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Sample records for amargosa valley nv

  1. COMPARISON OF NATURAL BACKGROUND DOSE RATES FOR RESIDENTS OF THE AMARGOSA VALLEY, NV, TO THOSE IN LEADVILLE, CO, AND THE STATES OF COLORADO AND NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Moeller and L. C. Sun

    2006-02-24

    In the latter half of 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published a Proposed Rule (40 CFR Part 197) for establishing a dose rate standard for limiting radionuclide releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the time period from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} years after closure. The proposed standard was based on the difference in the estimated total dose rate from natural background in the Amargosa Valley and the ''average annual background radiation'' for the State of Colorado. As defined by the USEPA, ''natural background radiation consists of external exposures from cosmic and terrestrial sources, and internal exposures from indoor exposures to naturally-occurring radon''. On the basis of its assessments, the USEPA estimated that the difference in the dose rate in the two identified areas was 3.5 mSv y{sup -1}. The purpose of this review was to provide an independent evaluation and review of this estimate. One of the first observations was that, because site-specific dose rate measurements for the Amargosa Valley ''were not available'', the dose rates for various sources of natural background in that area, used by the USEPA in its assessment, were based on modifications of the average values for the State of Nevada. A second observation was that the conversion factor applied in estimating the dose rates due to exposures to indoor radon and its decay products was a factor of 2 higher than the currently accepted value. Further review revealed that site-specific data for many natural background sources in the Amargosa Valley were available. One particularly important observation was that about 91% of the residents of that area live in mobile homes which, due to their construction and design, have indoor radon concentrations comparable to, or less than, those outdoors. For that reason, alone, the USEPA estimate of the average dose rate for

  2. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  3. 75 FR 63503 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium, Amargosa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... right-of-way on public lands to construct a concentrated solar thermal parabolic trough power plant... Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project,...

  4. Using GPS to Quantify Three Dimensional Storage and Aquifer Deformation in the Virgin River Valley, NV

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Sandra McCarthy

    2000-01-01

    The horizontal component of land subsidence is typically assumed to be negligible, although recently, theoretical simulations have shown that horizontal strain is significant. A field based investigation in Mesquite, NV, was undertaken from May to July, 2003, for the purpose of evaluating the significance of horizontal strain during an aquifer test. The hydraulic heads in the aquifer were monitored within a meter of the municipal pumping well used for the aquifer test and also at a distance...

  5. AshMeadowsAmargosaPupfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each...

  6. Identification of probable groundwater paths in the Amargosa Desert vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qudah, Omar, E-mail: omal@miners.utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Woocay, Arturo [Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Juarez, Ave. Tecnologico 1340, Ciudad Juarez, CHIH 32500 (Mexico)] [Environmental Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Walton, John [Environmental Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PHREEQC, PCFA and clustering determine groundwater chemical signatures and groups. {yields} Hydro-chemical signatures and groups denote surface runoff infiltration and flow-paths. {yields} Chemical signatures obtained at infiltration regions change slightly along flow-paths. {yields} Identified flow-paths are the traces of the Amargosa River and Forty mile Wash. {yields} A third possible flow-path is the trace of Gravity Fault, Rock Valley and Death Valley. - Abstract: In this study, the hydrogeochemical program PHREEQC was used to determine the chemical speciation and mineral saturation indices (SIs) of groundwater in the vicinity of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (USA). In turn, these data were used to interpret the origin and recharge mode of groundwater, to elucidate the mechanisms of flow and transport, and to determine potential sources of groundwater contamination. PHREEQC was run to determine aqueous dissolved species and minerals that would be in equilibrium with the study area's groundwater. Selected major ions, associated SI, F{sup -} and Ca/Na ion exchange were then examined using the multivariate statistical methods of principal component factor analysis and k-means cluster analysis. Analysis of dissolved ion concentrations, SIs, and Ca/Na ion exchange allows simultaneous consideration of arithmetic (raw concentrations) and logarithmic (SI, ion exchange) variables that describe the hydrochemical system and, therefore, can provide further insight into the system's behavior. The analysis indicates that the dominant processes and reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the system are (1) evaporative concentration prior to infiltration, (2) carbonate equilibrium, (3) silicate weathering reactions, (4) limited mixing with saline water, (5) dissolution/precipitation of calcite, dolomite and fluorite, and (6) ion exchange. Principal component factor analysis

  7. Identification of probable groundwater paths in the Amargosa Desert vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → PHREEQC, PCFA and clustering determine groundwater chemical signatures and groups. → Hydro-chemical signatures and groups denote surface runoff infiltration and flow-paths. → Chemical signatures obtained at infiltration regions change slightly along flow-paths. → Identified flow-paths are the traces of the Amargosa River and Forty mile Wash. → A third possible flow-path is the trace of Gravity Fault, Rock Valley and Death Valley. - Abstract: In this study, the hydrogeochemical program PHREEQC was used to determine the chemical speciation and mineral saturation indices (SIs) of groundwater in the vicinity of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (USA). In turn, these data were used to interpret the origin and recharge mode of groundwater, to elucidate the mechanisms of flow and transport, and to determine potential sources of groundwater contamination. PHREEQC was run to determine aqueous dissolved species and minerals that would be in equilibrium with the study area's groundwater. Selected major ions, associated SI, F- and Ca/Na ion exchange were then examined using the multivariate statistical methods of principal component factor analysis and k-means cluster analysis. Analysis of dissolved ion concentrations, SIs, and Ca/Na ion exchange allows simultaneous consideration of arithmetic (raw concentrations) and logarithmic (SI, ion exchange) variables that describe the hydrochemical system and, therefore, can provide further insight into the system's behavior. The analysis indicates that the dominant processes and reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the system are (1) evaporative concentration prior to infiltration, (2) carbonate equilibrium, (3) silicate weathering reactions, (4) limited mixing with saline water, (5) dissolution/precipitation of calcite, dolomite and fluorite, and (6) ion exchange. Principal component factor analysis and k-means cluster analysis of factor

  8. Neotectonics of the southern Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada and Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex pattern of active faults occurs in the southern Amargosa Desert, southern Nye, County, Nevada. These faults can be grouped into three main fault systems: (1) a NE-striking zone of faults that forms the southwest extension of the left-lateral Rock Valley fault zone, in the much larger Spotted Range-Mine Mountain structural zone, (2) a N-striking fault zone coinciding with a NNW-trending alignment of springs that is either a northward continuation of a fault along the west side of the Resting Spring Range or a N-striking branch fault of the Pahrump fault system, and (3) a NW-striking fault zone which is parallel to the Pahrump fault system, but is offset approximately 5 km with a left step in southern Ash Meadows. These three fault zones suggest extension is occurring in an E-W direction, which is compatible with the ∼N10W structural grain prevalent in the Death Valley extensional region to the west

  9. Aeromagnetic Survey of the Amargosa Desert, Nevada and California: A Tool for Understanding Near-Surface Geology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, David A.; Dixon, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Amargosa Desert and surrounding areas provides insights into the buried geology of this structurally complex region. The survey covers an area of approximately 7,700 km2 (2,970 mi2), extending from Beatty, Nevada, to south of Shoshone, California, and includes parts of the Nevada Test Site and Death Valley National Park. Aeromagnetic flight lines were oriented east-west, spaced 400 m (0.25 mi) apart, and flown at an altitude of 150 m (500 ft) above terrain, or as low as permitted by safety considerations. Characteristic magnetic anomalies occur over volcanic terranes, such as Yucca Mountain and the Greenwater Range, and over Proterozoic basement rocks, such as Bare Mountain and the Black Mountains. Linear magnetic anomalies caused by offsets of volcanic rocks permit detailed mapping of shallow faults in volcanic terranes. Of particular interest are subtle anomalies that overlie alluvial deposits at Devils Hole and Pahrump Valley. Alignments of springs along magnetic anomalies at these locales suggest that these anomalies are caused by faults that cut the alluvium, displace magnetic rocks at depth, and eventually influence ground-water flow. Linear magnetic anomalies over the Funeral Mountains appear to coincide with a prominent set of north-northeast-striking faults that cut the Precambrian Stirling Quartzite, rocks that are typically nonmagnetic. The position and orientation of these anomalies with respect to springs north of Furnace Creek suggest that the faults may act as conduits for the flow of water from the north into Death Valley, but the mineralogical cause of the anomalies is unknown.

  10. Biogeochemistry of a soil catena in the eastern Sierra Nevada Range, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized five pedons at Little Valley, NV, at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada. Developed largely from granite, the catena encompassed five pedons, which from high to low elev...

  11. Equity valuation : Koninklijke Ahold NV

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Bernardo Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation aims to value the Dutch retailer group, Koninklijke Ahold NV (Ahold), implementing the theory of equity valuation. An efficient combination between theory and practice should be implemented throughout the valuation in order to obtain the most accurate result that can be complied with reality. This paper starts to introduce which different frameworks are available, explaining afterwards, which are the most relevant for the valuation of the referred company. Ahold was v...

  12. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  13. Stimulated emission from NV centres in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Jeske, Jan; McGuinness, Liam P; Reineck, Philip; Johnson, Brett C; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Jelezko, Fedor; Volz, Thomas; Cole, Jared H; Gibson, Brant C; Greentree, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated emission is the process fundamental to laser operation, thereby producing coherent photon output. Despite negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) centres being discussed as a potential laser medium since the 1980's, there have been no definitive observations of stimulated emission from ensembles of NV$^-$ to date. Reasons for this lack of demonstration include the short excited state lifetime and the occurrence of photo-ionisation to the neutral charge state by light around the zero-phonon line. Here we show both theoretical and experimental evidence for stimulated emission from NV$^-$ states using light in the phonon-sidebands. Our system uses a continuous wave pump laser at 532 nm and a pulsed stimulating laser that is swept across the phononic sidebands of the NV$^-$. Optimal stimulated emission is demonstrated in the vicinity of the three-phonon line at 700 nm. Furthermore, we show the transition from stimulated emission to photoionisation as the stimulating laser wavelength is reduced fro...

  14. Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) working under an Interagency agreement with the Department of Energy is engaged in a broad geoscience program to assess and identify potential repositories for high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The USGS program, referred to as the Yucca Mountain Projects, or YMP, consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies which range in nature from site specific to regional. This report is an evaluation of different acquisition methods for future regional seismic reflection studies to be conducted in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, located in the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In January 1988, field studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the common-depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to map subsurface geological horizons within the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada. The goal of the field study was to investigate which seismic reflection method(s) should be used for mapping shallow to lower-crustal horizons. Therefore, a wide-variety of field acquisition parameters were tested, included point versus linear receiver group arrays; Vibroseis (service and trademark of Conoco, Inc.) versus explosive sources; Vibroseis array patterns; and Vibroseis sweep and frequency range. 31 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Estimation of groundwater velocities from Yucca Flat to the Amargosa Desert using geochemistry and environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical and isotopic data from groundwater sampling locations can be used to estimate groundwater flow velocities for independent comparison to velocities calculated by other methods. The objective of this study was to calculate groundwater flow velocities using geochemistry and environmental isotopes from the southern end of Yucca Flat to the Amargosa Desert, considering mixing of different groundwater inputs from sources each and southeast of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The approach used to accomplish the objective of this study consisted of five steps: (1) reviewing and selecting locations where carbon isotopic groundwater analyses, reliable ionic analysis, and well completion information are available; (2) calculating chemical speciation with the computer code WATEQ4F (Ball and Nordstrom, 1991) to determine the saturation state of mineral phases for each ground water location; (3) grouping wells into reasonable flowpaths and mixing scenarios from different groundwater sources; (4) using the computer code NETPATH (Plummer et al., 1991) to simulate mixing and the possible chemical reactions along the flowpath, and to calculate the changes in carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic ratios (δ13C) as a result of these reactions; and (5) using carbon-14 (14C) data to calculate velocity

  16. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... soil (growth media) stockpiles; powerline; water supply well; and exploration. The Buffalo Valley Mine... Buffalo Valley Mine Project, Lander and Humboldt Counties, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze and disclose impacts associated with the Buffalo Valley Mine Project,...

  17. 77 FR 7228 - Nevada Disaster #NV-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nevada Disaster NV-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...: 11/01/2012. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  18. 76 FR 77580 - Nevada Disaster #NV-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nevada Disaster NV-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Nevada dated 12/07/2011... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  19. Long-term vicarious calibration efforts of MERIS at Railroad Valley Valley Playa (NV) - and update

    OpenAIRE

    Kneubühler, Mathias; Schaepman, Michael E.; Thome, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The launch of ESA’s ENVISAT in March 2002 was followed by a commissioning phase for all ENVISAT instruments to verify the performance of the instruments and recommend possible adjustments of the calibration or the product algorithms before the data was widely distributed. Longterm activities to assess MERIS’ performance are ongoing. Several vicarious calibration (VC) experiments for MERIS were performed by the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, and the Remote Sensing Laboratories...

  20. Development of quantum device using the NV center of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-Vacancy center (NV center) can detect a single electron spin owned by a single defect which corresponds to a single molecule, and this electron spin retains quantum coherence for a long time under room temperature. It meets the requirements as quantum bit under room temperature. This paper describes the fabrication of quantum register through molecular ion implantation, and nanoscale MRI based on shallow NV center. For fabricating NV-NV pair as the first step for the fabrication of quantum register, the authors tried to supply 20 keV15N2+ molecular ions and atomic void to a 12C 99.998% concentrated CVD single crystal sample, and for this purpose implanted 20 keV12C+ ions and applied heat treatment. On the identified five 15NV-15NV pairs, two sets of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectra were observed, which gave the evidence of pairs. Of these pairs, on the pair with longer coherence time, its NV-NV distance was determined based on the free induction decay measurement of ODMR. To use a shallow NV center for the NMR detection of one molecule, it is the future target to improve the drawback that the coherence time (ca. 100 μs for dynamic decoupling) is shortened because a defect to have an unpaired electron on the diamond surface remains. (A.O.)

  1. Nevada Department of Wildlife Native Fish and Amphibians Field Trip Report: To estimate the population sizes of Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish and Ash Meadows speckled dace and also to monitor exotic species removal efforts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish population monitoring has been ongoing since the 1980s at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. This year we conducted surveys on the Ash Meadows Amargosa...

  2. Suitability of nanodiamond NV centers for spontaneous emission control experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mohtashami, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    NV centers in diamond are generally recognized as highly promising as indefinitely stable highly efficient single-photon sources. We report an experimental quantification of the brightness, radiative decay rate, nonradiative decay rate and quantum efficiency of single NV centers in diamond nanocrystals. Our experiments show that the commonly observed large spread in fluorescence decay rates of NV centers in nanodiamond is inconsistent with the common explanation of large nanophotonic mode-density variations in the ultra-small high-index crystals at near-unity quantum efficiency. We report that NV centers in 25 nm nanocrystals are essentially insensitive to local density of states (LDOS) variations that we induce at a dielectric interface by using liquids to vary the refractive index, and propose that quantum efficiencies in such nanocrystals are widely distributed between 0% and 20%. For single NV centers in larger 100 nm nanocrystals, we show that decay rate changes can be reversibly induced by nanomechanica...

  3. Towards magnetic imaging of neurons using NV diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John; Turner, Matthew; Glenn, David; Song, Yuyu; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field imaging based on optically detected magnetic resonances (ODMR) in NV diamond offers an unmatched combination of sensitivity, resolution and field-of-view. For certain biological applications NV diamond imaging is particularly useful; in contrast to traditional fluorescent markers, NV diamond imaging is label-free and does not suffer from bleaching. Additionally the solid-state nature of NV diamond imaging allows for various fast modulation techniques to be employed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we present progress towards creating an NV diamond imager with sensitivity and resolution appropriate for imaging neural activity within a living neural network. When integrating over our detector, we demonstrate a DC magnetic field sensitivity of better than 50 pT/Hz1/2, which we demonstrate is suitable for detecting the action potentials in invertebrate giants axons.

  4. Photonic Quantum Networks formed from NV(-) centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kae; Trupke, Michael; Devitt, Simon J; Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Buczak, Kathrin; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Munro, William J

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a simple repeater scheme based on the negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. Each repeater node is built from modules comprising an optical cavity containing a single NV(-), with one nuclear spin from (15)N as quantum memory. The module uses only deterministic processes and interactions to achieve high fidelity operations (>99%), and modules are connected by optical fiber. In the repeater node architecture, the processes between modules by photons can be in principle deterministic, however current limitations on optical components lead the processes to be probabilistic but heralded. Our resource-modest repeater architecture contains two modules at each node, and the repeater nodes are then connected by entangled photon pairs. We discuss the performance of such a quantum repeater network with modest resources and then incorporate more resource-intense strategies step by step. Our architecture should allow large-scale quantum information networks with existing or near future technology. PMID:27215433

  5. Radionuclide transport from yucca Mountain and Inter-basin Flow in Death Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodynamics and the U.S. Geological survey conducted studies to evaluate far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, of radionuclide into Inyo County from Yucca Mountain, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. The specific purpose of our research was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: 1. Establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin, 2. Characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and 3. Evaluate the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA. 4. Evaluate the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and Franklin Lake Playa. The hydraulic characterization of the LCA is of critical interest to Inyo County and the U.S. Department of Energy because: 1. The upward gradient in the LCA at Yucca Mountain provides a natural barrier to radionuclide transport, 2. The LCA is a necessary habitat resource for the endangered Devil's Hole pup fish, and 3. The LCA is the primary water supply and source of water to the major springs in Death Valley National Park. This paper presents the results of our study program to evaluate if inter-basin flow exists between the Amargosa and Death Valley Basins through the LCA. The study presents the results of our structural geology analysis of the Southern Funeral Mountain range, geochemical source analysis of spring waters in the region, and a numerical groundwater model to simulate inter-basin flow in the Southern Funeral Mountain range. (authors)

  6. 75 FR 71411 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Silverpeak, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Silverpeak, NV AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; dismissal. SUMMARY: The Audio Division dismisses the petition for...

  7. cDNA library Table: NV12 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NV12 NA NV12 NA ovary-derived cell-line NA NA pBluescript SK- EcoR1 for 5' Xho1for 3' sequenced from T3 prim...er (5' -> 3') AV399271-AV399916,BY916888-BY916920 NV12[number],NV12[number]X,NV12[number]X_1 BmN cultured cell, 12hr after infection of BmNPV ...

  8. Raman Excited Spin Coherences in N-V Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, P. R.; Turukhin, A. V.; Shahriar, M. S.; Musser, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Raman excited spin coherences were experimentally observed in N-V diamond color centers via nondegenerate four-wave mixing (NDFWM) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The maximal absorption suppression was found to be 17%, which corresponds to 70% of what is possible given the random geometric orientation of the N-V center in diamond. In the context of quantum computing in solids, this level of transparency represents the efficient preparation of quantum bits (qubits), as well...

  9. Soil CO2 Flux in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, during El Nino 1998 and La Nina 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Alan C.; Stannard, David I.; Maestas, Florentino B.; Karlinger, Michael R.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Mean annual soil CO2 fluxes from normally bare mineral soil in the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada, United States, measured with clear and opaque soil CO2-flux chambers (autochambers) were small - Nino 1998 and La Nina 1999. The 1998 opaque-chamber flux exceeded 1999 opaque-chamber flux by an order of magnitude, whereas the 1998 clear-chamber flux exceeded 1999 clear-chamber flux by less than a factor of two. These data suggest that above-normal soil moisture stimulated increased metabolic activity, but that much of the extra CO2 produced was recaptured by plants. Fluxes from warm moist soil were the largest sustained fluxes measured, and their hourly pattern is consistent with enhanced soil metabolic activity at some depth in the soil and photosynthetic uptake of a substantial portion of the CO2 released. Flux from cool moist soil was smaller than flux from warm moist soil. Flux from hot dry soil was intermediate between warm-moist and cool-moist fluxes, and clear-chamber flux was more than double the opaque-chamber flux, apparently due to a chamber artifact stemming from a thermally controlled CO2 reservoir near the soil surface. There was no demonstrable metabolic contribution to the very small flux from cool dry soil, which was dominated by diffusive up-flux of CO2 from the water table and temperature-controlled CO2-reservoir up- and down-fluxes. These flux patterns suggest that transfer of CO2 across the land surface is a complex process that is difficult to accurately measure.

  10. Systematics of Natural Perchlorate in Precipitation, Soils, and Plants at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Jackson, W. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Taylor, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Naturally occurring perchlorate is known to be associated with nitrate deposits of the hyperarid Atacama Desert in Chile, and recent large-scale sampling has identified a substantial reservoir (up to 1 kg/ha) of natural perchlorate in diverse unsaturated zones of the arid and semiarid Southwestern United States (Rao et al., 2007, ES&T, DOI: 10.1021/es062853i). The objective of the Amargosa Desert work is to develop a better understanding of the deposition, accumulation, and biological cycling of perchlorate in arid environments. Occurrence of perchlorate was evaluated by sampling shallow soil profiles up to 3 m in depth at four different locations and at two different time periods, and by sampling dominant plant species growing near the subsurface profiles. Deposition of perchlorate was evaluated by analyzing both bulk deposition (precipitation plus dry fall, collected under oil) collected on site and wet deposition samples collected by the National Atmospheric Deposition program at a nearby site. Soil samples and atmospheric-deposition samples were tested for both perchlorate (ClO4- ) and major anions. Perchlorate concentrations (0.2-20 µg/kg) were variable with depth in soil profiles and generally correlated most highly with chloride (Cl-) and nitrate (NO3-), although the intensity of these relations differed among profiles. Plant concentrations were generally above 1 mg/kg, suggesting ClO4- accumulation. Concentrations of ClO4- were generally much greater in total deposition than wet deposition samples, indicating a substantial dryfall component of meteoric deposition. This presentation will present the mass distribution and variability of perchlorate in bulk deposition, soils, and plants. Reasons for observed relations between subsurface concentrations of perchlorate and other anions will be explored.

  11. Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV- center single photon sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bulu, Irfan; Hausmann, Birgit; Choy, Jennifer T; Loncar, Marko

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel source of non-classical light consisting of plasmonic aperture with single-crystal diamond containing a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center. Theoretical calculations of optimal structures show that these devices can simultaneously enhance optical pumping by a factor of 7, spontaneous emission rates by Fp ~ 50 (Purcell factor), and offer collection efficiencies up to 40%. These excitation and collection enhancements occur over a broad range of wavelengths (~30nm), and are independently tunable with device geometry, across the excitation (~530nm) and emission (~600-800nm) spectrum of the NV center. Implementing this system with top-down techniques in bulk diamond crystals will provide a scalable architecture for a myriad of diamond NV center applications.

