amarillo-cepia o amarillo dorado. Las pruebas, del ácido nitroso, de la reducción del azul de metileno y de la rahmnosa tienen valor relativo para el Diagnóstico de la Peste, en cambio la glicerina, el indol, la sacarosa

  19. Respuesta de Gallinas Ponedoras a Raciones con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Guandul (CajanusCajan L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruíz V. Juan Guillermo

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se dan los resultados de dos ensayos llevados a cabo en el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de Medellín, para estudiar el efecto producido por la harina de hojas de guandul(Cajanuscajan en la coloración de la yema y en la producción de ponedoras. Durante el primer ensayo se trabajó con 120 gallinas Hy-line en postura avanzada, usando 3 raciones con 74%, 70.5% y68.5%de maíz amarillo como material prima básica y niveles de 0%, 6% y 9% de harina de guandul respectivamente. Aunque a medida que se aumentó el nivel de guandul hubo una pequeña baja en la producción de huevos, esta diferencia no fue significativa, como tampoco lo fue el (consumo de alimento y la coloración de la yema. Esta última fue prácticamente igual en los 3 lotes, debido al alto contenido de maíz amarillo en cada una de las raciones. Para el segundo ensayo se trabajó con 160 gallinas de igual raza, pero con 2 -3 meses de postura y 4 tratamientos: 3 en base a sorgo con 0%, 9% Y 12 % de harina de guandul y un cuarto lote con ración comercial, molida para evitar diferencias. La producción de huevos presentó una diferencia significativamente superior, al nivel 0 .05 %, de los lotes 0%y comercial sobre 9% y 12%. En cuanto al consumo de alimento se encontró diferencia altamente significativa del lote comercial sobre los otros 3 lotes. También el comercial fue el de mayor consumo de alimento por docena de huevos producidos. La coloración de la yema del huevo del lote 0% de guandul fue nula obteniendo un producto de difícil mercado. En los lotes 9%, 12% y comercial fue apropiada y muy semejante la pigmentación. El alimento por docena de huevo durante el segundo ensayo fue mayor en el lote con ración comercial, luego 12 %, 9 % y 0% respectivamente. A los siete días se produjo la pigmentación adecuada en la yema del huevo. Huevos almacenados por 25 días no perdieron su grado de coloración, pero sí su

  20. Estrategias de presentación de espárragos (Asparagus officinalis L.: preferencias de los consumidores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los espárragos constituyen un producto hortícola no tradicional altamente perecedero que requiere ser comercializado con una adecuada presentación que permita prolongar su vida útil y al mismo tiempo brindar información sobre el producto como un servicio al consumidor que estimule el consumo. Dentro de las posibilidades de presentación se encuentran los tradicionales atados y actualmente, a nivel global, se está difundiendo el empleo de bandejas que permite una presentación IV Gama del producto final. La IV Gama representa un modelo de producción idóneo para elevar el nivel de servicio de los productos hortícolas frescos en general, lograr una mayor exhibición y la expansión del consumo. Con la finalidad de conocer las preferencias de los consumidores de espárrago respecto de los distintos atributos del producto final, se efectuó un estudio de diez variables: 1 tipos de envases (bandeja: B, atados con y sin film: ACR y ASR; 2 presencia de etiquetas (E; 3 color: en etiquetas (CE; 4 de fondo (CF; 5 de letras (CL; 6 presencia: de recetario (R; 7 de indicaciones de valor nutricional (VN; 8 de ilustraciones (I; 9 de logos (Lg y 10 calibres: G: grande; M: mediano y P: pequeño; asignando a cada una un puntaje de 1 – 10. A tal fin se efectuó un panel test a treinta y cuatro potenciales consumidores el 13/11/2008. Los CF utilizados fueron: 1: verde, 2: amarillo, 3: anaranjado, 4: celeste. Se encontraron diferencias. ACR obtuvo 47 % (puntaje 10, E fue muy valorado (70 % el mayor valor, 85 % consideró importante la presencia de color en las etiquetas, siendo el anaranjado con 53 % el color preferido de fondo, seguido del amarillo (32 % y para las letras el color negro (88 %. R y Lg fue muy valorado por el 90 %, mientras que VN e I por el 80 %. El 61 % de los consumidores prefirió el calibre M.

  1. Estrategias de presentación de espárragos (Asparagus officinalis L.: preferencias de los consumidores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espárragos constituyen un producto hortícola no tradicional altamente perecedero que requiere ser comercializado con una adecuada presentación que permita prolongar su vida útil y al mismo tiempo brindar información sobre el producto como un servicio al consumidor que estimule el consumo. Dentro de las posibilidades de presentación se encuentran los tradicionales atados y actualmente, a nivel global, se está difundiendo el empleo de bandejas que permite una presentación IV Gama del producto final. La IV Gama representa un modelo de producción idóneo para elevar el nivel de servicio de los productos hortícolas frescos en general, lograr una mayor exhibición y la expansión del consumo. Con la finalidad de conocer las preferencias de los consumidores de espárrago respecto de los distintos atributos del producto final, se efectuó un estudio de diez variables: 1 tipos de envases (bandeja: B, atados con y sin film: ACR y ASR; 2 presencia de etiquetas (E; 3 color: en etiquetas (CE; 4 de fondo (CF; 5 de letras (CL; 6 presencia: de recetario (R; 7 de indicaciones de valor nutricional (VN; 8 de ilustraciones (I; 9 de logos (Lg y 10 calibres: G: grande; M: mediano y P: pequeño; asignando a cada una un puntaje de 1 – 10. A tal fin se efectuó un panel test a treinta y cuatro potenciales consumidores el 13/11/2008. Los CF utilizados fueron: 1: verde, 2: amarillo, 3: anaranjado, 4: celeste. Se encontraron diferencias. ACR obtuvo 47 % (puntaje 10, E fue muy valorado (70 % el mayor valor, 85 % consideró importante la presencia de color en las etiquetas, siendo el anaranjado con 53 % el color preferido de fondo, seguido del amarillo (32 % y para las letras el color negro (88 %. R y Lg fue muy valorado por el 90 %, mientras que VN e I por el 80 %. El 61 % de los consumidores prefirió el calibre M.

  2. Aspectos estructurales y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata (Aves: Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Bulfon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los aspectos morfohistológicos y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Se utilizaron 5 hembras adultas. El análisis morfohistológico reveló la presencia de numerosos folículos en diferentes estadios de desarrollo y regresión. El epitelio simple de células granulosas caracterizó a los ovocitos primordiales y el pseudoestratificado a los folículos previtelogénicos, ambos tipos foliculares exhibieron un notorio cuerpo de Balbiani. En los folículos vitelogénicos blancos y amarillos (> de 1 mm se evidenció una compleja pared folicular formada por la zona radiada, el epitelio folicular estratificado y las envolturas tecales bien delimitadas, mientras que, en los vitelogénicos amarillos (> de 3 mm fue observado un epitelio simple con células cúbicas muy basófilas. Se identificaron dos tipos de atresia folicular: 1 pared folicular intacta o no bursting, la involución se realiza en el interior del folículo, comprende a la atresia lipoidal (Ovocitos primordiales y lipoglandular (folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos pequeños y 2 atresia por ruptura de la pared o bursting con extrusión del contenido ovoplásmico (folículos vitelogénicos > 1 mm. El análisis cuantitativo reveló una diferencia significativa (p <0,05, entre los folículos en desarrollo (< de 2 mm y los folículos mayores e idéntica diferencia entre lo folículos atrésicos pequeños (lipoidales y lipoglandulares y los folículos bursting. Los procesos de crecimiento y diferenciación (foliculogénesis y vitelogénesis y el de atresia folicular se desarrollan normalmente durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal, contribuyendo a la homeostasis del ovario de esta ave.

  3. Tratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de Arachis pintoi Arachis pintoi seeds as affect by pre-germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonia Vieira Rossetto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste Trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos prévios na germinação e no vigor de sementes de Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W. C. Greg.. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (2 lotes x 7 tratamentos, com quatro repetições. Para isto, foram utilizados dois lotes comerciais de sementes com o pericarpo (frutos de Arachis pintoi, da cv. Amarillo, que estavam armazenados por seis e 12 meses. Por lote, foram empregados os tratamentos de remoção ou não do pericarpo, de quebra do pericarpo, de exposição dos frutos íntegros ao aquecimento a 45º C por 48 e 72 horas e à hidratação por 24 e 48 horas. Posteriormente, por tratamento, foi realizada a avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação e do vigor (primeira contagem e emergência de plântulas. A remoção do pericarpo tornou as sementes mais vulneráveis à ação dos microrganismos. O aquecimento a 45º C por 48 e 72 horas propiciou a redução das sementes não germinadas. A hidratação por 48 horas favoreceu a germinação e o vigor das sementes de Arachis pintoi.The aim was to evaluate the effects of previous treatments in the Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W. C. Greg. seeds germination and vigour. A completely randomized design with four replication arranged in a factorial scheme (2 lots x 7 treatments, was used. For this, two commercial lots of seeds with intact pods of Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo, stored by six and 12 months, were used. In each lot, the treatments were employed through pod removal or not, the pod breakage and the exposition of intact pods at 45ºC for 48 and 72 hours and to the hidratation for 24 and 48 hours. Further, for treatment, it was performed the evaluation of water content, germination and vigor (first count of germination and seedling emergency. The pod removal became the seeds vulnerable to the action of microorganism. Heating at 45ºC for 48 and 72 hours caused reduction of the nom

  4. First occurrence of Argathona macronema (Bleeker, 1857) (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) on coral reef fishes along the Tuticorin coastal water, Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, Gurusamy; Mohanraj, Jayaraj; Jayanthi, Govinda Rajalu

    2017-03-01

    Isopod Parasites are considered as a major threat to the fishing industry, due to rigorous disease outbreaks. The parasites from the two economically important reef fish family Lutjanidae and Serranidae are analyzed i.e. Epinephelus malabaricus and Lutjanus rivulatus. The samples are obtained from the landings of Trawl net from Gulf of Mannar region of South east coast of India. They are severely infested by the isopod parasite Agrathona macronema in the Pectoral fins and ventral region of the body. This species is found to be the new record in the Gulf of Mannar region and deposited in the Marine laboratory of Kamaraj College. Length and weight of the host and parasites are measured. The parasites infested on 13 specimens of E. malabricus out of 8 and 17 out of 12 species of L. rivulatus . The prevalence of parasite on the grouper and snapper fish (61.53 and 70.58 %) and mean intensity (2.62 and 2.58 %) respectively. The prevalence was maximum in L. rivulatus and minimum in E. malbaricus may be to the host specificity. Further studies are needed to know the life cycle of the parasite, host preference, disease outbreak and its role in the coral reef ecosystem.

  5. Contrasting environmental drivers of adult and juvenile growth in a marine fish: implications for the effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Joyce Jia Lin; Rountrey, Adam Nicholas; Meeuwig, Jessica Jane; Newman, Stephen John; Zinke, Jens; Meekan, Mark Gregory

    2015-06-08

    Many marine fishes have life history strategies that involve ontogenetic changes in the use of coastal habitats. Such ontogenetic shifts may place these species at particular risk from climate change, because the successive environments they inhabit can differ in the type, frequency and severity of changes related to global warming. We used a dendrochronology approach to examine the physical and biological drivers of growth of adult and juvenile mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) from tropical north-western Australia. Juveniles of this species inhabit estuarine environments and adults reside on coastal reefs. The Niño-4 index, a measure of the status of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) had the highest correlation with adult growth chronologies, with La Niña years (characterised by warmer temperatures and lower salinities) having positive impacts on growth. Atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena operating at ocean-basin scales seem to be important correlates of the processes driving growth in local coastal habitats. Conversely, terrestrial factors influencing precipitation and river runoff were positively correlated with the growth of juveniles in estuaries. Our results show that the impacts of climate change on these two life history stages are likely to be different, with implications for resilience and management of populations.

  6. Bioceramics synthesis of hydroxyapatite from red snapper fish scales biowaste using wet chemical precipitation route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfyana, D.; Anugroho, F.; Sumarlan, S. H.; Wibisono, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Fish scales biowaste contain high collagens and calcium phosphates, therefore have considerable potential as raw material for value-added biomaterial such as hydroxyapatite (HAp). HAp is the main constituent component of hard tissue such as bone and teeth in the human body and is known as bioceramic materials. In this work, wet chemical precipitation method was used to syntesize HAp from Red Snapper Fish (Lutjanus campechanus) Scales. Two variations of calcination temperatures of 600°C (FHAp1) and 800°C (FHAp2) were conducted for 5 hours. The results showed calcium content from biowaste of red snapper fish scale was 83.62%. FTIR result shows that PO4 3-, OH-, and CO3 2- functional groups presence as indicates the formation of HAp. XRD result showed the degree of crystallinity for FHAp1 and FHAp2 were 75.52% and 79.20%, respectively. The degree of crystallinity is in accordance with ISO 13779-2:2000 standard in which the minimum degree of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite used for biomedical materials is 45%. Finally, Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) results show that the particle size distribution is evenly distributed, with the size of micro-scale hydroxyapatite particles, ranging from 5.76 μm to 132.64 μm.

  7. Study of macro and microelements in fish from the Cienfuegos Bay. Relationship with its content in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Icart, M; Rodrigues Pereira-Filho, E; Lopes Fialho, L; Nóbrega, J A; Alonso-Hernández, C; Bolaños-Alvarez, Y; Muñoz-Caravaca, A; Pomares-Alfonso, M S

    2017-09-01

    Thirteen microelements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn) and four macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) were determined in the edible muscle tissue of fish in Cienfuegos Bay. Eight species, Albula vulpes, Diapterus rhombeus, Gerres cinereus, Haemulon carbonarium, Haemulon sciurus, Micropogonias furnieri, Kyphosus sectatrix, and Lutjanus cyanopterus were studied. The total concentrations and extracted concentrations using HCl were also determined in sediments. The quality of the analysis was guaranteed by validating the used analytical methods with certified reference materials of fish and sediments. The high content of macroelements confirmed the importance of fish as a valuable source of food for the local population. New information is provided on bioaccumulation of toxic elements As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Cr in fish of the bay, with concentrations that overcame the local or international maximum allowable levels for human consumption in most samples analyzed. A high correlation between the content of toxic elements As, Cd, Zn, and macroelement K in fish and its concentration extracted from sediments using the HCl extraction method was observed.

  8. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  10. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  11. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  12. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis.

  13. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  14. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  15. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Bisphenol A and alkylphenols concentrations in selected mariculture fish species from Pulau Kukup, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Afifah Hanun; Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) contamination in food is a global concern. Concerning potential environmental and human health exposed to EDCs via food intake, an experiment was conducted on the selected EDCs concentration in the mariculture fish, Trachinotus blochii (golden pomfret), Lutjanus campechanus (snapper), and Lates calcarifer (sea bass) at Pulau Kukup, Johor. Mariculture activity at Pulau Kukup involves active export of fishes to Singapore and Indonesia. The recovery of BPA (bisphenol A), 4OP (4-octylphenol), and 4NP (4-nonylphenol) were 61.54%-93.00%, 16.79%-17.13%, and 61.24%-71.49%, respectively. Relatively high concentration of BPA was recorded in T. blochii (0.322ng/g), followed by L. calcarifer (0.124ng/g) and L. campechanus (0.023ng/g). Furthermore, 4OP and 4NP were detected only in T. blochii at concentrations of 0.084ng/g and 0.078ng/g, respectively. The results of the present study provide insights on monitoring and managing mariculture activity in relation to environmental protection and food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  18. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromosomal stasis in distinct families of marine Percomorpharia from South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Almeida, Leandro Aragão da Hora; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Oliveira, Claudio; Diniz, Débora

    2017-01-01

    The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae), Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae) and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae). The three species shared a karyotype composed of 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes, single nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) and reduced amounts of centromeric heterochromatin. A single NOR-bearing pair was identified in all species by physical mapping of 18S rDNA while non-syntenic 5S rRNA genes were located at centromeric region of a single pair. The similar karyotypic macrostructure observed in unrelated groups of Percomorpharia reinforces the conservative karyoevolution of marine teleosteans. Nonetheless, the species could be differentiated based on the pair bearing ribosomal cistrons, revealing the importance of microstructural analyses in species with symmetric and stable karyotypes.

  20. Detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of ciguatoxins revealing distinct regional and species characteristics in fish and causative alga from the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Inafuku, Yasuo; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Toxin profiles of representative ciguatera species caught at different locations of Japan were investigated in fish flesh by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Identification and quantification of 16 toxins were facilitated by the use of 14 reference toxins prepared by either synthesis or isolation from natural sources and the previous LC-MS data thereof. Sodium adduct ions [M + Na](+) were used as parent and product ions. Distinct regional differences were unveiled: ciguatoxin-1B type toxins were found in snappers and groupers from Okinawa, ciguatoxin-3C type toxins were found in a spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Miyazaki located 730 km north of Okinawa, and both types of toxins were found in a red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima (Marcus) Island. Twelve toxins were identified in a dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, collected as the primary toxin source in French Polynesia. Occurrence of M-seco-toxins in fish and oxidized toxins in the dinoflagellate was confirmed for the first time. The present LC-MS/MS method is rapid, specific, and accurate. It not only outperforms the currently employed mouse bioassays but also enables the study of the toxin dynamics during the food chain transmission.

  1. Multiple ciguatoxins present in Indian Ocean reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brett; Hurbungs, Mira; Jones, Alun; Lewis, Richard J

    2002-09-01

    Optimised gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods, in combination with a [3H]-brevetoxin binding assay (RLB), revealed multiple ciguatoxins in a partially purified extract of a highly toxic Lutjanus sebae (red emperor) from the Indian Ocean. Two major ciguatoxins of 1140.6 Da (I-CTX-1 and -2) and two minor ciguatoxins of 1156.6 Da (I-CTX-3 and -4) were identified. Accurate mass analysis revealed that I-CTX-1 and -2 and Caribbean C-CTX-1 had indistinguishable masses (1140.6316 Da, at 0.44 ppm resolution). Toxicity estimated from LC/MS/RLB responses indicated that I-CTX-1 and -2 were both approximately 60% the potency of Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1). In contrast to ciguatoxins of the Pacific where the more oxidised ciguatoxins are more potent, I-CTX-3 and -4 were approximately 20% of P-CTX-1 potency. Interconversion in dilute acid or on storage, typical of spiroketal and hemiketal functionality found in P-CTXs and C-CTXs, respectively, was not observed to occur between I-CTX-1 and -2. The ratio of CTX-1 and -2 varied depending on the fish extract being analysed. These results suggest that I-CTX-1 and -2 may arise from separate dinoflagellate precursors that may be oxidatively biotransformed to I-CTX-3 and -4 in fish.

  2. Biooxidation of Ciguatoxins Leads to Species-Specific Toxin Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Kuniyoshi, Kyoko; Oshiro, Naomasa; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2017-06-29

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) contaminate fish worldwide and cause the foodborne illness ciguatera. In the Pacific, these toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus , which accumulates in fish through the food chain and undergoes oxidative modification, giving rise to numerous analogs. In this study, we examined the oxidation of CTXs in vitro with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis using reference toxins, and found that CTX4A, CTX4B, and CTX3C, which are produced by the alga, are oxidized to the analogs found in fish, namely CTX1B, 52- epi -54-deoxyCTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, 2-hydroxyCTX3C, and 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C. This oxidation was catalyzed by human CYP3A4, fish liver S9 fractions, and microsomal fractions prepared from representative ciguateric fishes ( Lutjanus bohar , L. monostigumus , and Oplegnathus punctatus ). In addition, fish liver S9 fractions prepared from non-ciguateric fishes ( L. gibbus and L. fulviflamma ) in Okinawa also converted CTX4A and CTX4B to CTX1B, 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52- epi -54-deoxyCTX1B in vitro. This is the first study to demonstrate the enzymatic oxidation of these toxins, and provides insight into the mechanism underlying the development of species-specific toxin profiles and the fate of these toxins in humans and fish.

  3. Species identification of ciguatoxin-carrying grouper implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Ken-Lin; Lee, Ming-Ming; Lan, Chi-Hsun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2009-11-01

    Food poisoning due to ingestion of an unknown red grouper occurred in southern Taiwan. To identify the species of toxic red grouper implicated in food poisoning, a 475-bp sequence of the cytochrome b gene from six species of fresh red grouper meat was amplified by using a pair of primers (L14735/H15149). This fragment could be amplified when fish meat was treated with different heating processes. After sequencing, it was found that no variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. The species of toxic red grouper meat implicated in food poisoning was judged to be Lutjanus bohar based on sequence analysis. In addition, restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII rapidly distinguished these six species of red grouper and the two samples implicated in food poisoning. No toxicity of viscera in 18 specimens of six red grouper species was detected, but two food poisoning samples were found to be toxic. This study indicated that DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis are powerful methods for identifying potentially toxic red grouper species as L. bohar.

  4. Reproduction and community structure of fish from winter catch sites from industrial shrimp bycatch from the northeast and southeast Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Jesus Tirado-Ibarra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp fishery is one of the most important fisheries in the world, although the low selectivity from trawling nets has led to the capture of a large number of non-target species. Shrimp-bycatch species include a large number of fish and invertebrate species, of which fish species are the most abundant. The present study aims to determine the community structure as well as the average sizes at first maturity of the fish species from shrimp-bycatch caught from industrial fisheries in the Mexican Pacific from Sinaloa to Guerrero, from January to March 2015. The shrimp-bycatch fish diversity value was found to be 2.22. A total of 37 species of finfish were found, of which five were considered rare. The fish species with the highest Importance Value Index (IVI levels were Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, Paralichthys woolmani, Lutjanus peru and Diapterus peruvianus. The average size at first maturity was calculated for all species. Of the analysed organisms, 90% were in the juvenile stage, including species with riverine and artisanal fisheries. The present study demonstrates the risk within marine populations to different non-target species due to the poor selectivity of shrimp trawls.

  5. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  6. Sublethal effects of catch-and-release fishing: measuring capture stress, fish impairment, and predation risk using a condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D.; Patino, Reynaldo; Tolan, J.M.; Strauss, R.E.; Diamond, S.

    2009-01-01

    The sublethal effects of simulated capture of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) were analysed using physiological responses, condition indexing, and performance variables. Simulated catch-and-release fishing included combinations of depth of capture and thermocline exposure reflective of environmental conditions experienced in the Gulf of Mexico. Frequency of occurrence of barotrauma and lack of reflex response exhibited considerable individual variation. When combined into a single condition or impairment index, individual variation was reduced, and impairment showed significant increases as depth increased and with the addition of thermocline exposure. Performance variables, such as burst swimming speed (BSS) and simulated predator approach distance (AD), were also significantly different by depth. BSSs and predator ADs decreased with increasing depth, were lowest immediately after release, and were affected for up to 15 min, with longer recovery times required as depth increased. The impairment score developed was positively correlated with cortisol concentration and negatively correlated with both BSS and simulated predator AD. The impairment index proved to be an efficient method to estimate the overall impairment of red snapper in the laboratory simulations of capture and shows promise for use in field conditions, to estimate release mortality and vulnerability to predation.

  7. Inter-habitat variation in density and size composition of reef fishes from the Cuban Northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Consuelo; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Cabrera, Yureidy; Ruiz, Alexei; Curry, R Allen

    2014-06-01

    Movement and exchange of individuals among habitats is critical for the dynamics and success of reef fish populations. Size segregation among habitats could be taken as evidence for habitat connectivity, and this would be a first step to formulate hypotheses about ontogenetic inter-habitat migrations. The primary goal of our research was to find evidence of inter-habitat differences in size distributions and density of reef fish species that can be classified a priori as habitat-shifters in an extensive (-600km2) Caribbean shelf area in NW Cuba. We sampled the fish assemblage of selected species using visual census (stationary and transect methods) in 20 stations (sites) located in mangrove roots, patch reefs, inner zone of the crest and fore reef (12-16m depth). In each site, we performed ten censuses for every habitat type in June and September 2009. A total of 11 507 individuals of 34 species were counted in a total of 400 censuses. We found significant differences in densities and size compositions among reef and mangrove habitats, supporting the species-specific use of coastal habitats. Adults were found in all habitats. Reef habitats, mainly patch reefs, seem to be most important for juvenile fish of most species. Mangroves were especially important for two species of snappers (Lutjanus apodus and L. griseus), providing habitat for juveniles. These species also displayed well defined gradients in length composition across the shelf.

  8. A multi-year study of hepatic biomarkers in coastal fishes from the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltz, Marci; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Ghiran, Céline; Patterson, William F; Garner, Steven B; Beers, Alan; Mièvre, Quentin; Kane, Andrew S; James, Margaret O

    2017-08-01

    Following the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, concerns were raised regarding exposure of fish to crude oil components, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This three year study examined hepatic enzymes in post-mitochondrial supernatant fractions from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) collected in the north central Gulf of Mexico between 2011 and 2014. Biomarker activities evaluated included benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean EROD activity was higher in gray triggerfish (12.97 ± 7.15 pmol/min/mg protein [mean ± SD], n = 115) than red snapper (2.75 ± 1.92 pmol/min/mg protein, n = 194), p < 0.0001. In both species, EROD declined over time between 2011 and 2014. Declines in GST and GPx activities were also noted over this time period for both species. Gray triggerfish liver was fatty, and heptane extracts of the liver fat contained fluorescent substances with properties similar to known PAHs, however the origin of these PAHs is unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotics in typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China: Occurrence, bioaccumulation and human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Sun, Kai-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirty-seven antibiotics were systematically investigated in typical marine aquaculture farms. • Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6–31.8 ng/g). • ETM-H 2 O in the adult shrimp samples may pose a potential risk to human safety. • TMP was bioaccumulative in fish muscles. • Antibiotics were weakly bioaccumulated in mollusks. - Abstract: The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 37 antibiotics in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China were investigated in this study. Sulfamethoxazole, salinomycin and trimethoprim were widely detected in the water samples (0.4–36.9 ng/L), while oxytetracycline was the predominant antibiotic in the water samples of shrimp larvae pond. Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6–31.8 ng/g) and erythromycin–H 2 O was the most frequently detected antibiotic in the sediment samples (0.8–4.8 ng/g). Erythromycin–H 2 O was the dominant antibiotic in the adult Fenneropenaeus penicillatus with concentrations ranging from 2498 to 15,090 ng/g. In addition, trimethoprim was found to be bioaccumulative in young Lutjanus russelli with a median bioaccumulation factor of 6488 L/kg. Based on daily intake estimation, the erythromycin–H 2 O in adult F. penicillatus presented a potential risk to human safety

  10. Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc Contents of Fish Marketed in NW Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín G. Frías-Espericueta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess if they were within the safety limits for human consumption, the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of fish muscles, bought from separate stalls of the fish markets of nine cities of NW Mexico, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considering all fish and markets, the mean contents were Zn: 23.23±5.83, Cu: 1.72±0.63, Cd: 0.27 ± 0.07, and Pb: 0.09 ± 0.04 µg/g (dry weight. Cu, Zn, and Pb did not reach levels of concern for human consumption, but the high Cd values determined in Mazatlán (Mugil cephalus: 0.48±0.15; Diapterus spp.: 0.57±0.33; Lutjanus spp.: 0.72±0.12; small shark: 0.87±0.19 µg/g dry weight indicate that this was the only metal of concern for human health because the daily individual consumption of fish muscle to reach the PTDI would be within 0.27 and 0.41 kg.

  11. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Evans, Richard D.; Almany, Glenn R.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Russ, Garry Ronald; Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives.

  13. A new method to reconstruct fish diet and movement patterns from δ 13 C values in otolith amino acids

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-08-01

    Fish ecologists have used geochemical values in otoliths to examine habitat use, migration, and population connectivity for decades. However, it remains difficult to determine an unambiguous dietary δ 13C signature from bulk analysis of otolith. Studies to date have focused on the aragonite component of otoliths with less attention paid to the organic fraction. We describe the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis (SIA) to analyze amino acid (AA) δ 13C values from small amounts (<1 mg) of otolith powder. We examined δ 13C values of otolith and muscle AAs from a reef-associated snapper (Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)) collected along a carbon isotope gradient (isoscape) from seagrass beds to coral reefs. Carbon isotope values in otolith and muscle samples were highly correlated within and among coastal habitats. Moreover, δ 13C values of otolith AAs provided a purely dietary record that avoided dilution from dissolved inorganic carbon. Otolith AAs served as a robust tracer of δ 13C values at the base of the food web, making compound-specific SIA a powerful tool for dietary reconstructions and tracking the movement of fishes across isoscapes.

  14. A new method to reconstruct fish diet and movement patterns from δ 13 C values in otolith amino acids

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Houghton, Leah A.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Gillanders, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Fish ecologists have used geochemical values in otoliths to examine habitat use, migration, and population connectivity for decades. However, it remains difficult to determine an unambiguous dietary δ 13C signature from bulk analysis of otolith. Studies to date have focused on the aragonite component of otoliths with less attention paid to the organic fraction. We describe the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis (SIA) to analyze amino acid (AA) δ 13C values from small amounts (<1 mg) of otolith powder. We examined δ 13C values of otolith and muscle AAs from a reef-associated snapper (Lutjanus ehrenbergii (Peters, 1869)) collected along a carbon isotope gradient (isoscape) from seagrass beds to coral reefs. Carbon isotope values in otolith and muscle samples were highly correlated within and among coastal habitats. Moreover, δ 13C values of otolith AAs provided a purely dietary record that avoided dilution from dissolved inorganic carbon. Otolith AAs served as a robust tracer of δ 13C values at the base of the food web, making compound-specific SIA a powerful tool for dietary reconstructions and tracking the movement of fishes across isoscapes.

  15. Predator effects on reef fish settlement depend on predator origin and recruit density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2017-04-01

    During major life-history transitions, animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native vs. nonnative) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement. During a field experiment in the Caribbean, approximately 52% fewer mahogany snapper (Lutjanus mahogoni) recruited to reefs with a native predator (graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata) than to predator-free control reefs and reefs with an invasive predator (red lionfish, Pterois volitans) regardless of predator diet. These results suggest that snapper recruits do not recognize nonnative lionfish as a threat. However, these effects depended on the density of conspecific recruits, with evidence that competition may limit the response of snapper to even native predators at the highest recruit densities. In contrast, there was no effect of predator presence or conspecific density on the recruitment of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). These context-dependent responses of coral-reef fishes to predators during settlement may influence individual survival and shape subsequent population and community dynamics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  18. Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT in marine phytoplankton, copepods and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhong; Wang Wenxiong

    2005-01-01

    Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods (Acartia erythraea) and fish (mangrove snappers Lutjanus argentimaculatus). The uptake rate constant of DDT from water decreased with increasing trophic level. The dietary absorption efficiency (AE) of DDT was 10-29% in copepods and 72-99% in fish. Food concentration did not significantly affect the AEs of DDT, but the AEs varied considerably among the different food diets. The elimination rate constants of DDT by the copepods were comparable following uptake from the diet and from the water. Elimination of DDT from the fish was exceedingly low. Both aqueous and dietary uptake are equally important for DDT accumulation in the copepods. In fish, dissolved exposure is a more significant route than intake from the diet. The predicted trophic transfer factors in the copepods and the fish are consistent with the field measurements in marine zooplankton and fish. -Biomagnification and exposure of DDT in a marine food chain is demonstrated by measurements of uptake and elimination rates and kinetic modeling

  19. Una nueva especie de rana de cristal del género Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae del Delta del Río Orinoco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Celsa Señaris

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hyalinobatrachium del grupo fleischmanni, H. mondolfii, de las planicies inundables del delta del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii se distingue del resto de las especies del grupo por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: peritoneo parietal translúcido, pericardio y peritoneos visceral y hepático blancos, coloración dorsal en vida verde claro con diminutos puntos amarillos y en preservativo crema uniforme con diminutos melanóforos oscuros (visibles solo bajo magnificación, huesos blancos en vida, palmeadura de manos y pies extensa, cabeza redondeada en vista dorsal e inclinada en vista lateral, piel dorsal granular y un canto con frecuencia fundamental superior a los 5 000 HzA new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification, bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz

  20. Influencia de factores agroambientales sobre la calidad del clon de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. PH-16 en la región cacaotera de Bahia, Brasil/Inuence of agro-environmental factors on the quality of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. clone PH-16 in the cacao region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Amorim Homem de Abreu Loureiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Los desafíos técnicos y cientícos actuales para el cultivo del cacao implican la necesidad de evaluar múltiples atributos relacionados con la producción primaria y con los criterios de calidad. El estudio se realizó con el clon de cacao PH-16 en la zona húmeda de la región cacaotera de Bahia, Brasil. El objetivo fue conocer la inuencia del sitio de cultivo sobre las variables físicas y químicas antes y después de la fermentación de los granos de cacao. Las variables químicas más inuenciadas por el medio ambiente fueron el pH y la acidez total de los granos con mucílago, y el pH, acidez total e índice de pigmentos de los granos fermentados. El sitio de cultivo que corresponde al Argisol Amarillo Distróco latosólico, en el sistema agroforestal Cabruca con densidad media de 35 árboles de sombra por hectárea, presentó los granos con mejores atributos de calidad.

  1. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rodríguez Pardina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth. Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de preservar este recurso nativo y fuente regional de ingresos, la especie está siendo domesticada. Durante este proceso, se observó la aparición de síntomas de un conspicuo mosaico amarillo, típico de infección viral. Análisis biológicos, serológicos y moleculares (RT-PCR, RFLP, clonado y secuenciación pusieron de manifiesto la presencia del subgrupo IA de Cucumber mosaic virus en las plantas domesticadas de peperina. El aislamiento viral estudiado está íntimamente relacionado con la raza Y previamente informada en Japón. Éste es el primer informe de un virus que infecta a la peperina.

  2. Preferencia de los Trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae Hacia Trampas de colores en un Invernadero de Flores de la Sabana de Bogotá Color preference of Trhips (Thysanoptera: tripidae in crysanthemum crops at the Bogotá plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con un total de 36 trampas, 6 colores y 6 replicaciones por color, se les adicionó un pegante y se distribuyeron completamente al azar dentro de un invernadero comercial ubicado en Chía Cundinamarca. Los colores probados fueron: blanco, morado, amarillo, rojo, naranja y verde, Los colores blanco y morado mostraron la más alta eficiencia en la captura de adultos de Frsnkliniette oeeidentalis (Pegande
    mientras que el color verde capturó el menor número de esta especie. Se capturaron además adultos de F. panamensis Hood,
    F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood y Thrips tabaei Lindeman pero en menor cantidad.White, violet, yellow, red, orange and green colors with six replicates were tried. This study was done in a green house
    grown chrysantemum crop. White and violet showed the highest efficiency by capturing the greatest number of adults of Frankliniella oeeidentalis, the most abundant species during the experimento Green color captured the lowest number of F. oeeidentalis. Other species captured were F. panamensis Hood,
    F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood and Tbrips tabaei Lindeman.

  3. Histología de la Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marín-Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las características de una región de transición entre la raíz, de estructura secundaria lignificada, y el tallo primario reducido, con el desarrollo de una amplia zona medular. Presenta además un tipo peculiar de actividad cambial secundaria en la forma de haces conductores corticales. Entre los detalles histológicos adicionales está el desarrollo de una cubierta suberificada de células corticales en el órgano reservante y la presencia de tricomas cónicos unicelulares en las hojas.

  4. La manipulación en la imagen tergiversa la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Antonio Jesús Frías Delgado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarillo en prensa es el curso de las buenas maneras. Pretende orientar a nuevos periodistas, en el logro de una ética coherente y una profesionalidad pura, independientemente del éxito y del dinero que le pueda corromper.La verdad se introduce en el curso como el pilar fundamental del buen periodismo. El lector es la razón de existir de este arte y por tanto, la información debe ser el principal instrumento de trabajo.La función del periodista es de simple intermediario, pero debe actuar como un "transformador de corriente", debe recibir la materia prima y transformarla en noticia capaz de llegar y ser entendida por los lectores.Nuestra ética periodística nos debe empujar siempre a usar la verdad en las informaciones, porque el sensacionalismo o espectáculo que hoy en día tanto abunda en los periódicos, no consagra a nadie como un gran periodista.

  5. Analytic techniques to quantify Tetrachlorohydroquinone and Chloranil; Tecnicas analiticas para cuantificar Tetraclorohidroquinona y Cloranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Escobedo, Ma. Teresa; Gutierrez de Gonzalez, Luz Ma; Gojon Zorrilla, Gabriel [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) was determined by two methods: iodometry and cerimetry. Tritation with aqueous ceric ammonium sulphate using potentiometric end-point detection proved to be the method of choice on account of its coefficient of variation (CV=0.475%) and its excellent accuracy. Chloranil (TCQ) was quantified by titration with aqueous ascorbic acid in acetone-water-hexamethylene tetramine (HMT), the golden-yellow color of the TCQ-HMT complex disappearing at the end point. This method is accurate and has CV=0.396%. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la tetraclorohidroquinona (TCHQ) mediante una tecnica yodometrica y un metodo potenciometrico, basado en el uso de sulfato cerico amoniacal. Se concluyo que el metodo potenciometrico es el mejor, ya que tiene un coeficiente de variacion (CV) de 0.475%, y una exactitud muy aceptable. Se desarrollo un tecnica para cuantificar el Cloranilo (TCQ) por titulacion con Acido Ascorbico en presencia de Hexametilentetramina (HMT) en medio acetona-agua; el punto final se determino por la separacion del color amarillo oro del complejo TCQ-HMT. Esta tecnica presenta un coeficiente de variacion (CV) de 0.396% y una exactitud aceptable. Se realizaron pruebas de hipotesis para verificar la exactitud de los metodos elegidos.

  6. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west

  7. Efecto de la aplicación de bioactivadores y del raleo manual de frutos sobre el rendimiento y la calidad de melón (Cucumis melo L. bajo cultivo protegido en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alvarado-Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del raleo manual de frutos y de la aplicación de los bioactivadores Algamix y Engordone sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del melón amarillo var. JMX-902. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto a la firmeza del fruto, concentración de sólidos solubles totales, peso del fruto, rendimiento total, peso del fruto comercializable, rendimiento comercializable, y rendimiento por planta. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos para el número de frutos por planta; las plantas tratadas con solo Engordone y solo Algamix presentaron mayor número de frutos por planta con respecto a otros tratamientos, pero estos resultados no fueron distintos de los del Testigo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al distribuir la producción según distintas categorías de peso; el rendimiento de frutos de melón con un peso de entre 601-800 gramos fue superior en plantas tratadas con solo Algamix respecto a los demás tratamientos; el rendimiento de frutos de melón con un peso de entre 801-1000 gramos fue superior en plantas tratadas con solo Engordone respecto a los demás tratamientos.

  8. Estado dental y periodontal de población en tratamiento por consumo de drogas: Estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rotemberg

    Full Text Available El uso problemático de drogas puede afectar la salud oral de los consumidores. El presente estudio pretendió detectar la prevalencia de patología dentaria y periodontal en una población adolescente y adulta joven en tratamiento por drogo-dependencia. Se diseñó un estudio transversal, observacional y descriptivo, incluyendo a 72 individuos que se asisten por su adicción en el Portal Amarillo, centro de referencia nacional. La media del índice CPOD fue de 8,04. Al discriminar por franja etaria, la comprendida entre 15 y 24 años tuvo un CPOD de 5,31, mientras que la comprendida entre 25 y 35 años tuvo un valor de 11,27. El relevamiento paradencial mostró que el 65% de los participantes presentaron gingivitis y el 18% cuadros de periodontitis. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que existe una mayor prevalencia de enfermedad oral en pacientes drogo-dependientes que la población general. Los servicios de salud del primer nivel deberían desarrollar acciones especiales de prevención y detección precoz en pacientes drogo-dependientes

  9. Del Rhin al Suárez o el viaje de Lengerke por los caminos de la Civilización y la “Barbarie”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Neil Franco Zambrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente ensayo es abordar la novela “La otra raya del tigre” de Pedro Gómez Valderrama, desde una perspectiva que enfatiza la crisis de la modernidad y la literatura de viajes característica del siglo XIX. De tal manera, que conceptos como modernización económica, ciudad, liberalismo, colonización, feudalismo y civilización, junto con la visión del crítico moderno Néstor García Canclini y la percepción que Carmen Elisa Acosta tiene sobre los viajeros decimonónicos, son de vital importancia para comprender el itinerario del presente texto por la naturaleza exótica de Santander, por los caminos amarillos salidos de las entrañas de Van Gogh, por la fatalidad de las mujeres con alma de escorpión, por la hibridación de las culturas, especialmente la alemana y la santandereana, y por el lenguaje que destaca la tradición oral de los llamados pingos.

  10. Jóvenes, Rebeldes y Armados. Una mirada a la identidad y la memoria de los jóvenes rebeldes durante la transición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rosas Aravena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La afirmación del historiador italiano Alessandro Portelli, se sitúa con pleno “derecho epistemológico” en una de las dos mareas historiográficas más potentes de los siglos XIX y XX. La primera de estas pleamares, alcanzaría las costas historiográficas alemanas en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX con la figura de Leopold Von Ranke y el positivismo histórico; caracterizada por la cosecha paciente y pulcra de hechos en apariencia impolutos y “objetivos” producidos por las ilustradas y armadas elites dominantes; iluminadas y poseídas de Dios y sangre. Elevada y noble aspiración de caballeros en la era del progreso y la religiosidad cientificista. Una fiebre sin duda iluminada de progreso contra un fondo oscuro; de músculos negros, amarillos y cobrizos, de carbón y acero, té y salitre, algodón y diamantes; fondo oscuro de mujeres, hombres, niños y jóvenes: espectros imaginados y representados sin voces y endógenamente explicados; figuras sin rostro y sin historia...

  11. Summary of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and mineralogy of Pennsylvanian and permian rocks of Oklahoma in relation to uranium-resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmsted, R.W.; Hanson, R.E.; May, R.T.; Owens, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    Pennsylvanian-Permian strata in Oklahoma were deposited in environments which ranged from deep marine to alluvial fan. The former was most common in the Ouachita geosyncline during Early Pennsylvanian, but parts of the Anadarko basin were also relatively deep water during Middle and Late Pennsylvanian. Alluvial-fan deposits in Oklahoma are related primarily to the Amarillo-Wichita-Criner, Arbuckle, and Ouachita uplifts. As a result of erosion of the Wichita and Arbuckle areas during the Pennsylvanian-Permian, Precambrian and Cambrian felsic igneous rocks were exposed and became sources of significant quantities of feldspar in the sandstones and conglomerates, especially those on the flanks of the uplifts, and possibly sources of significant uranium concentrations in basinal waters. The Ouachita uplift, Sierra Grande-Apishapa uplift to the northwest, and possibly the Appalachian system also furnished feldspar to form the rather common subarkoses in the Upper Pennsylvanian-Permian. Feldspar is an apparent source of uranium which is present in the alluvial-fan deposits associated with the Wichita and Arbuckle uplifts, the Permian sandstones on oil-producing structures in southern Oklahoma, the lenticular sandstones on the Muenster-Waurika arch, and the tidal-flat sandstone-siltstones in western Oklahoma and possibly in north-central Oklahoma. Radioactive anomalies associated with Cherokee sandstones may be related to the Desmoinesian phosphatic shales, local depositional environments of deltaic complexes which influenced diagenetic conditions, and/or the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity with respect to the radioactive Woodford Shale

  12. Analysis of vertical flow during ambient and pumped conditions in four monitoring wells at the Pantex Plant, Carson County, Texas, July-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stoval, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The Pantex Plant is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (USDOE/NNSA)-owned, contractor-operated facility managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex, LLC (B&W Pantex) in Carson County, Texas, approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with B&W Pantex through the USDOE/NNSA, made a series of flowmeter measurements and collected other borehole geophysical logs during July–September 2008 to analyze vertical flow in screened intervals of four selected monitoring wells (PTX01–1012, PTX06–1044, PTX06–1056, and PTX06–1068) at the Pantex Plant. Hydraulic properties (transmissivity values) of the section of High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer penetrated by the wells also were computed. Geophysical data were collected under ambient and pumped flow conditions in the four monitoring wells. Unusually large drawdowns occurred at two monitoring wells (PTX06–1044 and PTX06–1056) while the wells were pumped at relatively low rates. A decision was made to redevelop those wells, and logs were run again after redevelopment in the two monitoring wells.

  13. Efecto de Inhibidores de Pardeamiento y la Técnica de Atmósfera Modifcada en Mango (Mangifera Indica L Variedad Van Dyke Mínimamente Procesado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Galvis Vanegas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El mango (Mangifera indica L variedad Van Dyke es un fruto apetecido a nivel nacional e internacional por su agradable aroma, intenso color amarillo y buen balance de ácidos/azúcares. La investigación se desarrolló en dos etapas. En la primera se determinó la respuesta de los trozos de fruto a la aplicación de tres inhibidores de pardeamiento en dos concentraciones: (ácido cítrico a 150 y 300 ppm; ácido ascórbico a 250 y 500 ppm y L-Cysteina a 100 y 200 ppm, con relación a la calidad y tiempo de almacenamiento; en la segunda, se estableció el tiempo de vida útil de modo que conserve sus características organolépticas, cuando se combina el mejor inhibidor de pardeamiento, con la técnica de atmósfera modificada en concentraciones de 5% de CO2, 5% de O2 y 90% de N2, empleando dos tipos de empaque: canastillas plásticas y bandejas de icopor, colocadas dentro de bolsas de polietileno de baja densidad (LDPE calibre 2 (0.035 mm de espesor.

  14. Radiation dose modeling using IGRIP and Deneb/ERGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, D.S.; Davis, K.R.; Breazeal, N.L.; Watson, R.A.; Ford, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans in radiation environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO (Ergonomics) simulation software products. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide the radiation exposure information to and collect the radiation dose information from the workcell simulations. The emphasis of this paper is on the IGRIP and Deneb/ERGO parts of REMS, since that represents the extension to existing capabilities developed by the authors. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these database files to compute and accumulate dose to human devices (Deneb's ERGO human) during simulated operations around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. REMS was developed because the proposed reduction in the yearly radiation exposure limit will preclude or require changes in many of the manual operations currently being utilized in the Weapons Complex. This is particularly relevant in the area of dismantlement activities at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. Therefore, a capability was needed to be able to quantify the dose associated with certain manual processes so that the benefits of automation could be identified and understood

  15. Correlations of carotenoid content and transcript abundances for fibrillin and carotenogenic enzymes in Capsicum annum fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, James; Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Richins, Richard D; Arcos, Juan Manuel Garcia; Victorino, Jesus; O'Connell, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    The fruits of Capsicum spp. are especially rich sites for carotenoid synthesis and accumulation, with cultivar-specific carotenoid accumulation profiles. Differences in chromoplast structure as well as carotenoid biosynthesis are correlated with distinct carotenoid accumulations and fruit color. In the present study, the inheritance of chromoplast shape, carotenoid accumulation profiles, and transcript levels of four genes were measured. Comparisons of these traits were conducted using fruit from contrasting variants, Costeño Amarillo versus Costeño Red, and from F1 hybrids; crosses between parental lines with novel versions of these traits. Intermediate chromoplast shapes were observed in the F1, but no association between specific carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast shape was detected. Increased total carotenoid content was associated with increased β-carotene and violaxanthin content. Transcript levels for phytoene synthase (Psy) and β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ-2) were positively correlated with increased levels of specific carotenoids. No correlation was detected between transcript levels of capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) and carotenoid composition or chromoplast shape. Transcript levels of fibrillin, were differentially correlated with specific carotenoids, negatively correlated with accumulation of capsanthin, and positively correlated with violaxanthin. The regulation of carotenoid accumulation in chromoplasts in Capsicum fruit continues to be a complex process with multiple steps for control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversidad de avispas parasitoides en un sistema silvopastoril orgánico de producción ganadera de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sistema silvopastoril de la Reserva Natural El Hatico (Rneh en El Cerrito, Valle (Colombia, las legumbres del algarrobo (Prosopis juliflora, se utilizan como alimento para bovinos. Sin embargo, desde 2006, la polilla Eccopsis galapagana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, afecta el follaje y la producción de legumbres. Motivados por el brote poblacional de esta polilla, se propuso identificar las especies de parasitoides, su distribución, su densidad y relacionarlas con el hábitat y el daño del insecto sobre P. juliflora. Se capturaron himenópteros, utilizando platos amarillos ubicados en 24 árboles de algarrobo escogidos al azar, en cuatro lotes dentro del sistema silvopastoril y al interior del bosque adyacente (control. Se midió el porcentaje de herbivoría, por E. galapagana; la cobertura del dosel de cada árbol muestreado, la temperatura y se determinó la composición vegetal de cada lote. De un total de 1,376 parasitoides -pertenecientes a siete superfamilias, 18 familias y 42 morfoespecies- el 71% se identificó hasta género. La superfamilia más representativa fue Chalcidoidea, y Encyrtidae la familia más abundante. Se encontró una relación positiva entre composición, cobertura vegetal y abundancia de parasitoides; pero esto no se tradujo en una disminución de los porcentajes de herbivoría por la polilla.

  17. Stakeholder involvement and public outreach at two Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Outreach efforts at two U.S. Department of Energy sites (i.e., the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington and Pantex Plant in the Texas panhandle) have involved a broad spectrum of communications media, including technical presentations and articles, information brochures and fact sheets, video productions; interactive exhibits; presentations at civic and other public meetings; and proactive interactions with the news media, regulators and concerned citizens. In addition, representatives of local communities operate offsite environmental monitoring stations and Native Americans are involved in studying cultural resources, fisheries, and other issues at Hanford, and a program to obtain environmental samples from neighbors property is underway at Pantex. All major environmental programs (e.g., the reconstruction of past radiological doses to offsite human populations at Hanford) are conducted with open public participation, the Pantex Plant has opened an Information office in Amarillo, Texas, and both sites now have Citizen's Advisory Boards. This presentation describes Hanford and Pantex public outreach and involvement efforts, our successes and failures, and the lessons learned

  18. Cambrian horses in the field Dionisio Blade (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.; Gaucher, C.

    2010-01-01

    The shear zone of Sierra Ballena (ZCSB) , is considered the western boundary of an allochthonous block by most writers from the definition of Land Blade Dionisio. The same method to the northern block NE of the city of Thirty- Three was applied. The geological map at 1:100,000 and 1:40,000 photogeology supported by field observations 140 covers an area of ​​3500 km2, allowed 525 Ma to discover that simultaneously produce sinistral megashear N30E, 80E and a mount (horse Amarillo ) with convergence towards the NNW . The megashear consists proto and ultramylonites petrológicamente being identical to ZCSB and age < 532 Ma The horse varies by rock type . On Micaela mica schist are ridden by gneisses and migmatites . In the center, the gneisses are rolled every few inches in W are ultramylonites sub - horizontal . The simultaneity of both phenomena is unexplained by head-on collision of cratons and explained by tangential collision from the SSE with tectonic transport to the north , representing a naturalistic aloctonía test

  19. Manual Torque Data Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundt, Mark Osroe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Matthew Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Varela, Jeanette Judith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gilmore, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Allie [Pantex Plant (PTX), Amarillo, TX (United States)

    2018-01-11

    At the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX, Production Technicians (PTs) build and disassemble nuclear weapon systems. The weapons are held in an integrated work stand for stability and to increase the safety environment for the workers and for the materials being processed. There are many occasions in which a knob must be turned to tighten an assembly part. This can help to secure or manipulate pieces of the system. As there are so many knobs to turn, the instructions given to the PTs are to twist the knob to a hand-tight setting, without the aid of a torque wrench. There are inherent risks in this procedure as the knobs can be tightened too loosely such that the apparatus falls apart or too tightly such that the force can crush or pinch components in the system that contain energetic materials. We want to study these operations at Pantex. Our goal is to collect torque data to assess the safety and reliability of humantooling interfaces.

  20. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  1. Velocidade de estabelecimento de acessos de amendoim forrageiro na Amazônia Ocidental Speed of establishment of accessions of forage peanut in the Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judson Ferreira Valentim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a velocidade de estabelecimento de acessos de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis repens e Arachis pintoi, visando selecionar materiais adaptados aos sistemas intensivos de produção pecuária do Acre. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de dois acessos de A. repens, sete acessos e duas cultivares de Arachis pintoi identificados como promissores para as condições ambientais de Rio Branco, Acre. Foi adotado como testemunha A. pintoi cv. Amarillo. Os acessos Ap 65, Ap 39 e Ar 10, com desempenho semelhante às cultivares Amarillo e Belmonte, destacaram-se por apresentar excelente velocidade de estabelecimento, com índice de sobrevivência das mudas e cobertura do solo superiores a 80% e comprimento dos estolões acima de 85 cm, respectivamente, aos 50, 70 e 120 dias após o plantio. Estes genótipos apresentaram produtividade de matéria seca (MS superior a 2.300 kg/ha, taxas de acúmulo de MS iguais ou superiores a 20 kg/ha/dia e teor de proteína bruta variando entre 17,9 e 21,7%, no final do período de estabelecimento. Entre os quatro grupos heteróticos, o formado pelo acesso Ap 39 destacou-se dos demais, por apresentar valores médios a altos para todas as características avaliadas, de acordo com a análise de agrupamento realizada pelo Método de Otimização de Tocher, com base na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Para que os materiais promissores possam ser recomendados para uso nos sistemas intensivos de produção de bovinos no Acre, devem ser desenvolvidos estudos adicionais com relação à: 1 produtividade e qualidade de MS nos períodos chuvoso e seco; 2 ocorrência de pragas e doenças; 3 produção de sementes; 4 adaptação a solos de baixa permeabilidade; 5 compatibilidade com gramíneas forrageiras e espécies arbóreas e arbustivas perenes; 6 produção animal e persistência sob pastejo.The objective of

  2. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance.

  3. Teor de colesterol e composição centesimal de algumas espécies de peixes do estado do Ceará Cholesterol content and proximate composition of some fish species from the Ceará state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Charles Barros Caula

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo determinar o teor de colesterol total em amostras de pescado de água marinha e doce. As amostras analisadas foram o pargo marinho, Lutjanus purpureus, e os seguintes peixes de água doce: tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, curimatã, Prochilodus cearensis e a sardinha, Triportheus angulatus, adquiridas em pontos comerciais (frigoríficos, feira de pescado da praia de Mucuripe e feira-livre suburbana de Fortaleza - Ceará. Além da determinação do teor de colesterol, também foram avaliados a composição química centesimal e o valor calórico das amostras. O teor médio de colesterol (mg.100 g-1 apresentado foi 33,5 para o pargo, 28,4 para a tilápia, 93,8 para o curimatã e 61,2 para a sardinha. Em relação à composição centesimal, os seguintes teores médios foram obtidos, respectivamente, para pargo, tilápia, curimatã e sardinha: 80,7; 80,2; 76,4 e 77,2% de umidade; 18,4; 17,7; 18,7 e 17,6% de proteína total; 1,0; 1,2; 3,2 e 4,6% de lipídio total; 0,7; 0,8; 0,8 e 1,0% de cinza, e 0,5; 0,6; 2,0 e 0,3% de carboidratos. O valor energético médio (kcal.100 g-1 foi de 83,6 para o pargo, 83,7 para a tilápia, 108,4 para o curimatã e de 111,8 para a sardinha.The purpose of this work is to determine the total cholesterol content and proximate composition of the commercial fish from the Ceará State, Brazil. The species were the marine bream fish Lutjanus purpureus and three freshwater fish, tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, "curimatã", Prochilodus cearensis, and sardine, Triportheus angulatus, from the open market (Mucuripe and around the city and from a supermarket in Fortaleza. The content of cholesterol, proximate composition, and the caloric value of the samples were determined. The average value of cholesterol (mg.100 g-1 was 33.5 in the red sea bream; 28,4 in the common tilápia; 93.8 in the "curimatã" and 61.2 in the sardine. Regarding the proximate composition, the following average

  4. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  5. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  6. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  7. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  8. The effects of mariculture on heavy metal distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Thirty-six sediment samples were collected from six mariculture sites and corresponding reference sites (approximately 200-300 m away from each mariculture site) to study the effects of mariculture on heavy metal: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in all mariculture sediment samples were 109, 273, 99 and 33 mg/kg, compared with 63, 209, 56 and 23 mg/kg for reference sediment samples, respectively. The Pollution Load Index of sediment for each site was over 1, implying substantial heavy metal pollution. The results of principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis indicate that marine aquaculture activities have enriched the surface sediments underneath mariculture rafts with Cu, Zn and Pb, possibly due to the accumulation of unconsumed fish feeds, fish excreta and antifouling paints (except Cr). Two kinds of fish feeds, feed pellets and trash fish commonly used in Hong Kong were analyzed. The concentrations of Zn and Cu contained in feed pellets were significantly higher (p trash fish due to addition of these elements as growth promoters during pellet production. However, the Pb content in trash fish (due to contamination) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in feed pellets. Three cultured fish species, namely red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii), were collected from each mariculture site for metal analysis. Lead concentrations in 21 fish samples exceeded the Chinese safety guideline (0.5 mg/kg, GB18406.4-2001), indicating that Pb contamination in cultured fish would be a public health concern. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Role of mariculture in the loading and speciation of mercury at the coast of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Gao, Xuefei; You, Qiongzhi; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; Zhang, Chan; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2016-11-01

    The effects of mariculture on mercury (Hg) contamination and speciation in water, sediment and cultured fish in a typical mariculture zone located in Xiangshan bay, Zhejiang province, east China, were studied. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from mariculture sites (MS) and from corresponding reference sites (RS) 2500 m away from the MS. The THg concentration in overlying water in Xiangshan bay reached as high as 16.6 ± 19.5 ng L -1 , indicating that anthropogenic sources in this bay may contribution on Hg contamination in overlying water. Mariculture activities resulted in an increase in THg concentration in water from surface and bottom layers, which may be attributed to the discharge of domestic sewage and the accumulation of unconsumed fish feed and fish excreta in the benthic environment. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the bottom layer of overlying water and top surface layer of porewater underneath MS were higher than at RS, implying that mariculture activities promote Hg methylation in the interface between sediments and water. In addition, the concentrations of MeHg in sediment and porewater were significantly higher in summer than winter. It was observed that THg and MeHg contents in the muscle of blackhead seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) (fed by the trash fish) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) or perch (Perca fluviatilis) (fed by pellet fish feed). The THg and MeHg concentrations in the fish meat were closely related to the feeding mode, which indicate that fish feed rather than environmental media is the major pathway for Hg accumulation in fish muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  11. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Reef Fish Species along the Southeast US Atlantic Coast Inferred from Underwater Video Survey Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Bacheler

    Full Text Available Marine fish abundance and distribution often varies across spatial scales for a variety of reasons, and this variability has significant ecological and management consequences. We quantified the distribution of reef-associated fish species along the southeast United States Atlantic coast using underwater video survey samples (N = 4,855 in 2011-2014 to elucidate variability within species across space, depths, and habitats, as well as describe broad-scale patterns in species richness. Thirty-two species were seen at least 10 times on video, and the most commonly observed species were red porgy (Pagrus pagrus; 41.4% of videos, gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus; 31.0%, black sea bass (Centropristis striata; 29.1%, vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens; 27.7%, and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus; 22.6%. Using generalized additive models, we found that most species were non-randomly distributed across space, depths, and habitats. Most rare species were observed along the continental shelf break, except for goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, which was found on the continental shelf in Florida and Georgia. We also observed higher numbers of species in shelf-break habitats from southern North Carolina to Georgia, and fewer in shallower water and at the northern and southern ends of the southeast United States Atlantic coast. Our study provides the first broad-scale description of the spatial distribution of reef fish in the region to be based on fishery-independent data, reinforces the utility of underwater video to survey reef fish, and can help improve the management of reef fish in the SEUS, for example, by improving indices of abundance.

  13. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus, White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii, Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus, Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens, Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata, and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax. For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7-29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24-30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N, during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

  14. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita N Lavides

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay. We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, African pompano (Alectis ciliaris, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large

  15. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimirei, Ismael A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D; Huijbers, Chantal M

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13)C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  16. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael A Kimirei

    Full Text Available Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania. Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29% or seagrass (53% or reef (18% habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72% as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%. This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  17. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Iafrate

    Full Text Available The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152-157 dB re 1 μPa (peak. No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Inasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferymon Mahulette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inasua is a traditionally product of wet salt fish fermentation produced by Teon, Nila and Serua (TNS Communities in Central Maluku, Indonesia. The community made this fermented fish to anticipate the lean time when fisherman could not go to sea.  The  fish that used as inasua raw material is demersal fishes that live around coral reefs, such as Samandar fish (Siganatus guttatus, Gala-gala fish (Lutjanus sp. and Sikuda fish (Lethrinus ornatus. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of bacterial indigenous in  Inasua from three producers in Seram Island. The measurement of pH from inasua samples were 5.9, 5.0 and 5.8, respectively. The highest number of lactic acid bacteria was found from  Gala – gala inasua was 2,5x107 cfu/g sample. Isolation of all isolates bacteria from inasua showed that a total of 7 isolates of bacteria was obtained  from Samadar inasua, 9 isolates from  Gala-gala inasua, and 7 isolates from  Sikuda inasua.  From a total of 23 isolates, only 6 isolates had characteristic as lactic acid bacteria that were Gram  positive, negative catalase, and cocci shape. The microscopic characteristics  of the isolates are coccid in pairs or uniforms which combine to form tetrads. Carbohydrate utilization test  of selected isolate by using API 50 CHB kit indicated that 13 carbohydrates are fermented by these isolates  after incubation for 48 hours. The research  was concluded that the dominant bacteria in inasua sample  is  cocci-lactic acid bacteria. Keywords : fermented fish, inasua, lactic acid bacteria, MRSA medium

  19. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

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    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  20. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2015-11-21

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world’s oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ13C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ13C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  1. Forecasting lionfish sources and sinks in the Atlantic: are Gulf of Mexico reef fisheries at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W.; Bernard, Andrea M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2017-03-01

    Invasive lionfish ( Pterois volitans/miles complex) now permeate the entire tropical western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, but lionfish abundance has been measured only in select locations in the field. Despite its rapid range expansion, a comprehensive meta-population analysis of lionfish `sources' and `sinks' and consequentially the invader's potential abundance and impacts on economically important, sympatric reef fishes have not been assessed. These data are urgently needed to spatially direct control efforts and to plan for and perhaps mitigate lionfish-caused damage. Here, we use a biophysical computer model to: (1) forecast larval lionfish sources and sinks that are also delineated as low to high lionfish `density zones' throughout their invaded range, and (2) assess the potential vulnerability of five grouper and snapper species— Epinephelus morio, Mycteroperca microlepis, Epinephelus flavolimbatus, Lutjanus campechanus, and Rhomboplites aurorubens—to lionfish within these density zones in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that the west Florida shelf and nearshore waters of Texas, USA, and Guyana, South America, function both as lionfish sources and sinks and should be a high priority for targeted lionfish control. Furthermore, of the five groupers and snappers studied, the high fishery value E. morio (red grouper) is the Gulf of Mexico species most at risk from lionfish. Lacking a comprehensive lionfish control policy, these risk exposure data inform managers where removals should be focused and demonstrate the risk to five sympatric native groupers and snappers in the Gulf of Mexico that may be susceptible to dense lionfish aggregations, should control efforts fail.

  2. ESTRATÉGIAS REPRODUTIVAS DE SETE ESPÉCIES DE PEIXES DAS ÁGUAS COSTEIRAS DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

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    Mônica Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou as estratégias reprodutivas de sete espécies de peixes marinhos da região costeira do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Traços da história de vida dos peixes em ambientes relativamente estáveis sugerem um modelo de três estratégias reprodutivas: (1 estrategistas oportunistas, são peixes de pequeno tamanho corporal com primeira maturação precoce, período de vida curto com baixa fecundidade; (2 estrategistas sazonais, são peixes de tamanho corporal intermediário, primeira maturação intermediária e fecundidade intermediária a alta; e (3 estrategistas de equilíbrio, são peixes de tamanho corporal grande, primeira maturação tardia com longo período de vida, além de alta fecundidade. Os aspectos reprodutivos de Hirundichythys affinis, Hemiramphus brasiliensis, Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Oligoplites palometa, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, Lutjanus synagris e Mugil curema foram verificados, considerando-se o tamanho do corpo, proporção sexual, comprimento de primeira maturação sexual, aspectos do desenvolvimento das gônadas, fecundidade, tipo de desova e período reprodutivo dos peixes. Os resultados indicam que H. affinis, H. brasiliensis, P. corvinaeformis e O. palometa podem ser considerados como estrategistas oportunistas. Entretanto, S. brasiliensis, L. synagris e M. curema podem ser considerados como estrategistas de equilíbrio. Este estudo fornece informações sobre os aspectos reprodutivos dos peixes dos estoques pesqueiros das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil.

  3. Historical Population Estimates For Several Fish Species At Offshore Oil and Gas Structures in the US Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitschlag, G.

    2016-02-01

    Population estimates were calculated for four fish species occurring at offshore oil and gas structures in water depths of 14-32 m off the Louisiana and upper Texas coasts in the US Gulf of Mexico. From 1993-1999 sampling was conducted at eight offshore platforms in conjunction with explosive salvage of the structures. To estimate fish population size prior to detonation of explosives, a fish mark-recapture study was conducted. Fish were captured on rod and reel using assorted hook sizes. Traps were occasionally used to supplement catches. Fish were tagged below the dorsal fin with plastic t-bar tags using tagging guns. Only fish that were alive and in good condition were released. Recapture sampling was conducted after explosives were detonated during salvage operations. Personnel operating from inflatable boats used dip nets to collect all dead fish that floated to the surface. Divers collected representative samples of dead fish that sank to the sea floor. Data provided estimates for red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber), gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), and blue runner (Caranx crysos) at one or more of the eight platforms studied. At seven platforms, population size for red snapper was calculated at 503-1,943 with a 95% CI of 478. Abundance estimates for Atlantic spadefish at three platforms ranged from 1,432-1,782 with a 95% CI of 473. At three platforms, population size of gray triggerfish was 63-129 with a 95% CI of 82. Blue runner abundance at one platform was 558. Unlike the other three species which occur close to the platforms, blue runner range widely and recapture of this species was dependent on fish schools being in close proximity to the platform at the time explosives were detonated. Tag recapture was as high as 73% for red snapper at one structure studied.