  12. Raman Excited Spin Coherences in N-V Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, P R; Shahriar, M S; Musser, J A

    2000-01-01

    Raman excited spin coherences were experimentally observed in N-V diamond color centers via nondegenerate four-wave mixing (NDFWM) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The maximal absorption suppression was found to be 17%, which corresponds to 70% of what is possible given the random geometric orientation of the N-V center in diamond. In the context of quantum computing in solids, this level of transparency represents the efficient preparation of quantum bits (qubits), as well as ability to perform arbitrary single qubit rotations.

  13. Dark states of single NV centers in diamond unraveled by single shot NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Waldherr, G.; Beck, J; Steiner, M; Neumann, P; Gali, A.; Frauenheim, Th.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is supposed to be a building block for quantum computing and nanometer scale metrology at ambient conditions. Therefore, precise knowledge of its quantum states is crucial. Here, we experimentally show that under usual operating conditions the NV exists in an equilibrium of two charge states (70% in the expected negative (NV-) and 30% in the neutral one (NV0)). Projective quantum non-demolition measurement of the nitrogen nuclear spin enables the de...

  14. cDNA library Table: NV02 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NV02 NA NV02 NA ovary-derived cell-line NA NA pBluescript SK- EcoR1 for 5' Xho1for 3' sequenced from T3 prim...er (5' -> 3') AV398029-AV398586 NV02[number] BmN cultured cell, 2hr after infection of BmNPV ...

  15. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at Mercury, NV (76 FR 56127). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  16. On the reliability of the nervous (Nv) nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Frigo, J.R.; Moore, K.R.

    1998-12-31

    This paper investigates the reliability of a particular class of neural networks, the Nervous Nets (Nv). This is the class of nonsymmetric ring oscillator networks of inverters coupled through variable delays. They have been successfully applied to controlling walking robots, while many other applications will shortly be mentioned. The authors will then explain the robustness of Nv nets in the sense of their highly reliable functioning--which has been observed through many experiments. For doing that the authors will show that although the Nv net has an exponential number of periodic points, only a small (still exponential) part are stable, while all the others are saddle points. The ratio between the number of stable and periodic points quickly vanishes to zero as the number of nodes is increased, as opposed to classical finite state machines--where this ratio is relatively constant. These show that the Nv net will always converge quickly to a stable oscillatory state--a fact not true in general for finite state machines.

  17. WWER-1000 simulator instructor service in NV TC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1996 a full-scope simulator developed by the joint efforts of ATOMTECHENERGO, VNII AES (Russia) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (Japan) was put into service Novovoronezh Training Centre (NV TC). this paper describes the Instructor Station equipment and its capabilities for training process monitoring and simulation. (author)

  18. Biometrical analysis in radiobiological works of N.V. Luchnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the famous Russian geneticist and biophysics N.V. Luchnik into biometrical analysis of radiobiological data is discussed. His works on radiation mortality of mice (2) and the process of post-radiation repair of chromosome aberrations (10) are thoroughly observed. The conclusion of necessity to develop biometrical analysis as separate part of biometry is made

  19. 78 FR 22414 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Reno, NV (78 FR 5153). Interested parties were invited to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  20. 78 FR 26066 - Filing of Plats of Survey; NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10:00 a.m. on the...] Filing of Plats of Survey; NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The.... The Plat of Survey of the following described lands was officially filed at the Bureau of...

  1. 78 FR 10209 - Filing of Plats of Survey; NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10:00 a.m. on the...] Filing of Plats of Survey; NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The... needs of the Bureau of Land Management. 3. The Plat of Survey of the following described lands...

  2. 78 FR 40765 - Filing of Plats of Survey; NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... filing of Plats of Survey in Nevada. DATES: Effective Dates: Filing is effective at 10:00 a.m. on the...] Filing of Plats of Survey; NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... of the BLM. 2. The Plat of Survey of the following described lands was officially filed at the...

  3. N&V superkasum kuivas kokku / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 27. aug., lk. 3. Ida-Viru omavalitsust teede hooldamisega teenindanud, superkasumiga üle Eesti kuulsust kogunud AS N&V pidi mullu leppima viimaste aastate kõige kõhnema kasuminumbriga - 9,5 miljonit krooni

  4. PECULIARITIES OF CINEMATIC CREATIVITY OF N.V. GOGOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the particular manifestations of the movies in the Little Russian novels and works of St. Petersburg period of N.V. Gogol. Visuality, editor’s taste and changing of scenes are a manifestation of the creative manner of Gogol throughout the creative life, but we will focus on only two periods of his work

  5. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.J.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  6. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Kyu Choi

    Full Text Available The nonvirion (NV protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP, a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the (32EGDL(35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the (32EGDL(35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.. While treatment with poly I∶C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I∶C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of (32EGDL(35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  7. Diamond NV centers for quantum computing and quantum networks

    OpenAIRE

    Childress, Lilian; Hanson, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The exotic features of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information technologies. Using superposition and entanglement, a quantum processor could efficiently tackle problems inaccessible to current-day computers. Nonlocal correlations may be exploited for intrinsically secure communication across the globe. Finding and controlling a physical system suitable for fulfi lling these promises is one of the greatest challenges of our time. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in di...

  8. Ocenění Fortuna Entartainment Group NV

    OpenAIRE

    Lernerová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the valuation of the Fortuna Entertainment Group NV, which is leader in sports betting market in central Europe. Analyzing, describing and predicting methods are used for determination the adequate corporate value. The master´s thesis defines theoretical framework, which is a starting point for finding the value of the company. The basic used methods include PESTLE analysis describing factors, which affects Fortuna externally, Porter´s five forces analysis characterizin...

  9. Long-term vicarious calibration efforts of MERIS at railroad valley playa (NV) - An update

    OpenAIRE

    Kneubühler, Mathias; Schaepman, Michael E.; Thome, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The launch of ESA’s ENVISAT in March 2002 was followed by a commissioning phase for all ENVISAT instruments to verify the performance of the instruments and recommend possible adjustments of the calibration or the product algorithms before the data was widely distributed. Long-term activities to assess MERIS’ performance are ongoing. Several vicarious calibration (VC) experiments for MERIS were performed by the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, and the Remote Sensing Laboratorie...

  10. Wonder Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, William

    2013-01-01

    You might have passed through here, maybe. Thought you'd stick to the blue roads, hit the casinos of Vegas by the back way. As you blew through this nowhere corner of the Mojave Desert you might have noticed the rat-trap shacks rotting into the sparse hardscrabble of greasewood scrub. And you'd have thought, "What the hell is this place?" Wonder Valley. Out here, thousands of dilapidated cabins crumble into the desert, each one 12 by 20, an outhouse out back. They sit on a grid of five acre p...

  11. Electronic Properties and Metrology Applications of the Diamond NV- Center under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Marcus W.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Simpson, David A.; McGuinness, Liam P.; Meng, Yufei; Stacey, Alastair; Karle, Timothy J.; Hemley, Russell J.; Manson, Neil B.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Prawer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) center in diamond has realized new frontiers in quantum technology. Here, the optical and spin resonances of the NV- center are observed under hydrostatic pressures up to 60 GPa. Our results motivate powerful new techniques to measure pressure and image high-pressure magnetic and electric phenomena. Additionally, molecular orbital analysis and semiclassical calculations provide insight into the effects of compression on the electronic orbitals of the NV- center.

  12. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability

  13. Seismic design considerations for active faulting at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the seismic hazard concerns at Yucca Mountain, NV that implicitly results from near field vibratory ground motion, fault displacement within the proposed repository block and the complexity that these two issues add to the siting and licensing process. Three major zones or belts of contemporary regional seismicity intersect in the Yucca Mountain, NV area, the proposed site for the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository. Within a 1,000 sq. km area of the Yucca Mountain site, there are 32 known faults with demonstrated or suggested Quaternary displacements. Holocene displacement is evident on three of the faults. The maximum magnitude earthquake for the site is estimated to be somewhere between M 6.5--7.0. Free field peak ground acceleration from a maximum magnitude earthquake is estimated to range from 0.4--1.0 g. The maximum magnitude earthquake and resultant acceleration from movement on surface faults within the proposed repository block or on buried faults beneath the site without clear surface expression are estimated to be in the same range or larger. Due to the paucity of historical strong motion data recorded for near field earthquakes, estimate of potential ground motion and fault displacement effects within the repository block are extremely speculative

  14. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  15. 76 FR 35371 - Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Las Vegas, NV, Class B... 25, 2011, will be held at Shadow Ridge High School, 5050 Brent Lane, Las Vegas, NV 89131....

  16. Probability of detection using ShipIR/NV-IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitekunas, David A.; Holst, Gerald C.; Ramaswamy, Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Existing FLIR detection models such as NVThermIP and NV-IPM, from the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), use only basic inputs to describe the target and background (area of the target, average and RMS temperatures of both the target and background). The objective of this work is to try and bridge the gap between more sophisticated FLIR detection models (of the sensor) and high-fidelity signature models, such as the NATO-Standard ShipIR model. A custom API is developed to load an existing ShipIR scenario model and perform the analysis from any user-specified range, altitude, and attack angle. The analysis consists of computing the total area of the target (m2), the average and RMS variation in target source temperature, and the average and RMS variation in the apparent temperature of the background. These results are then fed into the associated sensor model in NV-IPM to determine its probability of detection (versus range). Since ShipIR computes and attenuates the spectral source radiance at every pixel, the black body source and apparent temperatures are easily obtained for each point using numerical iteration (on temperature), using the spectral attenuation and path emissions from MODTRAN (already used by ShipIR to predict the apparent target and background radiance). In addition to performing the above calculations on the whole target area, a variable threshold and clustering algorithm is used to analyse whether a sub-area of the target, with a higher contrast signature but smaller size, is more likely to be detected. The methods and results from this analysis should provide the basis for a more formal interface between the two models.

  17. Nanoimplantation and Purcell enhancement of single NV centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Meijer, Jan; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M; Becher, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present the controlled creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers via ion implantation at the center of a photonic crystal cavity which is fabricated in an ultrapure, single crystal diamond membrane. High-resolution placement of NV centers is achieved using collimation of a 5keV-nitrogen ion beam through a pierced tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate coupling of the implanted NV centers' broad band fluorescence to a cavity mode and observe Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission. The results are in good agreement with a master equation model for the cavity coupling.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance of external protons using continuous dynamical decoupling with shallow NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Casas, Charles; Ohno, Kenichi; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-03-01

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a paramagnetic defect with excellent spin properties that can reside within a few nanometers of the diamond surface, enabling atomic-scale magnetic resonance sensing of external nuclear spins. Here we use rotating frame longitudinal spin relaxation (T1ρ) based sensing schemes, known as Continuous Dynamical Decoupling (CDD), to detect external nuclear spins with shallow NV centers (Tesla. The increased sensitivity of this method relative to pulsed dynamical decoupling techniques demonstrates the benefits of CDD for sensing with very shallow NV centers. This work was supported by DARPA, AFOSR, and the DIAMANT program.

  19. Enhanced emission extraction and selective readout of NV centers with all-dielectric nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnok, Alexander E; Chigrin, Dmitry N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to facilitate a readout processes of isolated negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers based on the concept of all-dielectric nanoantennas. We reveal that all-dielectric nanoantenna can significantly enhance both the emission rate and emission extraction efficiency of a photoluminescence signal from a single NV center in a diamond nanoparticle placed on a dielectric substrate. We prove that the proposed approach provides high directivity, large Purcell factor, and efficient beam steering, thus allowing an efficient far-field initialization and readout of several NV centers separated by subwavelength distances.

  20. Direct optical interfacing of CVD diamond for deported NV-based sensing experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond is a very promising tool for numerous sensing applications like magnetometry or thermometry. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact and convenient device for magnetic field imaging where a commercial single mode photonic crystal fibre is directly coupled to a commercial CVD ppm diamond. We managed to excite and detect efficiently the luminescence from an ensemble of NV centres and also to perform Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) experiments where the NV hyperfine structure is perfectly resolved under continuous excitation and measurement.

  1. Carbon and Isotopic Mass Balance Models of Oasis Valley-Fortymile Canyon Groundwater Basin, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Art F.; Chuma, Nancy J.

    1987-04-01

    Environmental isotopes and carbon chemistry provide means of differentiating various recharge areas, flow paths, and ages of groundwater in portions of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Regional δD/δ18O trends are offset from the present-day meteoric line by a deuterium depletion of 5‰, suggesting paleoclimatic changes. Partial pressures of CO2 and the 18O and 13C data indicate solubility and isotopic equilibrium between the gas and water in the soil zone with progressive exchange with underlying groundwater in the shallow alluvium of Oasis Valley. Application of a closed system CO2 model using the EQ3NR/EQ6 reaction path simulator successfully reproduces chemical compositions observed in the alluvium in the Amargosa Desert and in the deep tuff aquifer beneath Pahute Mesa and Yucca Mountain. Initial PCO2 input to the soil zone during recharge was calculated to range from 0.03 to 0.10 atm, which is comparable to measured soil CO2 pressures in Oasis Valley. Results are compared for 14C ages using the δ13C dilution correction and a mass action correction term relating predicted and calculated ionic activity products of CaCO3. Results are generally comparable with discrepancies attributed to anomalous δ13C values.

  2. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  3. Development of an NV-diamond magnetometer for application in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Turner, Matthew; Glenn, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field imaging based on optically detected magnetic resonances (ODMR) in NV-diamond offers an unmatched combination of sensitivity, resolution and field-of-view. For certain biological applications NV-diamond imaging is particularly useful; in contrast to traditional fluorescent markers, NV-diamond imaging is label-free and does not suffer from bleaching. In addition, the solid-state nature of NV-diamond imaging allows for various fast modulation techniques to be employed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we present results demonstrating the magnetic detection of action potentials from single neurons in multiple types of invertebrate organisms. Furthermore, we lay out a path forward for imaging of the magnetic field associated with neuronal activity with the goal of application to mammalian neurons.

  4. Excited-state spectroscopy of single NV defects in diamond using optically detected magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pulsed optically detected magnetic resonance techniques, we directly probe electron-spin resonance transitions in the excited-state of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond. Unambiguous assignment of excited state fine structure is made, based on changes of NV defect photoluminescence lifetime. This study provides significant insight into the structure of the emitting 3E excited state, which is invaluable for the development of diamond-based quantum information processing.

  5. Suppression of electron spin decoherence of the diamond NV center by a transverse magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Chang S.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Butler, Mark C.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Seltzer, Scott J.; Liu, Ren-Bao; Pines, Alexander; Bajaj, Vikram S.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the spin decoherence of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond can be suppressed by a transverse magnetic field if the electron spin bath is the primary decoherence source. The NV spin coherence, created in "a decoherence-free subspace" is protected by the transverse component of the zero-field splitting, increasing the spin-coherence time about twofold. The decoherence due to the electron spin bath is also suppressed at magnetic fields stronger than ~25 gauss when appli...

  6. Coupling of single NV Center to adiabatically tapered optical single mode fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Vadim V; Bolshedvorskii, Stepan V; Javadzade, Javid; Lebedev, Nikolay; Smolyaninov, Andrey N; Sorokin, Vadim N; Akimov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a simple and reliable technique of coupling diamond nanocrystal containing NV center to tapered optical fiber. We carefully studied fluorescence of the fiber itself and were able to suppress it to the level lower than single photon emission from the NV center. Single photon statistics was demonstrated at the fiber end as well as up to 3 times improvement in collection efficiency with respect to our confocal microscope

  7. Vraagstukken rond (terug)storting op NV/BV aandelen en van coöperatierecht.

    OpenAIRE

    Kemperink, J.B.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Three subjects concerning the NV/BV as a legal entity and four matters concerning the co-operative as a legal entity. In the first three chapters I examine three subjects related to the accumulation and reduction of capital in public and private limited liability companies under Dutch law (in Dutch NV and BV respectively) against the background of the concepts of 'shareholders' equity' and 'allotted capital'. ... Zie: Summary

  8. Spatially resolved detection of complex ferromagnetic dynamics using optically detected NV spins

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Chris. S.; Manuilov, Sergei. A.; Purser, Carola. M.; Teeling-Smith, Richelle; Dubs, Carsten.; Hammel, P. Chris; Bhallamudi, Vidya Praveen

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical detection of a broad spectrum of ferromagnetic excitations using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in an ensemble of nanodiamonds. Our recently developed approach exploits a straightforward CW detection scheme using readily available diamond detectors, making it easily implementable. The NV center is a local detector, giving the technique spatial resolution, which here is defined by our laser spot, but in principle can be extended far into the nanoscale. Among the excitatio...

  9. Towards a highly efficient quantum spin-photon interface for an NV centre based quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovic, Stefan; Bonato, Cristian; van Dam, Suzanne; Reiserer, Andreas; Zwerver, Anne-Marije; Hanson, Ronald; Quantum Transport Team

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond recently emerged as promising candidates for realizing quantum information algorithms due to their remarkable versatility. The spin of these optically active defects can be entangled with their emitted photons, making them an excellent optical interface from the perspective of quantum communication.Recently, we have demonstrated the first building blocks of such networks, performing kilometer scale entanglement of two NV centers and teleportation of quantum information.(1) However, our current protocols are inefficient due to the low emission of NV center's resonant photons into the zero phonon line (ZPL).Here we present our efforts of coupling a single NV center emitter in a diamond membrane to a fiber-based Fabry-Perot microcavity with high finesse (F >104) at cryogenic temperatures. This approach allows spectral tuning of the cavity resonance to the ZPL emission of the NV center, thereby significantly enhancing the resonant photon emission via Purcell effect. Furthermore, the bulk environment of the NV centers protects their spin properties against surface proximity effects, which is of crucial importance for quantum information processing applications. (1) B.Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682 (2015)

  10. Long-wavelength infrared hyperspectral data "mining" at Cuprite, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Robert; Adler-Golden, Steven; Conforti, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In recent years long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery has significantly improved in quality and become much more widely available, sparking interest in a variety of applications involving remote sensing of surface composition. This in turn has motivated the development and study of LWIR-focused algorithms for atmospheric retrieval, temperature-emissivity separation (TES) and material detection and identification. In this paper we evaluate some LWIR algorithms for atmospheric retrieval, TES, endmember-finding and rare material detection for their utility in characterizing mineral composition in SEBASS hyperspectral imagery taken near Cuprite, NV. Atmospheric correction results using the In-Scene Atmospheric Correction (ISAC) method are compared with those from the first-principles, MODTRAN©-based FLAASH-IR method. Covariance-whitened endmember-finding methods are observed to be sensitive to image artifacts. However, with clean data and all-natural terrain they can automatically locate and distinguish many minor mineral components, with especially high sensitivity to varieties of calcite. Not surprisingly, the major scene materials, including silicates, are best located using unwhitened techniques. Minerals that we identified in the data include calcite, quartz, alunite and (tentatively) kaolinite.

  11. NV/YMP radiological control manual, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gile, A.L. [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the adjacent Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) are located in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS has been the primary location for testing nuclear explosives in the continental US since 1951. Current activities include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for US defense-generated waste, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, and non-nuclear test operations such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center (HSC). Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of low-level nuclear waste and the handling of radioactive sources. Planned future remediation of contaminated land areas may also result in radiological exposures. The NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual, Revision 2, represents DOE-accepted guidelines and best practices for implementing Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain Project Radiation Protection Programs in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. These programs provide protection for approximately 3,000 employees and visitors annually and include coverage for the on-site activities for both personnel and the environment. The personnel protection effort includes a DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program accredited dosimetry and personnel bioassay programs including in-vivo counting, routine workplace air sampling, personnel monitoring, and programmatic and job-specific As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations.

  12. NV/YMP radiological control manual, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the adjacent Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) are located in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS has been the primary location for testing nuclear explosives in the continental US since 1951. Current activities include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for US defense-generated waste, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, and non-nuclear test operations such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center (HSC). Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of low-level nuclear waste and the handling of radioactive sources. Planned future remediation of contaminated land areas may also result in radiological exposures. The NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual, Revision 2, represents DOE-accepted guidelines and best practices for implementing Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain Project Radiation Protection Programs in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. These programs provide protection for approximately 3,000 employees and visitors annually and include coverage for the on-site activities for both personnel and the environment. The personnel protection effort includes a DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program accredited dosimetry and personnel bioassay programs including in-vivo counting, routine workplace air sampling, personnel monitoring, and programmatic and job-specific As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations

  13. Lake Tahoe Ca-Nv USA to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.; Coats, R. N.

    2011-12-01

    Observational studies indicate that climate at Lake Tahoe (CA-NV) basin is changing at faster rate. The impact of climate change on the lake was investigated using a suite of models and bias-corrected downscaled climate dataset generated from global circulation models. Our results indicate an increase of air temperature, a shift of snow to rainfall, a decrease of wind speed, and an onset of earlier snowmelt during the 21st Century. Combined, these changes could affect lake dynamics, ecosystems, water supply, and the winter recreational sport industry. The lake may fail to mix completely by the middle of this Century due to lake warming. Under this condition bottom dissolved oxygen would not be replenished leading to the significant release of bio-stimulatory ammonium-nitrogen and soluble phosphorus from the sediment. Both these nutrients are known to cause increased algal growth in the lake and would likely result in major changes to the lake's water quality and food web. Lake warming also increases water loss through evaporation, resulting in less available water for downstream domestic supply, agriculture, and recreation. Population growth and increased human demand for water will compound severity of problems in water quantity and quality. Thus, watershed planning and management should assess vulnerability to climatic variations through the application of basin-wide hydro-climatology, watershed soils, and lake response models to (1) improve drought, flood, and forest-fire forecasting, (2) assess hydrological trends, (3) estimate the potential effects of climate change on surface runoff and pollutant loads, and (4) evaluate response from various adaptation strategies.