  4. Characterization of chitin extracted from fish scales of marine fish species purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumengan, I. F. M.; Suptijah, P.; Wullur, S.; Talumepa, A.

    2017-10-01

    Chitin is a biodegradable biopolymer with a variety of commercial applications, including in the food food-supplement industries as a marine-derived nutraceutical. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular structure of chitin extracted from fish scales of important marine fish purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi. Chitin compound material was obtained from a specific fish scale, and then sequentially carrying out a boiling treatment to separate it from a complex with collagen. From the scales of two fish species, parrotfish (Chlorurus sordidus) and red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), the rendemen of chitin obtained were 45 % and 33%, respectively. Structural characteristics of the chitin were discussed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) analysis data. FTIR analysis was done using infrared spectroscopy, which is the resulting spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmission, creating a molecular fingerprint of the sample. The molecular structure of chitin, C18H26N2O10, where the hydroxyl group on the second carbon replaced by acetyl amide, was shown by the infrared spectra. In the infrared spectra, chitin from parrot fish scales indicated the amide band at 1627.13 cm-1, and chitin from red snapper fish scales the amide band at 1648.09 cm-1 which are a typical one for marine chitin. The hydroxyl and amino bands at the ranged spectra up to 3500 cm-1. The yields of chitin isolated from fish scale were relatively huge. Some treatments are necessary to confirm the molecular conformation and deacetylation behavior. All products from the extraction of fish scales could be more accessible for structural modifications to develop biocompatible materials for pharmaceutical purposes.

  5. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  6. Concentration activities of natural radionuclides in three fish species in Brazilian coast and their contributions to the absorbed doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 e Ra-228 were analysed in three fish species at the Brasilian Coast. The fish 'Cubera snapper' (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828), in the region of Ceara and 'Whitemouth croaker' (Micropogonias furnieri, Desmarest, 1823) and 'Lebranche mullet' (Mugil liza, Valenciennes, 1836) in the region of Rio de Janeiro. These concentrations were transformed in absorbed dose rate using a dose conversion factor in unit of gray per year (μGy y -1 ), per becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg -1 ). Only the absorbed dose due to intake of radionuclides was examined, and the contributions due to radionuclides present in water and sediment were disregarded. The radionuclides were considered to be uniformly distributed in the fish body. The limit of the dose rate used, proposed by the Department of Energy of the USA, is equal to 3.65 10 03 mGy y -1 . The average dose rate due to the studied radionuclides is equal to 6.09 10 00 μGy y -1 , a value minor than 0.1% than the limits indicated by DOE, and quite similar to that found in the literature for 'benthic' fish. The most important radionuclides were the alpha emitters Ra-226 having 61 % of absorbed dose rate. U-238 and Th-232, each contributes with approximately 20 % of the absorbed dose rate. These three radionuclides are responsible for almost 100% of the dose rate received by the studied organisms. The beta emitters Ra-228 and Pb-210 account for approximately 1 % of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  7. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  8. Uso de N-alcanos na estimativa da composição botânica em amostras com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria brizantha e Arachis pintoi Use of N-alkanes for estimations of botanical composition in samples with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha and Arachis pintoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Côrtes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para se determinar a composição de n-alcanos (C24 a C36 em diferentes proporções de dietas hipotéticas de Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu e Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory. cv. Amarillo (0; 15; 30; 45; 60 e 100% de Arachis pintoi e identificar a combinação de alcanos que permite calcular a composição botânica de dietas com o menor valor residual (real menos o estimado. As forragens foram amostradas no verão e os n-alcanos extraídos pelo método de saponificação direta, sendo identificados e quantificados por meio de análise de cromatografia gasosa. O alcano C34 foi utilizado como padrão interno. As proporções de A. pintoi nas dietas foram estimadas pela minimização do z (soma dos quadrados dos desvios entre a proporção real dos alcanos analisados e as proporções pré-estabelecidas (tratamentos, utilizando-se a equação de Duncan et al. (1999. Observou-se que houve predomínio das cadeias carbônicas ímpares e que a concentração total de n-alcanos decresceu à medida que se aumentou a proporção de A. pintoi nos tratamentos. Estimativas acuradas da composição botânica de misturas de A. pintoi com B. brizantha foram obtidas utilizando-se os alcanos C29, C31, C33 e C35. O alcano C35 foi fundamental para a qualidade das estimativas. Os resultados indicaram o grande potencial da técnica para estudos com animais em pastejo.This trial was carried out to determine the composition of n-alkanes (C24 to C36 in hypothetical diets comprising of pure Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu and Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory. cv. Amarillo and mixtures of these two spececies with 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of Arachis pintoi; it also intended to identify the combination of alkanes that allows to calculate the botanical composition of diets with the smallest residual value (real less estimated values. The forages were sampled in the summer. The n-alkanes were extracted for the direct saponification

  9. Calidad y madurez de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana l. en relación con la coloración del fruto

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    Fischer Gerhard

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Las frutas de uchuva se clasificaron, después de la cosecha, en seis fases de coloración de la cascara, así: 0 = verde, 1 = verde amarillo, 2 = amarillo naranja. 3 == naranja claro, 4 = naranja, 5 = naranja oscura y 6 = naranja roja, a los cuales se le determinaron sus propiedades físicas y bioquímicas. Para describir el comportamiento entre las fases de coloración y las variables analizadas se propusieron modelos estadísticos polinomiales hasta el grado sexto. Los resultados mostraron que, durante el desarrollo 1a coloración del fruto aumento, proporcionalmente, su tamaño, peso fresco y la relación solidos solubles totales/acidez total titulable (SST/AIT hasta 1a fase 5, mientras la acidez titulable se redujo constantemente. Los coeficientes de determinación mas altos se encontraron para las variables acidez total titulable (R2 = 0,95 y relación SST/ATT (R2 = 0,98, y los mas bajos fueron para β-caroteno (R2 =0,79. Los solidos solubles (principalmente, sacarosa mostraron sus picos mas altos en las fases 3 y 4 y el contenido del β caroteno, en 1a fase 4, razón por la cual se supone que la madurez fisiológica se encuentra entre estos dos estados (3 y 4, naranja claro - naranja, En el estado de la sobremaduracion, color naranja roja, se observo una reducción marcada en tamaño y peso del fruto. Por la relación estrecha entre coloración y el desarrollo de los ingredientes del fruto, se propone que el color de la cascara es un indicador, de fácil uso en campo, para determinar calidad y madurez de la uchuva.

  10. Sala de exposiciones, en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz de Oiza, Francisco

    1964-09-01

    mismo tiempo, como difusoras del aire acondicionado, a través de las juntas entre placa y placa. El segundo sótano desarrolla igual programa de exposición, pero con carácter permanente, en torno a una plataforma central, utilizable como pequeña sala de proyecciones y coloquios. La iluminación, debido a la escasa altura de techo, se realiza perimetralmente y lleva como refuerzo focos puntuales. Referente a la decoración del interior, los pavimentos, paramentos verticales y pilares van en blanco brillante, colaborando con la iluminación y aliviando la sensación de un espacio tan confinado, bajo el nivel de la calle. Se han empleado, con exclusividad, pino de Balsaín, palastro de acero y cuero; la madera y el cuero, en su color natural, y el acero está tratado con el mismo rojo de minio. Los colores puros—amarillo de la madera, rojo-naranja del acero—, alguna alfombra amarillo-verdosa, y la policromía de la vegetación, juegan un importante papel en el clima del ambiente interno de esta sala de exposiciones.

  11. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A J; Salinas, E J [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 22675 N. Moorefield Rd, Edinburg, TX 78541-5033 (United States); Rendon, P [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 4a Avenida 12-62, Zona 10, Guatemala City (Guatemala)

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A

  12. Doping and synthesis method effect on zirconium silicate conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monrós, G.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The colour mechanisms of blue V- ZrSiO4 and yellow Pr- ZrSiO4 ceramic pigments which strongly depend on both fluorine addition and synthesis method, are still controversial. Complex impedance has been used as a useful tool to differentiate the materials as a function of the synthesis method, microstructure and observed colour, going deeply into the resolution of controversies about the nature of colours. Representative samples of these doping pigmenting systems prepared by both classical ceramic process and sol-gel method have been studied by complex impedance analysis. Vanadium doped zircon enhances resistivity and activation energy compared to undoped zircon powder and turkish blue vanadium-zircon obtained by addition of NaF shows the highest bulk resistivity. Activation energy and conductivity decrease for Praseodymium doped zircon compared to undoped zircon. This feature is in agreement with the presence of cationic vacancies on green vanadiumzircon samples due to V4+ and V5+ coexistence and praseodymium oxide inclusions on Pr- ZrSiO4 yellow pigment.

    El mecanismo del color en el azul de los pigmentos cerámicos V- ZrSiO4 y amarillo de Pr- ZrSiO4 cuyos tinos dependen mucho de la presencia de fluoruros así como del método de preparación esta controvertido en la literatura. La impedancia compleja se ha utilizado como una herramienta útil para diferenciar los materiales en función del método de síntesis, la microestructura y el color con el fin de profundizar en la resolución de las controversias. Se han preparado muestras representativas de ambos sistemas dopados mediante diferentes métodos de síntesis cerámico y sol-gel que se han estudiado por análisis de impedancia compleja. El circón dopado con vanadio aumenta su resistividad y sus energía de activación con referencia a la muestra no dopada y la muestra turquesa obtenida por adición de NaF presenta la mayor resistividad. Las muestras dopadas con praseodimio disminuyen

  13. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of the oils from three morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L.f, from the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three morphotypes of aguaje Mauritia flexuosa were tested, classified by the color of their mesocarpium: “color”, “shambo” and “amarillo”, collected from different areas near the city of Iquitos, Peru. Also, physical-chemical analyses of the mesocarpium were performed, such as the characterization of fatty acids by gas chromatography, determination of β- carotene y α – tocopherol by high efficiency liquid chromatography system in normal and reverse phase and the determination of oxidation induction time in the Rancimat apparatus. Proximate, mineral and fatty acid analyses were done on the seeds. The aguaje mesocarpium is rich in oleic oil (“amarillo”: 75.63% ± 0.31, β-carotene (“amarillo”: 342.42ug/g ± 0.71 and α- tocopherol (“color”: 685.81mg/L ± 1.04, plus the morphotype “color” has a superior oxidation induction time compared to other morphotypes with 6.91 ± 0.01. The aguaje seed contains significant amounts of ω6 (linoleic oil in “shambo” with 36.04 ± 0.09%. The results indicate that these oils, regardless their classification, contain important chemical compounds that give them a special nutritive value.Se estudiaron tres morfotipos de aguaje Mauritia flexuosa L. f., clasificados por el color del mesocarpio: “color”, “shambo” y “amarillo”, recogidos de localidades cercanas a la ciudad de Iquitos- Perú. Del mismo modo a partir del mesocarpio se realizaron los análisis fisicoquímicos, la caracterización de los ácidos grasos por cromatografía gaseosa, la determinación de β-caroteno y α– tocoferol por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia (HPLC fase reversa y normal y la determinación del tiempo de inducción de la oxidación en el equipo de Rancimat. A partir de la semilla se realizaron los análisis centesimales, de minerales y ácidos grasos. Los mesocarpios de aguaje son ricos en ácido oleico (amarillo: 75.63% ± 0.31, β-caroteno (amarillo: 342.42 ug/g ± 0.71 y

  14. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  15. Influence of fruit maturity and calyx drying on cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana l., stored at 18°C Influencia de la madurez del fruto y del secado del cáliz en uchuva (Physalis peruviana l., almacenada a 18°C

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    Moreno Paola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cape gooseberry fruits at the maturity stages 3 (yellow greenish or 5 (yellow orange and with calyx drying for 6 hours at 18 or 24ºC, were stored at the temperature of 18ºC and 85 % relative humidity for 20 days, to evaluate physical-chemical and physiological changes. The cape gooseberry, a climacteric fruit, presented the maximum of respiration between 6 and 8 days of storage. The 6th day of storage seems to be crucial due to the very high metabolism and the maximum contents of sugars and acids on this day. Soluble solids tended to increase and the titratable acids went to diminish. The fruit's sugar content was characterized by a major concentration of sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. While the citric acid showed its highest level at the sixth storage day that of the tartaric acid increased constantly up to 18 days. The fruit maturity stage 3 is that which best conserved the sugars and organic acids evaluated. The maturity index influenced more than calyx drying the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry. Calyx drying at 24ºC caused the highest climacteric peak and originated the highest loss of fresh weight in fruits harvested at maturity index 5.

    Key words: Physalis peruviana; respiration; climacteric fruit; Brix degrees; organic acids; sugars.

    Frutos de uchuva en estados de madurez 3 (amarillo verdoso ó 5 (amarillo naranja y con secado del cáliz durante seis horas a 18 y 24ºC, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (18ºC y humedad relativa del 75% durante 20 días, con el fin de evaluar cambios físico-químicos y fisiológicos. La uchuva, fruto climatérico, presentó el máximo de respiración entre los 6 y 8 días de almacenamiento. El día 6 de almacenamiento parece ser crucial debido al metabolismo muy elevado y los contenidos más altos de azúcares y ácidos. Los sólidos solubles totales tendieron a aumentar, la acidez titulable a disminuir. El contenido de azúcares se caracterizó por

  16. Características morfológicas, estruturais e produtividade do capim-braquiária e do amendoim forrageiro submetidos ao sombreamento Morphological and structural characteristics and productivity of Brachiaria grass and forage peanut submitted to shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Fernanda Gobbi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As características morfológicas, estruturais e a produção de matéria seca (PMS do capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk e do amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo foram avaliadas em resposta a três níveis de sombreamento artificial (0, 50 e 70%. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizados três e dois cortes, respectivamente, para avaliação do capim-braquiária e do amendoim forrageiro. O amendoim forrageiro apresentou redução significativa na produção de matéria seca com o sombreamento apenas no segundo corte. A produção de matéria seca no capim-braquiária diminuiu linearmente nos dois primeiros cortes. O sombreamento crescente estimulou o aumento da altura média do dossel e do comprimento de pecíolos, colmos e lâminas foliares em todos os cortes das espécies avaliadas. O sombreamento promoveu diminuição linear da densidade populacional de perfilhos no dossel de braquiária em todos os cortes. O peso médio dos perfilhos, no entanto, só foi afetado no terceiro corte, quando aumentou de forma linear de acordo com os níveis de sombreamento. A relação folha:caule da gramínea e da leguminosa não foi afetada pelo sombreamento. A área foliar específica, a área foliar por folíolo e a área foliar por perfilho aumentaram significativamente com o aumento dos níveis de sombreamento. O índice de área foliar (IAF reduziu de forma linear no segundo corte com o sombreamento do amendoim forrageiro e do capim-braquiária. O amendoim forrageiro e o capim-braquiária são forrageiras com bom potencial para avaliação e uso em sistemas silvipastoris com transmissão luminosa em torno de 50% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.The morphological and structural characteristics and dry matter production of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo were evaluated in response to different shading

  17. Influência do Fósforo, Micorriza e Nitrogênio no Conteúdo de Minerais de Brachiaria brizantha e Arachis pintoi Consorciados Effect of Phosphorus, Mycorrhizal and Nitrogen on Mineral Content of Brachiaria brizantha - Arachis pintoi Mixture

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    Ívina Paula Almeida dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do fósforo (P, fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA's e nitrogênio (N no acúmulo de minerais na MS da parte aérea de braquiária MG-4 (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo consorciados, em solo de baixa fertilidade. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 5x2x2, sendo cinco doses de P (25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 mg de P/kg de solo, dois tratamentos de inoculação do solo (inoculado e não com o FMA Glomus etunicatum e dois tratamentos de N (com e sem N em cobertura, com quatro repetições. Foi realizado o corte da parte aérea das plantas aos 60 dias após a germinação para a determinação das quantidades acumuladas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na MS da parte aérea. As adubações fosfatada e, principalmente, a nitrogenada provocaram aumento no conteúdo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na braquiária MG-4, não se verificando tal aumento com a micorrização. No amendoim forrageiro, observou-se redução destes minerais com a aplicação de N, ao passo que a micorrização resultou em aumento dos mesmos. Por outro lado, a adubação fosfatada provocou pequeno aumento no acúmulo de minerais na MS da parte aérea do amendoim forrageiro.This experiment was carried out in a greenhouse condition to study the effect of phosphorus, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen on mineral accumulation in braquiaria MG-4 (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 above ground forage DM and peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo mixture, in soil of low fertility. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a 5x2x2 factorial arrangement, with five P rates (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg of soil, two inoculations (inoculated and no inoculated and two levels of N (with and without N, with four replicates. The harvest of the above ground parts of plants was at 60 days after seed germination to determine

  18. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  19. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

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    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'MerckeronPinda' + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE + azevém anual (AZ Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', como SF1; CE + ECE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', como SF2; e CE + ECE + AZ + trevo vermelho (TV Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', como SF3. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. O azevém anual foi estabelecido entre as linhas do CE durante o período hibernal; o TV foi semeado e o AF foi preservado nos respectivos tratamentos. Para avaliação, foram usadas vacas da raça Holandesa que receberam 5,5kg dia-1 como complemento alimentar. Foram avaliadas a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA, a massa de forragem desaparecida (MFD, a matéria seca desaparecida com base em 100kg de peso vivo (MSD e a produção de forragem (PF, as composições botânica e estrutural do CE. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (SF e duas repetições (piquetes em parcelas subdivididas no tempo (pastejo. Durante o período experimental (341 dias, foram efetuados nove ciclos de pastejo. Os valores médios de TA, MFD, MSD e PF foram de 53,16kg ha-1; 36,13%; 2,77kg de matéria seca por 100kg de peso vivo e 17,80t ha-1. Para a variável ECE, houve aumento significativo no SF1. Considerando a carga animal, o SF3 apresentou melhor desempenho.The objective of this research was to evaluate of tree pasture-based systems (PS with elephantgrass (EG Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'Merckeron Pinda' + spontaneous growing species (SGS, annual ryegrass (RG Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', for PS1; EG + SGS + forage peanut (FP Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', for PS2; and EG + SGS + RG + red clover (RC Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', for PS3. EG was planted in lines with a distance of 4m

  20. Energy & technology review, November--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L. [eds.

    1993-11-01

    For the 40-plus years of the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union built up nuclear stockpiles of tens of thousands of weapons. Now, as the Cold War has ended and tensions between the superpowers have subsided, the US faces the task of significantly reducing its nuclear arsenal. Many thousands of nuclear weapons are being removed from the stockpile as a result of recent treaties and unilateral decisions. This issue of Energy and Technology Review describes the Laboratory`s role in the nation`s effort to dismantle these weapons safely and rapidly. The dismantlement of the United States` nuclear weapons takes place at the Department of Energy`s Pantex facility near Amarillo, Texas. The first article in this issue summarizes the Laboratory`s involvement in dismantling Livermore-designed nuclear weapons. LLNL (like Los Alamos) has responsibility for the weapons it designed, from design concept to retirement. In the past, the responsibilities ended when the weapon was retired from the stockpile. Now however, the role has been extended to include dismantlement. The second article reports on an incident that occurred in November 1992, in which the pit of a W48 warhead cracked during dismantlement. The Laboratory was called upon to handle the pit safely and determine the causes of the cracking. The third article explores a variety of methods proposed for reusing the high explosives after they are removed from the weapon. In the past, Laboratory work on nuclear weapons focused primarily on design and development. However, as the size and composition of the US stockpile changes with evolving international conditions, they will be called upon with increasing frequency to provide the scientific and technical expertise needed to dismantle the nation`s retired nuclear weapons safely and efficiently.

  1. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  2. Vivienda unifamiliar Los Porches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas, Vicente

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available This small vacation house is located in a colourful and luminous village from the Alicante region. Its distribution is functional and the construction is straightforward. It has three bedrooms and bathroom in the private zone of the house; and a living room separated into front, dining room and study room in the formal part of the house. The service zone includes service bedroom, larder and washing room. The building has brick bearing walls. The roof structure includes ceramic units, air chamber, fiber wool protection and aluminium roofing surface. The colouring is in white, blue, yellow, black and natural wood. The gardening arrangement is also very simple. It consists of large gravel surfaces and a few clumps of trees that introduce an element of variety and provide adequate shade and greenery.Esta pequeña casa para vacaciones está situada en un claro y luminoso pueblo alicantino. Dispone de una distribución funcional y ejecución sencilla, componiéndose de tres dormitorios y cuarto de baño para señores (zona íntima salón dividido en estar y comedor por una chimenea y estudio-estancia (zona pública y semipública dormitorio de servicio, cocina, despensa y aseo (zona de servicio. Está construida con muros portantes de ladrillo, cerramientos cerámicos con cámara de aire y cubierta a base de forjado, cámara de aire con manta de fibra de vidrio y cobertura de aluminio. Colores básicos: blanco, azul, amarillo, negro y madera. La jardinería es sencilla igualmente, con grandes espacios de grava, rocallas y pocos grupos arbóreos que estropean la diafanidad general, sin privar al conjunto de las sombras y masas verdes necesarias.

  3. Aquel verano del 92 en el INEFC

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    Ramon Balius i Juli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestra Portada la ocupa un bonito y espectacular cartel dedicado a la inauguración de la nueva sede del INEFC el día 21 de junio de 1991. Sobre un fondo de color azul cielo intenso se destacan una parte importante de la “Acrópolis” del edificio y en el ángulo superior derecho de la obra, unos pequeños fragmentos de tres anillas de los colores olímpicos: amarillo, rojo y verde. El original es de los artistas Pilar Villuendas y Josep Ramon Gómez. Ambos autores habían creado en 1980 un estudio especializado en el diseño gráfico y la comunicación, esencialmente en el terreno sociocultural. Son un verdadero equipo que ha trabajado para la administración local y autonómica de Catalunya y para todo tipo de empresas públicas y privadas. Desde 1985 han sido distinguidos con numerosos premios LAUS, que anualmente otorga la Asociación de Directores de Arte y Diseñadores Gráficos del Fomento de las Artes Decorativas (ADG–FAD y en 1987 con el premio Nacional de Turismo Almara y el premio del Instituto de las Letras Catalanas. Como veremos, Pilar Villuendas y Josep Ramon Gómez tuvieron una importante colaboración artística durante el período olímpico de Barcelona ’92.

  4. Contaminación por metales pesados en el sur del Ecuador asociada a la actividad minera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oviedo-Anchundia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó una recopilación de la zona minera más antigua e importante del Ecuador desde su época precolombina hasta la actualidad. Se recolectaron datos que muestran las concentraciones de algunos metales pesados no esenciales (Hg, Pb, As, Mg, Zn, Cd, en los cantones Zaruma y Portovelo de la provincia de El Oro. Los resultados revelaron que los recorridos de los lugares afectados por estos metales van desde el nacimiento de los ríos Calera, Amarillo y Pindo, a lo largo de la cuenca, hasta llegar al río Puyango, donde se obtiene los valores más bajos de estos elementos, a excepción del Manganeso puesto a que su nivel vuelve a elevarse debido a la presencia mineralógica del bosque petrificado de Puyango. Los datos tomados del FONSAD fueron obtenidos del material procesado de los relaves de molienda y colas de cianuración en el año 2004, los mismos demostraron que las concentraciones de plomo y arsénico superaban los valores límites de referencia para estos metales en los suelos. En otros estudios realizados a los pobladores, se tomaron muestras biológicas (sangre, orina y cabello, y con ello se logró determinar que la mayoría de los habitantes de las poblaciones cercanas a la cuenca del río Puyango, se encuentran envenenados con Hg y Pb en pequeñas cantidades dentro de su organismo.

  5. Unapal-Llanogrande, nuevo cultivar de zapallo adaptado a las condiciones del valle geográfico del río Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Iván Estrada Salazar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo cultivar de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata Unapal-Llanogrande se originó a partir de la población básica P-34 obtenida en la segunda colección colombiana de germoplasma realizada por Montes (2003. La población heterogénea (P-34 fue sometida a tres ciclos de selección recurrente fenotípica para los caracteres: producción por planta, prolificidad, tamaño de fruto pequeño (2 - 3 kg, calidad de fruto y sanidad de la planta. El cultivar expresa alta uniformidad y estabilidad fenotípica para hábito de crecimiento postrado con moderado número de guías, tallo cilíndrico angular y pubescente, hojas lobuladas reniformes pequeñas, con alta frecuencia de manchas plateadas, floración monoica, inicio de floración estaminada y pistilada entre 60-70 días después de la emergencia, inicio de cosecha de 130 a140 días, con plantas de alta prolificidad (9 a 11 frutos y alto rendimiento (entre 10 y 20 kg/planta. El fruto es redondo con superficie lisa, sin costillar, de color verde brillante y manchas amarillas o rojizas en la madurez, el peso varía entre 1.5 y 3.0 kg, el diámetro de pulpa entre 3.8 y 4.8 cm y el de cavidad placentaria entre 9 y 12 cm. El color de pulpa es amarillo intenso.

  6. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  7. Alternativas para enfrentar las actuales exigencias del mercado de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. verde en Argentina. 2. Tendencias de la demanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago constituye una hortaliza muy valorada a nivel global, cuya difusión en Argentina es limitada, por lo cual se requiere de estrategias para fomentar su consumo. A tal fin se realizó una encuesta (10/11/2009 en Azul, Argentina, estudiando: preferencias acerca del consumo, beneficios de su consumo (B, calibre (C y longitud (L de turiones, tipo de envase (E, conocimiento sobre vida útil de las presentaciones (TVU, presencia de etiquetas (PE y características como color de fondo (CF y de letras (CL, lugar de compra (LC, tiempo (Ti desde la compra hasta el consumo y prioridad (P para la compra (calidad o precio, entre otros ítems. Los encuestados manifestaron preferencias de consumo de espárragos verdes y en platos calientes, mostrando desinterés por el consumo de espárragos enlatados. En B, > 95 % demostró conocer las propiedades nutricionales y saludables de los espárragos. 71 % mostró interés por calibre mediano y un 75 % cortos (15-20 cm. Respecto de E, prefirieron las presentaciones en bandejas y atados con film, y con presencia de etiquetas, color de fondo llamativo (naranja y amarillo y letra negra. El 81,1 % adquieren espárragos mediante venta directa y 50 % manifestó que transcurre entre 2 días y 1 semana entre la adquisición y el consumo, prefiriéndolos frescos y no congelados. En P, el 90 % priorizó calidad en lugar del precio. Estos resultados indican que los consumidores no son indiferentes a los atributos de presentación del producto, por lo cual los empresarios deberían esforzarse por mejorar las dimensiones de la calidad del producto, por lo que se verían recompensados.

  8. El Ajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carda Paredes Antonio

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available El Ajo es del género ALLIUM, AJO, de la familia de las LILIACEAS. El ajo es una planta exótica, herbácea, anual, que fue traída de España junto con la cebolla, su congénere, en la época de la Colonia, y se aclimató muy bien en los climas fríos. El ajo es también planta bulbífera, y el bulbo llamado vulgarmente CABEZA está compuesto de varios bulbillos llamados DIENTES, cubiertos cada uno de una túnica muy delgada, seca y blanquecina. El olor del ajo es más fuerte y más difusible que el de la cebolla y basta que se le despoje de su cubierta o película que lo cubre para que este olor se deje sentir vivamente a alguna distancia. Examinado químicamente el ajo, contiene las siguientes sustancias: mucílago, azúcar, azufre, sales y un aceite volátil amarillo muy acre y de sabor muy fuerte. A este aceite se atribuyen las propiedades excitantes del bulbo. El aceite volátil del ajo se extrae por destilación de los bulbos frescos. Este acéite contiene azufre y es más pesado que el agua. El ajo no es alimenticio pero es un condimento indispensable en todas las preparaciones del arte culinario.

  9. Interpretation of seismic reflection data, Central Palo Duro Basin: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Seismic reflection data from the Central Palo Duro Basin, Texas, were studied to identify and characterize geologic structure, potential hydrocarbon traps, and anomalies suggesting adverse features such as salt dissolution or diapirism. The data included seismic reflection data, geologic and geophysical data controlled by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and data from the literature. These data comprised approximately 590 line-mi of seismic profiles over approximately 4000 mi 2 , plus well logs from 308 wells. The study addressed the section from shallow reflectors down to basement. Structural contour maps were prepared for the Upper San Andres, Near Top of Glorieta, Wolfcamp, and Precambrian horizons. Isopach maps were prepared for intervals between the Upper and Lower San Andres and between the Upper San Andres and the Wolfcamp. Interpretation indicates southeasterly dips in the northwest part of the mapped area and southwesterly dips in the southwest part. Geologic structures show a generally northwest alignment. Faults at the Precambrian level and geologic structures show a generally northwest alignment. Faulting in the area is largely limited to the Precambrian, but interpretation is uncertain. Evidence of post-Wolfcampian faulting is not recognized. Seismic data delineating the San Andres section indicate a stable section throughout the area. Anomalous reflection events possibly associated with subsurface salt dissolution were seen at the 800- to 1200-ft level in Swisher County. Other anomalies include an overthickened zone northwest of Westway and carbonate buildup in the Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian in Randall County. Mississippian to Middle Pennsylvanian diastrophism resulting in the Amarillo Uplift and Matador Arch is not manifested structurally in the central Palo Duro Basin. Subsidence or gentle uplift contributed to some structural deformation

  10. Granjas avícolas y autosuficiencia de maíz y soya: caso Tungurahua-Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pomboza-Tamaquiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: caracterizar las granjas avícolas y la autosuficiencia de maíz y soya, en Tungurahua-Ecuador. Metodología: se realizaron entrevistas a noventa avicultores seleccionados mediante muestreo no probabilístico; se utilizó estadísticas de producción y exportaciones reportadas por la Asociación de Fabricantes de Balanceados (AFABA y el Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuacultura y Pesca (MAGAP, y se calcularon índices de Tasa Media de Variación Acumulada y autosuficiencia y dependencia alimentaria. Resultados: en Tungurahua el 78% de avicultores se dedican a la crianza de aves de postura y el 62% tienen instalaciones semiautomatizadas. El 100% de maíz y soya utilizado por la avicultura de Tungurahua, procede de otras provincias e importaciones internacionales. Entre el 2007 y 2016, el maíz registró un índice de autosuficiencia promedio anual de 0.9, mientras que la soya registró 0.08. Limitaciones: la información estadística de producción nacional e importaciones de granos se encontró dispersa. Conclusiones: los resultados indican la presencia de diversos tipos de sistemas de producción avícola. Éstos, según el nivel tecnológico, van desde los artesanales hasta los automatizados. Así mismo, la producción nacional alcanza a cubrir con dificultad la demanda nacional del sector avícola, no así la soya nacional que cubre una mínima parte. Con base en éstos resultados se sugiere mantener la política de sustitución de importaciones de maíz amarillo y ampliar a la soya.

  11. Recuperación de sílice residual de columnas de cromatografía en la síntesis sol-gel de pigmentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grañana, M. C.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of a silica waste of support chromatography process as raw material in the synthesis of ceramic pigments based in zircon network (yellow of praseodymium, turkish blue of vanadium and pink koral of iron, is analized in this study. The synthesis has been carried out by ceramic method and also by colloidal sol-gel and coprecipitation routes. Silica waste becomes an effective precursor in the zircon ceramic stains. Likewise, the high temperature and long soaking time used in the synthesis ensure the whole combustion of adsorbed organics on the waste.

    En este trabajo se caracteriza una sílice residual de procesos de cromatografía de columna y se analiza su utilización como precursor en la síntesis de los tres pigmentos triaxiales del circón (amarillo de praseodimio, turquesa de vanadio y coral de hierro utilizando tanto la vía sol-gel coloidal, la coprecipitación y el método cerámico. La sílice residual se muestra como un precursor muy efectivo en la obtención de los colores del circón tanto vía cerámica como a partir de geles. La alta temperatura así como los relativamente largos periodos de retención utilizados en la síntesis de los pigmentos cerámicos, permite una total combustión de los orgánicos adsorbidos sobre la sílice.

  12. Chalet en Florida - (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan, William

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available This house has been designed as a series of ascending platforms in a continuous spiral around a central staircase and the various platforms have each been assigned different room functions, such as: living room, master bedroom and children's bedroom, studio, dining room and kitchen, guest room and under the house space has been provided for a garage. The construction is entirely wooden and is lifted above the ground by 9 exposed piles to which are bolted the beams that support the exposed ceiling Joists. For these elements laminated yellow pine wood has been used as well as for the floorings, roofs and deckings. The walls are of panelled cedar plywood whereas the material of the interior doors and cabinetry is mahogany.Esta vivienda se diseñó como una secuencia de plataformas que ascienden, en espiral continua, alrededor de una escalera interior, en las cuales se dispusieron: el cuarto de estar, los dormitorios de padres y de niños, un estudio, el comedor y la cocina, una habitación para los invitados y, debajo del edificio, una plaza de aparcamiento. La construcción, realizada con madera en su totalidad, se levanta del suelo mediante nueve pilares vistos, a los que se atornillan las jácenas que soportan las viguetas, también vistas, de los forjados. Para estos elementos constructivos se empleó madera laminada de pino amarillo, al igual que para los suelos, techos y cubiertas. Los muros laterales se hicieron con un entablado de madera contrachapada de cedro, mientras que para el artesonado, las puertas interiores y las estanterías, se utilizó la madera de caoba.

  13. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Walter Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33% sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g. Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP, conversión alimenticia (CA, proteína retenida (PR, razón de eficiencia proteica (REP y energía retenida (ER. En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes de proteína harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya y como fuentes de energía maíz amarillo duro, subproducto de trigo y aceite de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre tratamientos para los parámetros GP, PR, REP y ER. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la CA. Los mejores rendimientos fueron obtenidos cuando las gamitanas fueron alimentadas con niveles dietarios de 25, 27 y 33% de proteína cruda. También se encontró que a medida que se elevó el nivel de proteína de la dieta, la REP decreció significativamente. Tomando en cuenta el costo de la proteína en la dieta, se concluye que la alimentación de la gamitana con niveles dietarios de 25 ó 27% de proteína cruda y 2,7 kcal de ED/g, garantizarán su exitoso crecimiento.

  14. SEVERIDAD DE CURVULARIA EN 67 LÍNEAS AUTOFECUNDADAS S4 DE MAÍZ AMARRILLO

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los principales problemas que afectan la producción del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L., podemos citar a las enfermedades, causadas por diferentes patógenos, entre ellos la mancha foliar de curvularia causada por Curvularia spp. El control más barato, viable y que no causa daños al medio ambiente contra casi cualquier patógeno, es a través de la resistencia genética de la planta hospedante es decir, mediante el mejoramiento genético y utilización de variedades resistentes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la severidad de curvularia en líneas promisorias autofecundadas S4 de maíz amarillo, obtenidos a partir de materiales comerciales. En la primera población (LM1 se encontraron valores máximos de 5.6 y menores de 1.4 lesiones cm-2, mientras que en la segunda población (LM2 los promedios máximos y mínimos fueron de 8.0 y 1.5 lesiones cm-2, respectivamente. Se constató diferencia entre las líneas evaluadas en función de la severidad de mancha de curvularia, en los dos experimentos. Con la información obtenida se torna importante considerar los valores de severidad obtenidos en estos experimentos, para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos híbridos de maíz con caracteres contrastantes en el comportamiento de la planta a determinadas enfermedades, asegurando el éxito de un programa de mejoramiento genético. Por otro lado, para futuros trabajos similares se recomienda realizar más de una evaluación y en diferentes estadios fenológicos del cultivo.

  15. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  16. Comparing the auscultatory accuracy of health care professionals using three different brands of stethoscopes on a simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mansoor Mehmood,1 Hazem L Abu Grara,1 Joshua S Stewart,2 Faisal A Khasawneh3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 2Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Northwest Texas Hospital, 3Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USA Background: It is considered standard practice to use disposable or patient-dedicated stethoscopes to prevent cross-contamination between patients in contact precautions and others in their vicinity. The literature offers very little information regarding the quality of currently used stethoscopes. This study assessed the fidelity with which acoustics were perceived by a broad range of health care professionals using three brands of stethoscopes. Methods: This prospective study used a simulation center and volunteer health care professionals to test the sound quality offered by three brands of commonly used stethoscopes. The volunteer's proficiency in identifying five basic ausculatory sounds (wheezing, stridor, crackles, holosystolic murmur, and hyperdynamic bowel sounds was tested, as well. Results: A total of 84 health care professionals (ten attending physicians, 35 resident physicians, and 39 intensive care unit [ICU] nurses participated in the study. The higher-end stethoscope was more reliable than lower-end stethoscopes in facilitating the diagnosis of the auscultatory sounds, especially stridor and crackles. Our volunteers detected all tested sounds correctly in about 69% of cases. As expected, attending physicians performed the best, followed by resident physicians and subsequently ICU nurses. Neither years of experience nor background noise seemed to affect performance. Postgraduate training continues to offer very little to improve our trainees' auscultation skills. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using low-end stethoscopes to care for patients in contact precautions could

  17. DESARTICULACIÓN DE DISCURSOS NACIONALISTAS EN EL CINE DE AUTOR BOLIVIANO: 3B´S Y SOCAVÓNCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lacunza Mendizábal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinta a México, Argentina y Brasil, Bolivia tiene una industria cinematográfica poco desarrollada que no ha logrado consolidarse por varias razones. Entre éstas está la falta de apoyo estatal, el escaso desarrollo profesional en estas áreas y una carencia de cultura cinematográfica y visual en general. Sin embargo, durante la última década, la industria cinematográfica boliviana ha sido partícipe de logros importantes gracias a la aparición de las nuevas tecnologías. Películas digitales hechas por una nueva generación de jóvenes directores reconocidos globalmente se han desarrollado en tres ramas distintas: a cine de autor, b cine documental y c cortometrajes. Al mismo tiempo, la producción de este tipo de filmes se apoya en un esfuerzo colectivo, como es el caso de RAV (Rojo, Amarillo y Verde, 2006 de Rodrigo Bellot, Martín Bolulocq y Sergio Bastani y aquellos filmes producidos por el colectivo SocavónCine desde el año 2013. Este artículo busca explorar cómo el más reciente cine boliviano de autor desarticula discursos de identidad nacional al deconstruir oposiciones binarias. Además,  este artículo busca examinar la aplicabilidad del cine de autor y de las prácticas colaborativas en los “cines pequeños” o “small cinemas” al comparar y contrastar ambos grupos a través del análisis de las formas de producción y corrientes estéticas.

  18. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  19. Tierras de la microcuenca potrerillo (Cauca, Colombia: Clasificación local en relación con propiedades edáficas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón Rengifo Carmen Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de relacionar la clasificación local de tierras con propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo. Se hicieron entrevistas a 36 agricultores de la microcuenca, Potrerillo, Cauca, Colombia, para considerar criterios culturales de clasificación local; se tomaron muestras de suelo en 8 tierras, de 0 a 5 y 0 a 20 cm, con 5 repeticiones. Se determinó color, textura, N y P disponible, C total, fracción liviana de materia orgánica (LL, PH, Ca, K, Mg y Al. Los datos se trabajaron estadísticamente a partir de análisis de varianza, prueba Duncan y análisis de clasificación de datos. La información sugiere que los agricultores diferencias las tierras a partir de la ubicación, características físicas del suelo y de categorías culturales llamadas tierra buena, mala, brava y cansada. Las tierras consideradas buenas se relacionan con colores pardos oscuros, contenidos más altos de N, C y fracción LL, mayor densidad de miriápodos en tierras con vegetación arbórea y mayor biomasa de lombrices en barbecho de la parte baja de la colina. Entre las tierras de menor calidad, disminuye N, C fracción LL y Al y aumenta el pH; en aquellas que no son utilizadas son frecuentes los colores amarillos o rojos, decrecen los valores de N, C, LL, Ph y se incrementa el Al.

  20. Homenaje Póstumo: Jorge Cavelier Gaviria (1929-2012

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    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available "Ya voces más autorizadas y elocuentes que la mía han hablado y hablarán de una fi gura que, como pocos, ha grabado un hito en la historia de esta Academia. Yo sólo quiero recordar afectuosamente una amistad que nos vinculó por más de un sexenio de nuestras vidas y comenzó por los claustros “esos sí antiguos- de la Javeriana de la calle 10, al lado de la iglesia de San Ignacio. Amistad sincera pero no cercana, cordial pero no íntima. Sus verdaderos amigos, bartolinos y no gimnasianos eran en la Facultad de Medicina Alberto Mejía, Eduardo Borda y Eduardo Rodríguez, verdadera guardia pretoriana alrededor de Jorge y de la cual, sobreviven activos y fuertes los dos últimos. A ellos y otros que veníamos “de Chapinero” “nuestro punto de concentración y bastión javeriano era el Centro de Practicantes de la 39 con 13- nos les fuimos uniendo con motivo de las conferencias en mimeógrafo. Allí debíamos tomar el tranvía amarillo que nos dejaba en la carrera 7ª. con calle 13, de donde subíamos anhelantes a la casa del Profesor, casi en la esquina de la carrera 4ª. donde procedíamos a descifrar nuestros cuadernos de apuntes y a preparar los esténciles."

  1. Perched aquifers - their potential impact on contaminant transport in the southern High Plains, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullican, W.F. III; Fryar, A.E.; Johns, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of perched aquifers at potential and known contaminated waste sites has become increasingly important because of the impact these aquifers may have on contaminant transport independent of regional aquifer processes. Investigations of a perched aquifer above the Ogallala aquifer are being conducted in the region of the U.S. Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, a proposed Superfund site, located approximately 20 mi northeast of Amarillo, Texas. Since the early 1950s, a small playa basin located on the Pantex Plant has been used as a waste-water discharge pond with daily discharge rates ranging from 400,000 to 1 million gal. The focus of this investigation is an unconfined, perched aquifer that overlies a thick silty clay sequence within the upper, mostly unsaturated part of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene). In the area of the Pantex Plant, measured depths to the perched aquifer range from 200 to 300 ft below land surface, whereas depth to the regional Ogallala aquifer ranges from 375 to 500 ft. The potentiometric surface of the perched aquifer typically represents groundwater mounds proximal to the playas and thins into trough in the interplaya areas. Hydrologic gradients of the primary mound under investigation are relatively high, ranging from 28 to 45 ft/mi. Calculated transmissivities have a geometric mean of 54 ft 2 /day, with saturated thicknesses ranging from 4 to 1000 ft. Modeling of the perched aquifer was designed to determine how much, if any, discharge to the small playa basin has enhanced recharge to the perched aquifers and increased the vertical and lateral extent of the perched aquifer. Preliminary results indicate that measurements of vertical conductance through the perching silty-clay sequence and recharge rates through playas are critical for calibrating the model. Accurate delineation of rates and flow directions in the perched aquifer is critical to any successful remediation effort

  2. A Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternative for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has announced a Record of Decision (ROD) selecting alternatives for disposition of surplus plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to further U.S. efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns that were addressed include economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses supporting the ROD are documented in three DOE reports (DOE-TSR 96, DOE-PEIS 96, and DOE-NN 97, respectively). At the request of OFMD, a team of analysts from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) provided an independent evaluation of the alternatives for plutonium that were considered during the evaluation effort. This report outlines the methodology used by the ANRCP team. This methodology, referred to as multiattribute utility theory (MAU), provides a structure for assembling results of detailed technical, economic, schedule, environment, and nonproliferation analyses for OFMD, DOE policy makers, other stakeholders, and the general public in a systematic way. The MAU methodology has been supported for use in similar situations by the National Research Council, an agency of the National Academy of Sciences.1 It is important to emphasize that the MAU process does not lead to a computerized model that actually determines the decision for a complex problem. MAU is a management tool that is one component, albeit a key component, of a decision process. We subscribe to the philosophy that the result of using models should be insights, not numbers. The MAU approach consists of four steps: (1) identification of alternatives, objectives, and performance measures, (2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, (3) development of value functions and weights for the objectives, and (4) evaluation of the alternatives and sensitivity

  3. Ciencia, universidad y cultura: viejos hábitos vs nuevos retos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Plata Caviedes

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available “Creo que todos tenemos un anhelo arcaico de reconciliación total, de encontrar una palabra incuestionable que funcione como fundadora de la realidad. Debemos, en cambio, aprender a apreciar el debate y el conflicto como el territorio de nuestra liberación humana”E. Zuleta.“Tío Lisiado y Tío Cojo miraban al paisaje en la colina del Señor Oscuro y los Yermos de Kun Lun, el lugar donde descansaba el Emperador Amarillo. De pronto brotó un sauce del codo izquierdo de Tío Cojo, quien se sobresaltó y parecía contrariado. ¿Te molesta? Preguntó Tío Lisiado. No por qué iba a molestarme; dijo Tío Cojo. Vivir es pedir prestado; y si pedimos prestado para vivir, la vida debe ser una pila de basura. La Vida y la Muerte son el día y la noche. Tu y yo vinimos a observar el cambio, y ahora el cambio me ha alcanzado. ¿Por qué tendría que molestarme?”Chuan Tzu.El paradigma técnico-económico propio de la revolución industrial se ha impuesto a nivel orbital concomitantemente con una idea de ciencia y de técnica que conducen a pensar o asimilar a éstas con la superespecialización, con el rol de los expertos. Alrededor de los expertos se crean velos de misterio que dis-socian la sociedad de la élite tecno-científica. Así de alguna manera la ciencia se tecno-burocratiza, se disocia del hombre. Infortunadamente, la instrumentalización de los saberes ha hecho de éstos algo acumulable, manipulable, expresión del poder.

  4. Biopelículas fototróficas, ¿qué longitudes de onda lumínica favorecen su desarrollo y diversidad? Ejemplo de enseñanza de fundamentos de ecología microbiana desde una práctica sencilla de laboratorio escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Robledo-D'Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de una organización social en los microorganismos, entre ellos las bacterias, es muy poco conocida entre el alumnado de los diferentes niveles de educación. Se tiene el preconcepto de que esta característica se presenta en organismos vivos de mayor complejidad. Las biopelículas constituyen una organización social donde una población bacteriana o una comunidad de diferentes microorganismos procariotas y eucariotas, permanecen adheridas a una matriz extracelular de polímeros sintetizados y excretados por sus propias células. Dentro de la biopelículas podemos encontrar subpoblaciones celulares diferenciadas metabólicamente y con actividades diferentes. La formación de biopelículas bacterianas es la principal causa de las infecciones crónicas en el ser humano y otros mamíferos. Éstas también se forman en el medio ambiente, como por ejemplo en medios acuáticos, donde podemos encontrar las que se constituyen mediante asociaciones de microorganismos fototróficos como las microalgas (cianobacterias, diatomeas y algas verdes. En el presente trabajo se propone una actividad o práctica de laboratorio escolar muy sencilla. En ésta se puede estudiar el efecto de una sola variable sobre el desarrollo y diversidad de una biopelícula de microorganismos fototróficos. La variable mencionada es la longitud de onda de la luz visible que incide en un cultivo de dichos microorganismos. Utilizando filtros de diferentes colores (azul, verde, amarillo y rojo, se observaron resultados diferenciales.

  5. INFLUENCIA DEL CULTIVO INTERCALADO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DE TOMATE CEREZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rossi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo determinar la influencia en la cosecha y calidad de los frutos de Solanum lycopersicum L. (1753 cv. cereza [Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. 1768] (tomate en convivencia con cultivos intercalares de cinco Fabaceae, plantas auxiliadoras en la agricultura y dos tratamientos con y sin residuos de cosecha de Zea mayz L. El estudio fue im- plantado en el Polo Centro Sul, Piracicaba-SP. Brasil, en suelo Argisol rojo-amarillo distrófico. El diseño experimental fue en bloque al azar con cinco repeticiones y ocho tratamientos en con- vivencia con plantas de tomate con:1 Sin residuos de ZEAMA-Zea mayz L.;2 Con residuos de ZEAMA- Zea mayz L. cv.cativerde 2; 3 CANEN- Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.; 4CRO- JU- Crotalaria juncea L.; 5 MUCPR- Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. cv. arbusto (enana o anã; 6 VIGRA- Vigna radiata L. 7 LUPAL- Lupinus albus L.; 8 VIGUN- Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Los resultados mostraron que la producción y calidad de los frutos de tomate fue normal, sin ataque de plagas y no se aplicó ningún agrotóxico. El abono verde, así como la presencia o ausencia de residuos de cosecha de maíz, no interfiere en la temporada de cosecha. En cuanto al análisis de sólidos solubles totales (SST y acidez (pH no difirió entre los tratamientos.

  6. El léxico cromático y la ideología maya Chromatic lexic and Maya ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Savkic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para acercarse al campo semántico de los colores, de primera importancia son diversos diccionarios de las lenguas mayances. El objetivo es hacer una descripción preliminar del vocabulario cromático, compuesto de cinco términos referidos a colores básicos que en el maya yucateco se llaman sak, ek', chak, k'an y ya'ax y significan "blanco", "negro", "rojo", "amarillo" y "verde-azul", respectivamente. El mismo vocabulario remite a determinadas categorías extralingüísticas que la lengua es capaz de acumular, reflejar y comunicar. Éstas dependen de una cultura particular, por lo que el estudio se amplía con las informaciones de diferentes fuentes escritas redactadas durante la época colonial. La intención es detectar los múltiples usos que se hacían en todos los ámbitos de la vida de los colores, lo cual a su vez permite considerar estos últimos como conceptualizaciones articuladas en pares de oposición o agrupamientos tripartitos.To gain greater insight into the color semantic field, it is important to consult various Mayance language dictionaries, in order to assemble a preliminary chromatic vocabulary, composed of five basic color terms which in Yucatec Maya are sak, ek', chak, k'an and ya'ax, or "white", "black", "red", "yellow" and "green-blue", respectively. The very vocabulary addresses certain extra-linguistic categories that language is capable of accumulating, reflecting, and communicating. These categories depend on a particular culture; consequently this study is amplified with greater information from different sources written during the colonial period in order to shed light on the many uses that the colors had in the aspects of human life which, at the same time, can be seen in conceptualizations articulated in pairs of opposition or tripartite groupings.

  7. Conocimientos y prácticas frente a la exposición solar y tamizaje de cáncer de piel. Medellín, mayo - junio de 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gaviria

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El melanoma maligno cutáneo ha mostrado en las últimas décadas un aumento en su incidencia; para 1992 ésta fue de 1:105, ientras que para el año 2000 se esperaba una incidencia de 1:75. Aunque estudios epidemiológicos internacionales evidencian que la exposición a la radiación solar constituye la principal causa de melanoma en poblaciones de piel blanca, la distribución de éste por sitio corporal o está estrechamente relacionada con las áreas de máxima exposición sino que compromete áreas intermitentemente expuestas. Para que se desarrolle el cáncer de piel se requiere una combinación de factores constitucionales y ambientales. Entre las características
    fenotípicas se encuentran: el color claro de la piel, la incapacidad para broncearse, cabello de color rojo o amarillo y la presencia de efélides en la infancia. En cuanto a los factores ambientales, la depleción de la capa de ozono por los clorofluorocarbonos liberados hacia la atmósfera por los envases de aerosol, los aires acondicionados y los
    refrigeradores, puede aumentar la cantidad de radiación ultravioleta ue alcanza la superficie terrestre incrementando la incidencia de estos tumores. en personas con trabajos al aire libre y alta exposición recreativa al sol; en dichas personas se encuentra una mayor incidencia de cáncer de piel, disminuyendo progresivamente la edad de aparición de esta enfermedad.

     

     

  8. ANÁLISIS COLORIMÉTRICO DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO DE HOJAS DE TECA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaíra Morais dos Santos Hurtado de Mendoza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El estudio tuvo como objetivo una evaluación colorimétrica del extracto acuoso de hojas de la base y del ápice de árboles de teca, provenientes de repoblación forestal en Mato Grosso. Los parâmetros utilizados en el sistema CieLab fueron determinados por el colorímetro MINOLTA, modelo CR400. Los extractos acuosos fueron mantenidos a una tasa de calentamiento de 100 ºC por el tiempo de 1 y 2 horas separadamente. En el análisis de los datos se adoptó el delineamento enteramente casualizado (DEC, con 6 repeticiones, en el esquema de parcelas subdivididas. En este caso se consideró como factor principal la posición de la hoja en la copa del árbol y el tiempo de calentamiento como secundario. La luminosidad no presentó diferencias significativas, en función de los factores evaluados. Se observó una pérdida en la pigmentación amarilla de la base para el ápice. Así, se verificó el color amarillo anaranjado en la base y rojo anaranjado en el ápice. Se concluyó que tanto la posición de la hoja en la copa del árbol, cuanto el tiempo de calentamiento influyeron en la coloración de los extractos, siendo 1 hora suficiente para la obtención de los colorantes, independientemente de la posición en la copa.

  9. Astaxanthin from Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii as a Pigmentary Ingredient in the Feed of Laying Hens

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    Garrido-Fernández, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg yolks generally owe their color to yellow carotenoids. The addition of synthetic red pigments allows changes in color, from the original yellow to red hues which may be more appealing to consumers in certain markets.Our aim has been to test whether ground crayfish shells, which are a rich and natural source of astaxanthin, produce detectable changes in the coloration of egg yolks through the accumulation of this carotenoid. Laying hens were fed with a commercial feed mixed with crayfish powder and the carotenoid profiles of the yolks in the eggs laid during the trial were monitored by HPLC. The analyses showed a progressive increase in the astaxanthin concentration in the egg yolks, reaching similar levels to those obtained for the rest of present carotenoid pigments.La yema de huevo de gallina debe su coloración a la presencia de carotenoides de tonalidad amarilla. La adición de colorantes sintéticos de tonalidades rojas permite modificar e incrementar la coloración de la yema desde el amarillo original a tonos rojos que pueden ser demandados en ciertos mercados según las preferencias del consumidor. El objetivo del trabajo fue probar si un triturado obtenido a partir de caparazones de cangrejo, que es una fuente natural y rica en astaxanteno, produce cambios detectables en la coloración de la yema de huevo por la acumulación de dicho carotenoide. Las gallinas ponedoras se alimentaron con un pienso comercial al que se adicionó triturado de caparazón de cangrejo. Se realizó un seguimiento de los cambios en la composición carotenoide (mediante HPLC de la yema de los huevos puestos durante el periodo de alimentación suplementada. Los análisis mostraron una progresiva incorporación de astaxanteno que alcanzó niveles similares al resto de carotenoides presentes inicialmente en la yema.

  10. Alternativas para enfrentar las actuales exigencias del mercado de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. verde en Argentina. 2. Tendencias de la demanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago constituye una hortaliza muy valorada a nivel global, cuya difusión en Argentina es limitada, por lo cual se requiere de estrategias para fomentar su consumo. A tal fin se realizó una encuesta (10/11/2009 en Azul, Argentina, estudiando: preferencias acerca del consumo, beneficios de su consumo (B, calibre (C y longitud (L de turiones, tipo de envase (E, conocimiento sobre vida útil de las presentaciones (TVU, presencia de etiquetas (PE y características como color de fondo (CF y de letras (CL, lugar de compra (LC, tiempo (Ti desde la compra hasta el consumo y prioridad (P para la compra (calidad o precio, entre otros ítems. Los encuestados manifestaron preferencias de consumo de espárragos verdes y en platos calientes, mostrando desinterés por el consumo de espárragos enlatados. En B, > 95 % demostró conocer las propiedades nutricionales y saludables de los espárragos. 71 % mostró interés por calibre mediano y un 75 % cortos (15-20 cm. Respecto de E, prefirieron las presentaciones en bandejas y atados con film, y con presencia de etiquetas, color de fondo llamativo (naranja y amarillo y letra negra. El 81,1 % adquieren espárragos mediante venta directa y 50 % manifestó que transcurre entre 2 días y 1 semana entre la adquisición y el consumo, prefiriéndolos frescos y no congelados. En P, el 90 % priorizó calidad en lugar del precio. Estos resultados indican que los consumidores no son indiferentes a los atributos de presentación del producto, por lo cual los empresarios deberían esforzarse por mejorar las dimensiones de la calidad del producto, por lo que se verían recompensados.

  11. Caracterización de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. y su efecto en el desarrollo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracterizar y determinar el efecto de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. en el desarrollo vegetativo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate”, como una alternativa al uso indiscriminado de fertilizantes químicos. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico de hortalizas con las que se realizaron diluciones (10-4 en caldo Ashby-Sacarosa y se incubaron a 30 ºC hasta observar un color amarillo, turbidez y película superficial. El género Azotobacter se identificó en agar mineral sin nitrógeno y Ashby-Benzoato, obteniéndose 96 cepas con una producción de 7.10 a 57.99 mgL-1 de ácido indolacético, 0.13 a 1.64 mgL-1 de nitrógeno fijado como amonio y hasta 1.61 % de eficiencia en la solubilización de roca fosfórica de Bayóvar. Se obtuvo una suspensión celular (108 de cada una de las cuatro cepas con los mayores valores y se inocularon independientemente y en consorcio, así como una combinación con 50 % de urea-100 % de roca fosfórica, en la rizósfera de tomate cv. Río Grande, en un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Todas las cepas nativas incrementaron la altura, volumen radicular, materia seca total, parte aérea y radicular frente al testigo absoluto.

  12. INFLUENCIA DE COBERTURAS EN SUELO SOBRE LA SELECCIÓN DEL HOSPEDANTE POR Bemisia tabaci, EN CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

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    Luko Hilje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque varios tipos de coberturas en suelo (inertes o vivas pueden reducir la afluencia de adultos de B. tabaci en plantas de tomate, se desconoce el mecanismo específico de acción de cada una de ellas. Por tanto, se realizó un experimento en un invernadero en Turrialba, Costa Rica, para determinar su respuesta tanto a coberturas inertes (metal verde y plástico plateado y amarillo como vivas: maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi, Fabaceae, cinquillo (Drymaria cordata, Caryophyllaceae y culantro (Coriandrum sativum, Umbelliferae. Se les comparó con un testigo (suelo desnudo. Hubo 4 repeticiones de cada tratamiento. Cada cobertura se sembró en una maceta grande, rodeado de una plántula de tomate de 15 cm de altura. Las macetas se colocaron sobre el piso del invernadero, espaciadas 40 cm entre sí. Cada experimento se repitió en 4 días consecutivos, para lo cual los tratamientos se aleatorizaron todos los días. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas, con las coberturas como la parcela principal y las fechas como las subparcelas. La víspera de cada repetición se liberaron 1200 adultos de B. tabaci (biotipo A en el área experimental y al día siguiente se registraron sus datos tanto en la planta de tomate como en cada cobertura. Los números de adultos fueron mucho mayores (p0,05. Aunque todas interfieren con la habilidad de los adultos para localizar las plantas de tomate, el mecanismo específico de acción difirió según la naturaleza de cada una, excepto en las coberturas vivas, que parecen compartir el mismo mecanismo.

  13. Herbage intake and animal performance of cattle grazing dwarf elaphant grass with two access times to a forage peanut area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Melo de Liz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively short grazing periods in a pure legume pasture can be an alternative for increasing animal performance in medium-quality tropical pastures. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the herbage intake and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. BRS Kurumi with two access times [2 h (07:00 - 9:00 and 6 h (07:00 - 13:00] to an area of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo. Twelve steers (219 ± 28.8 kg LW were divided into four groups and assessed during three consecutive grazing cycles, from January to March 2013. The crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents were 158 and 577 g/kg dry matter (DM for dwarf elephant grass and 209 and 435 g/kg DM for forage peanut, respectively. The pre-grazing height and leaf mass of dwarf elephant grass and forage peanut were 94 cm and 2782 kg DM/ha and 15 cm and 1751 kg DM/ha, respectively. The herbage intake (mean = 2.7 ± 0.06% LW and average daily weight gain (mean = 1.16 ± 0.31 kg/day were similar for both treatments. However, animals with 2-h access to the legume paddock grazed for 71% of the time, whereas those with 6-h access grazed for 48% of the time. The performance of the steers that were allowed to graze forage peanut pasture for 2 h is similar to that of those that were allowed to graze the legume pasture for 6 h.

  14. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake.

  15. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. Résumé. L'aquifère libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquifère des états-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la région semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols prélevés au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associées à des données provenant d'autres études dans cette région, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contrôlent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moitié septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les données chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une séquence de précipitation épisodique, avec la reconcentration en solut

  16. Characterization of the main types of marble extracted in the area of Macael (Almeria, southeastern Spain) and its historical importance; Caracterización de los principales tipos de mármol extraídos en la comarca de Macael (Almería, sureste de España) y su importancia a lo largo de la historia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, R.; Cruz, A.S.; Arriaga, L.; Baltuille, J.M.

    2017-09-01

    The marble from Macael is one of the most important ornamental stones found in Spain. It has been used not only as a building material but also as a decorative element, especially the type nown as “White Macael “. There is evidence of its use dating back over 4000 years. One of the most prominent examples is the Courtyard of the Lions in the Alhambra (Granada), but it is also possible to see some eleme Its in the Roman amphitheatre of Mérida (Badajoz), in Italica (Sevilla), in the palace of Medina Azahara (Córdoba) and in the Royal Palace of Madrid, amongst dozens of palaces and churches throughout the country. In this study we describe the use that this material has had throughout history and the main features and properties of the different varieties of “White Macael”, “Grey Macael”, “Anasol” (calcite marbles) and “Yellow Macael” (dolomitic marbles). They all have mineralogical, physical and mechanical features that make them suitable for almost all uses. Calcite marbles have porosity, absorption and density values lower than dolomite marbles, whilst the latter have more resistance to compression, similar flexural strength under concentrated load, and lower resistance to breaking load at dowel hole than the calcitic marbles. The values of abrasion resistance are also better in the dolomite marbles, whilst the slip resistance is similar in all cases. As far as decay is concerned, the dolomitic marbles, with the exception of the variety Amarillo Triana, suffer more in the frost resistance test but less by the action of salts, with the exception of the White Macael Rio (calcitic) which is the variety that has less alteration. Regarding the status of the stone sector in the region, it is noteworthy that, despite a 60% drop in sales in the domestic market, exports in 2012 increased by 49 % compared to the previous year. The data we present provides increased knowledge of one of the most common building materials in our country with the aim of

  17. Functional connectivity of coral reef fishes in a tropical seascape assessed by compound-specific stable isotope analyses

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological integrity of tropical habitats, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs, is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Many coral reef fish species are thought to use mangroves and seagrass beds as juvenile nurseries before migrating to coral reefs as adults. Identifying essential habitats and preserving functional linkages among these habitats is likely necessary to promote ecosystem health and sustainable fisheries on coral reefs. This necessitates quantitative assessment of functional connectivity among essential habitats at the seascape level. This thesis presents the development and first application of a method for tracking fish migration using amino acid (AA) δ13C analysis in otoliths. In a controlled feeding experiment with fish reared on isotopically distinct diets, we showed that essential AAs exhibited minimal trophic fractionation between consumer and diet, providing a δ13C record of the baseline isoscape. We explored the potential for geochemical signatures in otoliths of snapper to act as natural tags of residency in seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean. The δ13C values of otolith essential AAs varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk stable isotope analyses (SIA). Using our otolith AA SIA approach, we quantified the relative contribution of coastal wetlands and reef habitats to Lutjanus ehrenbergii populations on coastal, shelf and oceanic coral reefs in the Red Sea. L. ehrenbergii made significant ontogenetic migrations, traveling more than 30 km from juvenile nurseries to coral reefs and across deep open water. Coastal wetlands were important nurseries for L. ehrenbergii; however, there was significant plasticity in L. ehrenbergii juvenile habitat requirements. Seascape configuration played an important role in determining the functional connectivity of L

  18. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  19. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P.; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A.; Booth, David J.; Hare, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm −2 ). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  20. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ (13)C and δ (15)N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christopher D; Nelson, James A; Rozar, Katherine L; Adams, Charles S; Wall, Kara R; Switzer, Theodore S; Winner, Brent L; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ (13)C and δ (15)N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ (15)N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ (13)C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and

  1. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  2. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Nicole [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); CCFS ARC Centre of Excellence, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bishop, David P. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Ganio, Katherine [Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Doble, Philip A. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Booth, David J. [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hare, Dominic J., E-mail: dominic.hare@uts.edu.au [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm{sup −2}). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  3. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

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    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  4. Pembentukan Formaldehid Alami pada Beberapa Jenis Ikan Laut selama Penyimpanan dalam Es Curai

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    Jovita Tri Murtini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian kadar formaldehid alami pada beberapa jenis ikan laut selama penyimpanan dalam es curai telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui intensitas pembentukan formaldehid alami oleh ikan setelah mati. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi acuan untuk menduga kemungkinan dilakukannya penyalahgunaan formalin pada ikan. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap ikan laut hidup yang terdiri dari 6 jenis ikan yaitu bawal bintang (Trachinotus blochii, kakap putih (Lates calcarifer, bloch., cobia (Rachycentron canadum, bandeng (Chanos chanos, kerapu cantrang Epinephelus fuscoguttatus-lanceolatus, dan kakap merah/jenaha (Lutjanus johnii. Pengambilan sampel di lapangan dilakukan secara bertahap dan setiap pengambilan terdiri dari dua jenis ikan. Ikan tersebut dibawa ke laboratorium Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan (BBP4BKP dalam keadaan hidup, kemudian ikan dimatikan dengan cara hipotermal (dimasukkan dalam air es dengan suhu 0–4oC selama 30 menit. Setelah mati ikan dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok dan disimpan dalam peti insulasi yang berisi es dengan perbandingan ikan : es adalah 1 : 3. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap 3 hari selama 18 hari. Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar formaldehid, trimethil amin (TMA, trimethil amin oksida (TMAO dan kadar total volatile base (TVB serta komposisi proksimat pada hari pertama. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan formaldehid alami pada hari ke 12 penyimpanan pada bawal bintang, kakap putih, cobia, bandeng, kakap merah, dan kerapu cantrang berturut-turut adalah 0.954; 1.572; 0.964; 0,715; 1.381; dan 1.303 ppm. Pada saat itu kondisi ikan masih segar dengan kandungan TVB di bawah 20 mN% kecuali ikan cobia (28,94 mgN%. Kandungan TMA berkisar 6,09–11,81 mgN% dan TMAO 3,22–11,3 mgN% dan selama penyimpanan cenderung meningkat.