  14. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  15. Comparison of flood hazard assessments on desert piedmonts and playas: A case study in Ivanpah Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Colin R.; Buck, Brenda J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Morton, Janice L.; House, P. Kyle; Howell, Michael S.; Yonovitz, Maureen L.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate and realistic characterizations of flood hazards on desert piedmonts and playas are increasingly important given the rapid urbanization of arid regions. Flood behavior in arid fluvial systems differs greatly from that of the perennial rivers upon which most conventional flood hazard assessment methods are based. Additionally, hazard assessments may vary widely between studies or even contradict other maps. This study's chief objective was to compare and evaluate landscape interpretation and hazard assessment between types of maps depicting assessments of flood risk in Ivanpah Valley, NV, as a case study. As a secondary goal, we explain likely causes of discrepancy between data sets to ameliorate confusion for map users. Four maps, including three different flood hazard assessments of Ivanpah Valley, NV, were compared: (i) a regulatory map prepared by FEMA, (ii) a soil survey map prepared by NRCS, (iii) a surficial geologic map, and (iv) a flood hazard map derived from the surficial geologic map, both of which were prepared by NBMG. GIS comparisons revealed that only 3.4% (33.9 km 2) of Ivanpah Valley was found to lie within a FEMA floodplain, while the geologic flood hazard map indicated that ~ 44% of Ivanpah Valley runs some risk of flooding (Fig. 2D). Due to differences in mapping methodology and scale, NRCS data could not be quantitatively compared, and other comparisons were complicated by differences in flood hazard class criteria and terminology between maps. Owing to its scale and scope of attribute data, the surficial geologic map provides the most useful information on flood hazards for land-use planning. This research has implications for future soil geomorphic mapping and flood risk mitigation on desert piedmonts and playas. The Ivanpah Valley study area also includes the location of a planned new international airport, thus this study has immediate implications for urban development and land-use planning near Las Vegas, NV.

  16. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  17. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  18. Optical $\\Lambda$ transitions and quantum computing in the $^{15}$N-V$^{-}$ Center in Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    We present a thorough derivation of the excited state energy levels of the negatively charged $^{15}$N-V$^{-}$ center in diamond for the strong applied electric field case. We show that in the $^{15}$N-V$^{-}$ center a spin non-conserving two-photon $\\Lambda$ transition exists that is mediated by the hyperfine interaction, which provides the possibility to write quantum information. Using second order perturbation theory we obtain a $\\Lambda$ transition rate of the order of 10 MHz at room tem...

  19. Henkilöstön sitoutuminen kiinteistönvälitysalalla

    OpenAIRE

    Haapanen, Kati

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tutkimusongelmana oli tutkia, miten sitoutuneita työntekijät ovat kiinteistönvälitysalalla. Alatutkimuskysymyksien avulla tarkoituksena oli selvittää, mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat erityisesti alaan ja työnantajaan sitoutumiseen. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tuottaa tietoa alan toimijoille siitä, mihin asioihin vaikuttamalla voidaan parantaa ja lisätä työntekijöiden sitoutumista kiinteistönvälitysalalla. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuus koostuu kahdesta sitoutumisen teoriasta sekä sito...

  20. 77 FR 59374 - Foreign-Trade Zone 126-Reno, NV, Withdrawal of Production Notification, Brightpoint North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... of the notification was given on May 16, 2012 (77 FR 28851). The case has been closed without... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 126--Reno, NV, Withdrawal of Production Notification, Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution), Reno, NV Notice is hereby given of...

  1. 77 FR 14000 - Foreign-Trade Zone 126-Reno, NV; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 126--Reno, NV; Application for Temporary/ Interim Manufacturing Authority, Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution), Reno, NV An... in Reno, Nevada. The application was filed on March 2, 2012. The Brightpoint facility (80...

  2. 77 FR 28851 - Foreign-Trade Zone 126-Reno, NV; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Brightpoint North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 126--Reno, NV; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Reno, NV The Economic Development... behalf of Brightpoint North America L.P (Brightpoint), located in Reno, Nevada. The Brightpoint...

  3. Blitzen Valley Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 64,000 acre Blitzen Valley unit of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is not producing enough wildlife to meet the refuge's migratory bird objectives. The area...

  4. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  5. 75 FR 66779 - Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Elko and White Pine Counties, NV; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Elko and White Pine Counties, NV... to prepare a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Ruby... methods. E-mail: fw8plancomments@fws.gov . Include ``Ruby Lake CCP'' in the subject line of the...

  6. 78 FR 2200 - Establishment of VOR Federal Airway V-629; Las Vegas, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ..., NV. (77 FR 54859). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p.389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  7. 78 FR 58159 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Mountain, NV (78 FR 41335). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  8. 78 FR 68699 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... establishing Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VORTAC navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV (78 FR 58159... heading, as published in the Federal Register on September 23, 2013 (78 FR 58159), Airspace Docket No. 13- AWP-9, FR Doc. 2013-58159, is corrected as follows: On page 58160, column 1, line 2, remove...

  9. 75 FR 12975 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... additional controlled airspace at Battle Mountain, NV (74 FR 67143). Interested parties were invited to... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  10. 78 FR 5153 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV...

  11. 75 FR 14625 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... to do so. Any adverse comments on the proposed classification, lease or conveyance will be reviewed...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV AGENCY... filed a Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease or conveyance of approximately...

  12. 75 FR 35085 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Elko County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... classification and lease and/or conveyance under the provisions of the R&PP Act, as amended, (43 U.S.C. 869 et...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Elko County, NV... Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease and/or conveyance of approximately 807.5 acres of...

  13. 75 FR 14626 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... proposed classification, lease or conveyance will be reviewed by the BLM Nevada State Director, who may...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV AGENCY... filed a Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease or conveyance of approximately...

  14. N.V. Voronovich historical portrait: from childhood to military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Solopy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nikolay V. Voronovich is an outstanding historical figure of Russian revolution and Civil War. During his lifetime, he was the leader of Green Movement within Black Sea Region, Third Force ideologist, opposing both the Red and the White and memorialist. These are only several examples of N.V. Voronovich activities.

  15. 76 FR 56127 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV...

  16. 78 FR 21849 - Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...

  17. Narva teid ja tänavaid hakkab hooldama N&V / Irina Tokareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tokareva, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 24. mai lk. 4. Narva aselinnapea Sofja Homjakova teatas, et teede ja tänavate remondikonkursil osales kaks firmat, parkide ja haljasalade konkursil aga neli. Aselinnapea sõnul võitis N&V kahel põhjusel: laimatult vormistatud dokumendid ja kõige odavamad teenused

  18. Electrical control of deep NV centers in diamond by means of sub-superficial graphitic micro-electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, J; Tengattini, A; Enrico, E; Grilj, V; Skukan, N; Amato, G; Boarino, L; Jakšić, M; Olivero, P

    2016-01-01

    The control of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is of primary importance for the stabilization of their quantum-optical properties, in applications ranging from quantum sensing to quantum computing. To this purpose, in this work current-injecting micro-electrodes were fabricated in bulk diamond for NV charge state control. Buried (i.e. 3 {\\mu}m in depth) graphitic micro-electrodes with spacing of 9 {\\mu}m were created in single-crystal diamond substrates by means of a 6 MeV C scanning micro-beam. The high breakdown field of diamond was exploited to electrically control the variation in the relative population of the negative (NV-) and neutral (NV0) charge states of sub-superficial NV centers located in the inter- electrode gap regions, without incurring into current discharges. Photoluminescence spectra acquired from the biased electrodes exhibited an electrically induced increase up to 40% in the NV- population at the expense of the NV0 charge state. The variation in the relative ...

  19. Quantitative relationship of two viruses (MrNV and XSV) in white-tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hj; Wang, Hm; Yuan, Jf; Li, LJ; Zhang, JH; Bonami, Jean-Robert; Shi, Zl

    2006-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) were purified from diseased freshwater prawns M rosenbergii and used to infect healthy post-larvae (PL) by an immersion method. Three groups of prawns were challenged with various combined doses of MrNV and XSV. Signs of white-tail disease (WTD) were observed in Groups 1 and 2, which had been challenged with combinations containing relatively high proportions of MrNV and low proportions of XSV. By contrast there was little...

  20. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  1. Internet-based Media Use and Nv-tong-zhi Empowerment in Taipei : An exploratory study based on interviews with 9 nv-tong-zhi individuals

    OpenAIRE

    GONG, CHENG

    2015-01-01

    Media impact on LGBT people’s empowerment is not a new topic to media and communication studies, however, the extent to which lesbians’ use of internet-based media have contribute to their empowerment in a non-western context remains under-researched. This research attempts to respond to the question with an exploration of the relation between nv-tong-zhi’s use of internet-based media and their empowerment by the lens of their own lived experiences in Taipei. An interpretive phenomenological ...

  2. Strong coupling of an NV- spin ensemble to a superconducting resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is motivated by the idea of hybrid quantum systems, one promising approach to exploit quantum mechanics for information processing. The main challenge in this field is to counteract decoherence - an inevitable companion of every quantum system. Indeed some quantum systems are intrinsically better isolated from their environment and are therefore less prone to the loss of coherence. But it's the ambivalent nature of decoherence that these highly isolated systems are usually very difficult to interact with and coherently control. To overcome these obstacles ideas were born to combine or hybridize different quantum systems with mutually opposing properties - fast control and long coherence times - and take advantage of the prospective better behavior of the combined system. In this thesis, defects in single crystal diamond - negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV- centers) - are chosen as the quantum memory medium. Because an NV- center constitutes a defect in a solid, its combination with other solid-state quantum systems, as electrical circuits based on Josephson junctions, appears natural. In our work we aimed at the integration of a large number of NV- centers in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) set-up. These circuits, operating at microwave frequencies, are extremely fast and versatile quantum processors but suffer from short coherence times. Usually single microwave photons stored in a resonant circuit act as information carrier between different parts of the chip. As a main result we observe the coherent energy exchange between the NV- color centers and the electromagnetic field of a microwave resonator. We study in detail a number of important aspects of collective magnetic spin-field coupling as the characteristic scaling with the square root of the number of emitters. Additionally we measure weak coupling to 13C nuclear spins mediated by the hyperfine coupling to the NV- electron spins. The quantum memory capabilities of

  3. Variation in erosion/deposition rates over the last 50 years on alluvial fan surfaces of L. Pleistocene- Mid Holocene age, estimations using 137Cs soil profile data, Amargosa Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C.; Kelley, R.; Ebert, T.; Delong, S.; Cline, M.; Pelletier, J.; Whitney, J.

    2005-12-01

    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/-.01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic system that primarily responds to the incising of the channels into the upper fan surface, and the development of protecting desert pavements with time.

  4. Geologic Map of the Death Valley Ground-water Model Area, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this map is to provide the surface expression of the geology in the Death Valley ground-water model area to be incorporated initially into a 3-D geologic framework model and eventually into a transient ground-water flow model by the U.S. Geological Survey (D'Agnese, 2000; D'Agnese and Faunt, 1999; Faunt and others, 1999; and O'Brien and others, 1999). This work has been conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy in order to assess regional ground water flow near the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The map is centered on the NTS and its perimeter encircles the entire boundary of the numerical flow model area, covering a total area of 57,000 km2. The physiography, geology, and tectonics of the model area are extremely complex (Hunt and Mabey, 1966; Stewart, 1980; Jennings, 1994; Slate and others, 2000; Wright and others, 1999b). The northern and eastern part of the area includes typical Basin and Range topography consisting of north-trending block-faulted ranges and intervening valleys. The central part contains diverse ranges, plateaus, basins, and alluvial flats (for example, the NTS volcanic highlands and Amargosa Valley). The rugged ranges and deep basins of the Death Valley region in eastern California are characteristic of the topography of the southern and western parts of the map area. The map spans numerous tectonic subdivisions of the Great Basin. Deformation includes several generations of upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic thrust faulting that have been dismembered by extensive regional Tertiary to Quaternary normal and strike-slip faults. Much of this extensional and translational deformation is active today, with rates and amounts that vary from low to moderate in the central, eastern, and northern parts of the study area in southern Nevada, to very high in the southwestern and western parts in eastern California. For detailed discussion of the tectonic framework of the

  5. New application of NV centers in CVD diamonds as a fluorescent nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Haruyama, Moriyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Teraji, Tokuyuki [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Isoya, Junichi [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kada, Wataru; Hanaizumi, Osamu [Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    NV (nitrogen vacancy) center in a diamond is utilized for FNTD (fluorescent nuclear track detector) for the first time. We performed high energy heavy ion irradiation to single crystal type-IIa diamonds with various nitrogen concentrations. After high temperature annealing, the nitrogen impurity combined with the vacancies created by a single ion strike. As a result the ion track is visualized as a train of fluorescent NV centers formed. We successfully observe the ion track in both HPHT (high pressure high temperature) and CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamonds by using the laser scanning confocal microscope. We therefore conclude that a diamond containing nitrogen impurity is able to be used for FNTD. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Modeling and Deciphering on Recent Spin-polariton Entanglement Experiments in NV center of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This work is a discussion on the spin-polariton (polarized single photon) entanglement in nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond with modeling and comparison to recent published experiments. A Jaynes-Cummings model is applied to analyze the off- and on-resonant dynamics of the electronic spin and polarized photon system. Combined with the analysis on the NV center's electron structure and transition rules, this model explained the Faraday effect, Optical Stark effect, pulse echo technology and energy level engineering technology to finally realize the spin-polariton entanglement. All theoretical results are compared mainly with two updated experimental reports \\cite{Buckley2010} \\cite{Togan2010} published in {\\it {Science}} and {\\it {Nature}} several months ago, and work well on explaining the reported phenomena and data. Meanwhile, the analysis also reveals some possible mistakes hidden in the original analysis of these two experimental reports. This essay essentially aims at practicing the fundamental skil...

  7. Toiminnan ja kilpailukyvyn tehostaminen : Case: Kiinteistönvälitys Fair-Play LKV

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli parantaa kiinteistönvälitys Fair-Play LKV:n kilpailukykyä ja toimintaa. Työssä selvitettiin, mihin markkinoinnin ja toiminnan osa-alueisiin kannattaa pk-yrityksenä kiinnittää huomiota, jotta asiakkaat saavutettaisiin mahdollisimman tehokkaasti. Opinnäytetyössä analysoitiin myös tämänhetkistä markkina- ja kilpailutilannetta kiinteistönvälitys Fair-Play LKV:n toiminta-alueella. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin laadullista eli kvalitatiivista m...

  8. Coherent control of an NV$^-$ center with one adjacent 13C

    OpenAIRE

    Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the theoretically achievable fidelities when coherently controlling an effective three qubit system consisting of a negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV$^-$) center in diamond with an additional nearby carbon $^{13}$C spin $I_{\\text{C}}=1/2$ via square radio and microwave frequency pulses in different magnetic field regimes. Such a system has potentially interesting applications in quantum information related tasks such as distributed quantum computation or quantum repeater ...

  9. Theory of Spin-Conserving Excitation of the $N-V^-$ Center in Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Deák, Péter; Kresse, Georg; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2009-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect ($N-V^-$ center) in diamond is an important atomic-scale structure that can be used as a qubit in quantum computing and as a marker in biomedical applications. Its usefulness relies on the ability to optically excite electrons between well-defined gap states, which requires clear and detailed understanding of the relevant states and excitation processes. Here we show that by using hybrid density-functional-theory calculations in a large supercell...

  10. Denken over diversiteit in KMO's: een gevalstudie bij Paas Food Industries NV

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Jans Joris Master Bedrijfseconomische Wetenschappen ' Beleidsmanagement Denken over diversiteit in KMO's: Een gevalstudie bij Paas Food Industries NV Promotor: Prof. Dr. Patrizia Zanoni Co-promotor: Drs. Hannah Vermaut Academiejaar 2010-2010 2de kans SAMENVATTING België krijgt in toenemende mate te maken met diversiteit in de bevolkingssamenstelling en op de arbeidsmarkt. Diversiteit associëren we vaak met allochtonen, maar het zijn vooral de vrouwelijke allochtonen die v...

  11. Coherent manipulation of an NV center and one carbon nuclear spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Nemoto, Kae [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Munro, William J. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We study a three-qubit system formed by the NV center’s electronic and nuclear spin plus an adjacent spin 1/2 carbon {sup 13}C. Specifically, we propose a manipulation scheme utilizing the hyperfine coupling of the effective S=1 degree of freedom of the vacancy electrons to the two adjacent nuclear spins to achieve accurate coherent control of all three qubits.

  12. The Role of Trans Tensional Structures and Lake Mead Reservoir in Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV-AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justet, L.; Beard, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hot springs and seeps discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River in north Colorado River Valley (CRV) support endemic riparian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Increases in groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ may impact spring discharge. Sources of spring discharge in BC were evaluated using geochemical methods. Kinematic analysis and geologic mapping of structures associated with BC springs were used to evaluate structural controls on groundwater flow in BC. Geochemical analysis indicates groundwater discharge near Hoover Dam (HD) and along the faulted edge of the Boulder City Pluton is derived from Lake Mead, high δ87Sr Proterozoic or Tertiary crystalline rock and, possibly, Tertiary sedimentary rock. Reducing conditions indicated by 234U/238U and δ34S concentrations suggest the groundwater is confined and/or derived from greater depths while carbon isotopes indicate the groundwater is old. Lighter δD and δO-18, modern tritium concentrations, post-Dam U disequilibrium ages, and occurrence of anthropogenic perchlorate support the presence of a young Lake Mead component. South of the pluton, the Lake Mead component is absent. More oxidizing conditions in this part of BC, indicated by the U and S isotope concentrations, suggest the groundwater is less confined and/or derived from shallower depths compared to groundwater discharging near HD. Older apparent groundwater ages and heavier δD and δO-18 values south of the pluton indicate slower flow paths from a lower elevation or latitude source. Clarifying the nature of groundwater flow in eastern NV, the analyses indicate that hydraulic connection between the regional carbonate aquifer and BC is unlikely. Instead, the data indicate sources of BC springs are derived relatively locally in CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley. Results of the geologic and kinematic analyses indicate faults that formed from the interaction of E-W extension related to

  13. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  14. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  15. Silicon Valley Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Silicon Valley is home to the most dynamic industries in the California economy. These industries--the high-tech sector--are driven by innovation, and each new wave of innovation is usually led by creative entrepreneurs starting new firms.

  16. All-optical thermometry and the thermal properties of the optically detected spin resonances of the NV center in nano-diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Plakhotnik, Taras; Doherty, Marcus W.; Jared H. Cole; Chapman, Robert; Manson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is at the frontier of quantum nano-metrology and bio-sensing. Recent attention has focused on the application of high-sensitivity thermometry using the spin resonances of NV centers in nano-diamond to sub-cellular biological and biomedical research. Here, we report a comprehensive investigation of the thermal properties of the center's spin resonances and demonstrate an alternate all-optical NV thermometry technique that exploits ...

  17. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  18. Revitalizing the Mahoning Valley

    OpenAIRE

    T F Buss; Vaughan, R J

    1987-01-01

    For nearly a decade, since the closing of its steel mills, the Mahoning Valley in northeast Ohio has pursued a traditional development strategy, based upon large capital subsidies, to attract new or support existing businesses. These policies have failed. As a result, local business leaders have questioned the foundations of traditional policy and have developed an alternative strategy that involves a far broader set of state and local programs in the development process. The new strategy aim...

  19. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.

  20. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  1. Nanomechanical method to gauge emission quantum yield applied to NV-centers in nanodiamond

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique to nanomechanically vary the distance between a fluorescent source and a mirror, thereby varying the local density of optical states at the source position. Our method can therefore serve to measure the quantum efficiency of fluorophores. Application of our technique to NV defects in diamond nanocrystals shows that their quantum yield can significantly differ from unity. Relying on a lateral scanning mechanism with shear-force probe-sample distance control our technique is straightforwardly implemented in most state-of-the-art near-field microscopes.

  2. Synthetic River Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  3. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  4. An Improved Character Segmentation Algorithm Based on Local Adaptive Thresholding Technique for Chinese NvShu Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangguang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the structural characteristics of Chinese NvShu character, by combining the basic idea in LLT local threshold algorithm and introducing the maximal between-class variance algorithm into local windows, an improved character segmentation algorithm based on local adaptive thresholding technique for Chinese NvShu documents was presented in this paper. Because of designing the corresponding correction parameters for the threshold and using secondary search mechanism, our proposed method could not only automatically obtain local threshold, but also avoid the loss of the character image information and improve the accuracy of the character image segmentation. Experimental results demonstrated its capability to reduce the effect of background noise, especially for Chinese NvShu character images with uneven illumination and low contrast

  5. Coupling single NV-centres to high-Q whispering gallery modes of a preselected frequency-matched microresonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the controlled coupling of fluorescence from a single NV-centre in a single nanodiamond to the high-Q modes of a preselected microsphere. Microspheres from an ensemble with a finite size distribution can be characterized precisely via white light Mie-scattering. The mode spectrum of individual spheres can be determined with high precision. A sphere with an appropriate spectrum can be selected, and a nanodiamond containing a single NV-centre can be coupled to it. The spectral position of the calculated lowest order whispering gallery modes are found to be in very good agreement with the experimentally observed resonances of the coupled fluorescence from the single NV-re.

  6. NV Energy Large-Scale Photovoltaic Integration Study: Intra-Hour Dispatch and AGC Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Meng, Da; Guo, Xinxin; Jin, Chunlian; Samaan, Nader A.

    2013-01-02

    The uncertainty and variability with photovoltaic (PV) generation make it very challenging to balance power system generation and load, especially under high penetration cases. Higher reserve requirements and more cycling of conventional generators are generally anticipated for large-scale PV integration. However, whether the existing generation fleet is flexible enough to handle the variations and how well the system can maintain its control performance are difficult to predict. The goal of this project is to develop a software program that can perform intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulation, by which the balancing operations of a system can be simulated to answer the questions posed above. The simulator, named Electric System Intra-Hour Operation Simulator (ESIOS), uses the NV Energy southern system as a study case, and models the system’s generator configurations, AGC functions, and operator actions to balance system generation and load. Actual dispatch of AGC generators and control performance under various PV penetration levels can be predicted by running ESIOS. With data about the load, generation, and generator characteristics, ESIOS can perform similar simulations and assess variable generation integration impacts for other systems as well. This report describes the design of the simulator and presents the study results showing the PV impacts on NV Energy real-time operations.