  5. Molecular genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi%哈维氏弧菌的分子遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芝亮; 吴灶和; 简纪常; 黄郁葱

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is known to be a major pathogen in mariculture animal systems. Disease outbreaks attributed to V. harveyi have been reported in main mariculture animal farm production. In recent years,mass mortalities of many cultured kinds of maricultured fishes, such as Litopenaeus vannamei, Pseudosciaena crocea, and Lutjanus sanguineus have occurred frequently infected by V. harveyi. In this article the 101 isolates of V. harveyi were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and BOX-PCR analysis to investigate the genetic variability among V. harveyi strains. A total of 10 RAPD primers were designed for their specificity in detecting V. harveyi, and only the primer PM2 was highly reproducible and found suitable to use in RAPD-PCR. The genetic diversity among V. harveyi isolates assessed by RAPD-PCR by PM2 primer yielded 15 different RAPD patterns which clustered the isolates into 18 groups at 65% similarity level. Similarly, BOX-PCR clustered the 20 patterns into 15 groups at 40% similarity. However, with RAPD-PCR and BOX-PCR, 101 V. harveyi could be divided into 18 groups at 50% similarity. We could obtain the accurate results of molecular genetic diversity by both RAPD-PCR and BOX-PCR.%运用RAPD分型和BOX分型分子方法研究患病的海水鱼类体内和海水环境的101株哈维氏弧菌的分子遗传多样性.结果显示,从10个RAPD引物中发现只有PM2引物的分辨率和重复性较好,出现15条不同RAPD条带,在相似度65%下,101株哈维氏弧菌可以分为18种不同型;BOX分型出现20条不同的条带,在相似度为40%的情况下,可以把101株哈维式弧菌分15种不同的型;综合RAPD PM2和BOX分型,发现在相似度50%下,101株哈维氏弧菌可分18种型.综合RAPD和BOX分型数据可以很好地克服各自的缺点,得到更加准确的分型结果.

  6. Use of PIT tag and underwater video recording in assessing estuarine fish movement in a high intertidal mangrove and salt marsh creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Werry, Jonathan; Lee, Shing Yip

    2008-08-01

    We assessed movement patterns in relation to habitat availability (reflected by the extent of tidal flooding) for several commercially and recreationally important species in and out of a small mangrove creek within the subtropical Burrum River estuary (25°10'S 152°37'E) in Queensland, Australia. Movement patterns of Acanthopagrus australis, Pomadasys kaakan, Lutjanus russelli and Mugil cephalus were examined between December 2006 and April 2007 using a stationary passive integrated transponder (PIT) system adapted for saline environments (30-38 ppt) and underwater digital video cameras (DVCs). This is the second known application of a stationary PIT tag system to studying fish movement in estuarine environments. The transponder system was set in place for 104 days and recorded >5000 detections. Overall 'recapture' rate of tagged fish by the transponder system was >40%. We used PIT tags implanted in a total of 75 fish from a tidal creek connected to the main channel of the estuary. We also developed a high-resolution digital elevation (2.5 m cell size) model of the estuary derived from airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and aerial imagery to estimate inundation dynamics within the tidal creek, and related the timing of inundation in various habitats to the timing of fish immigration to and emigration from the creek. Over 50% of all tagged fish were moving in and out of the creek at a threshold level when 50% of the mangrove forest became flooded. Individuals of all four species moved into and out of the tidal creek repeatedly at different times depending on species and size, indicating strong residential behaviour within the estuary. The main activity of fishes was at night time. Manual interpretation of video from >700 fish sightings at three different mangrove sites confirmed the findings of the stationary PIT system, that the function of shelter vs food in mangrove habitat may be size dependent. Our established techniques assess the spatial ecology

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

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    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    . Lebanon: an array of records of 5 alien and one native Mediterranean species is reported by citizen-scientists; the Pacific jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata and the Indo-Pacific teleosteans Tylerius spinosissimus, Ostracion cubicus, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus are reported from the Lebanese coast, the latter notably being the second record for the species in the Mediterranean Sea since 1977; the native sand snake-eel Ophisurus serpens, rare in the eastern Mediterranean, is reported for the first time from Lebanon, this being its easternmost distribution range; finally, a substantial number of sightings of the lionfish Pterois miles further confirm the current establishment of this lessepsian species in the Levantine.

  8. Biogeography of tropical Indo-West Pacific parasites: a cryptic species of Transversotrema and evidence for rarity of Transversotrematidae (Trematoda) in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Adlard, Robert D; Bray, Rodney A; Sasal, Pierre; Cutmore, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    We sought transversotrematid trematodes from French Polynesian fishes by examining 304 individual scaled fishes of 53 species from seven families known to harbour the family elsewhere. A single species was found at two locations in the Tuamotus Archipelago on two species of Chaetodontidae (Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon ephippium) and one species of Lutjanidae (Lutjanus gibbus). The species closely resembles Transversotrema borboleta Hunter & Cribb, 2012 from chaetodontids and lutjanids of the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) but differs from it consistently in 8 base positions of ITS2 rDNA. This level of variation exceeds that between some clearly morphologically distinct pairs of species of Transversotrema and the form from French Polynesia is thus interpreted as a distinct, though cryptic, species and named Transversotrema polynesiae n. sp. The new species forms part of a complex of species, here characterised as the T. borboleta complex, associated with chaetodontids and lutjanids in the tropical Indo-West Pacific. Most of the putative species within this complex are yet to be described. Comparison of identical numbers of matched samples of fishes from French Polynesia, Heron Island (southern GBR) and Lizard Island (northern GBR) revealed 1, 4 and 10 species of Transversotrema respectively suggesting that the French Polynesian fauna is depauperate for this family. In addition to those species apparently missing from suitable hosts in French Polynesia, several species from further west infect fishes (especially Nemipteridae) that are themselves absent from French Polynesia. This dramatic east-west decline in richness contrasts strongly with what is known for monogeneans, which appear to maintain their richness over the same scale, and is more precipitate than is known for other groups of trematodes. The decline might be explained in part by the absence of the as yet unknown first intermediate hosts in French Polynesia. However, we predict that it is explained

  9. Caracterización química de la vidriera del rosetón del Duomo de Siena (Italia, 1288-1289

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    Tarozzi, C.

    2010-06-01

    with addition of copper (together with manganese and iron, previously prepared as a pigment that has as excipient a potassium glass. The use of potassium glass instead of the sodium glass locally produced strongly suggests that the pigment could be bought directly from Middle or Northern Europe markets and/or could be a sub-product of copper ore melting. On the other hand, the production of sodium red ruby plaqué glass, technologically more evolved and comparable to the coeval potassium glass coming from the Central Europe glass factories, would be outstanding in the XIV century; but we interpret (taking into account its chemical composition that was produced later and introduced during the restoration conducted at the end of XVII century. We can also note the use of well-dosed lead additions in order to increase the lightness and transparency of coloured glass. Manganese has been a very important element in the Siena workshop glassmaker colour palette achievements. On the other hand, the trace-element chemical fingerprint of the glass allows arguing what kind of mineral salts were used as pigments, as well as the way to introduce it in the uncoloured original glass.

    Se han caracterizado químicamente una colección de vidrios arquitectónicos coloreados originales del rosetón del Duomo (catedral de Siena, Italia, realizados bajo diseño del artista Duccio di Buoninsegna en 1288-89. Esta comunicación expone los resultados obtenidos mediante el empleo de microsonda electrónica de Castaing (mayoritarios y espectrometría de masas con fuente de plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-MS, elementos en traza en vidrios de varios colores (incoloro, verde oscuro, verde oliva, amarillo, violeta, rosa, azul oscuro, azul celeste, rojo plaqué. Se trata de vidrios sódico-cálcicos (valores en peso alrededor del 13-14 % de Na2O, 56-64 % SiO2, 4% MgO, 9-10 % CaO, 2,5-4 K2O de tradición por tanto mediterránea. Un resultado semejante

  10. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; González-Perilli, Fernando; Prado-León, Lilia; Melnikova, Anna; Álvaro, Leticia; Collado, José A.; Moreira, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs) included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan) of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs (rojo “red,” verde “green,” amarillo “yellow,” azul “blue,” negro “black,” and blanco “white”) appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs (gris “gray,” naranja “orange,” and rosa “pink”) but not for the other five derived BCTs (celeste “sky blue,” marrón “brown,” café “brown,” morado “purple,” and violeta “purple”). Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón “brown” and café “brown” being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English) as is the case of morado “purple” and violeta “purple.” Uruguayan celeste “sky blue” had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue (celeste “sky blue”) and blue (azul “blue”), the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste “sky blue” only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the use of the

  11. Characterization of the main types of marble extracted in the area of Macael (Almeria, southeastern Spain) and its historical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, R.; Cruz, A.S.; Arriaga, L.; Baltuille, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The marble from Macael is one of the most important ornamental stones found in Spain. It has been used not only as a building material but also as a decorative element, especially the type nown as “White Macael “. There is evidence of its use dating back over 4000 years. One of the most prominent examples is the Courtyard of the Lions in the Alhambra (Granada), but it is also possible to see some eleme Its in the Roman amphitheatre of Mérida (Badajoz), in Italica (Sevilla), in the palace of Medina Azahara (Córdoba) and in the Royal Palace of Madrid, amongst dozens of palaces and churches throughout the country. In this study we describe the use that this material has had throughout history and the main features and properties of the different varieties of “White Macael”, “Grey Macael”, “Anasol” (calcite marbles) and “Yellow Macael” (dolomitic marbles). They all have mineralogical, physical and mechanical features that make them suitable for almost all uses. Calcite marbles have porosity, absorption and density values lower than dolomite marbles, whilst the latter have more resistance to compression, similar flexural strength under concentrated load, and lower resistance to breaking load at dowel hole than the calcitic marbles. The values of abrasion resistance are also better in the dolomite marbles, whilst the slip resistance is similar in all cases. As far as decay is concerned, the dolomitic marbles, with the exception of the variety Amarillo Triana, suffer more in the frost resistance test but less by the action of salts, with the exception of the White Macael Rio (calcitic) which is the variety that has less alteration. Regarding the status of the stone sector in the region, it is noteworthy that, despite a 60% drop in sales in the domestic market, exports in 2012 increased by 49 % compared to the previous year. The data we present provides increased knowledge of one of the most common building materials in our country with the aim of

  12. Linajes mitocondriales en muestras de esquina de Huajra (Jujuy, Argentina. Aportes al estudio de la ocupación incaica en la región y la procedencia de sus habitantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Russo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El sitio arqueológico Esquina de Huajra (centrosur de la Quebrada de Humahuaca corresponde a una instalación ubicada cronológicamente en la Fase Inca (ca. 500-420 AP y la tradicionalmente asignada en el noroeste argentino como Hispano Indígena o de primeros contactos con el español (ca. 420-320 AP. Enmarcado en la política económica incaica, habría sido clave en la explotación y distribución de bienes procedentes de las Yungas Orientales. Además, su cultura material sugiere importantes redes de interacción con las tierras altas, planteando interrogantes sobre la conformación poblacional de sus habitantes.En este trabajo se analizan los linajes maternos de individuos de Esquina de Huajra en comparación con otros sitios del centro-sur andino para evaluar su posible origen foráneo, considerando que el reasentamiento de poblaciones fue una práctica imperial recurrente. El ADN fue extraído de piezas dentales de 6 individuos. Se secuenció la Región Hipervariable I del ADN mitocondrial en cuatro individuos hallándose dos A2 y dos C1. La ausencia de B2 discrepa con lo descripto para gran parte de los sitios andinos, donde este haplogrupo es mayoritario. Dos de los cuatro haplotipos se comparten únicamente con otros sitios de la Quebrada de Humahuaca del Período de Desarrollos Regionales (Los Amarillos y San José; pero una variante nodal C1 fue reportada tanto en Juella como en sitios peruanos preincaicos e incaicos. Estos resultados representan un primer aporte al estudio genético de los habitantes de Esquina de Huajra y una evidencia más de los complejos procesos poblacionales en la región andina.

  13. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzmann machos con diabetes inducida. Intervenciones: Se administró la harina de maca amarilla a las ratas distribuidas en 4 grupos: grupo I control (solo dieta; II, harina de maca 4 g/día; III, harina de maca 6 g/día; y IV, dieta + glibenclamida 10 mg/kg de peso; el experimento duró 46 días. Se evaluó diariamente la glicemia y el peso; al final del experimento se determinó en sangre los niveles de insulina, parámetros de daño oxidativo (vitamina C y se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS, como indicador del proceso oxidativo. Principales medidas de los resultados: Modificación de los niveles de glicemia, insulina, vitamina C y formación del complejo MDA-TBARS. Resultados: La administración de harina de maca en la dieta (4 a 6 g/día de animales diabéticos redujo la glicemia en 50%, incrementó los niveles de insulina 22% y mejoró los niveles de vitamina C respecto al grupo control. La administración de maca 4 g/día disminuyó el daño oxidativo, pues redujo la formación del complejo MDA-TBARS en 54% con respecto al grupo control. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a animales diabéticos mejoró el metabolismo de la glucosa, regulando la glicemia y

  14. Resistencia de campo a la antracnosis de los frutos (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en tomate de arbol (Cyphomandra (Solanum betacea (betaceum Cav. Sendt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo A. Mario

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación "La Selva", de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (CORPOICA, localizado en Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia,a 2120 msnm, se llevó a cabo una investigación, cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia de campo a la antracnosis de los frutos de tomate de árbol en la accesión 6975073 de especie C. uniloba, material que en observaciones previas no había presentado incidencia de la enfermedad. En el estudio se incluyeron igualmente 4 poblaciones de la especie cultivada C. betacea de diferentes tipos: rojo común, amarillo, partenocárpico y "mora" o "tamarillo" y una de la especie relacionada C. materna. El trabajo se llevó a cabo durante seis meses, cosechándose quincenalmente, en 5 árboles por accesión, los frutos sanos maduros y los enfermos, clasificados por grado de maduración. Todos los materiales recibieron control quí mico de la enfermedad, con excepción del tomate C. uniloba 6975073. Durante la evaluación se presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo del patógeno, con una precipitación de 1361.1 mm y prevalencia de altas humedades relativas, con un promedio, al respecto, del 80.2%. Durante el período de desarrollo de la evaluación no se presentaron frutos con síntomas de antracnosis en la accesión 6975073, lo cual si ocurrió en los demás materiales, con un porcentaje de frutos enfermos que fluctuó entre el 57.64 y el 98.82%, encontrá ndose que los genotipos con mayor nivel de productividad, a su vez, presentaron la mayor suceptibilidad y pérdidas en rendimiento. Un estimado del valor de los frutos con antracnosis, proyectado a hectárea-año, señaló que las pérdidas de frutos en las diferentes accesiones de C. betacea fluctuaron entre 3006 y 11268 dólares. Complementariamente al estudio, se obtuvieron híbridos interespecí ficos entre el material resistente y una accesión de C. betacea.

  15. CARACTERIZACIÓN AGRONÓMICA, CALIDAD INDUSTRIAL Y NUTRICIONAL DE MAÍZ PARA EL TRÓPICO MEXICANO

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    Mauro Sierra-Mac\\u00EDas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el valor agronómico y nutricional de varie dades e híbridos de maíz en Veracruz, México, durante el ciclo primavera verano 2006. Se validaron híbridos y varie dades de maíz normal y con alta calidad de proteína en Cotaxtla, Mata de Agua, Tlalixcoyan, Ignacio de la Llave, Martínez de la Torre y Rodríguez Clara, en Veracruz, México. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con dos repe ticiones y parcelas de ocho surcos de 25 m de largo con una densidad de 62 500 semillas/ha. Del análisis de varianza combinado, se encontró diferencia altamente significativa para Ge notip os (G, Localidades (L y la interacción GxL. Los genotip os sobresalie ntes, por su rendimie nto de grano y otras características agronómicas fueron HQ4, H-520, HQ3 y HQ1 con 5,42; 5,38; 5,13 y 5,06 t/ha, respectivamente. Los híbridos con mejor valor nutricional de grano blanco fueron HQ1, HQ3 y HQ4, y la varie dad V-556AC , de grano amarillo, calidad basada en características físicas, químicas, de nixtamal, la masa y las tortillas, así como los aminoácidos lisina y trip tofano, en endospermo, grano entero y tortillas. Estos maíces cumplen con las especificaciones de la norma mexicana para maíces destinados al proceso de nixtamalización. El HQ1 produjo las mejores tortillas, y el híbrido HQ4, se consideró apropiado para la industria de la harina nixtamalizada.

  16. Brick durability and conservation treatment (Santa María de Jesús chapel portal, Seville, Spain

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    Villegas, R.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Durability differences of 2 types of brick from Santa María de Jesús Chapel (Sevilla and 2 treatments for its restoration have been studied. They have been characterizad using XRD and SEM, as well as their physical, hydric and mechanical properties. Samples prepared with bricks from the chapel have been submitted to salt crystallization test, to identify decay causes and mechanisms.The red brick present the lowest firing temperature, lower porosity and a great proportion of micropores. Physical and mechanical properties don’t change significantly with the treatments, only hygric properties vary with the water repellent. The accelerated aging test revealed significant improvement in the behaviour of yellow brick, but no change in the decay mechanism of red brick (Typical of microporous materials or its durability is observed.Se ha estudiado la alteración diferencial de los 2 tipos de ladrillo de la iglesia de Santa María de Jesús (Sevilla y 2 tratamientos para su restauración. Se han caracterizado por DRX y SEM, así como sus propiedades físicas, hídricas y mecánicas. Probetas preparadas de ladrillos de la iglesia se han sometido a ensayo de cristalización de sales para determinar las causas y los mecanismos de alteración.El ladrillo rojo es el que presenta menor temperatura de cocción, menor porosidad y mayor proporción de microporos. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de ambos ladrillos no varían significativamente con los tratamientos, sólo las propiedades hídricas cambian con el hidrófugo. En el ensayo de alteración mejora mucho el comportamiento del ladrillo amarillo, mientras que en el rojo no varía la morfología de alteración (características de materiales con microporos ni la durabilidad.

  17. Adquisición de carbono en frutos de color verde del muérdago Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae Carbon acquisition in green fruits of Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae

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    Cecilia I. Núñez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El color verde de los frutos maduros podría atribuirse a la capacidad de adquirir carbono mediante fotosíntesis, lo cual disminuye los costos reproductivos e incrementa la recompensa nutritiva para los dispersores de semillas. En el muérdago Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae el color de los frutos maduros varía según el bioma: en el matorral chileno los frutos son amarillos mientras que en el bosque templando son verdes. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si el color de los frutos se relacionaba con la capacidad de ganar carbono vía fotosíntesis y si esta capacidad variaba con la madurez y el bioma. Realizamos mediciones fisiológicas en plantas provenientes de poblaciones de cada bioma. Los frutos, tanto inmaduros como maduros de cada bioma no mostraron adquisición neta de carbono; las hojas mostraron actividad fotosintética, éstas poseen estomas en ambas caras y los frutos carecen de ellos. Estos resultados permiten descartar la hipótesis de que el color verde de los frutos de T. corymbosus se encuentra asociado a la adquisición neta de carbono vía fotosíntesis y mantiene la necesidad de indagación de otras hipótesis sobre la variación del color de los frutos entre biomas.In some species fruits are green when they are ripe. This can be attributed to the ability to acquire carbon via photosynthesis, which reduces reproductive costs and increases nutritional reward for seed dispersers. The color of mature fruits of the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae differ between biomes. In the Chilean matorral ripe fruits are yellow while in the temperate forest are green. Our objective was to determine whether or not fruits photosynthesize and if this ability varied with maturity stage and biome. We performed physiological measurements in plants from populations of each contrasting biome. Fruits did not denote carbon acquisition, regardless the biome or maturity stage. Leaves showed photosynthetic activity, they are amphistomatic

  18. Caracterización de las proteínas totales de tres ecotipos de maca (Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional

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    Mario Monteghirfo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar las proteínas solubles que se encuentran en la raíz del Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, maca, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y electroforesis bidimensional. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional y transversal. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Materiales: Raíces de Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón ‘maca’ de los ecotipos blanco, amarillo y morado, procedentes de Junín que fueron obtenidas a través de la Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú. Métodos: La extracción de las proteínas totales solubles se realizó con una solución antioxidante, seguida de electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional para su caracterización. Principales medidas de resultados: Número de proteínas solubles, peso molecular de las proteínas y puntos isoelectricos de las proteínas más abundantes. Resultados: El análisis electroforético unidimensional mostró predominio de 2 proteínas (72% de las proteínas solubles totales. Una de 22,5 kDa, denominada en el presente trabajo ‘macatina’ (51% de la proteína total; la otra de 17,0 kDa (21% de la proteína soluble total. El mapa electroforético bidimensional mostró que tanto la ‘macatina’ como la proteína de 17,0 kDa son básicas y presentan 3 isómeros de carga que se distribuyen en un rango de punto isoeléctrico (pI de 7,1 a 8,2. Conclusiones: Las proteínas solubles mostraron un patrón electroforético complejo, siendo la macatina la proteína más abundante.

  19. The Macael landscape in the context of a possible candidate as Global Heritage Stone Province (Almería, SE of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Domínguez, Rafael; Pereira Gómez, Dolores; Carrillo, Gloria; Cruz, Anasol

    2017-04-01

    The beginning of the marble extraction activity in the Macael Area (Almería, South of Spain) date back 4000 years ago, and since then, it has been used in several and important monuments, principally, in Spain. The quality of the works carried out is more than proven. During this time, the extraction has alternated periods of activity with others of lesser or none-activity, ruling both the lives of the inhabitants of the region, and its landscape. The most well-known material extracted in the region, with international recognition, is marble "Blanco Macael" (White Macael), traditionally compared with "Carrara marble". But there are other marbles such as "Amarillo Macael", "Gris Macael" or "Anasol", as well as serpentinites that are referred as "Verde Macael" or "Verde Almería". All of them have been employed in many recent important buildings, at national and international level. The problem of this intensive activity through the years, from the point of view of the preservation of the old landscapes, is that the modern quarries have replaced the old ones, leaving few remains of the old quarries. In some cases it is possible to see Muslim vestiges (e.g. "Puntilla"), but this is an exception. Notwithstanding, the landscape of the region has a high value due to the combination of high mountains, high faces with a lot of banks, waste dumps and full restored areas. Nowadays, the surface occupied by mining exploitation, only in the closer area to Macael village, is more 8.5 km2, with more than forty active quarries and many abandoned ones. These features have helped to configure a singular and beautiful landscape, possibly unique in Spain, in relation with an historic mining activity. This is an important added value to the possible candidature of the "Blanco Macael" as a "Global Heritage Stone Resource" and the "Macael Region" as a "Global Heritage Stone Province", mostly if we consider that these designations must take into consideration the social importance of the

  20. Propiedades Fisicoquímicas de Fresas (Fragaria sp Cultivadas Bajo Filtros Fotoselectivos Physical and Chemical Properties of Strawberries (Fragaria sp Grown Under Photoselective Filters

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para examinar los efectos de la calidad de luz sobre la calidad de la fruta en fresa (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler, establecida en invernadero. Se probaron cinco filtros de polipropileno de colores diferentes (rojo, amarillo, azul, verde, y transparente, con plantas sin cobertura como control. En los frutos se determinó el peso fresco y seco, longitud y ancho, sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez titulable (AT e índice de madurez (IM. Todas las variables evaluadas fueron afectadas significativamente por los filtros espectrales, con excepción del pH del jugo. El crecimiento del fruto fue fuertemente influenciado por la cobertura verde. Bajo la cobertura amarilla las plantas incrementaron el peso fresco de los frutos y el IM. La cobertura azul redujo el contenido de SST en los frutos, así como el IM. La longitud y ancho de los frutos aumentaron con la cobertura roja. La cobertura transparente incrementó los SST y la AT. Para ciertas variables los resultados no fueron suficientemente concluyentes como para proponer este nuevo sistema de producción en el cultivo de fresa en los altiplanos tropicales; sin embargo, sería importante evaluar esta técnica de producción en regiones con mayor iluminación que la región donde se desarrolló este estudio.An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of light quality on the fruit quality in strawberry (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler established in glasshouse. Five different colored polypropylene filters (red, blue, yellow, green and clear were tested, with plants growing without cover as control. Fresh and dry weight, length and width, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TA and maturity index (MI, were measured on fruits. All evaluated variables were significantly affected by the spectral filters, except the pH of the juice. The fruit growth was strongly reduced by green cover. Under the yellow cover plants enhanced the fresh weight of fruits and the MI

  1. Determinación del potencial promotor del crecimiento vegetal de Azotobacter spp. aislados de la rizósfera de malezas en cultivos de maíz (Zea mays L.

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    Luis H. León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los fertilizantes químicos representan entre 20% y 30% de los costos de producción de un cultivo, utilizados correctamente incrementan la productividad y rentabilidad; sin embargo, cada año aumenta la cantidad de fertilizantes por aplicar, debido a la deficiencia de adsorción en el suelo y absorción por la planta. Siendo el maíz el tercer cultivo de importancia en Perú, con un impacto significativo en la actividad económica y social, en el 2014, solo el 40% del maíz ofertado correspondió a la producción nacional. En busca de alternativas para disminuir el uso de fertilizantes químicos se realizan investigaciones con denominadas rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (PGPR, por sus siglas en ingles. Se identificaron 37 malezas en cultivos de maíz procedentes de campos agrícolas de los distritos de Monsefú y Reque, Región Lambayeque, siendo dicotiledóneas predominantes con 68 % con respecto a monocotiledóneas con 32%. Las bacterias se aislaron de la rizósfera de malezas, obteniendo 305 cultivos puros de bacterias, de los cuales 133 cultivos puros (43,7% se identificaron como Azotobacter spp., investigándose su reacción bioquímica en reducción de nitratos, utilización de sacarosa, glucosa, maltosa, manitol, ramnosa, glicerol y sorbitol, identificándose A. vinelandii (58%, A. paspali (13%, A. armeniacus (8%, A. nigricans (8% y en 13 cultivos no se identificó la especie. Con los cultivos Azotobacter spp. se cuantificó hasta 36,03 ppm de nitrógeno fijado como amonio; 60,75 ppm de ácido indol acético y 6,06 ppm de fósforo solubilizado, se determinó actividad antagónica contra Fusarium verticillioides, proteolítica y quitinolítica y. El 20% de Azotobacter spp. no afectó la emergencia de maíz amarillo duro hibrido simple AGRI- 144, el 33 % la afectó positivamente y el 47% la afectó negativamente. A su vez, ningún Azotobacter spp. afectó la sobrevivencia. Demostrándose el potencial promotor del

  2. Caracterización de una biograsa de aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Characterization of biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and Lithium Soap Thickener

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    Juliano Chitue de Assunção Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites vegetales poseen un gran potencial como fluido base y como sustituto de los aceites minerales para la formulación de grasas lubricantes, estos aceites son biodegradables y renovables. En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades  fisicoquímicas, antidesgaste y de extrema presión de una biograsa de aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio empleando los métodos de pruebas estándar para las grasas lubricantes. La biograsa posee un color amarillo claro, una textura suave y homogénea,  un grado de penetración NLGI 1, una temperatura de goteo de 145 oC, magnitudes adecuadas del contenido de álcalis libre y corrosión al cobre; así como  propiedades antidesgaste y de extrema presión similares a otras grasas minerales y biograsas formuladas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Palabras claves: biograsa, aceite de Jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades antidesgaste, propiedades de extrema presión. Characterization of biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and Lithium Soap Thickener. Abstract Vegetable oils have a great potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation, these oils are biodegradable and renewable. In this paper were determined the  physicochemical, antiwear and extreme pressure properties of a biogrease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil and lithium soap thickener using the lubricanting greases standard test methods. The biogrease have a light yellow color, soft and homogeneous texture, a penetration grade NLGI 1, a drop point of 145 oC, appropriate magnitudes of free alkalis and copper corrosion; as well as antiwear and extreme pressure properties similar to the other mineral lubricating grease and formulated biogreases with differents vegetable oils. Key words: biogrease, Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil, lithium soap thickener, physicochemical properties, antiwear properties, extreme pressure properties.

  3. Desarrollo embrionario-larval del pez tropical Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae a partir de huevos recolectados del medio natural

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    Jesús Rosas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la formación del embrión y el desarrollo larval del pez Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758, a partir de huevos en estado de mórula, recolectados en el alga parda Sargassum sp. Los huevos eran esféricos con un diámetro de 1923.54 ±72.35 µm, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos y estrías en su superficie. Durante las primeras 48 h, el embrión desarrolló la vesícula cefálica, los miomeros y el corazón, el cual se ubicó en el exterior de cuerpo impulsando sangre incolora, la cual se pigmentó de rojo posteriormente. Antes de la eclosión se desarrollaron el riñón, estómago, hígado y la vesícula biliar, las aletas pectorales, cuatro pares de arcos branquiales y la boca. Las larvas eclosionaron a la 114 h, presentando el cuerpo robusto en forma de torpedo, verde-amarillo con melanoforos dendriformes. Al nacer ingirieron metanauplios de Artemia. A las 72 h después de la eclosión se observó el esbozo de la aleta pélvica y a las 240 h se completó la metamorfosis.Embrionary-larval development of the tropical fish Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae from eggs collected in the wild. The embryo formation and larval development of Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Hemirhamphidae is described from morula stage eggs collected on Sargassum sp. Thalii in the field (10°50’55.2" N y 64°09’467" W. The eggs were spherical, 1 923.54 ±72.35 µm diameter with several corionic filaments, and are striated. During the first 48 h the embryo developed cephalic vesicle, miomers, and a heart located on the external body surface, beating strongly and circulating colorless blood which became pigmented red later. Before hatching, the larva developed kidney, gut tract, liver and biliar vesicle, pectoral fins, four pairs of gill arches and the mouth. The larva hatched at 114 h, the body was torpedo-shaped, yellow-green, with several dendriform melanophores; the pelvic fin was observed 72 h post

  4. Basic Color Terms (BCTs and Categories (BCCs in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors

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    Julio Lillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs (rojo “red,” verde “green,” amarillo “yellow,” azul “blue,” negro “black,” and blanco “white” appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs (gris “gray,” naranja “orange,” and rosa “pink” but not for the other five derived BCTs (celeste “sky blue,” marrón “brown,” café “brown,” morado “purple,” and violeta “purple”. Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón “brown” and café “brown” being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English as is the case of morado “purple” and violeta “purple.” Uruguayan celeste “sky blue” had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue (celeste “sky blue” and blue (azul “blue”, the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste “sky blue” only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the

  5. Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and Categories (BCCs) in Three Dialects of the Spanish Language: Interaction Between Cultural and Universal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Julio; González-Perilli, Fernando; Prado-León, Lilia; Melnikova, Anna; Álvaro, Leticia; Collado, José A; Moreira, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to identify and compare the Basic Color Terms (BCTs) and the Basic Color Categories (BCCs) included in three dialects (Castilian, Mexican, and Uruguayan) of the Spanish language. Monolexemic Elicited lists were used in the first experiment to identify the BCTs of each dialect. Eleven BCTs appeared for the Spanish and the Mexican, and twelve did so for the Uruguayan. The six primary BCTs ( rojo "red," verde "green," amarillo "yellow," azul "blue," negro "black," and blanco "white") appeared in the three dialects. This occurred for only three derived BCTs ( gris "gray," naranja "orange," and rosa "pink") but not for the other five derived BCTs ( celeste "sky blue," marrón "brown," café "brown," morado "purple," and violeta "purple"). Color transitions were used in the second experiment for two different tasks. Extremes naming task was used to determine the relation between two different dialects' BCTs: equality, equivalence or difference. The results provided the first evidence for marrón "brown" and café "brown" being equivalent terms for the same BCC (brown in English) as is the case of morado "purple" and violeta "purple." Uruguayan celeste "sky blue" had no equivalent BCT in the other two dialects. Boundary delimitation task required the selection of the color in the boundary between two categories. The task was used to reasonably estimate the volume occupied by each BCC in the color space considering its chromatic area and lightness range. Excluding sky blue ( celeste "sky blue") and blue ( azul "blue"), the other BCCs color volumes were similar across the three dialects. Uruguayan sky blue and blue volumes conjointly occupied the portion of the color space corresponding to the Castilian and Mexican blue BCC. The fact that the BCT celeste "sky blue" only appeared in Uruguayan very probably derived from specific cultural factors (the use of the color in the flags and the arrival of an important number of Italian immigrants

  6. Ontogenia de los estróbilos, desarrollo de los esporangios y esporogénesis de Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae en los Andes de Colombia

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    Edgar Javier Rincón Barón

    2011-12-01

    , los núcleos y nucléolos presentan fluorescencia roja, inducida por coloración con safranina O, mientras que los eláteres y las células de la pared del esporangio presentan autofluorescencia amarillo-naranja.