  7. NV energy electricity storage valuation : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (%22BA%22) as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 (%22Pay-for-performance%22). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  8. Fast optical modulation of the fluorescence from a single NV centre

    CERN Document Server

    Geiselmann, Michael; de Abajo, F Javier García; Quidant, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The much sought after optical transistor --the photonic counterpart of the electronic transistor-- is poised to become a central ingredient in the development of optical signal processing. The motivation for using photons rather than electrons not only comes from their faster dynamics but also from their lower crosstalk and minor environmental decoherence, which enable a high degree of integration and the realization of quantum operations. A single-molecule transistor has been recently demonstrated at cryogenic temperatures. Here, we demonstrate that a single NV centre at room temperature can operate as an optical switch under non-resonant CW illumination. We show optical modulation of more than 80% and time response faster than 100 ns in the green-laser-driven fluorescence signal, which we control through an independent near-infrared (NIR) gating laser. Our study indicates that the NIR laser triggers a fast-decay channel of the NV mediated by promotion of the excited state to a dark band. This simple concept...

  9. Henkilöstösuunnittelu kiinteistönvälitysyrityksessä : CASE: LKV-yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Mentula, Sami

    2011-01-01

    Tutkimus käsittelee henkilöstösuunnittelua kiinteistönvälitysyrityksessä. Siinä selvitetään lappeenrantalaisen kiinteistönvälitysyrityksen henkilöstösuunnittelun nykytila, etsitään kehityskohteita ja laaditaan perusta henkilöstösuunnitelmalle. Parantamalla yrityksen henkilöstösuunnittelua yritys voi varautua paremmin tulevaisuuden haasteisiin. Tutkimus oli kvalitatiivinen tapaustutkimus, jossa käsitellään yrityksen kannalta tärkeimpiä henkilöstösuunnittelun osa-alueita, kuten henkilöstön ...

  10. Aeromagnetic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This aeromagnetic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area was prepared from numerous separate aeromagnetic surveys that were gridded, merged, and described by Hildenbrand and Kucks (1988) and by McCafferty and Grauch (1997). These data are available in grid format from the EROS Data Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198, and from the National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, E/GC4, Boulder, Colo., 80303. Magnetic investigations of the Death Valley ground-water basin are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and adjacent parts of California (Blakely and others, 2000b). The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W

  11. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-feet in 1996 and 6,300 acre-feet in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by E T, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased

  12. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  13. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down Gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, U. S. Department of Energy Grant DE-RW0000233 2010 Project Report, prepared by The Hydrodynamics Group, LLC for Inyo County Yucca Mountain Repository Assessment Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Michael J; Bredehoeft, John D., Dr.

    2010-09-03

    Inyo County completed the first year of the U.S. Department of Energy Grant Agreement No. DE-RW0000233. This report presents the results of research conducted within this Grant agreement in the context of Inyo County's Yucca Mountain oversight program goals and objectives. The Hydrodynamics Group, LLC prepared this report for Inyo County Yucca Mountain Repository Assessment Office. The overall goal of Inyo County's Yucca Mountain research program is the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, of radionuclide into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Data collected within the Grant is included in interpretive illustrations and discussions of the results of our analysis. The centeral elements of this Grant prgoram was the drilling of exploratory wells, geophysical surveys, geological mapping of the Southern Funeral Mountain Range. The cullimination of this research was 1) a numerical ground water model of the Southern Funeral Mountain Range demonstrating the potential of a hydraulic connection between the LCA and the major springs in the Furnace Creek area of Death Valley, and 2) a numerical ground water model of the Amargosa Valley to evaluate the potential for radionuclide transport from Yucca Mountain to Inyo County, California. The report provides a description of research and activities performed by The Hydrodynamics Group, LLC on behalf of Inyo County, and copies of key work products in attachments to this report.

  14. Belasting en inactivatie van de protozoa Cryptosporidium en Giardia van pompstation Weerseloseweg van N.V. Waterleidingbedrijf Oost-Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidenier L; Medema GJ; MLG

    1996-01-01

    N.V. Waterleidingbedrijf Oost-Twente (WOT) te Enschede gebruikt water uit het Twentekanaal als grondstof voor de drinkwater-bereiding. Het RIVM is gevraagd onderzoek te verrichten naar de microbiologische betrouwbaarheid van het huidige en nieuwe zuiveringsschema, in het bijzonder met betrekking

  15. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  16. 77 FR 64333 - Relocation of Transmission Lines for the U.S. 93 Boulder City Bypass Project, Boulder County, NV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... for the Project EIS (FHWA-NV-EIS-00-02-F; April 2005; 76 FR 34073). Western was a cooperating agency... needs are satisfied and, with this notice, is adopting the Project EIS for its participation in the... the western end of the Hoover Dam Bypass project near the Hacienda Hotel and Casino. Western...

  17. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV... Management (BLM) proposes to offer by modified competitive, sealed-bid sale, one parcel of public land... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339...

  18. 76 FR 3678 - Board Meeting: February 16, 2011-Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: February 16, 2011--Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... Radioactive Waste Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste...

  19. 75 FR 13301 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... concentrating solar power plant facility approximately 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County... Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this Notice...

  20. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58... Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  1. Robust Dynamical Decoupling for Arbitrary Quantum States of a Single NV Center in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, J H; Zhang, J; Suter, D

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical decoupling is a powerful technique for extending the coherence time (T$_2$) of qubits. We apply this technique to the electron spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in type IIa diamond. In a crystal with natural abundance of $^{13}$C nuclear spins, we extend the decoherence time up to 2.2 ms. This is the longest value reported to date and is close to the T1 value of this NV center (4 ms). Since of dynamical decoupling must perform well for arbitrary initial conditions, we measured the dependence on the initial state and compared the performance of different sequences with respect to initial state dependence and robustness to experimental imperfections.

  2. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using NV-diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew; Barry, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Glenn, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge for neuroscience is noninvasive, label-free sensing of action potential dynamics in whole organisms with single-neuron resolution. Here, we report a new approach to this problem: using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond to measure the time-dependent magnetic fields produced by single-neuron action potentials. We demonstrate our method using excised single neurons from two invertebrate species, marine worm and squid; and then by single-neuron action potential magnetic sensing exterior to whole, live, opaque marine worms for extended periods with no adverse effect. The results lay the groundwork for real-time, noninvasive 3D magnetic mapping of functional mammalian neuronal networks.

  3. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Juan, M L; Besga, B; Brennen, G; Molina-Terriza, G; Volz, T

    2015-01-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same...

  4. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  5. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  6. The History of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Just as Manchester was once the center for indus trial progress, the microelectronics industry also has a heartland. Silicon Valley is located in a thirty by ten miles strip between San Francisco and San Jose,California.

  7. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Leu

    2006-01-01

      Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.……

  8. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  9. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  10. VEGETATION INVENTORY OF BALABANDERE VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Ulvi Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Balabandere Valley where Belgrad forest and Bosphorus meet in the easterly orientation of the forest has a very important ecological wealth within the greater Istanbul manucipality. The area, in which this study was conducted, has a potantial to become an outdoor recreation laboratory in and around Istanbul city. Balabandere valley and its vicinity can as well be described as a conservation zone with its cultural and ecological landscaoe history. It harbors a very crucial watershed for the ci...

  11. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders; Bremont, M.; Lorenzen, Niels

    importance. By a reverse genetics approach using the related novirrhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) as basis, four hybrid IHNV-VHSV variants were generated. These chimeric variants included substitution of the IHNV glyco(G) or nonstrutrual (Nv) protein with the corresponding G or Nv......-protein from either a freshwater or a marine VHSV strain. Following rescue of the hybrid viruses, comparative challenge experiments in rainbow trout fingerlings have been performed. The pathogenicity of the recombinant IHNV-VHSV hybrid viruses were similar, regardless of whether the G or Nv originate from...

  12. The Northern Fish Lake Valley Pull-Apart Basin: Geothermal Prospecting with Hyperspectral Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, B; Hausknecht, P; Pickles, W

    2004-04-26

    High fidelity continuous surface mineralogy maps are combined with local and regional structural models in order to define/refine exploration targets in Fish Lake Valley, NV. Surface mineralogy is derived from a 400 km{sup 2} airborne hyperspectral survey collected in July 2003. Smart and efficient first-tier algorithms consisting primarily of band indices were developed to process and 'spectrally strain' the large dataset for zones of prospective mineral assemblages. The reduced mineral targets then endured re-processing with more sophisticated spectral identification and mapping algorithms. A site at the intersection of the east-trending Coaldale Fault and north-northeast-trending Emigrant Peak Fault Zone was delineated and re-processed for further spectral identification. Populations of montmorillonite, kaolinite, jarosite, alunite and pyrophyllite in this region indicate anomalous geothermal gradients now or in the past and sustained hydrothermal discharge along faults, fractures and contacts in far northeastern Fish Lake Valley. Increased permeability and higher geothermal inputs at this locale are likely due to the transtensional deformation that focuses in this portion of the major right-stepover of the central Walker Lane deformation belt.

  13. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  14. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter.

    Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain.

    This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

    The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale.

    Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  15. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  16. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  17. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  18. The Future of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1984, Silicon Valley was going through the down cycle fol lowing the PC boom. A hundred PC companies wanted just 10 percent of the market, wanting to strike it rich, as rich as the Apple IPO (Initial Public Of fering) -the Google celebrity IPO of its day.

  19. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -thrust belts. Our work to the east of Death Valley suggests these thrusts were part of a NW trending thrust system that overprinted an older NE trending fold-thrust system that tracks into the Death Valley region from Nevada. These NW trending thrusts probably underlie all of the southern Black Mountains (south of the turtlebacks) and we suggest that pre-extensional structural relief along these basement thrusts placed basement at shallow crustal levels throughout what is now the Black Mountains; a conclusion consistent with the absence of rocks younger than Cambrian beneath Tertiary unconformities throughout the southern Death Valley region. In Late Miocene time, a major detachment system formed and the turtlebacks represent a mid-crustal shear zone developed during that time period, but this system is older, and structurally beneath younger detachments systems that comprise the Amargosa fault system. During motion on the detachment, an ∼2km thick plutonic sheet was emplaced along the shear zone forming the Miocene plutonic assemblages of the Black Mountains, and produced upper amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages along the floor of the pluton in what are now the Copper Canyon and Mormon Point turtlebacks, but the Badwater Turtleback escaped this metamorphism due to a different structural position. Motion continued along the floor of the pluton but syn-extensional folding produced structural relief along folds with axes parallel to the extension direction. Ultimately a new detachment system cut obliquely across the older extensional system, removing the roof of the pluton, but cutting down to its floor in the turtlebacks. This fault system formed a complex detachment system updip in the famous 'Amargosa Chaos', and removing the entire cover sequence from the Black Mountains (∼10-12km of crustal section). The turtlebacks are therefore a composite structure in which extension contemporaneous with folding, presumably as a result of distributed transcurrent motion

  20. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L; Wang, B G; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  1. The Owens Valley solar array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar microwave emission contains essential information for the study of the coronal magnetic structure of active regions and of thermal and nonthermal flare electrons. To exploit this potential requires BOTH imaging and spectroscopy with sufficient resolution to resolve spatial and spectral features. The VLA provides excellent solar imaging (when in the C and D configurations) but inadequate spectral coverage. The existing Owens Valley system has excellent spectral coverage but imaging that is adequate only for very simple sources. The Owens Valley system is currently undergoing an expansion, which when completed in October 1990 will provide a SOLAR-DEDICATED 5 antenna array (10 baselines). By using frequency-synthesis, this will provide a significant imaging capability in addition to its current spectral coverage

  2. Magic nuclei in superheavy valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive theoretical search for the proton magic number in the superheavy valley beyond $Z=$82 and corresponding neutron magic number after $N=$126 is carried out. For this we scanned a wide range of elements $Z=112-130$ and their isotopes. The well established non-relativistic Skryme-Hartree-Fock and Relativistic Mean Field formalisms with various force parameters are used. Based on the calculated systematics of pairing gap, two neutron separation energy and the shell correction energy f...

  3. Characterization of hyperfine interaction between an NV electron spin and a first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Rama Koteswara; Suter, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attractive properties for a number of quantum technologies that rely on the spin angular momentum of the electron and the nuclei adjacent to the center. The nucleus with the strongest interaction is the 13C nuclear spin of the first shell. Using this degree of freedom effectively hinges on precise data on the hyperfine interaction between the electronic and the nuclear spin. Here, we present detailed experimental data on this interaction, together with an analysis that yields all parameters of the hyperfine tensor, as well as its orientation with respect to the atomic structure of the center.

  4. Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response Project: Preliminary Results From Seismic Refraction Experiments, Las Vegas, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, S. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Luke, B.; Buck, B. J.; Hanson, A. D.

    2002-12-01

    In May and September 2002, seismic refraction data were acquired in the Las Vegas basin. Located in the southern Basin and Range province, the cities of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, and Henderson sit atop a fault-bounded basin with a depth of up to 5 km and basin dimensions of roughly 60 km wide (east-west) by 50 km in length (north-south). Previous isostatic gravity, seismic reflection, and aeromagnetic studies indicate that a series of sub-basins exist beneath the unconsolidated basin fill, with the deepest sub-basin occurring 5 km west of the fault block bounding the eastern edge of the basin (Frenchman Mountain). The basin is significantly deeper along its northern extremity, following the path of the fault block bounding the northern edge of the basin (Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone), and along the western edge of Frenchman Mountain. Recent, paleoseismic studies have indicated that faults in the Las Vegas region have the potential for an earthquake of M6.5 to 7.0. It is estimated that a M6.9 earthquake in the basin could produce about 11 billion dollars in damage and a significant number of deaths and/or injuries. In addition, an equivalent or larger event in the Death Valley fault zone, 150 km distance, would also be devastating to the metropolitan area of approximately 1.5 million residents. Therefore, it is essential to understand the seismic hazard posed to the Las Vegas region. This project is part of a larger collaborative effort to characterize the basin and its response to ground shaking. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas with assistance from the University of Texas at El Paso, students from UNLV and UTEP, volunteers from the community and several students from Centennial High school deployed 432 portable seismic recorders ("Texans") throughout the valley. Shot point locations were located at three quarries in the valley, one to the north, one to the east and one to the southwest. The profiles cross the Las Vegas Valley Shear zone as well as a prominent

  5. Resonant valley filtering of massive Dirac electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, D.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrons in graphene, in addition to their spin, have two pseudospin degrees of freedom: sublattice and valley pseudospin. Valleytronics uses the valley degree of freedom as a carrier of information similar to the way spintronics uses electron spin. We show how a double barrier structure consisting of electric and vector potentials can be used to filter massive Dirac electrons based on their valley index. We study the resonant transmission through a finite number of barriers and we obtain th...

  6. Earthquakes in the Classroom, Las Vegas, NV: The Nevada Educational Seismic Network (NESN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, J.; Snelson, C. M.; Zaragoza, S. A.; Smith, K.; Depolo, D.

    2002-12-01

    Geophysics is a term guaranteed to strike fear into the heart of the bravest high school science student. Using math to describe the earth can involve complex equations that can only be deciphered by enigmatic computer programs. But high school science students in the Las Vegas Valley have been given a unique opportunity to gather important research information while learning about geophysics, real-time data collection, and Internet communications in a less threatening environment. Three seismograph stations funded by the Department of Energy and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas have been installed in three different high schools in the Clark County School District. These three stations form a triangle in the Las Vegas Valley basin covering areas where the basin depths change significantly. The geophones are buried outside and a cable connects the sensors and GPS receiver to a digitizer on a local PC. The data is transmitted continuously in real-time via Internet communications protocols to the Seismic Explorer Monitoring Network. There it is available to all schools and to researchers who will analyze the data. These short-period geophones will record small local earthquakes and larger more distant events contributing to real-time seismic network operations in southern Nevada. Students at a school site are able to see live real-time data from other school stations as well as from seismograph stations in southern Nevada, the western US, and the world. Mentored by researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno and University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the teachers and students conduct simple waveform analysis to determine earthquake locations and magnitudes and operate the stations in this cooperative research effort. The goal of this partnership between secondary and university educational systems is to create a successful alliance that will benefit the research community as well as the classroom teacher and his/her students. Researchers will use the data collected

  7. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  8. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD(regsign)) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM(regsign)) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  9. Pressure and temperature dependence of the zero-field splitting in the ground state of NV centers in diamond: A first-principles study

    OpenAIRE

    Ivády, Viktor; Simon, Tamas; Maze, Jeronimo R; Abrikosov, Igor; Gali, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond (NV) attract great attention because they serve as a tool in many important applications. The NV center has a polarizable spin S = 1 ground state and its spin state can be addressed by optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) techniques. The m(S) = 0 and m(S) = +/- 1 spin levels of the ground state are separated by about 2.88 GHz in the absence of an external magnetic field or any other perturbations. This zero-field splitting (ZFS) can be probed by ODM...

  10. 75 FR 63469 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... EIS, BLM, NV, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project, Construction and Operation of Two Concentrated Solar Power Plant Facilties, Right-of-Way Application on Public Lands, Nye County, NV, Wait Period Ends..., Contact: Eric J. Brunnemann, 605-433-5361. Revision of FR Notice Published 08/20/2010: Extending...

  11. A Transformative Undergraduate Field Trip to the Grand Canyon and Death Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing the iconic Grand Canyon and Death Valley in person is a transformative experience for most geologists, including nine undergraduate geology students from upstate New York. The students were enrolled in a one-credit course designed around a nine-day spring-break field trip to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) and Death Valley National Park (DVNP). We met once a week before the trip to plan day-to-day activities and discuss background geologic information. Students selected a research topic related to our itinerary and wrote a guidebook entry for the topic. Students' entries were combined with papers, maps, and background material to make a guidebook. The printed guidebooks provided students with a "publication" of their work to show to others and refer to in the field. The nine-day field trip started with a flight into Las Vegas, NV, on 3/1/14. We spent three nights camping at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, one night camping in Valley of Fire State Park (VOFSP, 55 mi N of Las Vegas), and three nights staying at the Shoshone Education and Research Center (SHEAR) east of Death Valley. Highlights of the trip included the hike along the Bright Angel Trail (and fault) to Plateau Point and recognition of the Great Unconformity at GCNP; the White Domes loop hike, camping at the Beehives, and observation of the Muddy Mountain Overthrust in VOFSP; and hikes at Ubehebe Crater, Badwater Salt Flat, and Natural Bridge Canyon in DVNP. Each student presented his/her research topic at a pertinent point in the field trip; students were impressively well-prepared. One requirement of the course was a poster presentation on each student's research topic at our Undergraduate Research Symposium in April. For most of the students, the poster session was the first experience preparing and presenting a poster. In addition, the class gave a joint colloquium presentation to several hundred science majors and a number of science faculty at Saint Rose. Each student spoke for five

  12. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  13. Enjoy Samba Carnival in Happy Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On July3,the Yanjing Beer 2009 Beijing Happy Valley Mayan Carnival was grandly opened.The carnival will last for almost two months until August 30.With support from Yanjing Beer,Happy Valley is able to provide an authentic Brazilian festival including hot music and dancing,

  14. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  15. Josephson π state induced by valley polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Y. H.; Chan, K. S.

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically explore possible π-state Josephson junctions made from graphene-like two-dimensional materials (G) with the honeycomb lattice structure. It is shown that the valley polarization in the G sheet could lead to a 0-π state transition of the Josephson junction because of the valley-singlet Cooper pairs acquiring a nonzero momentum. When the valley-mixing scattering exists in the interfaces of the junction due to lattice mismatch, an odd-frequency valley-triplet supercurrent flows in the system even though the G sheet is fully valley polarized, and the supercurrent is characterized by a rapid atomic-scale oscillation with a periodicity of three lattice constants.

  16. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION...

  17. Statistical model and first-principles simulation on concentration of He{sub n}V cluster and He bubble formation in α-Fe and W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yue-Lin, E-mail: liuyuelin@ss.buaa.edu.cn; Yu, Yang; Dai, Zhen-Hong

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the stabilities of He and He{sub n}-vacancy (He{sub n}V) clusters in α-Fe and W. Vacancy formation energies are 2.08 eV in α-Fe and 3.11 eV in W, respectively. Single He in both α-Fe and W prefers to occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site. We recalculated the He solution energy considering the effect of zero-point energy (ZPE). The ZPEs of He in α-Fe and W at the tetrahedral (octahedral) interstitial site are 0.072 eV (0.031 eV) and 0.078 eV (0.034 eV), respectively. The trapping energies of single He at vacancy in α-Fe and W are −2.39 eV and −4.55 eV, respectively. By sequentially adding He into vacancy, a monovacancy trap up to 10 He atoms distributing in the vacancy vicinity. Based on the above results combined with statistical model, we evaluate the concentrations of all relevant He{sub n}V clusters as a function of He chemical potential. The critical He{sub n}V concentration is found to be ∼10{sup −40} (atomic) at the critical temperature T = 600 K in α-Fe and T = 1600 K in W, respectively. Beyond the critical He{sub n}V concentrations, considerable He{sub n}V aggregate to form He{sub n}V{sub m} clusters. By further growing of He{sub n}V{sub m}, the He{sub n}V{sub m} clusters grow bigger resulting in the larger He bubble formation.

  18. A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Kurath, Gael; Thompson, Tarin M.; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse genetics system was developed to generate a recombinant VHSV of genotype IVb from cloned cDNA. The recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was comparable to the parental wild-type strain both in vitro and in vivo, causing high mortality in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). A modified recombinant VHSV was generated in which the NV gene was substituted with an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP), and another recombinant was made by inserting the EGFP gene into the full-length viral clone between the P and M genes (rVHSV-EGFP). The in vitro replication kinetics of rVHSV-EGFP was similar to rVHSV; however, the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP grew 2 logs lower. In yellow perch challenges, wtVHSV and rVHSV induced 82-100% cumulative per cent mortality (CPM), respectively, whereas rVHSV-EGFP produced 62% CPM and rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP caused only 15% CPM. No reversion of mutation was detected in the recovered viruses and the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign gene after several passages. These results indicate that the NV gene of VHSV is not essential for viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but it plays an important role in viral replication efficiency and pathogenicity. This system will facilitate studies of VHSV replication, virulence, and production of viral vectored vaccines.

  19. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to...

  20. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  1. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  2. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  3. Safety Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This station safety plan should be viewed as a working tool for all employees of Minnesota Valley NWR. It contains information and instructions for emergencies,...

  4. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is...

  5. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005...

  6. Valley-protected backscattering suppression in silicon photonic graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study valley degree of freedom in all dielectric silicon photonic graphene. Photonic band gap opening physics under inversion symmetry breaking is revisited by the viewpoint of nonzero valley Chern number. Bulk valley modes with opposite orbital angular momentum are unveiled by inspecting time-varying electric fields. Topological transition is well illustrated through photonic Dirac Hamiltonian. Valley dependent edge states and the associated valley-protected backscattering suppression around Z-shape bend waveguide have been demonstrated.