  7. Risks of PEG tube placement in patients with cirrhosis-associated ascites

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    Al-Abboodi Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yasir Al-Abboodi,1 Ali Ridha,2 Matthew Fasullo,3 Tarek H Naguib4 1Internal Medicine Department, Saint Davis Round Rock Medical Centre, Round Rock, TX, USA, 2Internal Medicine Department, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock, AR, USA, 3Internal Medicine Department, Umass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA, USA, 4Internal Medicine Department, Texas Tech University Health and Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USA Abstract: This study examined the safety of placing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube in people with liver cirrhosis. The target population was further subdivided into people with ascites (case group and people without ascites (control. We compare the morbidity and the mortality difference of PEG placement in cirrhotic patients with ascites vs cirrhotic patients without ascites. We then examined multiple factors including sex, race, chronic illness including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and others and their influence on the inpatient mortality of all cirrhotic patients who had PEG placement. A total of 38,175 inpatient PEG tube placements were identified. Only 583 patients out of 38,175 had a history of cirrhosis. One hundred seven had ascites and the rest did not. Mean age of the patients was 61.14 years. Patient demography included (65.2% male and the rest were female, 359 were white (64.4%, 90 black (14.8%, 84 Hispanic (13.7%, 23 Asians (3.3%, 7 Native Americans (0.4%, and 20 others (3.5%. Complications from PEG procedure in cirrhosis with ascites vs non-ascites included bleeding of 4 (0.8% vs 2 (1.9% (P=0.35, surgical site infection 2 (0.4% vs 1 (0.9% (P=0.51, and urinary tract infection 105 (22.1% vs 34 (23.8% (P=0.34, respectively. There was no colonic injury in either group. The total inpatient mortality was 75 out of the 583. Fifty-six (11.8% were in the ascites group and 19 (17.8% in the non-ascites group (P=0.097. Factors including ascites, postsurgical bleeding, and surgical site

  8. Transformaciones económicas en el espacio rural de Yecla (Murcia

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    Francisco José Morales Yago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vivimos graves momentos de crisis económica, de hecho nuestro sector industrial se está viendo en gran parte desbordado por la productividad de los denominados países emergentes, entre los que destaca el «gran dragón amarillo»: China, como algo más que una amenaza para los países occidentales. La actividad agraria a lo largo de estas últimas décadas ha perdido un progresivo peso porcentual en el volumen de actividad económica y en el nivel de empleo. La actividad agraria podría surgir como respuesta ante la evidente crisis del modelo industrial actual así como llevar a cabo una actividad sostenible generadora de la recuperación de un bien tan importante como es la productividad de la tierra. Todo ello queda reflejado en un espacio concreto, la ciudad de Yecla y su término municipal, un lugar en donde el sector industrial dedicado a la fabricación de muebles y tapizados ha sido durante décadas el motor de desarrollo económico relegando la actividad agraria que ha mantenido un nivel de desarrollo sostenido pero con un bajo peso económico en el conjunto de este espacio geográfico.We live in times of severe economic crisis, in fact our industry is being largel yoyer whelmed by the productivity of so-called emerging countries, among which the «big yellow dragon» China, as more than a threat to countries west. Agricultural activity which over the last decades a progressive weight lost percentage in the volume of economic activity and employment levels can emerge in response to the evident crisis of the current industry and to carry out an activity generating sustainable a recovery well is a important as the productivity of the soil. This is reflected in a specific space, the town of Yecla and the municipality, a place where the industry engage in manufacturing up holstered furniture and for decades has been the engine of economic development relegating farming has maintained a level of sustained but low economic weight in the

  9. El dibujo libre en el niño con Retinosis Pigmentaria Free drawing in children with Pigmentary Retinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sofía Quiñones Varela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo en el Centro Provincial de Retinosis Pigmentaria con el objetivo de describir las características del dibujo libre en el niño con Retinosis Pigmentaria. El universo estuvo constituido por los pacientes en etapa escolar y adolescencia temprana con esta enfermedad. La muestra intencional fue de 41 pacientes. En los dibujos realizados se apreció un predominio del uso de 3 a 6 colores con la combinación de colores cálidos sin relleno en la figura, prevalecieron las combinaciones realistas, al igual que el trazado fuerte e inestable con combinación de trazado fuerte y débil. Se apreció coherencia y originalidad en los dibujos. Predominó el paisaje campestre. Los colores más representados en los dibujos fueron rojo, amarillo y azul. Entre los hallazgos más importantes se encuentra que en cuanto a la forma los dibujos tienen puntos de contacto con los de los niños con patologías que expresan inmadurez en la coordinación viso-motora. El tema de los dibujos se corresponde con lo encontrado por otros autores con respecto al dibujo del niño cubanoA descriptive observational study was carried out in the Provincial Center of Retinosis with the objective of describing the characteristic of the free drawing in children with pigmentary retinosis. This group was constituted by the patients in school stage and in early adolescence with this illness. The intentional sample belonged to 41 patients. It was appreciated predominant use of 3 or 6 colours in the drawings they carried out as well as the combination of warm colours without refilling in the figure, the realistic combinations prevailed, the same as the strong and unstable traced with combination of strong and weak traced. It was appreciated coherence and originality in the drawings. The country landscape prevailed. The colours more represented in drawings were red, yellow and blue. Among the most important discoveries are the drawings taking

  10. Caracterización morfométrica de la gallina de cuello desnudo (Gallus domesticus nudecollis en la región ch'ortí de Chiquimula, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jáuregui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfométrica, faneróptica y morfológicamente a gallinas y gallos de cuello desnudo (324 hembras y 60 machos en los cuatro municipios de la región ch’ortí de Chiquimula. Las variables evaluadas fueron 18 cuantitativas para la hembra y 16 para el macho, nueve cualitativas y ocho índices zoométricos. El análisis delas variables zoométricas se realizó a través del procedimiento análisis univariado, con medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión, y para analizar la proporcionalidad y armonía entre las diversas regiones corporales mediante la correlación de Pearson. Los resultados principales son: peso de 1.84 kg/hembra y 2.29 kg/macho; alzada 27.84 cm/hembra y 32.51 cm/macho; metatarso 10.25 cm/hembra y 11.76 cm/macho; ambos tienen más alzada que longitud, inclinados hacia adelante; en cuanto a sus perímetros, el abdominal es el mayor y curvado característica de las gallinas ponedoras y una grupa alargada con dorso plano. Sus índices corporales son aves alargadas, con capacidad reproductiva (índice pélvico 71.82% y poca formación de músculo para la producción de carne (índice compacidad 6.80%/hembra y 7.03%/macho, cabeza alargada, tórax elíptico y miembros fuertes y altos. Las características morfológicas y fanerópticas describen un ave de piel blanca, metatarso amarillo, plumas en garganta, cresta simple con barbilla y orejuelas, los colores de pluma son la combinación de marrón, negro, gris y blanco, el color de la cáscara varia del blanco al marrón claro y con una armonización corporal hasta del 61% lo que le da una homogeneidad medianamente aceptable a la morfoestructura de la gallina.

  11. Tellurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Berger, Byron R.; George, Micheal W.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tellurium (Te) is a very rare element that averages only 3 parts per billion in Earth’s upper crust. It shows a close association with gold and may be present in orebodies of most gold deposit types at levels of tens to hundreds of parts per million. In large-tonnage mineral deposits, such as porphyry copper and seafloor volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, sulfide minerals may contain hundreds of parts per million tellurium, although the orebodies likely have overall concentrations of 0.1 to 1.0 parts per million tellurium. Tellurium is presently recovered as a primary ore from only two districts in the world; these are the gold-tellurium epithermal vein deposits located adjacent to one another at Dashuigou and Majiagou (Sichuan Province) in southwestern China, and the epithermal-like mineralization at the Kankberg deposit in the Skellefteå VMS district of Västerbotten County, Sweden. Combined, these two groups of deposits account for about 15 percent (about 70 metric tons) of the annual global production of between 450 and 470 metric tons of tellurium. Most of the world’s tellurium, however, is produced as a byproduct of the mining of porphyry copper deposits. These deposits typically yield concentrations of 1 to 4 percent tellurium in the anode slimes recovered during copper refining. Present production of tellurium from the United States is solely from the anode slimes at ASARCO LLC’s copper refinery in Amarillo, Texas, and may total about 50 metric tons per year. The main uses of tellurium are in photovoltaic solar cells and as an additive to copper, lead, and steel alloys in various types of machinery. The environmental data available regarding the mining of tellurium are limited; most concerns to date have focused on the more-abundant metals present in the large-tonnage deposits from which tellurium is recovered as a byproduct. Global reserves of tellurium are estimated to be 24,000 metric tons, based on the amount of tellurium likely contained in

  12. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and Scomberomorus brasiliensis among them, on all the campaigns. A total of 1368 specimens, weighing 36.10 kg, were caught. The ichthyofauna total biomass was greater, in weight, on the eastern side of the study region, especially at the stations close to the shoals/reefs and the rocky bottom. A similar pattern was also observed for the diversity values. In general, low evenness and diversity were observed in the area studied, possibly as a result of the fishing gear used. D. rhombeus juveniles dominated in all but one of the samplings (July 2004, in which latter Cyclichthys spinosus was dominant. Carangids and species associated with consolidated bottoms were observed, although in small numbers, throughout the study period. In spite of the limitations imposed by the gear used for sampling, the estuarine area influenced by the RLAM was seen to play a role as a growth area for the great majority of species, especially the mojarra (D. rhombeus, but it offers no fishing potential due to the prevalence of young and small individuals. Evidence of imminent spawning was recorded for Pomadasys corvinaeformis in August 2003, and recent spawning in March 2004 for Oligoplites saurus. Further, mature individuals occurred in insufficient numbers to permit population level evaluation.A estrutura e dinâmica da ictiofauna amostrada na região estuarina de Mataripe sob a influência da Refinaria Landulpho Alves-Mataripe (RLAM foi analisada. Vinte estações foram amostradas com

  13. La pesca artesanal en las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina (Caribe Colombiano: distribución espacial y temporal de los recursos capturados con línea de mano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Humberto Medina Calderón

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis para evaluar la pesca artesanal de las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina, caribe colombiano, y establecer la dinámica de la pesquería con énfasis en aspectos ecológicos de la comunidad íctica que se extrae con el método de línea de mano. En ocho sitios de desembarco de productos pesqueros en las islas: Mountain, Santa Catalina, Free Town, Old Town, Lazy Hill, South West, Bottom House, y Rocky Point y mediante una serie de formatos se registró entre otros: la actividad diaria por método de pesca, la composición por especie de los desembarcos, sitios de pesca. A partir de esta información se cuantificaron 51 UEPS y se estimó un año pesquero de 303 días (promedio mensual 25 días, el esfuerzo anual como total de faenas fue de 2.888, de las cuales el 57% fueron realizadas utilizando línea de mano, buceo 40% y nasas 3%. Se muestreo el 23% (673 de las faenas estimadas en el 2001 (19% de buceo, 27% de línea de mano y 22% nasas. Se identificaron 96 especies correspondientes a 54 géneros, 28 familias, cuatro clases, tres Phylla. La captura total estimada para el año 2001 fue de 67.888 kg, de los cuales el 66% correspondió a línea de mano, seguido del buceo 26% y las nasas 8%. La composición de las especies capturadas mediante línea de mano arrojó que los demersales, 36 especies de peces, representaran el 47% (21.269 kg de la CT estimada, siendo las especies con mayor captura estimada el brim Etelis oculatus (6.482 kg, el "yellow eye" Lutjanus vivanus (2.435 kg y el satin Pristipomoides macrophthalmus (1.395 kg; el 37% (1.6467 kg fueron recursos pelágicos -15 especies-, siendo aquellas con mayor captura estimada el bonito Thunnus atlanticus (5.839 kg, la barra Sphyraena barracuda (4.240 kg y el king fish Acanthocybium solandri (4.138 kg; el 16% (7.119 kg lo constituyeron recursos demerso-pelágicos, 11 especies, las de mayor captura estimada fueron el "yellow tail" Ocyurus chrysurus (4.236 kg y el

  14. Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Y.; Tang, C. Y.; Sakura, Y.; Kondoh, A.; Shen, Y. J.

    2002-08-01

    é par la signature isotopique, qui a alors été utilisée pour calculer les contributions des trois sources: la pluie, l'eau ancienne et l'eau prélevée dans le fleuve, avec un taux moyen de mélange respectivement de 18, 17 et 65%. Comme indicateur de l'écoulement de l'eau, la concentration en Cl- varie dans une large gamme, dans un profil de 30 cm à 10 m en profondeur, avec une concentration maximale à une profondeur d'environ 1,2 m. Les concentrations sont relativement stables à partir de 2 m, profondeur de la limite entre les zones non saturée et saturée. On a ainsi montré que l'eau du Fleuve Jaune est prédominante dans le mélange, au sein de l'aquifère en termes d'écoulement de la nappe et de composition chimique. Resumen. Se ha recogido muestras de agua del Río Amarillo y de pozos para obtener medidas químicas e isotópicas en los condados de Yucheng y Qihe, que se abastecen con 6-9×108 m3 anuales de aguas de dicho río. Hay una zona de conductividad eléctrica (CE) elevada en las aguas subterráneas, la cual se corresponde bien a escala regional con una divisoria en el nivel piezométrico que representa la vía principal de flujo a través de la región, pero con un gradiente bajo. La zona de mayor CE a lo largo de la divisoria está localizada en el punto con la menor cota topográfica en el ámbito de estudio. La característica principal de las aguas subterráneas es la relación lineal que existe entre los aniones principales como resultado de un proceso de mezcla. Este efecto se confirma mediante la huella isotópica, que se utilizó para calcular las contribuciones de tres orígenes distintos: precipitación, aguas antiguas y aguas derivadas del río, obteniéndose porcentajes respectivos del 18, 17, y 65%. Como trazador del agua, la concentración de cloruro varía ampliamente en el perfil del suelo de 0,3-10 m, con un máximo a una profundidad aproximada de 1,2 m. Las concentraciones son relativamente estables hacia 2 m de profundidad, que

  15. The decline of Falkland Islands penguins in the presence of a commercial fishing industry La disminución de los pingüinos de las Islas Falklands en la presencia de actividades de pesca comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKE BINGHAM

    2002-12-01

    Islands Government to exclude large-scale commercial fishing close to penguin breeding sitesLas islas Falklands son un lugar importante para tres especies de pingüinos, pingüino papua (Pygoscelis papua, pingüino de penacho amarillo (Eudyptes c.chrysocome y pingüino de Magallanes (Spheniscus magallanicus. Recientemente estas especies han disminuido 84 % en estas islas. En la costa de Sudamérica los pingüinos no disminuyeron. Se sospecha que la causa es una reducción de peces y calamares debido a los barcos de pesca comercial que operan en aguas de las Islas Falklands. En 1995 el pingüino papua y el pingüino penacho amarillo terminaron sus disminuciones y ya parece que sus poblaciones están en equilibrio, pero en un número mucho mas bajo que antes que los pescadores comenzaron 20 años atrás. El pingüino de Magallanes todavía disminuye en las Islas Falklands. El pingüino de Magallanes depende más de especies de calamares y peces capturados por barcos de pesca comercial. Avisos de protección de la fauna no fueron suficientes para impedir que 1998 comenzaras exploraciones petroleras en las Islas Falklands. Tres derrames de petróleo ocurrieron en cinco meses, y cientos de pingüinos murieron. La torre de perforación se fue después de cinco meses, y no ocurrieron más derrames de petróleo. Nuevamente van a comenzar a buscar petróleo, sin mejorar la protección para la fauna. El turismo ha crecido rápidamente en las Islas Falklands, y la mayoría de los turistas llegan para ver los pingüinos. Investigaciones de poblaciones y éxito reproductivo indican que aún no hay efectos perjudiciales para los pingüinos por esta actividad. En este trabajo se investigan las causas potenciales de la disminución de pingüinos en las Islas Falklands y se hacen compariciones con poblaciones en Chile que parecen saludables

  16. Study of the photocatalytic activity and cool characteristics of a novel palette of pigments; Estudio de la capacidad fotocatalítica y refrigerante de una nueva paleta de pigmentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargori García, C.; Cerro Lloria, S.; Fas Argamasilla, N.; Llusar Vicent, M.; Monrós Tomás, G.

    2017-11-01

    armalcolita (MgFe)(Cr0,2Ti2,8Fe)O10 (magenta), de níquel en geikielita (Mg0,5Ni0,5)TiO3 (amarillo), la perovskita CrNdO3 (verde) y la misma perovskita mineralizada con fluoruros alcalinotérreos (BaF2 y MgF2) (negro). Los pigmentos en polvo y los vidriados obtenidos con una frita convencional de bicocción (1.050°C) se han caracterizado respecto de su rendimiento colorimétrico mediante el modelo CIEL*a*b*; su capacidad refrigerante (como cool pigment), mediante la medida del índice de reflexión solar SRI, y su capacidad fotocatalítica, mediante el test de degradación de NaranjaII. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los obtenidos con pigmentos comerciales de la familia CMY del circón tomados como referencia. Los resultados indican una coloración intensa de los polvos y de las plaquetas vidriadas con valores L* inferiores a los pigmentos homólogos del circón, en cambio el chroma obtenido con los pigmentos del circón es superior (b* negativo para el cian, a* positivo para el magenta o b* positivo para el amarillo). Respecto a su capacidad refrigerante, los resultados indican valores SRI altos y superiores en el caso de la celsiana al del vanadio-circón, el verde supera ligeramente a la eskolaita Cr2O3, que se ha tomado como referencia, y en el caso de la perovskita negra sus valores SRI muy bajos (SRI=0 en el caso del polvo) y asociados a altos valores de emisividad en el infrarrojo medio la hacen interesante como pigmento para sustratos absorbentes en colectores solares. La capacidad fotocatalítica sobre NaranjaII indica valores de periodo de semivida en torno a 55-70min, inferiores a los medidos en los circones de referencia (110-190min).

  17. Evolución del color en el alero de la fachada del rey D. Pedro I, Real Alcázar de Sevilla. Aportaciones del estudio de materiales a la identificación de las intervenciones de restauración a lo largo de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Cruz, Olimpia

    2011-12-01

    decorations dated between the 16th and 18th century cinnabar is replaced by vermilion, and natural azurite is replaced by its synthetic equivalent. More recent interventions reveal that the most widely-used pigment is emerald green (synthesised from 1814 onwards, this constituting a reference level. From the late 19th century onwards, some emerald greens and synthetic azurite blues are replaced by synthetic ultramarine.Se presenta la investigación realizada en la policromía de la fachada del Palacio de Pedro I, edificio construido en los Reales Alcázares de Sevilla, entre 1356 y 1366, que constituye una de las obras más importantes de la arquitectura andalusí en la Península Ibérica. En esta fachada se han efectuado un gran número de intervenciones en su policromía a lo largo de su historia, pero su aspecto general ha permanecido similar, aunque con variaciones en el detalle. El acabado predominante siempre ha sido el dorado, sobre los colores rojos, azules y verdes. Tras un detallado trabajo de campo y de muestreo, se han combinado diversas técnicas de laboratorio (microscopía óptica con luz reflejada y transmitida, difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido con microanálisis EDX y cromatografías de gases y líquida de alta presión para la identificación y estudio de las fases inorgánicas y orgánicas que constituyen los pigmentos. Se ha podido confirmar la existencia de, al menos, ocho policromías que definen niveles realizados en épocas diferentes. Cada policromía suele presentar varias capas: de preparación, base y pictórica o lámina de oro, siendo éste último el material más representado como capa de terminación. Las policromías incluyen una amplia variedad de pigmentos: rojo de plomo, cinabrio/bermellón, blanco de plomo, azurita natural y sintética, azul ultramar sintético, malaquita, verde esmeralda, verde de As y Cu, amarillo de plomo y estaño, amarillo de cromo, litargirio y negro orgánico. El estudio textural

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  20. PREFACE: Donald D Harrington Symposium on the Geology of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlos, Elizabeth J.

    2008-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences presents a selection of papers given at the Donald D Harrington Symposium on the Geology of the Aegean held on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin on April 28-30, 2008. Donald D Harrington was born in Illinois in 1899 and moved westward after serving in the Army Air Corps during World War I. Mr Harrington took a position as a landman with Marlin Oil Company in Oklahoma. When the Texas Panhandle oil boom hit in 1926, he moved to Amarillo, Texas, where he met Sybil Buckingham—the granddaughter of one of Amarillo's founding families. They married in 1935 and went on to build one of the most successful independent oil and gas operations in Texas history. The couple created the Don and Sybil Harrington Foundation in 1951 to support worthy causes such as museums, medical research, education, and the arts. At the Harrington Symposium on the Geology of the Aegean, researchers presented papers organized under five general themes: (1) the geology of Aegean in general (2) the geologic history of specific domains within the Aegean (Cyclades, Menderes, Kazdag, Rhodope, Crete, southern Balkans, etc) (3) the dynamic tectonic processes that occur within the Aegean (4) its geo-archeological history, natural history and hazards and (5) comparisons of the Aegean to regions elsewhere (e.g., Basin and Ranges; Asian extensional terranes). The Aegean is a locus of dynamic research in a variety of fields, and the symposium provided an opportunity for geologists from a range of disciplines to interact and share new results and information about their research in the area. At the opening reception in the Harry S Ransom Center, Dr Clark Burchfiel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) provided a keynote address on the outstanding geologic problems of the Aegean region. His paper in this volume outlines a framework for future studies. We also call attention to a paper in this volume by Dr Y

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  2. Consumo e digestibilidade da matéria seca de fenos de braquiária decumbens e amendoim forrageiro em ovinos estimados por meio de n-alcanos Use of n-alkanes to estimate intake and digestibility of signalgrass and forage peanut in sheep

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    Nelson Massaru Fukumoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com os objetivos de avaliar a técnica de n-alcanos para estimar o consumo e a digestibilidade da MS em ovinos e definir a estratégia de coleta de fezes e os alcanos internos a serem utilizados no cálculos. Vinte ovinos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados com dietas formuladas com diferentes proporções de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory cv. Amarillo e braquiária decumbens [Urochloa decumbens (Stapf, Webster] (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% de amendoim forrageiro, base da MS. O período experimental teve duração de 18 dias, dez de adaptação à dieta, três para administração do indicador externo (C32 em péletes de celulose e cinco de coleta de fezes. As fezes foram coletadas seis vezes ao dia (9, 13, 17, 21, 1 e 5h, diretamente no reto do animal. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as comparações das médias estimadas aos valores reais foram feitas utilizando-se o teste t a 5% de significância. Para determinação da digestibilidade aparente da MS, os animais foram equipados com bolsas coletoras de fezes. O consumo foi calculado utilizando-se os alcanos internos C31 e C33 isoladamente ou em conjunto. Para o cálculo da digestibilidade da MS, foram utilizados os alcanos internos C33 a C35. Para obtenção de estimativas adequadas de digestibilidade, é necessária a correção para os valores de recuperação fecal dos indicadores internos, observando-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando se utilizou o alcano interno C33 nos cálculos. Para estimar o consumo de MS, devem-se utilizar, de forma conjunta nos cálculos, os alcanos internos C31 e C33, sem necessidade de correção para recuperação fecal, podendo-se coletar uma única amostra de fezes por animal por dia, pela manhã (9 h ou à tarde (13 h.The objective of this trial was to use n-alkanes to estimate dry matter intake (DMI and DM digestibility in sheep. It was also

  3. Potencial discriminatório dos N-alcanos em plantas forrageiras tropicais por análises multivariadas Discriminatory potential of the N-alkanes in tropical forages by multivariate analysis

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    Cristiano Côrtes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial dos n-alcanos em discriminar frações ou espécies de gramíneas (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu, Cynodon dactylon Pers. cv. Coast-cross 1 e Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia 1 e leguminosas tropicais (Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory. cv. Amarillo e Glycine wightii Verdc. Soja Perene foi avaliado neste estudo. As forrageiras foram amostradas na primavera, no verão e inverno, com quatro repetições por espécie. Utilizaram-se nas análises os n-alcanos C24 a C35, sendo o C32 e C34 padrões internos. As concentrações dos n-alcanos nas diferentes espécies e respectivas frações (lâminas foliares, haste porções superior e inferior e matéria morta, para gramíneas; folhas, caule porções superior e inferior e matéria morta para leguminosas foram avaliadas mediante análises multivariadas. O potencial discriminatório dos n-alcanos foi determinado pela análise de variáveis canônicas. As espécies e frações foram divididas em grupos por meio da análise de agrupamento. Os alcanos com menor potencial discriminatório foram: C26, C29, C25, C27 e C28 (primavera, C26, C28, C27, C30 e C29 (verão e C28, C26, C25, C29 e C27 (inverno. Nos períodos de primavera e inverno, a técnica de n-alcanos permitiu distinguir a lâmina foliar do coastcross das hastes superior e inferior, bem como das gramíneas e leguminosas. Em pastagens exclusivas de Brachiaria brizantha, no período de verão, seria possível discriminar as frações de importância nutricional, lâmina foliar e haste superior, pela determinação dos n-alcanos. As análises multivariadas, as variáveis canônicas e a análise de agrupamento representam boas alternativas de cálculo para melhorar a aplicabilidade da técnica dos n-alcanos na discriminação das dietas de herbívoros.The discriminatory potential of n-alkanes in tropical grasses (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu, Cynodon dactylon Pers. cv. Coast-cross 1 and Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanz

  4. Comportamento ingestivo de novilhos mestiços em pastagens tropicais manejadas em diferentes alturas Chewing behavior of crossbred beef steers on tropical pasture managed at different heights

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    Fabíola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos mestiços em pastagens exclusivas de capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf Hoesch cv. Marandu, capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo e em pastagem consorciada de capim-marandu e amendoim forrageiro, em resposta à altura do relvado. As parcelas foram reguladas em seis alturas nas pastagens de gramíneas e, naquelas de amendoim forrageiro e consorciada, foram rebaixadas simulando o pastejo intermitente. A quantidade de forragem ingerida pelo animal foi determinada pela técnica de dupla pesagem. A taxa de ingestão (TI, g MS/minuto foi estudada em função da altura da pastagem (A e da massa de folhas (MFV, denominadas variável Z no modelo: TI = TImax (1 - e(-K x Z; em que: TImax é o parâmetro que representa a taxa de ingestão potencial máxima (g MS/min; k é o parâmetro que representa a variação em TI para cada unidade de variação em Z. A TI variou conforme a altura da pastagem para todas as espécies, mas, para a MFV, variou apenas nas pastagens de amendoim forrageiro e capim-marandu. A TI potencial em função da altura da pastagem foi de 66,49 g MS/minuto, independentemente da pastagem avaliada, e foi mais sensível à variação na altura para o amendoim forrageiro, em comparação às demais pastagens (k = 0,09 vs 0,039. A fração tempo despendido/g MS ingerido/bocado foi maior para o capim-tanzânia e a pastagem consorciada, com valores de 3,16 e 2,83 segundos, respectivamente. Para manipulação do capim-marandu e do amendoim forrageiro, o tempo despendido foi 0,80 e 0,68 segundo, respectivamente. A estratégia do animal para manter a TI elevada na pastagem de amendoim forrageiro foi aumentar a taxa de bocados e, nas demais pastagens, aumentar a ingestão por bocado.The chewing behavior of crossbred beef steers grazing pure swards of marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha Stapf Hoesch cv. Marandu, tanzaniagrass

  5. In situ caecal degradation of roughages in horses Degradação cecal in situ de alimentos volumosos em equinos

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    Vinícius Pimentel Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the in situ degradation of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP in roughages by the in situ caecal digestion technique in horses. The roughages evaluated were: Lucerne hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo, desmodio(Desmodium ovalifolium, stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lime-yellow pea (Macrotyloma axillare and coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross. The assay was conducted in a complete randomized design with seven roughages and three replications. One mare with a cannula fitted in the caecum was used, fed diet consisting of coastcross hay (80% and concentrate (20% at 2.0% BW, four times a day. Nylon 6.5 × 20 cm bags were used with 45 μ/pore, containing 5.2 g DM/bag, inserting 3 or 4 bags in the caecum at the times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours incubation. The caecum in situ degradability parameters of nutrients were obtained by Ørskov model. The DM degradability parameters of all the roughages were significant. There was no fit to the model for pigeon pea for CP and NDF and desmodio. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented larger potentially degradable DM with values of 53, 46.5 and 40%, respectively, and higher values for the soluble fraction of 20, 21, 28.6%, with high degradability rates of 10.36, 20.26 and 14.8% h-1. Higher NDF degradation rates were observed in these foodstuffs with values of 9.1 and 11.3, 11.2% h-1, high potentially degradable fraction with values of 55, 51.8 and 47.2%, and greater CP degradation at 48 hours with values of 87, 95, and 94.8%. Peanut, stylo and lime-yellow pea presented potential for use in horses diets.Objetivou-se avaliar a degradação da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e proteína bruta de alimentos volumosos pela técnica da digestão cecal in situ em equinos. Avaliaram-se as forrageiras: feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa

  6. Uso de n-alcanos na estimativa da composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e Arachis pintoi Koprov e Gregory Use of n-alkanes to estimate the dietary botanical composition in sheep fed different proportions of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and Arachis pintoi Koprov and Gregory

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    Nelson Massaru Fukumoto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento objetivou-se avaliar o poder discriminatório dos n-alcanos para estimar com acurácia e precisão a composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory cv. Amarillo (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com período experimental de dez dias de adaptação à dieta e cinco dias de coleta de fezes. Nas amostras (compostas de fezes do período e nos fenos, foi analisada a concentração de n-alcanos. Para o cálculo da composição botânica, utilizou-se minimização da soma dos quadrados dos desvios, considerando as concentrações dos alcanos nos componentes da dieta e nas fezes. Para a escolha dos alcanos mais discriminatórios, foram utilizadas as análises multivariadas e as variáveis canônicas. As estimativas calculadas foram submetidas à análise de variância. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste t e as correções dos valores estimados em relação aos valores reais foram ajustadas em regressão linear. As variáveis canônicas indicaram que os alcanos C35, C33, C30, C31, C27, C29 e C36 são os de maior potencial discriminatório. O uso desses alcanos nos cálculos foi mais acurado e preciso para estimar a proporção de A. pintoi na dieta que o uso de apenas dois ou três alcanos com poder discriminatório. O melhor ajuste da regressão também foi encontrado para esses alcanos. O teste t para o intercepto da equação (a e o coeficiente de regressão (b indicaram que a = 0 e b = 1, comprovando que os valores estimados são equivalentes aos valores reais. As análises multivariadas mostraram-se ferramentas de grande importância na escolha dos n-alcanos nos cálculos nas estimativas.The objective of this experiment was to use n-alkane to estimate accurately and precisely the botanical composition of dietary forage in sheep fed different proportions of Arachis pintoi

  7. Reproducción y alimentación del tiburón enano Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica: Elementos para un manejo sostenible

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M

    2006-09-01

    , respectively. All samples collected were mature and the minimum length to first maturity observed is 500 and 541 mm for females and males, respectively. From September to March individuals were mature, while samples caught during April and August were immature. A total of 1 259 embryos were analyzed. Number of embryos per liter ranged from two to six, the total length is from 130 to 205 mm and the weight from 6 to 35 g. This shark is a polyphagous opportunistic carnivore that preys on crustaceans (Squilla hancocki, S. parva, Litopenaeus sp., fishes (Anchoa sp., Caranx sp., Lutjanus sp., Engraulis sp. and mollusks (Loligo sp. and Octopus sp.. Main prey item was S. hancocki. The presence of mature sharks of both sexes along the year and the consumption of food items associated to shallow coastal rocky waters suggest that this sector of Nicoya Gulf is a nursery ground and an essential habitat. Based on these results the establishment of an integral management plan is proposed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 861-871. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  8. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

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    Dias, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    % m/m. Por otra parte, también G’ presentó una correlación similar, donde se observó una disminución de 4.42 x 106 Pa para valores alrededor de 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, también con 20% m/m aceite. Los rellenos presentaron un color más oscuro amarillo-verde cuando se utilizó el aceite producido con las variedades Galega y Cordovil de Serpa, pero el aceite producido con la variedad Arbequina no afectó significativamente al color, no obstante, serán necesarios más estudios para evaluar el impacto de la maduración.