  7. Valley Hall Effect in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Michihisa; Shimazaki, Yuya; Borzenets, Ivan V.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2015-12-01

    Valley is a quantum number defined for energetically degenerate but nonequivalent structures in energy bands of a crystalline material. Recent discoveries of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have shed light on the potential use of this degree of freedom for information carriers because the valley can now be potentially manipulated in integrated 2D architectures. The valleys separated by a long distance in a momentum space are robust against external disturbance and the flow of the valley, the valley current, is nondissipative because it carries no net electronic current. Among the various 2D valley materials, graphene has by far the highest crystal quality, leading to an extremely long valley relaxation length in the bulk. In this review, we first describe the theoretical background of the valley Hall effect, which converts an electric field into a valley current. We then describe the first observation of the valley Hall effect in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we describe experiments on the generation and detection of the pure valley current in monolayer and bilayer graphene, achieved recently using the valley Hall effect and inverse valley Hall effect. While we show unambiguous evidence of a pure valley current flowing in graphene, we emphasize that the field of "valleytronics" is still in its infancy and that further theoretical and experimental investigations are necessary.

  8. INFECCIÓN POR VIRUS DE LA GRIPE A H1N1NV EN ELCOMPLEJO ASISTENCIAL UNIVERSITARIO DE BURGOSDESDE DICIEMBRE DE 2010 A MARZO DE 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megías Lobón G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: INFLUENZA A H1N1NV INFECTION IN A BURGOS HOSPITAL FROM DECEMBER 2010 TO MARCH 2011 Introduction: Monitoring and characterization of infection with pandemic (H1N1nv 2009 is an essential part of monitoring the evolution, epidemiology and severity of a pandemic. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients admitted to our hospital the 2010-2011 season. Methods: Detection of influenza A H1N1nv virus in 266 respiratory specimens (242 patients with suspected infection and descriptive and comparative analysis of data collected from each patient: age, sex, service, reason for admission, risk factors and treatment with antivirals. Results: The most common reason for admission (52.47% was the presence of clinical respiratory signs. 69.4% of patients had risk factors, with chronic respiratory disease (CRD, the most frequent (20.2%. 14.2% were pediatric patients. The infection of Influenza A H1N1nv was confirmed in 26,4% of patients. The mean age among the infected patients was 36 years versus 44.85 years in non-infected. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011. 75% of infected patients had risk factors. Of these, 68.7% had CRD only factor being predominant. 6% of patients with infection were vaccinated. Conclusion: The positivity rate was similar to that observed in the previous season. There was a greater involvement among young-adult population. The CRD is the most common risk factor. Vaccine coverage was low.

  9. Pressure and temperature dependence of the zero-field splitting in the ground state of NV centers in diamond: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivády, Viktor; Simon, Tamás; Maze, Jeronimo R.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Gali, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond (NV) attract great attention because they serve as a tool in many important applications. The NV center has a polarizable spin S =1 ground state and its spin state can be addressed by optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) techniques. The mS=0 and mS=±1 spin levels of the ground state are separated by about 2.88 GHz in the absence of an external magnetic field or any other perturbations. This zero-field splitting (ZFS) can be probed by ODMR. As this splitting changes as a function of pressure and temperature, the NV center might be employed as a sensor operating at the nanoscale. Therefore, it is of high importance to understand the intricate details of the pressure and temperature dependence of this splitting. Here we present an ab initio theory of the ZFS of the NV center as a function of external pressure and temperature including detailed analysis on the contributions of macroscopic and microscopic effects. We found that the pressure dependence is governed by the change in the distance between spins as a consequence of the global compression and the additional local structural relaxation. The local structural relaxation contributes to the change of ZFS with the same magnitude as the global compression. In the case of temperature dependence of ZFS, we investigated the effect of macroscopic thermal expansion as well as the consequent change of the microscopic equilibrium positions. We could conclude that theses effects are responsible for about 15% of the observed decrease of ZFS.

  10. Synthesis of FMRFaNV, a Photoreleasable Caged Transmitter Designed to Study Neuron-Glia Interactions in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janett, Elia; Bernardinelli, Yann; Müller, Dominique; Bochet, Christian G

    2015-12-16

    Neuroscience studies require technologies able to deliver compounds with both scale and timing compatibility with morphological and physiological synaptic properties. In this light, two-photon flash photolysis has been extensively used to successfully apply glutamate or other neurotransmitters at the synaptic level. However, the set of commercially available caged compounds is restricted and incompatible with studies demanding high cell specificity. The gain in cell specificity is especially relevant and challenging when studying neuron-glia interactions in the central nervous system. Here we develop a system to mimic the metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent response of astrocytes, a glial cell type, following synaptic glutamate release. For this, we expressed an exogeneous orphan Gq-coupled protein of the Mas-related-gene (Mrg) family in glial cells and generated an MrgR's agonist peptide (FMRFa) that was chemically caged with a nitroveratryl photolabile protecting group (NV). NV has an appropriate quantum yield and a high absorption maximum that makes it very adapted to experiments with very short irradiation time. This novel caged compound allowed the activation of MrgR with both single- and two-photon light sources. Indeed, MrgR activation induced calcium transients and morphological changes in astrocytes as described previously. Thus, FMRFaNV is a very promising tool to study neuron-glia interactions. PMID:26511675

  11. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering in Mexico City: Comparison With Las Vegas, NV, and Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The primary site in Mexico City was an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP). Similar campaigns were held in Las Vegas, NV in January-February, 2003; and Los Angeles, CA at numerous sites during all seasons from 2003 through 2007. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions. The photoacoustic instrument (PAS) used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In Mexico City the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of Mexico City resulted in more direct solar radiation. Further insight on the meteorological connections and population dynamics will be discussed.

  12. Comparison of Experimental and Model Data for the Evaporation of a Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alai, M; Sutton, M; Carroll, S

    2003-10-14

    The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

  13. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  14. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  15. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.

    2016-07-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  16. Hidden Tales of the Bujang Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Wan Omar; Syakirah Mohammed; Razanawati Nordin; Alauyah Johari; Syazliyati Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Legends thrive, but there is little tangible evidence about dozens of Malay kingdoms, which are said to have flourished long before the emergence of Melaka in the late 14th century. The Bujang Valley in South Kedah, for one, is Malaysia’s richest archaeological site. The valley is the guardian of countless hidden tales which are waiting to be unveiled. Here, the beliefs of the Malay ancestors were centred upon nature and the spirits which permeate every aspect of their lives. These beliefs ha...

  17. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  18. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  19. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  20. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160138.html Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever? Potentially fatal infection is found in ... often-overlooked infection, and about 160 die from it, the society says. "Valley fever is underdiagnosed in ...

  1. Spin and valley transports in junctions of Dirac fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Takehito

    2014-01-01

    We study spin and valley transports in junctions composed of silicene and topological crystalline insulators. We consider normal/magnetic/normal Dirac metal junctions where a gate electrode is attached to the magnetic region. In normal/antiferromagnetic/normal silicene junction, we show that the current through this junction is valley and spin polarized due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom, and the valley and spin polarizations can be tuned by local application of a ...

  2. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which...

  3. Sign Plan : Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a...

  4. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  5. Why Girls Flock to Sweet Valley High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntwork, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the appeal of romance fiction for adolescent girls, particularly the "Sweet Valley High" series, and summarizes some research in the area. Topics addressed include reading preferences of teenage girls, sales and marketing of romances, literary criticisms, what readers gain from the books, and what constitutes good pleasure reading. (14…

  6. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  7. Water Quality in Pleasant Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.; George, Dennis B.; Lee, Kun Mo; Pucel, Phil; Hay, William

    1981-01-01

    Pollution of shallow groundwater due to wastewater disposal in Pleasant Valley, Utah, was investigated from October 1979 through August 1980. Water samples were collected from 23 wells and 5 stream sampling sites. Water quality analysis revealed pollution at several sites. Groundwater pollution caused by man’s activities in the area was observed in Bolotas and Scofield Campsite subdivisions. Severe shallow groundw...

  8. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the c

  9. 27 CFR 9.50 - Temecula Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., photorevised 1973. (c) Boundary. The Temecula Valley viticultural area is located in Riverside County... the point where it converges with the Riverside County-San Diego County line. (3) The boundary follows the Riverside County-San Diego County line southwesterly, then southeasterly to the point where...

  10. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  11. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  12. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  13. Anomalously Robust Valley Polarization and Valley Coherence in Bilayer WS2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Bairen; Zeng, Hualing; Dai, Junfeng; Gong, Zhirui; Cui, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Coherence of electronic states is crucial for quantum manipulation through light–matter interactions. To achieve coherence in conventional solid-state systems, extreme conditions such as cryogenic temperatures are required, which is a long-term challenge for practical applications. The emerging atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides provide an unprecedented platform to explore the interplay of quantum states of spin and valley. In this paper, we demonstrate room-temperature valley c...

  14. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Episodic debris flows scour the rock beds of many steepland valleys. Along recent debris-flow runout paths in the western United States, we have observed evidence for bedrock lowering, primarily by the impact of large particles entrained in debris flows. This evidence may persist to the point at which debris-flow deposition occurs, commonly at slopes of less than ???0.03-0.10. We find that debris-flow-scoured valleys have a topographic signature that is fundamentally different from that predicted by bedrock river-incision models. Much of this difference results from the fact that local valley slope shows a tendency to decrease abruptly downstream of tributaries that contribute throughgoing debris flows. The degree of weathering of valley floor bedrock may also decrease abruptly downstream of such junctions. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that valley slope is adjusted to the long-term frequency of debris flows, and that valleys scoured by debris flows should not be modeled using conventional bedrock river-incision laws. We use field observations to justify one possible debris-flow incision model, whose lowering rate is proportional to the integral of solid inertial normal stresses from particle impacts along the flow and the number of upvalley debris-flow sources. The model predicts that increases in incision rate caused by increases in flow event frequency and length (as flows gain material) downvalley are balanced by rate reductions from reduced inertial normal stress at lower slopes, and stronger, less weathered bedrock. These adjustments lead to a spatially uniform lowering rate. Although the proposed expression leads to equilibrium long-profiles with the correct topographic signature, the crudeness with which the debris-flow dynamics are parameterized reveals that we are far from a validated debris-flow incision law. However, the vast extent of steepland valley networks above slopes of ???0.03-0.10 illustrates the need to understand debris

  15. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-07-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time--a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation--is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron-hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron-hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  16. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Nuh

    Monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. In this talk, I will show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer TMD WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley-selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (approximately 100 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  17. Parallel phylogenetic analyses using the N, G or Nv gene from a fixed group of VHSV isolates reveal the same overall genetic typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Ahrens, Peter; Lorenzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    represented by a G gene fragment (nt 360 to 720) or the Nv gene (366 nt), although these regions had different characteristics with respect to resolution of Genotype I sublineages and resolution within Sub-lineage Ia. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences was also performed. The...... phylogenetic relationship between the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the isolates corresponded best in the case of the N gene/protein. For the 6 other genomic regions, genetically distant isolates occasionally grouped together when compared at protein levels. No clear relationship between the G gene...

  18. Valley depolarization dynamics and valley Hall effect of excitons in monolayer and bilayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the valley depolarization dynamics and valley Hall effect of exciton due to the electron-hole exchange interaction in mono- and bilayer MoS2 by solving the kinetic spin Bloch equations. The effect of the exciton energy spectra by the electron-hole exchange interaction is explicitly considered. For the valley depolarization dynamics, in the monolayer MoS2, it is found that in the strong scattering regime, the conventional motional narrowing picture in the conventional strong scattering regime is no longer valid, and a novel valley depolarization channel is opened. For the valley Hall effect of exciton, in both the mono- and bilayer MoS2, with the exciton equally pumped in the K and K' valleys, the system can evolve into the equilibrium state where the valley polarization is parallel to the effective magnetic field due to the exchange interaction. With the drift of this equilibrium state by applied uniaxial strain, the exchange interaction can induce the momentum-dependent valley/photoluminesence polarization, which leads to the valley/photoluminesence Hall current. Specifically, the disorder strength dependence of the valley Hall conductivity is revealed. In the strong scattering regime, the valley Hall conductivity decreases with the increase of the disorder strength; whereas in the weak scattering regime, it saturates to a constant, which can be much larger than the one in Fermi system due to the absence of the Pauli blocking.

  19. The Red River Valley archeological project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  20. Reconnaissance geology of placer deposits containing radioactive minerals in the Bear Valley district, Valley County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, J. Hoover; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance of the Bear Valley district was undertaken to provide a geologic interpretation of placer deposits drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The placer minerals are monazite and a group of uranium bearing rare earth columbates and tantalates here referred to loosely as radioactive blacks. The monazite is an accessory mineral in the granitic country rock; the radioactive blacks occur in pegmatite dikes. The supply of these minerals to the placers was controlled (1) by the geography of their occurrence in the parent rock, and (2) by the distribution of alpine glaciers during two late Pleistocene glacial stages. By reason of a favorable combination of these factors, the richest placer deposits of the district are in Big Meadow, a valley fill formed as a result of the blocking of Bear Creek by a glacier from a tributary valley during the Illinoian (?) stage. The Big Meadow fill consists of intertonguing depositional units formed by Bear Creek and its tributaries, including both normal alluvium and glacial outwash, and ranging from rich to barren. The richest phase that has been blocked out by drilling was derived from the drainage basin of Casner Creek, an east tributary of Bear Creek. The geologic relations suggest that a neighboring stream, Howard Creek, should have supplied equally rich material, but the part of the valley fill formed by Howard Creek has not been tested. The Howard Creek deposits and shallow alluvium in the upper valleys of Casner and Howard Creeks may considerably increase the reserves of the district.

  1. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yuki; Joy D Van Nostrand; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.; Farrell, Roberta L.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a ...

  2. A Groundwater Model of Cache Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.; Jeppson, Roland W.; Liu, Win-Kai

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the development, calibration and use of quantitative, predictive management model for the groundwater in the Utah portion of the Cache Valley in northern Utah. The quasi-three-dimensional finite difference computer model was adapted from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Trescott and Larson model and simulates the groundwater levels and flows in the groundwater basin. The variable spacing grid sys...

  3. Earthquake loss estimation for the Kathmandu Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Silva, Vitor; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; VARUM Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The capital city, Kathmandu, is the most developed and populated place in Nepal. The majority of the administrative offices, headquarters, numerous historical monuments, and eight World Heritages sites are in the Kathmandu Valley. However, this region is geologically located on lacustrine sediment basin, characterized by a long history of destructive earthquakes. The past events resulted in great damage of structures, losses of human life’s and property, and interrupted the social...

  4. Capitol Valley Ranch Landscape Performance Benefits Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Blackmore, Pamela; Binder, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Capitol Valley Ranch, a one-acre home site situated on a larger working cattle ranch, is nestled into a rural high-altitude Colorado landscape. The design for the property required an integration of functions. A working ranch with horses, stables, and a barn coexists with a residence, thereby retaining traditional practices that preserve regional culture and open space values. The intimate and social spaces conducive to outdoor living and entertaining assimilate with the architecture and echo...

  5. Spin and valley transports in junctions of Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study spin and valley transports in junctions composed of silicene and topological crystalline insulators. We consider normal/magnetic/normal Dirac metal junctions where a gate electrode is attached to the magnetic region. In a normal/antiferromagnetic/normal silicene junction, we show that the current through this junction is valley and spin polarized due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom, and the valley and spin polarizations can be tuned by local application of a gate voltage. In particular, we find a fully valley and spin polarized current by applying the electric field. In a normal/ferromagnetic/normal topological crystalline insulator junction with a strain induced in the ferromagnetic segment, we investigate valley-resolved conductances and clarify how the valley polarization stemming from the strain and exchange field appears in this junction. It is found that by changing the direction of the magnetization and the potential in the ferromagnetic region, one can control the dominant valley contribution out of four valley degrees of freedom. We also review spin transport in normal/ferromagnetic/normal graphene junctions, and spin and valley transports in normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junctions for comparison. (paper)

  6. Water power small scale hydro. Elan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Elan Valley small-scale hydro project, which is owned and operated by Hyder Industrial Ltd, is located on the Elan Valley estate in the Cambrian Mountains in mid-Wales. Five reservoirs and four impounding dams were built in the Elan and Claerwen river valleys during the first half of the 20th century to supply water to Birmingham. Following the award of a contract under the Government's third non-Fossil Fuel Obligation Order (NFFO-3) to supply 4.2 MW of electricity to the National Grid during the 1990s, Hyder refurbished the original turbines at one location and built new units at four others. The existing water infrastructure was utilised. The total cost of the scheme, which generated some 35,700 MWh of electricity between May 1997 and March 1999, was 5.2 million pounds sterling. Details of the power generation units at the five hydro power stations, the power output, power transmission, planning requirements, measures taken by Hyder to minimise the scheme's environmental impact and the scheme's benefits are given

  7. Petroleum geochemistry of Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, J.C. [HOCOL S.A., Bogota (Colombia); Dzou, L.I. [Amoco EPTG, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Twenty-five crude oil samples from tertiary reservoirs in the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia, were studied by geochemical methods in order to understand their genetic relationships. The oils were probably derived from both calcareous and siliciclastic facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation. Some oils in the eastern margin contain relatively higher concentrations of land plant derived biomarkers than the remaining oil samples. The molecular compositions of the oils observed in this study appear to be consistent with the inferred depositional sequence of anoxic marine/pelagic carbonate facies in the north and western sectors of the Middle Magdalena Valley, while the eastern sector received a higher proportion of clastic input. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate that most of the oils were generated from the early phase of the oil window, except for the Colorado-38 oil that was generated during the peak of the oil window. Geochemical data support ''local'' generation and migration of the Middle Magdalena oils as opposed to longer distance migration from the region of the eastern Cordillera. The range of oil gravities measured in the Middle Magdalena Valley is attributed to organic facies variations, different levels of biodegradation, and late charge of condensate rather than to thermal maturity and migration-related effects. (author)

  8. Recent landscape change in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, C. E.; Wilson, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Long term monitoring of land use and land cover in California's intensively farmed Central Valley reveals several key physical and socioeconomic factors driving landscape change. As part of the USGS Land Cover Trends Project, we analyzed modern land-use/land-cover change for the California Central Valley ecoregion between 2000 and 2010, monitoring annual change between 2005 and 2010, while creating two new change intervals (2000-2005 and 2005-2010) to update the existing 27-year, interval-based analysis. Between 2000 and 2010, agricultural lands fluctuated due to changes in water allocations and emerging drought conditions, or were lost permanently to development (240 square km). Land-use pressure from agriculture and development also led to a decline in grasslands and shrublands across the region (280 square km). Overall, 400 square km of new developed lands were added in the first decade of the 21st century. From 2007 to 2010, development only expanded by 50 square km, coinciding with defaults in the banking system, the onset of historic foreclosure crisis in California and the global economic downturn. Our annual LULC change estimates capture landscape-level change in response to regional policy changes, climate, and fluctuations (e.g., growth or decline) in the national and global economy. The resulting change data provide insights into the drivers of landscape change in the California Central Valley and the combination of two consistent mapping efforts represents the first continuous, 37-year endeavor of its kind.

  9. A Tale of two Cities: Photoacoustic and Aethalometer Measurements Comparisons of Light Absorption in Mexico City and Las Vegas, NV, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments, MIRAGE-Mex deployment to Mexico City in the period of 30 days, March 2006, a suite of photoacoustic spectrometers (PAS; W. Arnott & G. Paredes), nephelometer scattering, and aetholemeter absorption instruments (N. Marley & J.Gaffney) were installed to measure at ground level the light absorption and scattering by aerosols at the urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP). This IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions. The PAS used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In the urban site the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed. The Las Vegas, NV site was located at East Charleston Street on January-February, 2003. In east Las Vegas typical westerly winds carry the city plume across the site. Comparisons of PAS aerosol light absorption and aetholemeter absorption measurements at 521 nm at both Las Vegas NV and Mexico City sites will be presented. We will also present a broad overview of the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the sites in relation to secondary aerosol formation.

  10. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 x 10-3) and low Na/Cl (-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies

  11. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  12. Numerical simulation of the evolution of glacial valley cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Seddik, Hakime; Sugiyama, Shin; Naruse, Renji

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model was developed for simulating the formation of U-shaped glacial valleys by coupling a two-dimensional ice flow model with an erosion model for a transverse cross section. The erosion model assumes that the erosion rate varies quadratically with sliding speed. We compare the two-dimensional model with a simple shallow-ice approximation model and show the differences in the evolution of a pre-glacial V-shaped valley profile using the two models. We determine the specific role of the lateral shear stresses acting on the glacier side walls in the formation of glacial valleys. By comparing the model results with field data, we find that U-shaped valleys can be formed within 50 ka. A shortcoming of the model is that it primarily simulates the formation of glacial valleys by deepening, whereas observed valleys apparently have formed mainly by widening.

  13. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  14. Controllable photo-induced spin and valley filtering in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Nia, Borhan Arghavani

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin- and valley-dependent ballistic transport in silicene, which is assumed to be modulated by local application of a gate voltage and off-resonant circularly polarized light. We show that, due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom in silicene, the current through it is spin and valley polarized. The spin (valley) polarization can be enhanced by tuning the light intensity and the value of the perpendicular electric field, leading to perfect spin (valley) filtering for certain of their values. It is also found that the spin (valley) polarization can be inverted by reversing the perpendicular electric field (by reversing the perpendicular electric field or reversing the circular polarization of the light irradiation).

  15. A valley and spin filter based on gapped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Long, Mengqiu; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Hu, Yue; Wang, Gaofeng; Chan, K. S.

    2016-07-01

    We study highly valley- and spin-polarized current in single-layer gapped graphene without spin–orbit coupling. The structure considered is a three-barrier structure with one spin-splitting barrier and two electrical potential barriers with vector potentials. The electrons in the two valleys transmit differently because of the valley-dependent reflection between two adjacent barriers, while the spin-up and spin-down electrons transmit differently because of the spin splitting. The structure is different from other structures in which spin–orbit coupling plays an important role in the observation of valley- and spin-polarized current. We can control the spin and valley polarization by changing the width of the barrier or the strength of the spin splitting. The structure proposed in this paper can be used to make valley and spin devices.