  9. Producción y desarrollo de nueve variedades de naranja Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck en la zona plana del Valle del Cauca

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    Salazar C. Raúl

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available En árboles de naranja de cinco años injertados sobre mandarina Cleopatra, se evaluaron nueve variedades sembradas en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar. El crecimiento de los frutos presentó las tres fases típicas, con duración variable dependiendo de la variedad: lento, crecimiento acelerado y estabilización. Los máximos crecimientos se obtuvieron en las variedades Old Vini, Valencia y Valle Washington. En todas las variedades los sólidos solubles disminuyeron y el porcentaje de acidez aumentó hasta ciertos límites con la edad del fruto. Considerando como momento óptimo para iniciar la cosecha una relación de sólidos solubles: acidez de 9.5:1, la más temprana fue la Valle Washington (7.5 meses, intermedias Old Vini y Australia Navel y la más tardía García Valencia. Todas las variedades presentaron contenidos de jugo mayores del 50 % Y color atractivo de la pulpa. El color más atractivo de la corteza se obtuvo en Parson Brown (97.5 % amarillo, las otras variedades fluctuaron entre 48 y 79%. Todas las variedades tuvieron menos de seis semillas por fruto. Se presentaron dos épocas de cosecha y las variedades con mayor producción: Hamlin, García Valencia y Pineapple tuvieron la mayor variación mensual. La mejor alternativa sembrando 90% de variedades para industria y 10 % para mesa se obtuvo con las variedades Pineapple, Hamlin, Parson Brown, Valle Washington y Old Vini.Five years old orange trees, were grafted on Cleopatra scions of nine cultivars planted in a completely randomized block design were evaluated. Fruit growths presented three typical phases of variable lenght, depending on the cultivar: slow , rapid and stable growth rates. Largest growth were observed in the old Vini, Valencia and Valle Washington cultivars. In all cases total soluble solid contents and acidity increased, up to certain point, with fruit age. Considering that the optimum time to iniciate cropping is when the relationship

  10. Estandarización de un protocolo para la obtención de callos friables de borojó (Borojoa patinoi Cuatr. fase I. Optimization of a protocol to obtain friable calli of borojó (Borojoa patinoi Cuatr. phase I.

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    Martínez D. Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la influencia de los reguladores de crecimiento para la obtención de callos friables en borojó (Borojoa patinoi Cuatr. El material vegetal utilizado se obtuvo de árboles en producción ubicados en el Municipio de San Luis, Antioquia, Colombia. Las semillas se desinfectaron con hipoclorito de sodio al 3% por 25 min más etanol al 70% por 15 min con la adición de dos gotas de Tween 20. Para los diferentes tratamientos se utilizaron como explantes hojas jóvenes obtenidas in vitro a partir de semilla, las cuales se cultivaron en el medio MS (1962 suplementado con 2,4-D en combinación con BAP y TDZ, sin obtener respuesta favorable para la obtención de callo friable entre el día 15 al 45 después de iniciado el cultivo. Sin embargo, se realizó otro ensayo con el mismo explante en el medio de cultivo MS (1962 con la adición de 1 mg/L de 2-4 D, como medio para la iniciación de embriogénesis, observándose a los 45 días la formación de callos friables y de color amarillo-verde. Este trabajo es un informe parcial de un macroproyecto sobre la optimización de un protocolo para la obtención de metabolitos secundarios de interés comercial mediante la utilización de suspensiones celulares de Borojoa patinoi.The influence of growth regulators to obtain friable calli in borojo (Borojoa patinoi Cuatr was investigated. The used vegetable material was obtained from productive trees located in the town of San Luis, Antioquia, Colombia. Seeds were disinfected with 3% sodium hypochlorite for 20 minutes, plus 70% ethanol for 15 minutes with the addition of two tween 20 drops. In the different experiments, young leaves obtained in vitro from seeds were used as explants. They were cultivated in the MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and combined with BAP and TDZ. No positive response related to the obtaining of friable callus was shown between the days 15 to 45. However, another test was carried out with the same explants in the MS medium

  11. Presencia de Phomopsis viticola (Saccardo Saccardo, agente causal de excoriosis, en viñedos de Córdoba, Argentina Presence of Phomopsis viticola (Saccardo Saccardo, causal agent of excoriosis, in vineyards of Córdoba, Argentina

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    C.I. Cragnolini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde 2001 se observan en viñedos de Córdoba, Argentina, hojas de Vitis vinifera y V. labrusca con manchas cloróticas y centro necrótico. Las plantas presentan nervaduras, pecíolos, raquis y entrenudos con puntos necróticos que al confluir agrietan el tejido cortical. Las bayas pueden marchitarse y desprenderse. En invierno los sarmientos toman color blanquecino con manchas negras, y en ellos y en órganos secos aparecen picnidios con cirros blanco-crema con conidios alfa y beta. El objetivo fue confirmar la presencia de Phomopsis viticola (excoriosis y cuantificar su incidencia. Se realizaron aislamientos a partir de pecíolos, brotes, zarcillos, bayas y sarmientos que produjeron micelio claro con picnidios y conidios alfa (7,5m±1,5 x 2,8m±2 y beta (19m±1 x 1,2m±0,5 o sólo alfa, típicos de P. viticola. La identificación fue confirmada mediante secuenciación molecular. En brotes de las variedades Malbec y Pinot noir inoculados con 3 10(4 conidios/mL, las hojas mostraron lesiones y picnidios 8 días después, y las bayas cirros amarillos a los 15-18 días. P. viticola (Sacc. Sacc. fue reaislado de los cirros y las colonias produjeron picnidios y conidios característicos 10-20 días después. Se detectó excoriosis en 80% de los viñedos evaluados, con mayor incidencia en viñedos añosos de las variedades Pinot noir e Isabella.Leaves with chlorotic spots and necrotic centers have been observed in Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca in vineyards of Córdoba, Argentina, since 2001. Plants exhibit veins, petioles, rachises, and internodes with necrotic spots that coalesce to form cracks in the cortical tissue. Grape berries can shrivel and fall off. Winter canes became whitish with black spots; pycnidia appear in canes and in dry organs, exuding whitish-cream cirri with alpha and beta conidia. The aim of this work was to confirm the presence of Phomopsis viticola (excoriosis and quantify its incidence. Isolates obtained from petioles

  12. INTERACCIÓN COLIBRÍ-FLOR EN TRES REMANENTES DE BOSQUE TROPICAL SECO (BST DEL MUNICIPIO DE CHIMICHAGUA (CESAR, COLOMBIA

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    DANIEL LEÓN-CAMARGO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la interacción colibrí-planta en tres remanentes de bosque tropical seco (BsT, ubicados en el municipio de Chimichagua (Cesar, Colombia con base en la observación de las visitas a los recursos florales y en los análisis de las cargas de polen en el pico y en otras partes del cuerpo de las aves. Se registró la época de floración y la abundancia de flores producidas por las plantas utilizadas por los colibríes y se midió la cantidad y calidad del néctar. En cinco muestreos que cubrieron la variabilidad de la precipitación en la zona de estudio, se capturaron a 17 individuos. Se realizaron 218 observaciones (visitas de dos especies de colibríes Lepidopyga goudoti y Phaethornis anthophilus, los cuales visitaron a 31 especies de plantas. Para el caso de las observaciones sobre visitas de los colibríes a las plantas, Arrabidaea cf. corallina fue la más importante (IVIR=0.14840 en los tres remanentes de vegetación estudiados, seguida por Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.05356 y Pogonopus speciosus (IVIR=0.02773. Otra especie importante pero con valores bajos fue Cochlospermum vitifolium. De acuerdo con los análisis de cargas de polen, el recurso más importante fue Pogonopus speciosus con un valor de IVIR=0.29643, seguido por Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.09286 y Hemistylus cf. odontophylla (IVIR=0.03294. En el análisis general para los tres sitios (Tabla 3, los recursos más importantes para los colibríes fueron Pogonopus speciosus (IVIR=0.06207, Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.06021 y Cochlospermum vitifolium (IVIR=0.01095. Lepidopyga goudoti utiliza 22 especies de plantas, mientras que P. anthophilus solamente utiliza siete. Las flores visitadas fueron en su mayoría tubulares con colores brillantes y contrastantes como el rojo, el morado y el violeta y se encontró buen ajuste entre su tamaño y la longitud y la forma del pico de los colibríes. También se presentaron visitas a flores de color blanco y amarillo como

  13. As cores no ambiente de terapia intensiva: percepções de pacientes e profissionais Los colores en el ambiente de cuidados intensivos: percepciones de pacientes y profesionales Colors in the intensive therapy environment: perceptions of patients and professionals

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    Nélio Barbosa Boccanera

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização das cores no ambiente da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva - UTI pode interferir no bem-estar dos profissionais e clientes. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar percepções de profissionais e pacientes quanto às cores utilizadas no ambiente de terapia intensiva, identificando aquelas consideradas agradáveis e desagradáveis. Trata-se de pesquisa descritivo-exploratória, com enfoque quanti-qualitativo. A amostra foi constituída de clientes internados e profissionais que trabalham em três UTIs de hospitais públicos localizados em Goiânia. As cores consideradas mais agradáveis para serem utilizadas em UTI foram o azul-claro e o verde-claro. Além dessas, apontaram o amarelo-claro, palha, cinza, rosa e goiaba. O vermelho e o preto foram consideradas as cores mais desagradáveis para um ambiente de UTI. Os profis-sionais e clientes referem preferência por cores variadas, as quais podem ser utilizadas no sentido de melhorar o clima da UTI.La utilización de los colores en el ambiente de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos - UCI puede interferir en el bienestar de los profesionales y clientes. En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo analizar las percepciones de profesionales y pacientes en cuanto a los colores utilizados en el ambiente de cuidados intensivos, identificando aquellas consideradas agradables y desagradables. Se trata de una investigación descriptivo-exploratoria, con enfoque cuanti-cualitativa. La muestra estuvo constituida de clientes internados y de profesionales que trabajan en tres UCIs de hospitales públicos localizados en Goiânia. Los colores considerados más agradables para ser utilizadas en UCI fueron el celeste y el verde claro. Además de ellos, señalaron el amarillo, paja, gris, rosado y guayaba. El rojo y el negro fueron considerados los colores más desagradables para un ambiente de UCI. Los profesionales y clientes refirieron preferencia por colores variados, los cuales pueden ser utilizados en el

  14. Estudio in-situ de la transformación térmica de limonita utilizada como pigmento procedente de Perú

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    Romero-Gómez, P.

    2013-06-01

    (amarillo a la fase oxidada hematites (rojo con una pérdida de peso de un 8 %, teniendo como evidencia la evolución de los perfiles de difracción y los resultados de ATG. Los espectros μ-Raman del tratamiento térmico in-situ corroboran que se produce también una transición de fase a la temperatura de 290 °C a través de la transformación de las bandas Raman características de la fase goetita hacia la fase hematites en el rango de frecuencias de 200 a 1800cm-1.

  15. Faraón-INIA, a new Winter Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack for Southern Chile Faraón-INIA, un nuevo Triticale de Inviern o (×Triticosecale Wittmack para el Sur de Chile

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    Claudio Jobet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Faraón-INIA is a new winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar released by the National Wheat Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA in Chile. It is derived from an F9 material received from Nordsaat, Germany, under a germplasm exchange agreement signed in 2006 by both institutions. The crossing was Piano/Focus with Nord93.7548 pedigree. Faraón-INIA has a winter growth habit, a short stem (semi-dwarf, with a mean height of 106 cm. The spike is long, compact, decumbent, white, and awned. The grain is soft, yellow, with 1000-grain weight of 36 g, and a mean of hectoliter weight of 76 kg hL-1. It is resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss. as well as moderately resistant to septoria leaf blotch. Its mean yield for four seasons in three different locations: Temuco (38º50´ S, 72º25´ W, Traiguén (38º45´ S, 72º38´ W, and Purranque (36°31’ S, 71°54’ W varied between 8.2 and 15.0 t ha-1 with a general mean of 11.0 t ha-1. Bromatological analysis of the grain showed good protein content (10.6% and a generally better quality than other triticale cultivars. Based on the above information, Faraón-INIA is recommended for use as animal feed in Southern Chile.Faraón-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack liberado por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Chile. Este cultivar deriva de un material F9 recibido de la empresa Nordsaat, Alemania, bajo un convenio formal firmado en el 2006 entre ambas instituciones. La cruza es Piano/Focus, y el pedigrí Nord-93.7548. Faraón-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo invernal y caña corta (semienano, con un promedio de altura de 106 cm. La espiga es larga, compacta, decumbente, blanca y barbada. El grano es blando, amarillo, con un peso de 100 granos de 36 g y un promedio de 76 kg hL-1 de peso del hectolitro. Es resistente a roya

  16. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings; Impacto del uso del aceite de oliva en las propiedades físicas de relleno de chocolate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J.M.; Almeida, M.; Adikevičius, D.; Andzevičius, P.; Alvarenga, N.B.

    2016-07-01

    /m. Por otra parte, también G’ presentó una correlación similar, donde se observó una disminución de 4.42 x 106 Pa para valores alrededor de 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, también con 20% m/m aceite. Los rellenos presentaron un color más oscuro amarillo-verde cuando se utilizó el aceite producido con las variedades Galega y Cordovil de Serpa, pero el aceite producido con la variedad Arbequina no afectó significativamente al color, no obstante, serán necesarios más estudios para evaluar el impacto de la maduración.

  17. Development and application of a methodology for the classification of the operating conditions of power transformers; Desarrollo y aplicacion de una metodologia para la clasificacion del estado operativo de transformadores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara Covarrubias, Hector

    2004-05-15

    Electricidad (CFE). Se asignan tres estados de semaforizacion (verde, amarillo y rojo) para cada paso relativo y de acuerdo a los resultados de prueba se le asignara un paso relativo (1, 2 o 3). Asignacion de pesos especificos a cada una de las pruebas consideradas en el modelo. Determinacion del producto del vapor relativo para su peso especifico para cada prueba, obteniendo un puntaje para cada una de las pruebas. Obtencion del grado de riesgo del transformador bajo evaluacion mediante un calculo de puntaje final, es decir, la sumatoria de los puntajes individuales de cada prueba. Definicion de tres categorias para la clarificacion del grado de riesgo de transformadores de acuerdo a sus puntajes finales. Clasificacion del estado operativo de los transformadores evaluados de acuerdo al puntaje obtenido, el cual se ubica en una de las tres categorias definidas. Con la semaforizacion se priorizan las recomendaciones pertinentes. Con la aplicacion del modelo para la clasificacion del estado operativo de los transformadores de potencia, se puede programar mantenimiento de acuerdo al grado de riesgo. El modelo desarrollado puede ser aplicado a todo el parque de transformacion de la CFE, permitiendo con esto programar la inversion para la situacion, previniendo fallas catastroficas que pueden ocasionar problemas de logistica y economicos a la operacion del sistema electrico nacional de potencia. Como ejemplo, se analizan los resultados de la aplicacion del modelo en 2 bancos de transformacion instalados en la Central Hidroelectrica Malpaso.

  18. Predictive validity of the Manchester Triage System: evaluation of outcomes of patients admitted to an emergency department Validez predictiva del Protocolo de Clasificación de Riesgo de Manchester: evaluación de la evolución de los pacientes admitidos en un pronto atendimiento Validade preditiva do Protocolo de Classificação de Risco de Manchester: avaliação da evolução dos pacientes admitidos em um pronto atendimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Pinto Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the predictive validity of the Manchester Triage System implemented in a municipal hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. METHOD: cohort prospective and analytical study. The sample of 300 patients was stratified by color groups. The outcome measured was the scores, obtained by patients in each classification group in the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System - 28, 24 hours after admission to the emergency department. RESULTS: A total of 172 (57% patients were men and the average age of all patients was 57.3 years old. The median score concerning the severity of their conditions was 6.5 points in the yellow group, 11.5 in the orange group, and 22 points in the red group. Statistically significant differences were found among the three groups (pOBJETIVO: evaluar la validez predictiva del protocolo de clasificación de riesgo de Manchester implantado en un hospital municipal de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. MÉTODO: estudio de cohorte prospectivo y analítico. La muestra estratificada por colores de la clasificación fue de 300 pacientes. El final evaluado fue la puntuación por el Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System - 28, lograda por los pacientes en cada grupo de clasificación después de 24 horas de la admisión en el servicio de urgencia. RESULTADOS: entre los pacientes, 172 eran hombres (57%; la media de edad de los pacientes evaluados fue de 57,3 años. La mediana de puntuación del índice de gravedad en el grupo amarillo fue 6,5 puntos; en el grupo naranja, 11,5 puntos y, en el grupo rojo, 22 puntos, habiendo diferencia estadística significante entre los tres grupos (pOBJETIVO: avaliar a validade preditiva do protocolo de classificação de risco de Manchester, implantado em um hospital municipal de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. MÉTODO: trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo e analítico A amostra estratificada por cores da classificação foi de 300 pacientes. O desfecho avaliado foi a pontuação pelo

  19. Effects of different roasting conditions on the nutritional value and oxidative stability of high-oleic and yellow-seeded Brassica napus oils

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    Rękas, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of enhancing the nutritional value and oxidative stability of rapeseed oil obtained from seeds subjected to thermal treatment prior to pressing. The yellowseeded and high-oleic B. napus lines, harvested in Poland, were roasted prior to pressing for 1 h at 100 and 150 °C. This study highlighted how rapeseed breeding lines affect the quality profile of the oils obtained both before and after the roasting process. In principle, the high-oleic B. napus was accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in oxidative stability compared to the yellow-seeded B. napus, most likely due to a higher content of oxidation-resistant oleic fatty acids (~74.24% vs. ~60.76% and a decreased concentration of oxidizable PUFAs (~16.32% vs. ~31.09%. Similar to the case of roasting black-seeded rapeseed, the thermal pre-treatment of yellow-seeded and high-oleic B. napus prior to pressing did not alter the composition of their fatty acids. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that roasting seeds prior to pressing does not reduce the amount of tocopherols in the oil; moreover, a slight increase in γ-tocopherol content was observed.Este estudio se realizó para evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el valor nutritivo y la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de colza obtenido a partir de semillas sometidas a tratamiento térmico antes del prensado. Las líneas de B. napus sembrados amarillos y alto oleico, cosechadas en Polonia, fueron tostadas antes de ser prensadas durante 1 hora a 100 y 150 °C. Este estudio pone de relieve cómo las líneas de colza mejoradas ven afectado el perfil de calidad de los aceites obtenidos antes y después del proceso de tostado. En principio, el alto oleico B. napus aumenta casi 2 veces la estabilidad a la oxidación en comparación con semilla amarilla B. napus, muy probablemente debido a un mayor contenido de ácido graso oleico resistente a la oxidación (~74,24% vs

  20. Tolerância ao frio do amendoim forrageiro Cold tolerance of forage peanut

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    Adriana Pires Soares Bresolin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade de uma pastagem perene tropical, em regiões de clima temperado, é dependente de seu comportamento em relação às condições de temperatura. A avaliação da sensibilidade das plantas, através da sua exposição a temperaturas inferiores a 2°C em ambiente controlado, pode ser um procedimento bastante eficiente na predição de resistência, em função de assegurar uma homogeneidade dos níveis de frio. Considerando-se à reduzida disponibilidade de trabalhos científicos relacionados com a avaliação de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais quanto à tolerância ao frio, este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento do amendoim forrageiro (cv. "Amarillo" sob temperaturas inferiores a 2°C. O delineamento experimental adotado foi completamente casualizado com 15 repetições e dois tratamentos, com exposição (CE e sem exposição ao frio (SE. Os caracteres mensurados foram: número de folhas por estolho, espessura do estolho e número de brotações novas. Os resultados indicaram que a exposição do amendoim forrageiro a um intervalo de temperatura de -1,0 a 1,3°C por um período de 3 horas é capaz de causar estresse de frio nas plantas, provocando uma redução no número de folhas e estimulando a formação de novas brotações, sem provocar a morte das plantas.The yield of tropical perennial forages in temperate climate areas depends on its cold tolerance. The exposure of genotypes to temperatures below 2oC, under controlled conditions is an efficient methodology to predict cold tolerance, since it maintains homogeneous levels of cold. Due to absence of information related to cold tolerance of tropical forages, this experiment was developed aiming to evaluate the behavior of forage peanut exposed to temperatures below 2oC. The design adopted was completely randomized with 15 replications and two treatments: exposed and not exposed to cold. The traits measured were: number of leaves per stolon; thickness

  1. ANÁLISIS DESCRIPTIVO DE LA RESPUESTA DEL COMPLEJO PULPO-DENTINAL DE ÓRGANOS DENTALES DE UNA POBLACIÓN PREHISPÁNICA CAZADORA-RECOLECTORA

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    María Clemencia Vargas Vargas

    2011-12-01

    un color amarillo, las superficies oclusales e incisales se presentan lisas. Ninguna de las piezas dentarias presentó signos clínicos de caries. Respecto al examen radiográfico, los datos obtenidos confirmaron los hallazgos clínicos. Conclusiones: El desgaste dental es la característica clínica que más se presentó, posiblemente asociado al consumo de alimentos fibrosos y a la fuerza imprimida en la acción masticatoria, además es agravado por partículas abrasivas que se adherían a los alimentos, durante la maceración con elementos líticos. Las estructuras dentales más afectadas por el desgaste dental corresponden al esmalte y a la dentina. En este estudio no se encontró un porcentaje relevante de casos de exposición pulpar por desgaste dental, a pesar que la edad aproximada y la esperanza de vida al nacer era de más o menos 35 años. Posiblemente la exposición pulpar no se daba, gracias a la producción de dentina secundaria que esclerosaba las cámaras pulpares.

  2. Elaboración de aceitunas denominadas “Green ripe olives” con variedades españolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenes, Manuel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are nowadays demanding a certain type of table olive with low acidity, a pH higher than 4.5 and yellow-green to yellow in colour. These are produced in the USA under the name “green ripe olivesâ€� and their sterilization is absolutely necessary. It was demonstrated in this work that the Spanish olive varieties Manzanilla and Hojiblanca can be elaborated as “green ripe olivesâ€� giving rise to a good quality product. However, it was also observed that after alkaline treatment the olives had to be thoroughly washed. A high volume of wash water was needed to neutralize olive flesh but also to eliminate certain compounds that gave rise to an undesirable odour in the final product as a consequence of the heat treatment. A rapid neutralization of olive flesh with CO2 was not enough to eliminate the off-odor. Likewise, the use of two alkaline treatments instead of only one did not improve the quality of the product. Therefore, it is considered necessary to study new alternative methods of preparing “green ripe olivesâ€� with less wash water volume and better organoleptic olive properties.Existe por parte de los consumidores una demanda creciente de aceitunas de muy baja acidez con pH superior a 4,5 y color verde amarillento/amarillo. Es necesario, por tanto, su esterilización y en Estados Unidos se conocen bajo la denominación “green ripe olivesâ€�. En este estudio se ha comprobado que las variedades españolas Manzanilla y Hojiblanca son susceptibles de elaborarse bajo la denominación “green ripe olivesâ€� aunque después del tratamiento alcalino es necesario llevar a cabo un número elevado de lavados de los frutos con vistas no sólo a neutralizar la pulpa sino también eliminar ciertos compuestos que originan un sabor inaceptable en el producto durante el tratamiento térmico. La neutralización rápida de la pulpa con anhídrido carbónico no es suficiente para reducir el n

  3. Análisis del impacto en fumadores mexicanos de los avisos gráficos en las cajetillas de cigarros Analysis of the impact of cigarette pack graphic warnings on Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis Thrasher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto de los avisos gráficos (imágenes en las etiquetas que indican el daño a la salud que causa el tabaco en las cajetillas de cigarros entre fumadores adultos mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se aplicó el método antropológico de sorteo de montones a 60 fumadores adultos para determinar cuáles los hacían pensar en dejar de fumar. Se sacaron promedios y se utilizaron métodos estadísticos no paramétricos. RESULTADOS: Los avisos gráficos más impactantes mostraban las siguientes imágenes: un tumor de bronquio fuente visto a través del broncoscopio; un hombre con cáncer de laringe con una gran masa tumoral externa en el cuello; un hombre joven inconsciente en una cama de la unidad de cuidados intensivos, con texto mencionando benceno, formaldehído y cianuro de hidrógeno como componentes del tabaco, y una de dos niños sanos que indica que el cigarro contiene amoníaco, monóxido de carbono; un feto muerto en un frasco con formol; y una boca con dientes amarillos y con texto que menciona la pérdida de dientes y cáncer bucal como resultados del tabaco. CONCLUSIONES: Los avisos gráficos que se utilizan en las cajetillas de cigarros en otros países podrían contribuir a la cesación entre fumadores mexicanos y deben implementarse en México.OBJECTIVE: To determine which graphic warnings on cigarette packs (images on the labels indicating the negative impact on health that tobacco can have provoke the strongest desire to quit smoking among adult Mexican smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pile sort method was used among 60 smokers over 18 years old to determine which images made them think about quitting smoking. Averages were determined and non-parametric statistical methods were used to determine differences in ranks. RESULTS: Within each of the five themes, one or two graphic warnings provoked the strongest responses in smokers. The graphic warnings with the greatest impact used the following images: a close

  4. Composición mineral y comparación de raíces reservantes de variedades de batatas (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. cultivadas en la isla de La Palma, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isabel Montes Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn y Mn fueron determinados, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, en raíces de 15 variedades de batatas cultivadas en La Palma (De papa o maní, Parado, Cubana, Cubana de baselo gordo, Cubana de hoja redonda, Blanquita, Saucero o Lanzarotero, Pata de Gallo, Padrón de Seda, Alicantina, Amarillo de Año, De Lanzarote, Matojo, Matojo Fino y Rajada; las 5 primeras de cultivo corto y las 10 restantes de cultivo largo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan a los datos de las variables estudiadas. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson (r para establecer grados de relación de los minerales entre las variedades; prueba de t de Student para comparar clasificando a las muestras según ciclo de recolección (Temprana y Tardía; análisis factorial para interpretar las relaciones existentes a través factores y análisis discriminantes (de paso a paso con criterio de selección la lambda de Wilks (λ e introduciendo todas las variables validados a través de análisis de validación cruzada. El elemento mineral (en mg/kg presente en mayor concentración en la totalidad de las muestras fue K (2086 ± 418, seguido de Ca (974 ± 486 y Mg (244 ± 70, siendo el Zn el menos presente (1,12 ± 0,61. Las variedades con mayor contenido mineral fueron Alicantina (Ca: 1809 ± 327 y Cu: 2,97 ± 0,23 y Padrón de Seda (Mg: 435 ± 46 y Mn: 3,08 ± 0,49 y la de menor aporte fue Parado (Cu, Mn, Ca, K y Mg. Las variedades Tardías presentaron mayores concentraciones de Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Mg y menores de Zn y Na en relación a las variedades Tempranas (p < 0,05. Se evidenció que las concentraciones de Cu, Zn y Na presentaron alto número de correlaciones significativas. El análisis factorial permitió deducir que Mg, K y Fe son las variables que permiten caracterizar el sistema perdiendo un mínimo de información total. El porcentaje de casos originales

  5. Influencia de la variedad, portainjerto y época de cosecha en la calidad e índices de madurez en pimiento morrón

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    Alejandro Palacio Márquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroducción: El uso de portainjertos para la producción de hortalizas es una técnica que ha ido en aumento en los últimos años, generando resistencia a patógenos y aumentando la producción en los cultivos. Sin embargo, hoy en día la producción no l o es todo en el rubro comercial; no ba s ta solo con producir en grandes cantidades y en espacios más pequeños; el mercado actual está pidiendo productos de calidad. Por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue estudiar el efecto de la variedad, el portainjerto y la época de cosecha en la calidad e índices de madurez en pimiento morrón. Método: El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en el ciclo de producción 2012, desarrol lado bajo un sistema de malla sombra, ubicada en Delicias, Chihuahua, México. El diseño experimental usado fue en bloques completos al azar con tres factores estudiados: variedades (Fascinato de frutos rojos y Janette de frutos amarillos, portainjerto (c o n portainjerto Terrano y sin portainjerto y tiempo de cosecha (11 de julio, 8 de agosto, 20 de agosto y 4 de septiembre. Las variables ev a luadas fueron: índices de madurez y parámetros de calidad en pimiento morrón. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en los parámetros de calidad e índices de madurez entre las variedades evaluadas, así mismo, el efecto del portainjerto Terrano en la cal i dad del fruto de las variedades Fascinato y Janette incrementó el tamaño de fruto (diámetro, lo n gitud y peso; mientras que, en variables como firmeza, sólidos solubles totales, color (L, C, °h y acidez titulable (% de ácido málico el portainjerto causó un decremento. Por otra parte, la época de cosecha para las variedades estudiadas fue estrechamente re lacionada con el grado de madurez del fruto. Conclusión: El factor variedad influyó en los parámetros: diámetro, longitud, peso del fruto, fi r meza, sólidos solubles totales, color y acidez; mientras que el factor

  6. Compatibilidad sexual entre dos tipos de Hylocerus (Cactaceae

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    Roberta Castillo M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dos de los tipos de pitahaya mas cultivados en la Península de Yucatán, México, difieren principalmente por el color de su cáscara, el primero es de color rojo (Uqroo1, perteneciente a Hylocereus undatus, mientras que en el segundo es color amarillo claro (Uqroo2, hasta el momento también identificado como H. undatus; este último es mas dulce. En ambos tipos de pitahayas, se realizaron autopolinizaciones y polinizaciones cruzadas directas y recíprocas, con el propósito de evaluar el efecto en la cantidad de frutos que lograron su desarrollo. Se midieron algunas variables para detectar la influencia del progenitor paterno en algunas características del fruto. Los testigos se obtuvieron de flores polinizadas libremente. El diseño experimental utilizado fue completamente al azar, con 15 repeticiones por tratamiento. Se encontró que Uqroo1 es autocompatible, mientras que Uqroo2 es autoincompatible. Los testigos de ambos tipos alcanzaron el mismo peso, y los frutos de Uqroo2 logrados por polinización cruzada tuvieron un peso similar al de los testigos o fueron significativamente mas pesados. Algunas variables resultaron positivamente correlacionados; el coeficiente entre el número de semillas y el peso total del fruto fue de r = 0.84. La correlación mas alta (r = 0.97 resultó entre el peso total y el peso de la pulpa. En los frutos obtenidos por polinización cruzada prevalecieron las características del progenitor materno. Se recomienda cultivar la Pitahaya blanca con otro tipo de pitahaya, además de Uqroo1There are two types of pitahaya that are cultivated in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. They differ mainly in the skin color of the fruit, one of them has a red skin (Uqroo1, while the other has a light yellow skin (Uqroo2 both belong to Hylocereus undatus (Haworth Britt. & Rose. The yellow skin pitahaya is the sweetest. The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and

  7. Caracterización química de la vidriera de Sant Pere i Sant Jaume (segundo cuarto del s. XIV, Monestir de Pedralbes, Barcelona

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    Gimeno, D.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Several architectural medieval stained glass (1330 a.C. from Pedralbes monastery’s church (Barcelona, Spain have been characterised chemically. This note explains the results obtained with EMPA, representative of bulk chemistry of several coloured glasses (white, green, pink, blue, yellow, red coming from the Sant Pere and Sant Jaume stained-glass window. Most of them are Na-rich (13-19 % Na2O homogeneous in colour and composition, and show minor variations in bulk chemistry related with colour (i.e., CuO in the 1.6-6 % range in green glass. Singularly, red glass is K-rich (16.5 % K2O, 14 % CaO, and was elaborated in a way technologically more sophisticated (it is a plaqué glass, with a red Cu-rich layer sandwiched between a white transparent Cu-poor glass similar in composition. While Na-rich glasses are mostly unaltered, K-rich ones show moderate corrosion and partial loss of transparency. Dominance of Na-rich glasses in the stained glass windows (rare at that time, if we consider the present state of the art allowed an excellent conservation. Despite of the presence of mortar covering, patina, etc., bulk chemistry of the glass shows its value as a diagnostic tool in an early evaluation of the state of decay of an stained glass window.

    Se han caracterizado químicamente diferentes tipos de vidrios arquitectónicos originales de la iglesia del Monestir de Pedralbes, Barcelona (realizados hacia 1330. Esta nota expone los resultados obtenidos mediante el empleo de microsonda electrónica en vidrios de varios colores (blanco, verde, rosado, azul, amarillo, rojo de la vidriera de Sant Pere y Sant Jaume. Corresponden esencialmente a vidrios sódicos (dentro del rango 13-19 % de Na2O de coloración y composición homogénea, con elementos que actúan como colorante (p.e., CuO en rango 1.6-6 % en los vidrios verdes. El vidrio rojo, potásico, es una excepción notable (16.5 % K2O, 14 % CaO, tecnológicamente diferente (vidrio

  8. Structural evolution of the SiO2-Ag system prepared by the Sol-gel process with incorporation of Ag particles

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    Garcia-Gonzalez, L.