  16. The Kathmandu valley : A study in regional geography

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, Willibald

    1981-01-01

    Anyone studying the map of the Kathmandu valley is struck by the almost plastic contrast between the valley bottom and its mountainous, wooded frame dissected by U-shaped valleys. A naturally favourable situation, together with a position that controls the pass of one of the most important trade and pilgrimage routes in the central Himalayas provided decisive impulses for the development of the three largest towns of Nepal: Kathmandu, Pata and Bhaktapur. More than half of the 600.000 inhabita...

  17. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant...

  18. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm "valleytronics" applications.

  19. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  2. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak S. Vede

    2015-01-01

    The excavations carried in Western India have brought to light the important civilization of the Indus Valley. This is the most important civilization of the prehistoric period. The sites of this civilization are Mohenjo-Daro, meaning the Mound at the Dead, on the Indus in Sind and the other Harappa on the Ravi in the Montqomery district of the Punjab. The surrounding region of Moh enjo-Daro is wonderfully fertile and is called even today Nakhlistan or the “Garden of Sind”. Here, the city ...

  3. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  4. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislev, Mordechai E; Hartmann, Anat; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2006-06-01

    It is generally accepted that the fig tree was domesticated in the Near East some 6500 years ago. Here we report the discovery of nine carbonized fig fruits and hundreds of drupelets stored in Gilgal I, an early Neolithic village, located in the Lower Jordan Valley, which dates to 11,400 to 11,200 years ago. We suggest that these edible fruits were gathered from parthenocarpic trees grown from intentionally planted branches. Hence, fig trees could have been the first domesticated plant of the Neolithic Revolution, which preceded cereal domestication by about a thousand years. PMID:16741119

  5. Earthquakes in Tuhinj Valley (Slovenia) In 1840

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecić, Ina

    2015-04-01

    A less known damaging earthquake in southern part of Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, in 1840 is described. The main shock was on 27 August 1840 with the epicentre in Tuhinj Valley. The maximum intensity was VII EMS-98 in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and in Eisenkappel, Austria. It was felt as far as Venice, Italy, 200 km away. The macroseismic magnitude of the main shock, estimated from the area of intensity VI EMS-98, was 5.0. The effects of the main shock and its aftershocks are described, and an earthquake catalogue for Slovenia in 1840 is provided. Available primary sources (newspaper articles) are presented.

  6. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...

  7. 77 FR 23496 - Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Boundary Revision of Valley Forge National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park... to the boundary of Valley Forge National Historical Park, pursuant to the authority specified below... ``Valley Forge National Historical Park Proposed Boundary Expansion, Montgomery County,...

  8. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  9. Comportamiento de ánodos de sacrificio en la protección de aluminio NV-5083 en agua de mar, bahía de Valparaíso Behavior of sacrifice anodes in the aluminium NV-5083 protection in seawater, Valparaíso bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Vera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa comparativamente el comportamiento de aleaciones de aluminio y cinc, como ánodos de sacrificio en la protección catódica de cascos de aluminio NV-5083 en agua de mar de la bahía de Valparaíso. Para ello se confeccionaron probetas de la aleación de aluminio empleado en cascos de lanchas y ánodos de Al-Zn-In, Al-Zn-Sn y Zn. Los comportamientos electroquímicos se evaluaron mediante curvas de polarización y potencial de corrosión en función del tiempo. Paralelamente, se diseñaron pares galvánicos de aleación del casco-ánodo de sacrificio, los cuales se sumergieron en el electrolito durante 16 días, determinándose la pérdida en peso y la evolución del potencial a circuito abierto de cada material. Los resultados muestran que los ánodos de base aluminio pueden proteger catódicamente el casco de aluminio NV-5083 en agua de mar, pero no logran superar el horizonte económico y de vida útil de los ánodos de cinc, debido a que presentan un mayor desgaste para la protección de igual área de aluminioThe behavior of aluminum and zinc alloys were evaluated and compared as sacrifice anodes in cathodic protection of aluminum NV-5083 hulls in seawater in Valparaíso bay. Samples of the aluminum alloy used to manufacture boat hulls and Al-Zn-In, Al-Zn-Sn, and Zn anodes were made. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated by means of polarization curves and corrosion potential as function of time. In parallel, galvanized pairs (boat hull-sacriice anode, were designed and immersed in the electrolyte for 16 days, determining the weight loss and evolution of the open circuit potential for each material. The results show that the aluminum based anodes provide the NV-5083 aluminum hull cathodic protection in seawater. However, they do not exceed the economical horizon and useful life of zinc anodes, because the aluminum based anodes present higher corrosion for the protection of a similar exposed area of aluminum

  10. Glacier Geosite of Tale-Tange Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rezaeizadeh Mahabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Geological sites or geosites are the key evidence or specific periods of geological history which are very important in public education of earth sciences and environmental implications. They are also non-renewable parts of the earth as a tool for sustainable development. By its diverse geology, climate, geological features and unique nature, Iran can use geological phenomenon (geotope across the country, such as caves, canyons, valleys, fossil sites, geological formations, mud volcanoes, types of minerals, mountain glaciers, and Kaluts As a geological heritage in the form of multiple potential geosites following the provision of tourism infrastructure, as a useful tool for geotourism development and establishment of geoparks. Tale-Tange valley is located in northern Jajrud Basin in the southern highlands of central Alborz. Several geomorphological phenomena such Cirque glaciers, moraines, waterfalls, River terraces, wandering rocks in the area can be a geotourist factor to attract tourists to this region. Hence, the area can be considered as a paleoclimatic site or geosite.

  11. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  12. Modern Pollen Study in Lake Qinghai Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, X.; Li, X.; An, Z.; Ji, M.; Zhang, H.

    2008-12-01

    This study shows results of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai valley in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The records suggest that most pollen assemblages are dominated by shrub and herb pollen (mostly>84%). Seventeen taxa of indicator pollen are significantly correlated with the vegetation types of this area. In the pollen spectra, Artemisia is over-represented, while Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Polygonaceae are low- represented. Artermisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) radios with the regional vegetation characteristic can be used as a proper index to reconstruct the history of vegetation and climate in Lake Qinghai valley. Modern pollen in the lake mainly comes from the nearby vegetation. The pollen spectra is controlled by the directions and velocity of the wind and influenced by rivers. The distribution of modern pollen in Lake Qinghai tends to be similar in most part of the lake. The difference of pollen sedimentation process in the lake can be potentially influenced by the focusing function of the lake, river streams, and lake current.

  13. Revisiting Sustainable Development of Dry Valleys in Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya; XIE Jiasui; SUN Hui

    2004-01-01

    Dry valleys are a striking geographic landscape in Hengduan Mountains Region and are characterized by low rainfall, desert type of vegetation and fragile environment. Past efforts and resources have been concentrated mainly on rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and fragile environment,particularly reforestation, while socio-economic development has been largely overlooked. Despite successes in pocket areas, the overall trend of unsustainability and environmental deterioration are continuing. It is important to understand that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is the root cause of development of dry valleys, and development and formation of dry valleys is a natural process. Human intervention has played a secondary role in development of dry valleys and degradation of dry valleys though human intervention in many cases has speeded up environmental degradation of the dry valleys. It is important to understand that dry valleys are climatic enclaves and an integrated approach that combines rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and socio-economic development should be adopted if the overall goal of sustainable development of dry valleys is to be achieved. Promotion of niche-based cash crops, rural energy including hydropower, solar energy, biogas and fuelwood plantation is recommended as the priority activities.

  14. Field-induced polarization of Dirac valleys in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Kamran; Zhu, Zengwei; Callaudin, Aurelie; Fauque, Benoit; Kang, Woun

    2012-02-01

    The principal challenge in the field of ``valleytronics'' is to lift the valley degeneracy of electrons in a controlled way. In graphene, a number of methods to generate a valley-polarized flow of electrons have been proposed, which are yet to be experimentally realized. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high-symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. We present a study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth which shows that a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. The effect is visible even at room temperature. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. At high temperature and low magnetic field, the three valleys are interchangeable and the three-fold symmetry of the underlying lattice is respected. As the temperature is decreased or the magnetic field increased, this symmetry is spontaneously lost. This loss may be an experimental manifestation of the recently proposed valley-nematic Fermi liquid state.

  15. Agro-ecological characterization of inland valleys in West Arica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Windmeijer, P.N.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual issues related to inland valleys, their morphology, hydrology and agro-ecosystems are discussed, as well as a method for their step-wise characterization at different levels of detail. A definition of inland valleys is given, including the description of the main landscape elements (uplan

  16. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  17. Mid-Mon Valley Survey: Education and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Pearley; Sandrock, Brad L.

    In May 1991, a survey was conducted of businesses and industries in the Mid-Mon Valley in Pennsylvania to develop a profile of the companies, determine their competitiveness and expansion since completion of a 1987 Business Outreach Survey, determine their use of technology, identify training needs for the Mid-Mon Valley, and examine how companies…

  18. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... conservation of one of the last undeveloped, low-elevation coniferous forest ecosystems in western Montana, in... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Swan Valley Conservation Area as a unit of the...

  19. Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal pneumonia: a silent epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the southwestern US. A costly problem • In ...

  20. Lower embrittlement at higher fast neutron fluence and impurities concentration in weld metal of NV NPP-1 RPV: anomaly or natural phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface layers of metal in thick-wall ware, such as RPV shells, demonstrate, as a rule, higher mechanical properties, than deep layers of the metal, that is due to the work cycle of processing. But this phenomenon is not observed in welds. Therefore, the distribution of mechanical properties of the weld throughout the thickness of RPV must reflect the distribution of fast neutron fluence and also copper and phosphorus impurities. Some facts that contradict these basic notions are considered. Analysis have shown that surprising information on behavior of NV NPP-1 RPV weld 4 metal where increase in impurities concentration and fast neutron fluence at the inner surface zone of the RPV does not correlate with the degree of degradation in the metal is not an anomaly. One can conclude that this is naturally due to the prevailing influence of the factor, which has not been taken into account earlier, namely, radiation gamma-annealing. (author)

  1. Method development to quantify Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b+ cells in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) exhibiting Anti-VEGF refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Timothy; Daniels, Tad; Perkins, Jill; Csaky, Karl G

    2016-07-01

    A subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) subjects appears to be refractory to the effects of anti-VEGF treatment and require frequent intravitreal injections. Prokineticin-2 (Bv8) expression in CD11b(+) cells has been linked to anti-VEGF response. We have developed a reproducible method to quantify gene expression in circulating CD11b + cells. Utilizing this method we tested the hypothesis that high Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b(+) cells is associated with anti-VEGF refractoriness in nvAMD patients. Two groups of nvAMD subjects undergoing treatment with anti-VEGF agents were recruited and classified as refractory or non-refractory to anti-VEGF treatment (n = 33 for each group). Two blood draws were obtained from each subject 1-9 months apart. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and CD11b(+) cells were purified via magnetic bead separation. RNA was purified, and relative expression of Bv8 among the subjects was compared via quantitative PCR analysis. Utilizing this approach no significant difference was detected in the mean LogRQ values between the first and second blood draws (t-test, p = 0.826) indicating low intra-patient variability and demonstrating good reproducibility of the assay. There was no significant difference in Bv8 expression between nvAMD subjects classified as refractory versus non-refractory. We were unable to find a correlation between Bv8 expression in CD11b + cells and anti-VEGF refractoriness in human nvAMD subjects. Relatively high expression in Bv8 in these subjects did not correlate with clinical treatment history, as measured by the frequency of injections. Utilizing this well characterized technique, studies are underway to examine alternative gene expression profiles in various circulating cell populations that may contribute to anti-VEGF refractoriness. PMID:27256991

  2. 75 FR 13275 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Dimmett 208-382- 7400. EIS No. 20100083, Draft EIS, BLM, NV, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project, Construction and Operation of Two Concentrated Solar Power Plant Facilities, Right-of-Way Application on Public..., Blythe Solar Power Project (09- AFC-6), Application for Right-of Way Grant to Construct and Operate,...

  3. Herpes simplex virus type-1(HSV-1 oncolytic and highly fusogenic mutants carrying the NV1020 genomic deletion effectively inhibit primary and metastatic tumors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrew T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NV1020 oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 has shown significant promise for the treatment of many different types of tumors in experimental animal models and human trials. Previously, we described the construction and use of the NV1020-like virus OncSyn to treat human breast tumors implanted in nude mice. The syncytial mutation gKsyn1 (Ala-to-Val at position 40 was introduced into the OncSyn viral genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome using double-red mutagenesis in E. coli to produce the OncdSyn virus carrying syncytial mutations in both gB(syn3 and gK(syn1. Results The OncdSyn virus caused extensive virus-induced cell fusion in cell culture. The oncolytic potential of the OncSyn and OncdSyn viruses was tested in the highly metastatic syngeneic mouse model system, which utilizes 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells implanted within the interscapular region of Balb/c mice. Mice were given three consecutive intratumor injections of OncSyn, OncdSyn, or phosphate buffered saline four days apart. Both OncSyn and OncdSyn virus injections resulted in significant reduction of tumor sizes (p Conclusion These results show that the attenuated, but highly fusogenic OncSyn and OncdSyn viruses can effectively reduce primary and metastatic breast tumors in immuncompetent mice. The available bac-cloned OncSyn and OncdSyn viral genomes can be rapidly modified to express a number of different anti-tumor and immunomodulatory genes that can further enhance their anti-tumor potency.

  4. Pollution preventing efforts and strategies for the Kathmandu Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kathmandu valley, nestled in the midst of the mighty Himalayas, is one of the most worth visiting places in the world. Unplanned urbanisation, increasing population, polluting vehicles and industries have started degrading the environment in the valley. Centralized development activities in the last two decades resulted in undesirable environmental change. If the current trend continues, the valley will loose its importance. Realizing the importance of healthy environment, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has formed the Environment Protection Council under the chairmanship of Prime Minister to formulate environmental planning and policies. Over two dozen active NGO's are involved in environmental awareness and management in the Kathmandu valley. Some major steps have been undertaken by GOs and NGOs. The present paper deals with the state of pollution, efforts made to minimize it, and major actions/strategies for preventing pollution in the Kathmandu Valley. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  6. Using GPS to Quantify Three Dimensional Storage and Aquifer Deformation in the Virgin River Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, S. M.; Burbey, T. J.; Blewitt, G.; Bell, J. W.; Hill, E.; Johnson, M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying aquifer storage is important in order to characterize aquifer response and optimize aquifer pumping in large well fields located in thick sedimentary basins like those in the arid southwestern United States. The majority of this water is released from storage because of aquifer-system compaction. Historically this compaction was assumed to occur only in the vertical direction. However, aquifer mechanics and related field investigations indicate that strain is three-dimensional and the amount of water released from storage by horizontal strain can be significant. The development of empirically-based analytical techniques that allow for accurate quantification of storage and an assessment of the strain components at various radii from the pumping well are needed. From May through August, 2003, field scale aquifer testing and land subsidence monitoring were performed in the Virgin River Valley at Mesquite, NV. The goals were to determine the usefulness of storage quantification methods at the field scale and developing an effective inexpensive method to monitor three-dimensional deformation patterns due to removal of water from storage. The ground movement was monitored using choke ring antennas and GPS receivers at 10 different locations at various distances from the pumping well for 100 days. The well was pumped for approximately 12 hours each day at a rate of about 18000 m3/d. Compared to pumping at a steady rate, pulsating pumping (i.e. on and off cycles) has been shown to concentrate vertical deformation closer to the pumping well. The effect of pulsed pumping on horizontal deformation is previously not well documented but can now be investigated. The GPS data and pumping data collected from the aquifer test will be used to quantify aquifer strain in three dimensions at various distances from the well and stages during pumping. These strain patterns will provide information about possible faults in the area that affect groundwater flow, provide

  7. Palynological researchers concerning the Pontian on the Visenilor Valley and Boereasca Valley - NE of Drobeta Turnu Severin (SW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustinian Petrescu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Palynological analyses in the sections of Vişenilor Valley and Boereasca Valley (Upper Pontian (Bosphorian are presented in table 1. In the second part of paper, the authors made a comparison between microflora from Mehedinţi and other Pontian microfloras in Romania and from abroad (former Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Slovakia.

  8. Valley heat deficit as a bulk measure of wintertime particulate air pollution in the Arve River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, Charles; Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Largeron, Yann; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Paci, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Urbanized valleys are particularly vulnerable to particulate air pollution during the winter, when ground-based stable layers or cold-air pools persist over the valley floor. We examine whether the temporal variability of PM10 concentration in the section of the Arve River Valley between Cluses and Servoz in the French Alps can be explained by the temporal variability of the valley heat deficit, a bulk measure of atmospheric stability within the valley. We do this on the basis of temperature profile and ground-based PM10 concentration data collected during wintertime with a temporal resolution of 1 h or finer, as part of the Passy-2015 field campaign conducted around Passy in this section of valley. The valley heat deficit was highly correlated with PM10 concentration on a daily time scale. The hourly variability of PM10 concentrations was more complex and cannot be explained solely by the hourly variability of the valley heat deficit. The interplay of the diurnal cycles of emissions and local dynamics is demonstrated and a drainage mechanism for observed nocturnal dilution of near-surface PM10 concentrations is proposed.

  9. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global

  10. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► δ13C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ13CPDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ13C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ13CPDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these streams

  11. An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Leahy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present and explore a novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever (RVF. RVF is an Old World, mosquito-borne disease affecting both livestock and humans. The model is an ordinary differential equation model for two populations of mosquito species, those that can transmit vertically and those that cannot, and for one livestock population. We analyze the model to find the stability of the disease-free equlibrium and test which model parameters affect this stability most significantly. This model is the basis for future research into the predication of future outbreaks in the Old World and the assessment of the threat of introduction into the New World.

  12. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S. Vede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The excavations carried in Western India have brought to light the important civilization of the Indus Valley. This is the most important civilization of the prehistoric period. The sites of this civilization are Mohenjo-Daro, meaning the Mound at the Dead, on the Indus in Sind and the other Harappa on the Ravi in the Montqomery district of the Punjab. The surrounding region of Moh enjo-Daro is wonderfully fertile and is called even today Nakhlistan or the “Garden of Sind”. Here, the city built some five thousand years ago was successively destroyed and rebuilt no less than seven times, the inundation of the Indus being perhaps the chief agency of destruction.

  13. Recursive Stochastic Effects in Valley Hybrid Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends by a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in Ref. [1], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of back-reaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that quasi-stationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. It is found that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, it is found that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an order one factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  14. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    low-permeable deposits in the stream valley creates an upward flow direction and the vertical hydraulic gradient is pointed out as a key parameter controlling the groundwater seepage rate. Seepage is difficult to measure directly and an inverse modelling approach is suggested for accurate estimates...... thereby also groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these...... groundwater dependent ecosystems. This calls for new ways of combining measurement techniques and hydrological models working at different scales. The PhD thesis investigates the hydrological functioning of fen habitats in Denmark by combining detailed field investigations, hydrological modelling and...

  15. Characterization of chasmoendolithic community in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Charmaine C M; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Rios-Murillo, Asuncion; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig; Pointing, Stephen B

    2014-08-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are unable to support higher plant and animal life and so microbial communities dominate biotic ecosystem processes. Soil communities are well characterized, but rocky surfaces have also emerged as a significant microbial habitat. Here, we identify extensive colonization of weathered granite on a landscape scale by chasmoendolithic microbial communities. A transect across north-facing and south-facing slopes plus valley floor moraines revealed 30-100 % of available substrate was colonized up to an altitude of 800 m. Communities were assessed at a multidomain level and were clearly distinct from those in surrounding soils and other rock-inhabiting cryptoendolithic and hypolithic communities. All colonized rocks were dominated by the cyanobacterial genus Leptolyngbya (Oscillatoriales), with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea, algae, and fungi also identified. Striking patterns in community distribution were evident with regard to microclimate as determined by aspect. Notably, a shift in cyanobacterial assemblages from Chroococcidiopsis-like phylotypes (Pleurocapsales) on colder-drier slopes, to Synechococcus-like phylotypes (Chroococcales) on warmer-wetter slopes. Greater relative abundance of known desiccation-tolerant bacterial taxa occurred on colder-drier slopes. Archaeal phylotypes indicated halotolerant taxa and also taxa possibly derived from nearby volcanic sources. Among the eukaryotes, the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) was ubiquitous, but known lichen-forming fungi were not recovered. Instead, fungal assemblages were dominated by ascomycetous yeasts. We conclude that chasmoendoliths likely constitute a significant geobiological phenomenon at lower elevations in granite-dominated Antarctic Dry Valley systems. PMID:24671755

  16. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  17. COMPLEX LANDSLIDE IN THE RJEČINA RIVER VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the first phase investigation results of the complex landslide situated on north-eastern slope of the Rječina valley, between Valići damm and the village of Pašac. The valley slopes were formed in Paleogene flysch and Quaternary formations. The limestone rocks are present on the top sites, forming the scarps there. The complex landslide formation has been preconditioned by the geological structure and morphogenesis of the Rječina valley. This is the type of complex retrogr...

  18. Geomorphology of the Hérens valley (Swiss Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiel, Christophe; Maillard, Benoît; Kummert, Mario; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geomorphological map of the Hérens valley in the Western Swiss Alps. With an area of 270 km2 and altitudes ranging from 470 to 4357 m a.s.l., this valley is one of the main secondary catchments of the Upper Rhône valley. The high differences in altitudes, combined with a varied geology, create an important geomorphic diversity. The main processes active in mountain areas, that is, glacial, periglacial, gravitational and fluvial processes, are well represented. The map wa...

  19. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  20. Hydrogeology and water resources of Ruby Valley northeastern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This water-resources evaluation of Ruby Valley was divided into two 3-year phases. Phase 1 was designed to quantify annual evapotranspiration (ET) from the Ruby...

  1. Fire Management Plan : Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Minnesota Valley NWR as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts...

  2. Valley Forge National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI polygon shapefile of tracts for Valley Forge NHP (VAFO). Tracts shown on inset maps A, B, and C were spatially adjusted (i.e., rubbersheeted) to...

  3. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  4. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). False...

  5. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to survey for and treat 17 different invasive species within the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and William L....

  6. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). Scotch...

  7. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge : Completion Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a summary of results for the stakeholder evaluation conducted for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2006–2007. The purpose of...

  8. Biological Profile for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge are: to preserve and enhance the refuge's lands and water in a manner that will conserve...

  9. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in AprilJune 2006 using the protocol developed by the North American Amphibian...

  10. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2000 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 2000. Surveys for anurans are conducted in conjunction with...

  11. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2002 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at the Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 2000 so this report summarizes the results of the refuges...

  12. Law Enforcement Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...

  13. Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider

    OpenAIRE

    Urmi Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed: Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider By Neils Gutschow and Hermann Kreutzmann. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himal Books, 2013. 216 pp. US $ 48.00. ISBN 978-9937-597-06-7.

  14. Synchronized Swimming--The Training at Squaw Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Margaret M.

    1979-01-01

    The Olympic Training Center at Squaw Valley is available to individuals and groups interested in advanced skill development. It offers training in sports and sports medicine techniques. Its use by the Olympic synchronized swimming team is highlighted. (JMF)

  15. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to map and control invasive species within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex refuges (William L. Finley, Ankeny,...

  16. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan Amendment No. 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan developed for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge proposed that a refuge administration office and maintenance facility be located on an...

  17. Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Canaan Valley NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  18. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...

  19. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 21 contains responses to USNRC questions on quality assurance contained in USNRC letter to NFS dated January 22, 1976, revised pages for the safety analysis report, and Appendix IX ''Quality Assurance Manual--West Valley Construction Projects.''

  20. Disease Control and Prevention Chapter: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge personnel, equipment, and...

  1. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry

    1985-01-01

    over the sloping valley floor was studied during a special observing campaign. A downslope gravity flow interacts with even colder surface air at the valley floor. The latter originates as cold marine air or previous drainage of cold air. Regular oscillations which appear to be trapped, terrain-related...... internal gravity waves, exert a major influence on the downslope flow and its interaction with pre-existing cold air at the floor of the valley......Observations of slope flows in a coastal valley are analyzed. The diurnal variation of upslope and downslope flows depends on season in a systematic way which appears to be related to the high latitude of the observational site and the presence of a nearby layer of marine air. Summer nocturnal flow...

  2. Stillwater Marsh and Lahontan Valley Wetlands Literature Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of known literature on Lahontan Valley marshlands was made by The Nature Conservancy in preparation for the Stillwater Water Management Analysis Scoping...

  3. Groundwater discharge area for Diamond Valley, Central Nevada, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of an analysis of irrigation pumping in Diamond Valley, Nevada published in 1968. The data were...

  4. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  5. Fishery Management Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contains a limited fishery resource. Hogback Ponds, Round Lake, Bituminous Pond, and Blick Estate Stream have...

  6. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  7. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  8. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  9. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  10. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley

  11. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  12. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  13. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  14. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  15. Blackfoot Valley Wildlife Management Area [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Blackfoot Valley Conservation Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  16. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  17. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  18. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  19. Channels and valley networks. [of planet Mars surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.; Carr, Michael H.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Williams, Cameron R.; Marley, Mark S.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Martian channels and valley networks, since they have become a principal element of evidence to the effect that the Martian atmosphere evolved from an early volatile-rich state to its present condition. The outflow channels are relatively young, later Hesperian or Amazonian in age. They formed by immense outbursts of fluid from subsurface sources. Complexity in outflow-channel morphology was generated by varying amounts of sediment and ice in the aqueous-fluid flow systems. The overall cataclysmic-flood morphology may thus be locally transitional to morphologies generated by ice and debris flowage. Although local areas of valley networks, such as on Alba Patera, formed coevally with outflow channel activity, regionally extensive networks dominate in the heavily cratered terrains. The morphology of many valleys suggests genesis by ground-water sapping; for some valleys, surface runoff may have been more important.

  20. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  1. Valley Density Evaluation and Typical Development Pattern in Mountainous Areas of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Song-lin; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Wang, Kai-yong; Tang, Cheng-cai; Wang, Ling-en; Liu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on geographical differences and space differentiation, valley economy is a new pattern and new perspective for the development of mountainous areas, integrating ecological protection, industrial nurture, and village integration. On the basis of natural and geographical differentiation of valley, we give an overview of the spatial distribution of valley in mountainous areas of Beijing and spatial difference in valley density, and sum up the typical development pattern of valley economy, ...

  2. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  3. Community Supported Agriculture is thriving in the Central Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Galt, Ryan E; O'Sullivan, Libby; Beckett, Jessica; Hiner, Colleen C

    2012-01-01

    Community Supported Agriculture operations (CSAs) have grown rapidly in recent years. The original model, in which members support a farming operation by paying for produce in advance and receive a share of the farm's produce in return, has been adapted, with much innovation. Since little research existed on CSAs in the Central Valley, we surveyed and carried out in-depth interviews with 54 CSA farmers and two CSA organizers in the Central Valley and surrounding foothills. Here we focus on fo...

  4. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  5. Coupling the valley degree of freedom to antiferromagnetic order

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao; Cao, Ting; Niu, Qian; Shi, Junren; Feng, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Conventional electronics are based invariably on the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron, namely, its charge and spin. The exploration of novel electronic degrees of freedom has important implications in both basic quantum physics and advanced information technology. Valley as a new electronic degree of freedom has received considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we develop the theory of spin and valley physics of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice. We show that by ...

  6. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  7. ORGANIC FARMING AND SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT: ÇORUH VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Ummugulsum; Erdogan, Yasar; Cakmakci, Ramazan; Turan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming has potential for reducing some of the negative impacts of conventional agriculture on the environment. Organic farming contributes to rural development and economy. These farming systems can also be the most important contributor to the rural economy of region and Çoruh Valley. Çoruh Valley contains rich biological diversity of plants, wildlife, and ecosystems. These natural and environmental resources will play an important role for rural development in this area. Some evid...

  8. Water balance of lakes in the Kenya Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rift Valley of Kenya contains lakes which cover the spectrum from comparatively fresh to hypersaline (here denoting high bicarbonate rather than chloride concentration). Lake water chemistry is the product of the balance between inflows, outflows and evaporation, and therefore provides a key to the understanding of lake hydrology. Isotope techniques are particularly important in an area like the Rift Valley, where lakes have no surface egress, but may have considerable subsurface outflow. 1 fig

  9. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld; Marco Di Ioia; Daniele Ferdani; Augusto Palombini; Valentina Sanna; Sara Zanni; Eva Pietroni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena). Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory ...

  10. Innovation and heritage entrepreneurship development in the South Wales Valleys

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Lisa; Thomas, Simon; Thomas, Brychan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is an investigation of innovation and heritage entrepreneurship development in the South Wales Valleys. It is particularly concerned with opportunities to develop industrial heritage tourism enterprises in the South Wales Valleys, with special reference to Merthyr Tydfil. The research is based upon eight case study structured interviews and collated data to produce, in combination with the contemporary literature, four key themes to achieve a sustainable regener...

  11. Învăţământul biblioteconomic românesc la distanţă. Contextul actual şi posibile soluţii

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2012-01-01

    Furnizarea unei alternative de învăţare la distanţă pentru învăţământul biblioteconomic românesc a constituit un avantaj individual, organizaţional şi sistemic. Într-o societate în care legislaţia are lacune serioase mai ales în privinţa precizărilor privind angajarea şi perfecţionarea profesională, în care decizia politică adesea influenţează şi trece dincolo de criteriile obiective minimale de angajare pe post, se impune regândirea unui proiect de formare iniţială şi continuă la distanţă pe...

  12. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  13. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  14. Rift Valley fever ecology and early warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rift Valley fever (RVF) once again dramatically affected the Horn of Africa (Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania) in 2006-2007. This outbreak was linked to unusual rainfall associated with climatic events (El Nino), which affected the populations of the mosquitoes acting as vectors and reservoirs of the disease. The disease also reappeared in Sudan in the autumn of 2007, following excessive rainfall driven by a post-El Nino, unusually warm sea temperature in the Indian Ocean. In the same year and in 2008, the disease affected southern Africa countries (Swaziland, South Africa) and islands in the Indian Ocean (Comoros, Mayotte, Madagascar). Based on near real-time climatic data, forecasting models and Early Warning Systems were available at the continental level and proved to be efficient in raising the alert before the onset of the epidemic, at least for the coastal countries of eastern Africa. In addition, these recent events gave an opportunity to review the natural history of RVF, especially in some places where its ecology was poorly documented. FAO and WHO officers widely use outcomes from the different models and then identified gaps or needs that could be filled in order to improve the use of these predictions. A brainstorming meeting was organized in Rome in September 2008 to discuss adjustments and complementarities of the existing models, as forecasting and early warning systems are the key points that may provide a time window for preventive measures, before the amplification of the virus is out of control. (author)

  15. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  16. Stream Processing Environmental Applications in Jordan Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Ahmad Aldasouqi, Jalal Atoum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Database system architectures have been gone through innovative changes, specially theunifications of algorithms and data via the integration of programming languages with thedatabase system. Such an innovative changes is needed in Stream-based applications since theyhave different requirements for the principal of stream data processing system. For example, themonitoring component requires query processing system to detect user-defined events in a timelymanner as in real time monitoring system. Furthermore, stream processing fits a large class ofnew applications for which conventional DBMSs fall short since many stream-oriented systemsare inherently geographically distributed and the distribution offers a scalable load managementand higher availability.This paper presents statistical information about metrological data such as the weather, soil andevapotranspiration as collected by the weather stations distributed in different locations in JordanValley. In addition, it shows the importance of Stream Processing in some real life applications,and shows how the database systems can help researcher in building prototypes that can beimplemented and used in a continuous monitoring system.

  17. Effects of prescribed fires on young valley oak trees at a research restoration site in the Central Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, K A; Veblen, Kari E.; T. P. YOUNG; Berry, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Woodland restoration sites planted with Quercus lobata (valley oak) often have serious invasions of nonnative annual grasses and thistles. Although prescribed fire can effectively control these exotics, restoration managers may be reluctant to use fire if it causes substantial mortality of recently planted saplings. We studied the effects of prescribed fires on the survival and subsequent growth of 5- and 6-year-old valley oak saplings at a research field near Davis, California. One set of bl...

  18. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from the Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVS) and... states that the lease agreement between PVS and PVR will not contain any interchange commitments....

  19. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  20. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  1. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  2. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The Meads Creek valley encompasses 70 square miles of predominantly forested uplands in the upper Susquehanna River drainage basin. The valley, which was listed as a Priority Waterbody by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 2004, is prone to periodic flooding, mostly in its downstream end, where development is occurring most rapidly. Hydraulic characteristics of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifer were evaluated, and seepage rates in losing and gaining tributaries were calculated or estimated, in an effort to delineate the aquifer geometry and identify the factors that contribute to flooding. Results indicated that (1) Meads Creek gained about 61 cubic feet of flow per second (about 6.0 cubic feet per second per mile of stream channel) from ground-water discharge and inflow from tributaries in its 10.2-mile reach between the northernmost and southernmost measurement sites; (2) major tributaries in the northern part of the valley are not significant sources of recharge to the aquifer; and (3) major tributaries in the central and southern part of the valley provide recharge to the aquifer. The ground-water portion of streamflow in Meads Creek (excluding tributary inflow) was 11.3 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the central part of the valley and 17.2 ft3/s in the southern part - a total of 28.5 ft3/s. Ground-water levels were measured in 29 wells finished in unconfined deposits for construction of a potentiometric-surface map to depict directions of ground-water flow within the valley. In general, ground water flows from the edges of the valley toward Meads Creek and ultimately discharges to it. The horizontal hydraulic gradient for the entire 12-mile-long aquifer averages about 30 feet per mile, whereas the gradient in the southern fourth of the valley averages about half that - about 17 feet per mile. A water budget for the aquifer indicated that 28 percent of recharge was derived from precipitation that falls on the aquifer, 32

  3. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  4. Effects of valley meteorology on forest pesticide spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this study for the Missoula Technology and Development Center of the US Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The purpose of the study was to summarize recent research on valley meteorology during the morning transition period and to qualitatively evaluate the effects of the evolution of valley temperature inversions and wind systems on the aerial spraying of pesticides in National Forest areas of the western United States. Aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides in forests of the western United States is usually accomplished in the morning hour after first light, during the period known to meteorologists as the morning transition period.'' This document describes the key physical processes that occur during the morning transition period on undisturbed days and the qualitative effects of these processes on the conduct of aerial spraying operations. Since the timing of valley meteorological events may be strongly influenced by conditions that are external to the valley, such as strong upper-level winds or the influence of clouds on the receipt of solar energy in the valley, some remarks are made on the qualitative influence of these processes. Section 4 of this report suggests ways to quantify some of the physical processes to provide useful guidance for the planning and conduct of spraying operations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  5. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  6. Local Community Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of the Lenggong Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Jaafar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been acknowledged as the best approach to empower the socio-economic development of rural communities in various countries. Lenggong Valley is in its first phase of tourism development and entrepreneurship of local community is still under studied in Lenggong. By looking at various business activities that could be generated by the development, their involvement in business would contribute to a better economic return. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship of local community in Lenggong Valley. Based on quantitative face to face survey conducted on 500 residents in Lenggong Valley, the finding indicates that some of the local communities in Lenggong are already involved in entrepreneurship activities; however their business survivability should be a concern as they face limited financial sources and support. Furthermore, the majority of them are still involve in agricultural related activities making an indication that major effort is required to transform their life-style from agriculture to entrepreneurship. The finding provides a suggestion to the government on the needs to implement various entrepreneurship related programme in Lenggong Valley. Strategies to increase their involvement could be done through innovative programs, awareness, preparedness, and education on future entrepreneurs. Having newly declared as a world heritage site, this paper demonstrates the preliminary result on the need for a deeper examination on local community entrepreneurship in Lenggong Valley.

  7. Glacial geology of the upper Wairau Valley, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late Pleistocene glaciers in the upper Wairau Valley deposited four groups of moraines inferred to represent one Waimean ice advance, two Otiran ice advances, and an advance of early Aranuian age. The Waimean and early Otiran glaciers advanced into Tarndale Valley, deposited terminal moraines, and shed outwash down both the Alma River and Travellers Valley. The middle Otiran glacier terminated in northern Tarndale Valley and shed outwash from the southern part of its terminus down the Alma River. The north side of the terminus abutted a large ice-dammed lake in the Wairau Gorge, and fan-deltas graded to an old shore level at an elevation of 1040 m. Well-preserved moraines at the mouths of four glaciated tributaries may be middle Otiran recessional, or late Otiran terminal moraines. The latest ice advance extended 11 km down the upper Wairau Valley and deposited a subdued moraine at Island Gully. The composite chronology of the latest glacial advance based on 10 radiocarbon ages suggests it occurred between about 9.5 and 10.2 ka. This age span is similar to that of early Aranuian glacial advances dated by other workers in the Southern Alps, and may reflect Younger Dryas cooling. (author). 22 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  9. Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

  10. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  11. Katabatic winds in the lower Tamar valley, Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an integral part of an air quality study undertaken in the lower Tamar valley, Tasmania, where Bell Bay industrial area is located, 10-m surface winds were monitored by six Lambrecht Woelfle type anemographs along the valley between Low Head and Dilston (27 km SE of Bell Bay industrial area) in 1982-1983. A thetered ballon was also used to investigate the temperature and wind profiles within the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere in the industrial area. The paper presents some of the results obtained. It mainly focuses on the katabatic winds which affect the dispersion of atmospheric emissions from various sources in the lower Tamar valley, particularly those from the aluminium smelter, the ferro-alloys smelter and the 2x120 Mw oil-fired thermal power station, which are located in or near the industrial area. The characteristics of the katabatic winds are identified, and their implications for air pollution problems in the study area are discussed

  12. Isotopic study of waterlogging and salinization in Peshawar valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed account of the application of isotope and geochemical techniques in the study of waterlogging and selenization of agricultural lands in Peshawar valley area is presented. Precipitation samples, surface / groundwater samples and aqueous sulphate were analysed for tritium and stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur. The data show that the artesian aquifer is recharged by the precipitation at high mountain whereas local precipitation and irrigation canal waters are mainly responsible for the recharge and waterlogging in the unconfined aquifer. In some parts of the valley, upward leakage from artesian water is found to cause waterlogging. The valley area contains water recharged after 1953. The chemical quality of the shallow groundwater is quite poor as compared to that of deep groundwater. 18 figs. (author)

  13. Clustering model in N-doped many-valley semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic structure of the impurity states in n-silicon as an example of randomly distributed donor impurities in a diamond structure many-valley semiconductor is investigated. An improved Hartree-Fock-Roothaan scheme with spin-polarized potentials and a Kohn-Luttinger donor wave function associates with each impurity were used in the calculation. It is shown that the many-valley character of the host gives rise to a distribution of impurity clusters of various sizes, quite different from the case of neglecting the valley multiplicity, and that is strongly reduces the self-compensation effect due to the potential fluctuation. The results are in agreement with recent investigations that have appeared in the literature. (Author)

  14. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  16. Immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological profile of health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust from sand dunes at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; Eggers, Margaret; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; DeWitt, Jamie

    2016-01-15

    Exposure to geogenic particulate matter (PM) comprised of mineral particles has been linked to human health effects. However, very little data exist on health effects associated with geogenic dust exposure in natural settings. Therefore, we characterized particulate matter size, metal chemistry, and health effects of dust collected from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a popular off-road vehicle area located near Las Vegas, NV. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to several concentrations of mineral dust collected from active and vegetated sand dunes in NDRA. Dust samples (median diameter: 4.4 μm) were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and delivered at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight by oropharyngeal aspiration. ICP-MS analyses of total dissolution of the dust resulted in aluminum (55,090 μg/g), vanadium (70 μg/g), chromium (33 μg/g), manganese (511 μg/g), iron (21,600 μg/g), cobalt (9.4 μg/g), copper (69 μg/g), zinc (79 μg/g), arsenic (62 μg/g), strontium (620 μg/g), cesium (13 μg/g), lead 25 μg/g) and uranium (4.7 μg/g). Arsenic was present only as As(V). Mice received four exposures, once/week over 28-days to mimic a month of weekend exposures. Descriptive and functional assays to assess immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity were performed 24 h after the final exposure. The primary observation was that 0.1 to 100 mg/kg of this sand dune derived dust dose-responsively reduced antigen-specific IgM antibody responses, suggesting that dust from this area of NDRA may present a potential health risk. PMID:26644169

  17. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be paths through ~120-220 °C. We will present both the apatite and zircon 4He/3He data and, in conjunction with thermo-kinematic modeling, discuss the ability and limitations of these data to test models of Sierra Nevada topography development through time. Matthes (1930) USGS Professional Paper House et al. (1998) Nature McPhillips and Brandon (2012) American Journal of Science

  18. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  20. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms. PMID:2588049

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  3. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  4. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  5. Public Libraries in Pokhara Valley: their servces and users' satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Kishor

    2010-01-01

    Public library is a busy centre where people of all ages can seek and find knowledge from books and other materials. It is also a place where the experiences of the past can meet the needs of the present. So, it helps to develop the local community as well as country. But in our context, PLs have always been beyond the shadow. Here, the study entitled “PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN POKHARA VALLEY: THEIR SERVICES AND USERS’ SATISFACTION” has tried to study whether the PLs of Pokhara valley are supportiv...

  6. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Julie T.; Roy, Sumith S.; Shams, Navid; Visintainer, Paul; Nadelman, Robert B.; Hosur, Srilatha; Nelson, John,; Wormser, Gary P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the Lower Hudson Valley of New York, United States, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001. The number of Lower Hudson Valley residents in whom babesiosis was diagnosed increased 20-fold, from 6 to 119 cases per year during 2001–2008, compared with an ≈1.6-fold increase for the rest of New York. During 2002–2009, a total of 19 patients with babesiosis were hospitalized on 22 occasions at the regional tertiary care center...

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  10. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  11. All-Si Valley-Hall Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tzuhsuan

    2016-01-01

    An all-Si photonic structure emulating the quantum-valley-Hall effect is proposed. We show that it acts as a photonic topological insulator (PTI), and that an interface between two such PTIs can support edge states that are free from scattering. The conservation of the valley degree of freedom enables efficient in- and out-coupling of light between the free space and the photonic structure. The topological protection of the edge waves can be utilized for designing arrays of resonant time- delay photonic cavities that do not suffer from reflections and cross-talk.

  12. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * *...

  13. Farm Process (FMP) Parameters used in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the farm-process parameters used in the transient hydrologic model of the Central Valley flow system. The Central Valley encompasses an...

  14. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall...

  15. Monthly Diversions from the Surface-Water Network of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses...

  16. Streamflow-gain- and streamflow-loss data for streamgages in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains 61 sets of annual streamflow gains and losses between 1961 and 1977 along Central Valley surface-water network for the Central Valley...

  17. Virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: This digital dataset contains the virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  18. Monthly Precipitation Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly precipitation for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000...

  19. Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate...

  20. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  1. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  4. Grid cells used for Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the segment and reaches for the surface-water network by model cell for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  5. Monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  6. Inflow Locations and Magnitude Input Files to the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  7. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  8. Hyperinflation of surfaces in lower Beacon Valley, Dry Valleys, Antarctica: new process and new clues about fluctuations of Taylor Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.; Hagedorn, B.; Stone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Soil inflation in dry environments is a common occurrence in areas where extensive desert pavements overlie silt-size particles of eolian origin. Another type of surface inflation, which we term hyperinflation, has been documented in the Dry Valleys where fines drop into contraction cracks that annually open and close 0.5 to 1.5 cm. Particles of local or eolian origin that are smaller than the crack opening can fall into the cracks,. We have cored over 30 m into such a hyperinflated surface in lower Beacon Valley. Large clasts several cm to over 10 m are suspended on top of the finer sediments leading to the characteristic rocky surface of Beacon Valley. These processes have been active over at least several million years based on cosmogenic 10 Be and 26 Al profiles with depth. This new hyperinflation has much in common with the progressive addition of ice into the permafrost in Siberia forming the classic edoma or ice-wedge complexes. We propose that these “sand-wedge complexes” form in a similar way but are only sand because liquid water seldom forms in sufficient amounts to fill the contraction cracks in the hyperarid Beacon Valley. Furthermore, our analysis of a 10-m core collected earlier reveal historical waxing and waning of the Taylor Glacier over lower Beacon Valley in the past several million years; one of these incursions of ice may be responsible for the formation of buried glacial ice found in middle Beacon Valley. We are currently processing our 30-m core and believe that this will improve definition of the extent and chronology of Taylor Glacier advances.