    2011-02-01

    ículas de Ag. Nosotros encontramos que la incorporación de plata en la matriz de los xerogeles promueve el proceso de desvitrificación a temperaturas relativamente bajas con la presencia de una cristalización parcial en forma de cristobalita. Esta estructura fue producida controlando el agente catalítico mencionado en el proceso de preparación. Los espectros de EPR y absorción UV-Vis muestran la presencia de iones Fe3+ como un contaminante proveniente de las partículas de Ag, debido al proceso en el que fueron obtenidas las partículas. Por medio de espectroscopía IR se observo que en el sistema hay una alta concentración de (OH- a temperaturas altas, hasta 600 ºC a diferencia de los vidrios producidos por sol-gel con la incorporación de partículas de Ag en forma de nitratos. La evolución del color en muestras con el recubrimiento con el tratamiento térmico varía de café ligero a 100 ºC hasta amarillo a 500 ºC.

  9. Ethylene, Enzymatic and Respiratory Pattern Evolution in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget in the Last four Sequential Stages of Maturation Evolución del Patrón Respiratorio, Enzimático y de Etileno del Níspero Japonés (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindl. cv. Golden Nugget en los Últimos Cuatro Estadios Secuenciales de Madurez

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    Pedro L Undurraga M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some controversy regarding the respiratory pattern of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Thus in order to provide information on this aspect of loquat, fruit of 50-70 g, from cv. Golden Nugget were harvested in four stages of maturity: green (BBCH 709, color break (BBCH 801, yellow (BBCH 807, and orange (BBCH 809. The parameters evaluated in each stage were: soluble solids, titratable acidity, respiration, ethylene generation, and activity of the enzymes pectin methyl esterase (PME, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, polygalacturonase (PG, and cellulose, and the soluble solids:acidity ratio was calculated. The results show that ethylene concentration increased at the time of color break, which was not the case for the change in the respiratory rate. The activity of the peroxidase enzyme increased from the green stage to color break, while the enzymes PME, cellulase, and PG showed a constant reduction from the green to the orange stage, and PPO showed no change over the four stages studied. With regards to quality, from color break onwards soluble solids increased to 11.8 °Brix and titratable acidity dropped from 0.67 to 0.28 g L-1 malic acid. Based on these results, the conclusion is that towards the end of its development loquat cv. Golden Nugget evidence enzymatic and ethylene behavior similar to that of climacteric fruits.Existe controversia sobre el patrón respiratorio del níspero (Eriobotrya japonica [Thunb.] Lindl.. Con el fin de aportar información sobre este aspecto, frutos del cv. Golden Nugget entre 50-70 g, fueron cosechados en cuatro estadios de madurez; verde (BBCH 709, quiebre de color (BBCH 801, amarillo (BBCH 807, y anaranjado (BBCH 809. Los parámetros evaluados en cada estadio fueron: sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, relación sólidos solubles acidez, respiración, generación de etileno y la actividad de las enzimas pectin metil esterasa (PME, peroxidasa, polifenoloxidasa (PPO, poligalacturonasa

  10. Composición mineral y comparación de raíces reservantes de variedades de batatas (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. cultivadas en la isla de La Palma, España

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    Adriana Isabel Montes Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn y Mn fueron determinados, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, en raíces de 15 variedades de batatas cultivadas en La Palma (De papa o maní, Parado, Cubana, Cubana de baselo gordo, Cubana de hoja redonda, Blanquita, Saucero o Lanzarotero, Pata de Gallo, Padrón de Seda, Alicantina, Amarillo de Año, De Lanzarote, Matojo, Matojo Fino y Rajada; las 5 primeras de cultivo corto y las 10 restantes de cultivo largo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan a los datos de las variables estudiadas. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson (r para establecer grados de relación de los minerales entre las variedades; prueba de t de Student para comparar clasificando a las muestras según ciclo de recolección (Temprana y Tardía; análisis factorial para interpretar las relaciones existentes a través factores y análisis discriminantes (de paso a paso con criterio de selección la lambda de Wilks (λ e introduciendo todas las variables validados a través de análisis de validación cruzada. El elemento mineral (en mg/kg presente en mayor concentración en la totalidad de las muestras fue K (2086 ± 418, seguido de Ca (974 ± 486 y Mg (244 ± 70, siendo el Zn el menos presente (1,12 ± 0,61. Las variedades con mayor contenido mineral fueron Alicantina (Ca: 1809 ± 327 y Cu: 2,97 ± 0,23 y Padrón de Seda (Mg: 435 ± 46 y Mn: 3,08 ± 0,49 y la de menor aporte fue Parado (Cu, Mn, Ca, K y Mg. Las variedades Tardías presentaron mayores concentraciones de Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Mg y menores de Zn y Na en relación a las variedades Tempranas (p < 0,05. Se evidenció que las concentraciones de Cu, Zn y Na presentaron alto número de correlaciones significativas. El análisis factorial permitió deducir que Mg, K y Fe son las variables que permiten caracterizar el sistema perdiendo un mínimo de información total. El porcentaje de casos originales

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN TECNOLÓGICA DE LA MADERA DE Juniperus flaccida VAR. POBLANA MARTÍNEZ

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    A. Borja de la Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de conocer las características y propiedades tecnológicas de la madera de Juniperus flaccida var. poblana Martínez, para lo cual se utilizó la metodología del Laboratorio de Anatomía y Tecnología de la Madera de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Las propiedades físicas se determinaron según la norma NOM-EE-167-83 y las mecánicas de acuerdo a las normas ASTM 143-83 en el Campo Experimental San Martinito, del Instituto de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP. Los resultados con relación a las características anatómicas fueron los siguientes: la madera presenta un color castaño claro en el duramen y amarillo pálido en la albura, brillo medio, veteado suave, textura fina, hilo recto, sabor característico y olor aromático. Las traqueidas son largas, de diámetro tangencial mediano y paredes delgadas; presentan una hilera de puntuaciones areoladas seriadas, las puntuaciones de los campos de cruzamiento son tipo cupresoide y el parénquima axial es escaso. Los rayos de tipo uniseriados numerosos, muy bajos y muy angostos; los rayos y las células parenquimatosas axiales presentan aceites. La proporción de elementos fue 92 % de traqueidas, 7.72 de parénquima de rayo y 0.18 % de parénquima axial. La densidad básica fue de 0.50 g·cm-3, las contracciones totales fueron: volumétrica de 8.42 %, tangencial de 4.26 % y radial de 3.02 %; y los hinchamientos totales: volumétrico de 9.17 %, tangencial de 4.45 % y radial de 3.12 %. El punto de saturación de la fibra fue de 33 %; el coeficiente de hinchamiento 0.278 %, y la relación de anisotropía de 1.41. Los valores promedio de las propiedades mecánicas al 12 % de contenido de humedad (CH y en condición verde, se clasificaron de medios a bajos en ambas condiciones de contenido de humedad. Considerando las características anatómicas y los valores de las propiedades f

  12. ANÁLISIS DESCRIPTIVO DE LA RESPUESTA DEL COMPLEJO PULPO-DENTINAL DE ÓRGANOS DENTALES DE UNA POBLACIÓN PREHISPÁNICA CAZADORA-RECOLECTORA

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    María Clemencia Vargas Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El diente es de gran importancia cuando se trata de caracterizar individuos, poblaciones vivas o desaparecidas. Este componente es el que más resiste a la descomposición, debido a que al terminar su calcificación, el diente se conforma definitivamente y por tal razón no sufre ningún cambio. A excepción del desgaste mecánico o atrición y la acumulación de dentina secundaria. Objetivo: Deducir los posibles factores etiológicos que ocasionaron grandes desgastes dentales y condujeron a una rápida respuesta del complejo pulpo dentinal, en los individuos pertenecientes a una población prehispánica de cazadores-recolectores, del precerámico temprano y tardío cuya dieta era basada en alimentos fibrogénicos y abrasivos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal donde se tomaron 15 piezas dentales, pertenecientes a dos poblaciones cazadoras-recolectoras: Precerámico temprano (Chequa y Precerámico tardío (Aguazuque.  A estos dos grupos se tomaron las muestras para realizar un análisis clínico, radiográfico y microscópico. Resultados: Disminución evidente en el tamaño de la corona clínica dental, se observaron diferentes grados de desgaste dental con exposición dentinaria delimitado por esmalte en su circunferencia. La dentina expuesta por el desgaste dental presenta un color amarillo, las superficies oclusales e incisales se presentan lisas. Ninguna de las piezas dentarias presentó signos clínicos de caries. Respecto al examen radiográfico, los datos obtenidos confirmaron los hallazgos clínicos. Conclusiones: El desgaste dental es la característica clínica que más se presentó, posiblemente asociado al consumo de alimentos fibrosos y a la fuerza imprimida en la acción masticatoria, además es agravado por partículas abrasivas que se adherían a los alimentos, durante la maceración con elementos líticos. Las estructuras dentales más afectadas por el desgaste dental corresponden al esmalte y

  13. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

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    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    como oriunda del Brasil, es decir una especie enteramente tropical. 8. Dentro de los dípteros, las moscas del género Anastrepha se pueden clasificar como suborden Cyclorrapha, serie Schyzophora, sección Myodaria, subsección Acalyptratae, familia Trypetidae. 9. Las moscas Anastrephas cumplen su ciclo biológico al través de 4 estados metamorfósicos que ocurren así: imago en el ambiente aéreo, huevo y larva en la fruta y pupa en el suelo. En cada uno de los estados metamorfósicos, el insecto exhibe las características comunes de los dípteros. 10. Los huevos miden l , mm.; son de forma ovalada y ápices un tanto agudos, de color blancuzco ligeramente cremoso. La incubación demora de 4 a 7 días; el número de huevos por postura es de 3 y hasta l. La incubación de los huevos y la vida de la larva recién nacida son afectados por temperatura, humedad y determinados factores resultantes de la condición de madurez de la fruta. 11. Las larvas son vermiformes, puntiagudas en la cabeza, de color amarillo crema claro en tonalidades diversas hasta blanquecino o cremoso. No poseen patas; no tienen ojos ni antenas. Su tamaño y la duración del período larvario varían con la temperatura, la humedad, y diversas condiciones de la fruta en cuanto a cantidad de material parásito, acidez, estado de madurez, etc. El número de larvas puede ser de 1 a 3 por fruta y hasta cifras muy elevadas como 72, según la población de moscas y la clase de fruta. Las larvas adquieren su desarrollo completo entre tres estadios y dos "écdicis". 12. Las pupas son ovaladas como una barrilito; miden de 3 a 7 mm, de largo x 1 1⁄2 a 21⁄2 de ancho. Son de color castaño claro en tonalidades hasta el tabaco oscuro. La duración del período de pupa, así como diferentes hechos relacionados con el estado, sufren variaciones debidas a temperatura, humedad, acidez, soltura y textura del suelo, que es el medio donde normalmente ocurre el empupamiento. 13. El estado

  14. Motor tic disorder and traumatic cervical myelopathy: a case report Trastorno de tic motor y mielopatía cervical traumática: relato de caso Transtorno de tique motor e mielopatia cervical traumática: relato de caso

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    Ericson Sfredo

    2011-01-01

    C2-C3, degeneración al nivel de C3-C4, y ausencia de señales de compresión medular. En la visión sagital, la RM funcional con extensión de la cabeza reveló compresión anterior con protrusión del disco intervertebral, y compresión posterior de los ligamentos amarillos, causando estenosis medular. Se realizó discectomía anterior y fijación de C3-C4. No hubo complicaciones. El paciente presentó mejora y los tics motores fueron controlados por haloperidol. Luego de 2 años de acompañamiento, permanecía libre de los síntomas y tics motores. Tics motores no controlados pueden comprometer a la médula espinal. La resonancia magnética funcional puede reproducir los movimientos anormales y aclarar la patofisiología.A associação entre tiques motores e mielopatia cervical é rara e não é bem compreendida. Poucos estudos relatando esse distúrbio foram encontrados na literatura até o presente momento. Este é o relato de um caso de mielopatia cervical secundária a tiques motores. Paciente masculino de 23 anos com história de transtorno de tique motor há 10 anos, envolvendo extensão forçada da cabeça e coluna cervical. Deficiência de sensações táteis e postura cinética que progrediram para o sinal de Lhermitte, cada vez que ele se movimentava, foram diagnosticadas nos últimos seis meses. A Ressonância Magnética (RM revelou lesão intramedular hiperintensa ao nível de C2-C3, degeneração ao nível de C3-C4 e ausência de sinais de compressão medular. Na visão sagital, a RM funcional com extensão da cabeça revelou compressão anterior com protusão do disco intervertebral e compressão posterior dos ligamentos amarelos, causando estenose medular. Foi realizada discectomia anterior e fixação de C3-C4. Não houve complicações. O paciente apresentou melhora e os tiques motores foram controlados pelo haloperidol. Após dois anos de seguimento, ele permanece livre dos sintomas e tiques motores. Tiques motores não controlados podem

  15. Caracterización arqueométrica de pigmentos y soportes procedentes de pinturas murales góticas (S. XIII-XV

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    Kriznar, A.

    2007-04-01

    ípica para pintura italiana gótica: fresco buono sobre varias capas de mortero, con empleo de polvo de mármol para hacerlo más liso y blanco. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido caracterizar e identificar los morteros y pigmentos inorgánicos empleados y que son apropiados para pinturas murales. A título de ejemplo, se han empleado óxidos de hierro para amarillo, naranja, rojo y verde, pero no se ha encontrado malaquita ni existen indicios de compuestos de cobre para el color verde. En capas más antiguas se ha encontrado cinabrio para el color rojo, típico de Italia. Las pinturas fueron realizadas sin emplear otro aglutinante que la propia cal procedente del mortero. Estas características y el empleo de cinabrio, sitúan las pinturas del 1400-1410 en la corriente artística italiana del Trecento. La segunda manera es típica del norte de Europa: técnica de una o dos capas de mortero, con una capa fina de cal superpuesta para dar mayor fuerza a la cal del mortero como aglutinante. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados obtenidos en este estudio sobre los dos tipos de muestras estudiadas, se concluye que las corrientes italiana y norteeuropea se encontraron en territorio esloveno, lo que se aprecia tanto desde el punto de vista estilístico como científicamente. Investigaciones en esta temática ayudan a conocer mejor tanto el Arte de Europa Central y el de Eslovenia con la zona adriática, como el mapa general del Arte Europeo en el tiempo de la Edad Media.

  16. 3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (<10%). Three cores 20 mm in diameter have been obtained for each lithotype. Uniaxial compressive tests have been carried out in order to induce sample fracturing by a series of successive steps with application of a progressive normal stress. Crack propagation has been checked after each stress level application by microCT-RX following Hg impregnation of the sample (in a Hg porosimeter). Combination of both tests (microCT-RX and Hg porosimeter) guarantees a better characterization of small defects and their progressive propagation inside low-porous rocks than by employing solely microCT-RX (Fusi et al., 2009). Due to the reduced dimensions of sample holder (dilatometers) in porosimeter, cores have been cut with a non standard h/d = 1.5. Several cycles of: a) Hg

  17. Production of high quality castile soap from high rancid olive oil

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    Girgis, Adel Y.

    2003-09-01

    que el olor desagradable había desaparecido de la muestra de jabón nº 1 mientras que el de la muestra nº 2 mantenía un ligero olor a aceite. No se apreciaron diferencias notables entre las dos muestras en cuanto a las propiedades físicas ni químicas (apariencia, suavidad en la superficie, erosión al lavar las manos, humedad, ácidos grasos totales, alcalinidad y contenido en sal. En cambio el color del jabón nº 1 fue verde oscuro y el del jabón estándar fue amarillo pálido a blanco. El almacenamiento del jabón a temperatura ambiente en estantería durante 6 meses dio lugar a algunos cambios en sus propiedades en sus propiedades químicas y sus propiedades físicas mejoraron volviéndose sus estructuras más firmes, aumentó el volumen de espuma producido y disminuyó la razón de erosión en el lavado de manos. El color en la muestra nº 1 no mejoró y siguió siendo verde oscuro. De acuerdo con este estudio es, pues, recomendable el uso de aceite de oliva no comestible como una fuente no usual de ácidos grasos para la producción de jabón fino tipo ‘‘Castilla’’, lo que reduce sus costes de producción.

  18. Arco del milenio

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    Adell, Josep Mª

    2005-02-01

    the most significant stages in the erection of the Millennium Arch outside the Palacio de Congresos, venue for the 12th IBMAC.
    These pictures are divided into six chapters: Background, Components, Springline, Piers, Arch, Centring Erection and Removal, and Trimming.

    A lo largo de la historia, el Arco de fábrica ha sido el componente constructivo más característico de la Arquitectura y la Ingeniería desde que después de sus inicios etruscos en la época romana fuera desarrollado adelantándose con ello a la cultura helénica.
    El Arco, desde entonces, viene empleándose como una solución constructiva eficiente para cubrir espacios con materiales que no soportan tracciones. La originalidad técnica del Arco lo ha llevado a imponerse como símbolo de las hazañas bélicas como era el Arco de Triunfo.
    En el cambio de siglo y milenio en el que nos encontramos, un salto técnico fundamental se desvela en este Congreso, el Sistema de Albañilería Integral, que abre la posibilidad de ampliar el campo de aplicación de la albañilería con la incorporación del acero, a través de las perforaciones de las piezas, lográndose por fin armar en las tres direcciones del espacio cualquier muro de fábrica que se desee.
    El Arco del Milenio conmemoró el 12th IBMAC de Madrid, mostrando en él los avances técnicos que el Sistema de Albañilería Integral permite, al tratarse de un arco inclinado en el espacio y, por tanto, el primer arco de fábrica construido fuera de la vertical, mediante fábrica de Ladriflor aparejada a tizón, reforzada con barras y cercos.
    El Arco del Milenio, diseñado por J.M. Adell (Presidente del 12th IBMAC, parte de un cilindro de 14 m de diámetro, inclinado 30º sobre el terreno, y construido con fábrica de ladrillo de un pie de grueso, alternando una hilada de color amarillo de cada seis en rojo. El hueco deja un paso libre de 10 m de lado y 5,5 m de altura. La fábrica está armada regularmente por tendeles con cerchas cada

  19. Correlation between classification in risk categories and clinical aspects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriella Novelli; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-12-08

    idade 44,5 anos. Dor e dispneia foram os sintomas mais relatados e hipertensão arterial e diabetes mellitus foram as comorbidades. As categorias de classificação verde e amarela foram as mais frequentes, e a alta hospitalar foi o desfecho mais observado. Pacientes classificados na categoria vermelha apresentaram maior porcentual de procedência de ambulância, por motivos cirúrgicos. Os classificados nas categorias laranja e vermelha apresentaram maior porcentual de internação e óbito. a correlação entre os aspectos clínicos e desfechos permitiu inferir que existe uma relação entre a complexidade dos componentes estudados nas categorias de maior gravidade, evidenciado pelo maior porcentual de internação e óbito. correlacionar las categorías de clasificación de riesgo con perfil clínico, resultados y procedencia. estudio transversal analítico, realizado con 697 fichas de atención de pacientes adultos. Variables estudiadas: edad, sexo, procedencia, señales y síntomas, exámenes, antecedentes personales, categorías de la clasificación de riesgo, especialidad médica de atención y resultado. Para asociar las categorías de clasificación de riesgo con procedencia, señales y síntomas, exámenes, antecedentes personales, especialidad médica y resultado, se utilizaron el test chi-cuadrado y la razón de verosimilitud. pacientes del sexo femenino fueron la mayoría, con promedio de edad 44,5 años. El dolor y disnea fueron los síntomas más relatados e la hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus fueron las comorbilidades. Las categorías de clasificación verde y amarillo fueron las más frecuentes, y el alta hospitalaria fue el resultado más observado. Pacientes clasificados en la categoría roja presentaron mayor porcentaje de procedencia por ambulancia, por motivos quirúrgicos. Los clasificados en las categorías naranja y roja presentaron mayor porcentaje de internación y muerte. la correlación entre los aspectos clínicos y resultados

  20. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  1. BICENTENARIO DE LA INVENCIÓN DEL FONENDOSCOPIO (1916- 2016

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    Paula Ronderos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    EL SONIDO DEL ROCE DE LA PLEURA. A 200 AÑOS DEL ESTETOSCOPIO DE R. LAENNEC

    En el siglo XIX, la medicina osciló entre la carne y la idea, la camilla de autopsia y la cama del paciente. Por un lado, se sumergió en los datos de la evidencia empírica y fascinante de la carne muerta vista por la lente del ojo y luego por la del microscopio. Durante siglos, levantó un exhaustivo inventario (pensar en Morgagni y Vesalio de órganos, partes, nombres y densidades, alteraciones y colores. Se construyó la enciclopedia del interior del cuerpo humano con bellas ilustraciones, de partes, de tejidos, formas y lesiones anatómicas. Se desarrollan avances en la anatomía gruesa, de color y peso, de la descripción de las partes con formas similares al liquen, a la flor; en las lesiones anatómicas clasificadas por rasgos y huellas visibles en la autopsia; y las alteraciones, úlceras y apostemas.

    Por el lado de la vida, la medicina oscilaba hacia la cama del paciente: pálido, enjuto, con edema, pletórico; tosiendo, amarillo, con las venas reventadas o los ojos idos. La clínica asumió la idea de observar los signos físicos en el cuerpo que pueden ser leídos como indicadores de las dinámicas del organismo, un sistema de medidas para expresar los datos de la experiencia de los sentidos de la percepción: olor, color, tacto, gusto. En los hospitales-escuela, se combinaron sistemáticamente ambos procesos para establecer la correlación de lesión y signo. Posteriormente, la historia del saber y la historia de la enfermedad se unen en una tormenta perfecta: la tuberculosis, patologías de coliflor caseosa en el pulmón y pacientes con esputo y tos, costillas rotas. Con la observación atenta y el oscilar de la evidencia, se pudieron relacionar el estado patológico visible en la autopsia y los sonidos revelados en la auscultación. Sin embargo, para construir la correlación, era necesario clasificar los sonidos y

  2. Ontogenia de los estróbilos, desarrollo de los esporangios y esporogénesis de Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae en los Andes de Colombia

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    Edgar Javier Rincón Barón

    2011-12-01

    , los núcleos y nucléolos presentan fluorescencia roja, inducida por coloración con safranina O, mientras que los eláteres y las células de la pared del esporangio presentan autofluorescencia amarillo-naranja.Ontogeny of strobili, sporangia development and sporogenesis in Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae from the Colombian Andes. Studies on the ontogeny of the strobilus, sporangium and reproductive biology of this group of ferns are scarce. Here we describe the ontogeny of the strobilus and sporangia, and the process of sporogenesis using specimens of E. giganteum from Colombia collected along the Rio Frio, Distrito de Sevilla, Piedecuesta, Santander, at 2 200m altitude. The strobili in different stages of development were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned using a rotatory microtome and stained with the safranin O and fast green technique. Observations were made using differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC or Nomarski microscopy, an optical microscopy illumination technique that enhances the contrast in unstained, transparent. Strobili arise and begin to develop in the apical meristems of the main axis and lateral branches, with no significant differences in the ontogeny of strobili of one or other axis. Successive processes of cell division and differentiation lead to the growth of the strobilus and the formation of sporangiophores. These are formed by the scutellum, the manubrium or pedicel-like, basal part of the sporangiophore, and initial cells of sporangium, which differentiate to form the sporangium wall, the sporocytes and the tapetum. There is not formation of a characteristic arquesporium, as sporocytes quickly undergo meiosis originating tetrads of spores. The tapetum retains its histological integrity, but subsequently the cell walls break down and form a plasmodium that invades the sporangial cavity, partially surrounding the tetrads, and then the spores. Towards the end of the sporogenesis the tapetum disintegrates

  3. Estudio de la calidad del aceite de oliva virgen de la Denominación de Origen «Les Garrigues» (Lleida durante la campaña 1995/96

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    Motilva, Mª José

    1998-12-01

    ía del aceite producido en esta D.O. corresponde a la categoría de virgen extra y posee unas características organolépticas muy peculiares, derivadas del fruto de origen, la variedad «Arbequina» y de su cuidada elaboración. La aplicación en la zona de modemas técnicas de cultivo del olivo y las nuevas tecnologías de extracción del aceite, hacen necesario un estudio de su composición en campañas sucesivas, con el fin de determinar si la calidad se pudiera ver afectada. El presente trabajo se centra en la caracterización de los aceites producidos en la D.O. «Les Garrigues» durante la campaña 1995/96. Los aceites obtenidos presentan un grado de acidez medio de 0.17%, índice de peróxidos de 6.9 meq/kg de aceite y un K270 de 0.21, valores todos ellos dentro de los criterios de calidad que establece la Reglamentación de la D.O. El contenido medio de polifenoles totales en el aceite es de 152 ppm, observándose una gran variabilidad entre las almazaras muestreadas. La concentración de clorofilas va de 15 mg/kg de aceite, al inicio de campaña, a 6 mg/kg al final de la misma. La concentración de carotenoides se reduce paralelamente, pasando de 12.6 a 4.6 mg/kg de aceite, al final de campaña. El color, en base a la escala visual ABT y a las coordenadas CIELAB, se mantiene dentro de los tonos del amarillo y no presenta diferencias importantes entre aceites de principio y final de campaña.

  4. Colesterol e gorduras em alimentos brasileiros: implicações para a prevenção da aterosclerose Colesterol y grasas en alimentos brasileños: implicaciones en la prevención de la aterosclerosis Cholesterol and fats in Brazilian foods: implications for prevention of atherosclerosis

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    Carlos Scherr

    2009-03-01

    y colesterol, y no ofrecen informaciones sobre las diferentes formas de preparación. OBJETIVO:A partir de datos derivados de un extenso análisis de la composición química de alimentos brasileños, evaluamos el impacto de determinados tipos de alimentos en dietas recomendadas para la prevención de la enfermedad coronaria. MÉTODOS:Se analizaron la composición de ácidos grasos y colesterol de algunos alimentos y los diferentes modos de preparación. Los resultados se emplearon de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la American Heart Association para una dieta de 1.800 calorías. RESULTADOS: El colesterol encontrado en 100 g de huevos (400 mg o en el hígado bovino frito (453 mg supera lo recomendado para la prevención secundaria, sin diferencia en esta categoría entre un huevo de granja comercial o caseros. Los huevos presentaron un promedio de 400 mg de colesterol en 100 g, superando la recomendación de hasta 300 mg. Cada huevo tiene, en promedio, 50 g. Un huevo puede ser consumido, siempre que no se consuman más de 100 g de colesterol en ese día. Con relación a la grasa saturada, manteca (55,2 g, margarina (19,4 g, quesos tilsit (20,4 g, de sándwich (19,9 g, amarillo (16,8 g y blanco (15,5 g superan los 14 g recomendados si se consumen 100 g o más, lo mismo también vale para los aceites de soya (17,5 g y de maíz (16,1 g. CONCLUSIONES: Conocer mejor el contenido de grasas y colesterol en los alimentos permite describir cantidades que no superen los valores recomendados para prevención, lo que puede resultar en una mejor adhesión a las dietas.BACKGROUND: In order to perform food surveys and prescribe diets, food composition tables have to be consulted. However, these tables are limited to the description of fatty acids and cholesterol contents and do not provide information on the different preparation methods. OBJECTIVE: Based on data derived from an extensive analysis of the chemical composition of Brazilian foods, we assessed the impact of certain

  5. Embryonic and larval development of Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes: Gerreidae in Tenosique: Tabasco, Mexico

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    Raúl E Hernández

    2012-03-01

    ón, disminuyendo hacia el margen del pedúnculo caudal. Las características descriptivas de la etapa de desarrollo embrionario de E. mexicanus son típicas del período de desarrollo de los peces de la familia Gerreidae, en particular en el caso de las especies E. brasilianus y E. lineatus que habitan en ambientes marinos. Sin embargo, sus caracteres morfométricos son diferentes con respecto al diámetro y el tamaño de los huevos y de la gota de aceite, ya que en E. mexicanus son más grandes que los de las especies marinas y son similares a los de los peces de agua dulce. Con respecto a la pigmentación, la larva con saco de E. mexicanus presenta un olor olivo y amarillo sobre el margen del notocordio, lo cual difiere a lo reportado para E. lineatus,ya que en esta muestra un grupo de melanóforos entre los miomeros nueve al 13 como principal característica, y para Diapturus peruvianus por presentar tres manchas en el margen dorsal de los intestinos desde la inserción de la aleta pectoral hasta el ano. Los resultados de este estudio son los primeros registrados para esta especie y han generado información sobre aspectos de su biología reproductiva y el desarrollo de la vida temprana.

  6. Zheltozems of Russia: Micromorphology, clay minerals, and pedogenetic analysis Zheltozems de Rusia: micromorfología, minerales de la arcilla y análisis edafogenético Zheltozems da Russia: Micromorfología, Minerais de Argila e Análise Pedogenética

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    Maria Gerasimova

    2013-11-01

    material parental. Los rasgos comunes a todos los perfiles incluyen un horizonte Bw específico de textura gruesa, u horizonte metamórfico BM, con una serie de características micromorfológicas: una microestructura masiva con huecos planares finos que derivaban a poros biogénicos deformados, una masa basal mónica con escasos granos de limo a veces orientados y edaforrasgos impregnativos de óxidos de hierro. La fábrica-b se define como moteada, poro y granoestriada, y localmente (monoestriada debida a caras de presión. Los escasos revestimientos de arcilla son homogéneos y de color amarillo claro; y se observan pseudomorfos (alteroformos de arcilla y hierro sobre algunos granos del esqueleto. Muchas de estas propiedades están relacionadas con la composición de los minerales de la arcilla, que contienen cantidades variables de esmectitas (que aumentan en profundidad y esmectitas caoliníticas. La presencia de minerales expansibles contribuye a la desintegración de los revestimientos. Se observan remanentes de éstos en nódulos típicos de hierro-manganeso. De acuerdo con la clasificación WRB, este horizonte presenta características comunes a un horizonte cámbico y árgico, que no se tienen en cuenta en clasificación de suelos. Al haber estudiado tres Zheltozems diferentes en la misma zona, se proponen las siguientes génesis. La saprolita de uno de los perfiles está formada por fragmentos de argilitas calizas alteradas (subangulares y areniscas (angulares separadas por planos con rellenos. La micromasa en las argilitas está localmente desprovista de carbonatos, y algunos fragmentos tienen intercalaciones de hierro-manganeso de color oscurro pardo-rojizo, revestimientos externos de arcilla y cuasirevestimientos de hierro. Los rellenos contienen nódulos de carbonato finos y fragmentos de revestimientos de arcilla. La secuencia de suelos estudiados permite identificar el fenómeno de edafoplasmación descrito por Stoops y Schaefer (2010. Comienza con la

  7. Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning

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    Karen HARDIN

    2004-04-01

    experts. The students work with “real world” clients. I arrange for opportunities with CU faculty and area businesses to allow students to work with subject matter experts to create and upload websites for them. The students and the subject matter experts regularly comment how beneficial the project is. In his article titled, “What Makes a Good Online Course,” Lee R. Ally encourages similar activities. “Online learning should not exclude real-world doing.… The best Web [courses] provide a rich array of offline activities for the students to be come involved in ‘active learning.’” When introducing new concepts, avoid giving students step-by-step procedures. This is difficult in my field. Technology textbooks give students step-by-step instructions, thus causing reliance on the textbook. Instead, I prefer to give students overall direction, so that they can discover the procedures. When using an HTML editor, I give students an overview of the menus and instructions on how to get started, but each student must continue to discover options within the menu to successfully complete requirements of the project. Bill Dyer, who teaches Web-based Unix courses as an instructor at Amarillo College says he rarely gives a full answer to a course-specific question. “I’ll give pointers and keep the student on the right track, but I want the students to figure the problem out for themselves. In those cases where they just can’t get it, I may give them the answer straight out and promptly give them a new assignment” (Raths, June, 1999. This technique extends to answering students’ questions. Give students opportunities to respond to each other, rather than immediately answering all questions. I post a “student questions” discussion board. I don’t allow students to ask questions via email, they must post them in the discussion board. Students often answer each other’s questions before I do, but if the answer is mis-guided, I can re-direct with the correct response. Don

  8. La madurez del fruto y el secado del cáliz influyen en el comportamiento poscosecha de la uchuva, almacenada a 12 °C (Physalis peruviana L.

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    Novoa Rafael H.

    2006-06-01

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    Se estudio el comportamiento fisicoquímico y fisiologico del fruto de uchuva durante la poscosecha. El fruto se cosecho en los grados de madurez 4 (color verde amarrillo y 5 (amarillo, según norma 4850 de Icontec (Instituto de Normas Tecnicas y Certificacion, y se almaceno a 12 oC y 85% humedad relativa durante 30 d. Previamente, los calices se secaron a temperaturas de 18 o