  9. 78 FR 35618 - Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Date filed: March 20, 2013. d. Applicant: Three Valleys Municipal Water District. e. Name of Project... applicant, Three Valleys Municipal Water District. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act 16 U.S.C....

  10. The impact of horizontal model grid resolution on the boundary layer structure over an idealized valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johannes; Gohm, Alexander; Rotach, Mathias; Leukauf, Daniel; Posch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The role of horizontal model grid resolution on the development of the daytime boundary layer over mountainous terrain is studied. A simple idealized valley topography with a cross-valley width of 20~km, a valley depth of 1.5~km and a constant surface heat flux forcing is used to generate upslope flows in a warming valley boundary layer. The goal of this study is to investigate differences in the upslope flow and boundary layer structure of the valley when its topography is either fully resolved, smoothed or not resolved by the numerical model. This is done by performing both large-eddy (LES) and kilometer-scale simulations with mesh sizes of 50, 1000, 2000, 4000, 5000 and 10000~m. In LES mode a valley inversion layer develops, which separates two vertically stacked circulation cells in an upper and lower boundary layer. These structures weaken with decreasing horizontal model grid resolution and change to a convective boundary layer similar to the one over an elevated flat plain when the valley is no longer resolved. Mean profiles of the LES run, which are obtained by horizontal averaging over the valley show a three-layer thermal structure and a secondary heat flux maximum at ridge height. Strong smoothing of the valley topography prevents the development of a valley inversion layer with stacked circulation cells and leads to higher valley temperatures due to smaller valley volumes. This investigation shows that a parameterization is needed in coarse resolution models to capture exchange processes over mountainous terrain.

  11. 78 FR 13748 - Environmental Impact Statement for the East San Fernando Valley Transit Corridor Project, Los...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Transit Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the East San Fernando Valley Transit... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for proposed transit improvements in the East San Fernando Valley Transit... and related infrastructure in the eastern San Fernando Valley. The EIS will evaluate new light...

  12. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  13. The ValleyMorph Tool: An automated extraction tool for transverse topographic symmetry (T-) factor and valley width to valley height (Vf-) ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxberger, Heidi; Dalumpines, Ron; Scott, Darren M.; Riller, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In tectonically active regions on Earth, shallow-crustal deformation associated with seismic hazards may pose a threat to human life and property. The study of landform development, such as analysis of the valley width to valley height ratio (Vf-ratio) and the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor (T-factor), delineating drainage basin symmetry, can be used as a relative measure of tectonic activity along fault-bound mountain fronts. The fast evolution of digital elevation models (DEM) provides an ideal base for remotely-sensed tectonomorphic studies of large areas using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). However, a manual extraction of the above mentioned morphologic parameters may be tedious and very time consuming. Moreover, basic GIS software suites do not provide the necessary built-in functions. Therefore, we present a newly developed, Python based, ESRI ArcGIS compatible tool and stand-alone script, the ValleyMorph Tool. This tool facilitates an automated extraction of the Vf-ratio and the T-factor data for large regions. Using a digital elevation raster and watershed polygon files as input, the tool provides output in the form of several ArcGIS data tables and shapefiles, ideal for further data manipulation and computation. This coding enables an easy application among the ArcGIS user community and code conversion to earlier ArcGIS versions. The ValleyMorph Tool is easy to use due to a simple graphical user interface. The tool is tested for the southern Central Andes using a total of 3366 watersheds.

  14. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  15. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  16. Likelihood of volcanic eruption at Long Valley, California, is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D.

    1984-01-01

    A relatively low level of earthquake activity as well as reduced rates of ground deformation over the past year have led U.S Geological Survey scientists to conclude that the likelihood of imminent volcanic activity at Long Valley, California, is reduced from that of mid-1982 through 1983.

  17. Estimate of erosion risk on soils in the Vinodol Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Kisić; Ferdo Bašić; Milan Mesić; Anđelko Butorac

    2000-01-01

    Potential natural soil erosion by water was investigated on six soil units occurring in the studied area of the Vinodol valley. According to the overall depth to the parent rock, soils were classified into three groups: medium deep (1,2 m - Fluvisol, calcareous, gleyic; Gleys, hypogleyic and Gleys, amphigleyic). Tolerant soil...

  18. Ground-water-level contours for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the ground-water-level contours derived from ground-water monitoring sites in Carson Valley, west-central Nevada. The data set is part of a...

  19. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. 7.17 Section 7.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can,...

  20. Reporting on nuclear power: the Tennessee Valley case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), by deciding to have 90 percent of its new generating capacity nuclear, has made the valley a testing ground for civilian nuclear power, but valley newspapers have not provided consumers with enough information on either the pros or cons. A 1975 Browns Ferry plant fire, the most serious in the history of the civilian nuclear industry, prompted some nuclear critics to question TVA's competence to plan and manage the program. Newspapers carried wire-service stories of the fire, while their editorials gave strong support to TVA and the effort to reopen the plant. Valley newspapers have traditionally favored TVA as a powerful economic and political force which has brought many benefits. Local pride in the Oak Ridge Laboratory and plant facilities and the Federal fast-breeder reactor project headquarters also enhanced the positive attitude of the press, which tended to report details but not question nuclear safety or TVA ability. Newspapers have also failed to question TVA's claims that rates will decline as nuclear plants begin operating. A review of relevant news stories during the 1975--1976 period addresses the press coverage and notes its failure to question whether power demands justify TVA's plant construction program. Knowledgeable consultants are available to provide information on the issues, while editors are advised to give comprehensive, critical coverage and avoid promotion

  1. Spectral remote sensing investigation of Lisbon Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that specific diagnetic mineral assemblages within the Wingate Formation are closely associated with hydrocarbon production at the Lisbon Valley Anticline. These minerals can be identified with remotely sensed data acquired in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. The Wingate Formation, exposed along the southwestern flank of the structure, has a relatively uniform composition and appearance over the entire Colorado Plateau, except at isolated localities such as Lisbon Valley, where it is locally bleached. Previous workers have suggested that hydrocarbon microseepage may account for the association of bleached Wingate sandstone with uranium mineralization and oil and gas production at Lisbon Valley. Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data are used to map the bleached Facies on the basis of albedo, lack of ferric-iron , and the abundance of clay minerals. Two spatially distinct occurrence of the bleached facies exist: rocks overlying the reservoir at the Lisbon Field, and the Three Step Hill area, located downdip from the Little Valley Field

  2. Police Station and Court House, Cedar Valley, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Young Brothers

    2004-01-01

    161 x 116 mm. Showing a small group of Jamaican men and women standing in front of the stone courthouse. With hills in the background. Cedar Valley lies about ten miles east of Kingston at the foot of the Blue Mountains. The photograph was taken circa 1900-1910.

  3. Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

  4. Testing a Mars science outpost in the Antarctic dry valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Field research conducted in the Antarctic has been providing insights about the nature of Mars in the science disciplines of exobiology and geology. Located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land (160 deg and 164 deg E longitude and 76 deg 30 min and 78 deg 30 min S latitude), research outposts are inhabited by teams of 4-6 scientists. It is proposed that the design of these outposts be expanded to enable meaningful tests of many of the systems that will be needed for the successful conduct of exploration activities on Mars. Although there are some important differences between the environment in the Antarctic dry valleys and on Mars, the many similarities and particularly the field science activities, make the dry valleys a useful terrestrial analog to conditions on Mars. Three areas have been identified for testing at a small science outpost in the dry valleys: (1) studying human factors and physiology in an isolated environment; (2) testing emerging technologies (e.g. innovative power management systems, advanced life support facilities including partial bioregenerative life support systems for water recycling and food growth, telerobotics, etc.); and (3) conducting basic scientific research that will enhance understanding of Mars while contributing to the planning for human exploration. It is suggested that an important early result of a Mars habitat program will be the experience gained by interfacing humans and their supporting technology in a remote and stressful environment.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Lunyo

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Sarah; Horton, Daniel L.; Marston, Denise A.; Johnson, Nicholas; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Using next-generation sequencing technologies, the first complete genome sequence of Rift Valley fever virus strain Lunyo is reported here. Originally reported as an attenuated antigenic variant strain from Uganda, genomic sequence analysis shows that Lunyo clusters together with other Ugandan isolates.

  6. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2016-05-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  7. The Sweet Valley High Gang Goes to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Joyce A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the first 14 books of the "Sweet Valley University" series. Finds that the storylines on sex send conflicting messages that make readers believe that premarital sex is not an important issue. Notes that date rape and a brief look at racism and alcohol abuse are the only serious topics addressed. (RS)

  8. Business plan Tilapia Pond Farming in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Brouwer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique.

    Freshwater aquaculture in Mozambique consists mainly of small-scale tilapia producti

  9. Mohawk Valley Community College, Report 96-T-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, David R.

    In 1996, the New York State Office of the Comptroller performed an audit of Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) and Supplemental Tuition Assistance Program (STAP) awards at Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) for the 1993-94 through 1995-96 academic years. TAP, the largest student grant and scholarship program administered by the Higher Education…

  10. Învăţământul biblioteconomic românesc la distanţă. Contextul actual şi posibile soluţii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2012-01-01

    Am gândit o abordare riguroasă care reflectă, problemele cu care se confruntă biblioteconomia românească la nivel de învăţământ superior şi am subliniat strategiile optime de implementare. Beneficiile unei astfel de gândiri pot fi clasificate ca aparţinând : inovării în educaţie, facilităţilor comunicaţionale, srategiilor efective de predare a informării şi documentării.

  11. Analysis of crater valleys, Noachis Terra, Mars: Evidence of fluvial and glacial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Paull, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The precise mechanism for the formation and evolution of crater valley networks in the Martian southern highlands remains under debate, with precipitation, groundwater flow, and melting induced by impact being suggested. We studied valley networks within four craters of the Noachis Terra highlands that were representative of similar features in Noachis Terra and where orbital data existed for analysis in order to characterise their morphology and infer possible processes involved in their formation and evolution. We found evidence for valleys carved by liquid water and ice-related processes. This included strong evidence of liquid water-based valley formation through melting of ice-rich deposits throughout our study area, suggesting an alternative to previously suggested rainfall or groundwater-based scenarios. The location of these valleys on steeply sloping crater walls, as opposed to the shallow slopes of the highlands where Martian valleys are typically found, suggested that our 'fluvial' valleys had not evolved a more structured fluvial morphology as valley networks found on the Martian plains. Our studied valleys' association with ice-rich material and abundant evidence for erosion caused by downslope flow of ice-rich material are consistent with a cold, wet Mars hypothesis where accumulation, flow, and melting of ice have been dominant factors in eroding crater valleys. Additionally, analysis of valley morphology with slope and aspect suggested a greater dependence on local geology and presence of volatiles than larger valley networks, though ice-related valleys were consistently wider for their length than valleys assessed as fluvial carved. We assessed that local conditions such as climate, geology, and availability of ice-rich material played a major role in the erosion of crater valleys at our study site.

  12. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi2, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  13. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  14. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  15. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  16. Disorder-induced valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King; Eriksson, M. A.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Quantum dots in silicon are promising candidates for the implementation of solid-state quantum information processing. It is important to understand the effects of the multiple conduction band valleys of silicon on the properties of these devices. Here we present a systematic effective mass theory of valley-orbit coupling in disordered silicon systems. This theory reveals valley-orbit hybridization effects that are detrimental for storing quantum information in the valley degree of freedom, including nonvanishing dipole matrix elements between valley states and altered intervalley tunneling.

  17. Valley Zeeman effect and spin-valley polarized conductance in monolayer MoS2 in a perpendicular magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Habib; Asgari, Reza

    2015-02-01

    We study the effect of a perpendicular magnetic field on the electronic structure and charge transport of a monolayer MoS2 nanoribbon at zero temperature. We particularly explore the induced valley Zeeman effect through the coupling between the magnetic field B and the orbital magnetic moment. We show that the effective two-band Hamiltonian provides a mismatch between the valley Zeeman coupling in the conduction and valence bands due to the effective mass asymmetry and it is proportional to B2 similar to the diamagnetic shift of exciton binding energies. However, the dominant term which evolves with B linearly, originates from the multiorbital and multiband structures of the system. Besides, we investigate the transport properties of the system by calculating the spin-valley resolved conductance and show that, in a low-hole doped case, the transport channels at the edges are chiral for one of the spin components. This leads to a localization of the nonchiral spin component in the presence of disorder and thus provides a spin-valley polarized transport induced by disorder.

  18. Remote sensing of PM, NO, CO and HC emission factors for on-road gasoline and diesel engine vehicles in Las Vegas, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel light detection and ranging-based remote sensing system was assembled and used to measure mass particulate matter (PM) emissions per unit of fuel burned from in-use on-road vehicles. A commercially available remote sensing system was concurrently used to measure emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO) and hydrocarbons (HC). The two systems were used to measure 61,207 gasoline and 1180 diesel powered vehicle emissions in Las Vegas, NV from 4/4/2000 to 5/16/2002. Emission factors were related to vehicle age, weight class and fuel type by matching license IDs to the state registration data. Measurements of vehicle speed and acceleration permitted the analysis of emission factors by vehicle specific power (VSP). Average emission factors were calculated for light-duty (3863 kg (8500 lbs)) gasoline vehicles (HDGV) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV). LDDV and HDDV emitted ∼25 times more PM per mass of fuel than LDGV and HDGV. Sufficient numbers of LDGV were measured to relate VSP with CO, HC and NO emissions. No relationship was observed between PM emissions and VSP. PM emission factors from LDGV increased with vehicle age. Fuel-based emission factors measured by remote sensing were compared with MOBILE6 and PART5 emissions model factors. Good agreement was observed for HC emission factors for vehicles less than 20 years old. MOBILE6 CO emission factors were ∼2 times greater than measured CO emission factors for vehicles less than 13 years old. Measured NO emission factors were ∼50% greater than MOBILE6 factors for vehicles 7-15 years old but in good agreement for vehicles less than 7 years old. Measured PM emission factors showed a clear increase with vehicle age, however, PART5 uses only a single PM emission factor for LDGV less than 18 years old. The PM emission factors for the fleet of LDGV, HDGV, LDDV and HDDV were 0.06, 0.05, 1.6 and 1.5 g/kg, respectively

  19. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km2-large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 o steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  20. Soluble salt accumulations in Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Implications for paleolakes and Ross Sea Ice Sheet dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Jonathan D.; Sletten, Ronald S.; Prentice, Michael L.

    2013-03-01

    Soluble salt accumulations in soils of Taylor Valley, Antarctica, provide a history of paleolakes and the advance of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet (RSIS). In western Taylor Valley, soluble salt accumulations are relatively high and are composed primarily of Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, and SO42-. In eastern Taylor Valley, soluble salt accumulations are much lower and are composed primarily of Na+ and HCO3-. Na-HCO3-rich compositions in eastern Taylor Valley are formed through leaching, calcite dissolution, and cation exchange reactions and appear to influence the chemistry of nearby streams and lakes. The data presented here support hypotheses that a lobe of the RSIS expanded into eastern Taylor Valley and dammed proglacial paleolakes. However, in contrast to previous studies, our findings indicate that the RSIS advanced deeper into Taylor Valley and that paleolakes were less extensive. By comparing soluble salt distributions across Taylor Valley, we conclude that a lobe of the RSIS filled all of eastern Taylor Valley and dammed paleolakes in western Taylor Valley up to approximately 300 m elevation. Following ice retreat, smaller paleolakes formed in both western and eastern Taylor Valley up to about 120 m elevation, with prominent still-stands controlled by the elevation of major valley thresholds. At higher elevations, soluble salt accumulations are consistent with older soils that have not been affected by the most recent RSIS advance.

  1. Valley Density Evaluation and Typical Development Pattern in Mountainous Areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Song-lin; ZHANG Yi-feng; WANG Kai-yong; TANG Cheng-cai; WANG Ling-en; LIU Yu

    2012-01-01

    Based on geographical differences and space differentiation, valley economy is a new pattern and new perspective for the development of mountainous areas, integrating ecological protection, industrial nurture, and village integration. On the basis of natural and geographical differentiation of valley, we give an overview of the spatial distribution of valley in mountainous areas of Beijing and spatial difference in valley density, and sum up the typical development pattern of valley economy, using DEM data. The results show that the spatial distribution of valley presents an asymmetric shape of inverted V or branch; Miyun, Yanqing, and Changping have high valley density, while Pinggu, Fangshan and Mentougou have low valley density; there is a significant positive relationship between valley density and the spatial distribution of river and reservoir. The development pattern of valley economy is divided into five types: leisure and high-end upgrade-based pattern, ecological development and transition demonstration-based pattern, folk culture and creation-driven pattern, scenic spots-driven and valley-linked pattern and leisure agriculture and specialty-led pattern.

  2. Yellowstone and Long Valley - A Comparison of Two Restless Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.; Smith, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Three large, silicic calderas in the conterminous United States have explosively erupted volumes > 300 km3 within in the last 2 million years -- Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming) Long Valley caldera (California) and the Vallez caldera (New Mexico) all located in extensional tectonic environments. All have shown varying levels of historic unrest. Pronounced unrest episodes at Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas over the past three decades stimulated extensive research on these two closely monitored calderas, and we explore some emerging similarities and differences. Yellowstone caldera is underlain by a long-lived (> 17 my) upper-mantle hot-spot that has fed a series of caldera-forming, extending to the southwest across southern Idaho to central Oregon including three caldera-forming eruptions from the Yellowstone caldera system in the last 2 my, the most recent at 600,000 ybp. It is marked by relatively low density and low seismic velocities extending to depths of at least 400 km and a regional topographic swell with elevations exceeding 2000 m. The extensive Yellowstone hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 5 GW. The most recent magmatic eruption dated at 70,000 ybp. By comparison, Long Valley caldera is underlain by a relatively modest "hot-spot", the locus of which appears to be influenced by a dilatational jog between the dextral Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane and westward delamination of the dense lithospheric root of the adjacent Sierra Nevada. The Long Valley system has fed multiple eruptions of over the past 4 my and a single caldera-forming eruption at 760,000 ybp. It is marked by a limited topographic swell but with the elevation of the caldera floor and adjacent basins comparable to the 2000-plus m elevation of the Yellowstone swell. Long Valley caldera hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 0.3 GW (including a 40 MW geothermal power plant). The most recent eruptions from the Long Valley Caldera- Mono Domes volcanic field

  3. Performance Assessment Institute-NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.

  4. New GPS Constraints On Owens Valley Fault Slip Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Owens Valley fault (OVF) is one of several north- to northwest-striking faults that collectively accommodate ~10 mm/yr of dextral shear and extension across the southern Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone (SWL). This zone, which lies east of the San Andreas Fault system and the Sierra Nevada microplate and north of the Garlock Fault, accommodates 20-25% of the Pacific/North America relative plate motion. The OVF strikes subparallel to principal regional faults to the east, including the Panamint Valley, Death Valley, and Fish Lake Valley fault zones, and is the site of an M 7.5 earthquake in 1872. Fault slip rates are a key input into seismic hazard modeling and can be estimated from GPS measurements that quantify the rate and pattern of interseismic crustal deformation. Earlier geodetic estimates based on campaign GPS are between ~2-8.5 mm/yr, while geologic estimates range from ~1 to 4 mm/yr. In the past several years, GPS constraints on crustal deformation of the SWL has improved though the southward extension of the MAGNET GPS network with 3 campaigns extending the time series to 4 years from 2005 to 2009, installation of EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, and longer time series on stations of the Basin and Range GPS network. These data have been analyzed using GIPSY-OASIS II with recently reprocessed orbits from the IGS analysis center at JPL. Our GPS processing now includes satellite and station antenna calibrations, random-walk tropospheric zenith delay and gradients using the GMF mapping function, second-order ionospheric corrections, global-scale ambiguity resolution using our custom Ambizap software, and our custom Great Basin spatially-filtered reference frame. These improved measurements justify a new look at rates across the OVF. We present a revised estimate for the slip rate by applying a block modeling methodology constrained by the new GPS data. Since the GPS data in this region are suspected to contain transient signals from post

  5. Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration features images of southern California and southwestern Nevada acquired on January 3, 2001 (Terra orbit 5569), and includes data from three of MISR's nine cameras. The San Joaquin Valley, which comprises the southern extent of California's Central Valley, covers much of the viewed area. Also visible are several of the Channel Islands near the bottom, and Mono and Walker Lakes, which stand out as darker patches near the top center, especially in the vertical and backward oblique images. Near the lower right of each image is the Los Angeles Basin, with the distinctive chevron shape of the Mojave Desert to its north.The Central Valley is a well-irrigated and richly productive agricultural area situated between the Coast Range and the snow-capped Sierra Nevadas. During the winter, the region is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected sunlight, dramatic differences in the MISR images are apparent as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, the pervasive haze that fills most of the valley is only slightly visible in the vertical view. At the oblique angles, the haze is highly distinguishable against the land surface background, particularly in the forward-viewing direction. Just above image center, the forward view also reveals bluish-tinged plumes near Lava Butte in Sequoia National Forest, where the National Interagency Coordination Center reported an active forest fire.The changing surface visibility in the multi-angle data allows us to derive the amount of atmospheric haze. In the lower right quadrant is a map of haze amount determined from automated processing of the MISR imagery. Low amounts of haze are shown in blue, and a variation in hue through shades of green, yellow, and red indicates progressively larger amounts of airborne particulates. Due to the topographically

  6. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  7. Resource assessment of the Imperial Valley. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehler, S.; Lee, T.

    1977-01-01

    A resource assessment of the Imperial Valley has been made based on the use of the gravity anomalies as indicators of total excess mass. These data indicate a potential of producing electric power of 7 to 80 thousand megawatts for 30 years. Over half of the total potential is located in the Salton Sea Anomaly and approximately half of the potential of the Salton Sea field is water covered. An attempt has been made to assess not only the heat in storage in the fluid but also recoverable from the country rock by reinjection. Based on calculations, the natural recharge rate of heat in the Valley due to sea floor spreading is too small to give the resource an indefinite life-span since the economic rates of withdrawal appear to be at least an order of magnitude greater.

  8. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs

  9. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  10. Segetal flora of the Middle Vistula River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ługowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe the segetal flora of the Middle Vistula River Valley. A total of 367 species were recorded in spring and winter cereals, tuber crops, and stubble fields. Such floristic abundance may be due to the fact that the study area is located in the proximity of a river where semi-natural communities interact directly with communities inhabiting cultivated fields and that fields are fragmented and characterised by different habitats. There were more apophytes (62% than anthropophytes (38% in the flora studied. Meadow apophytes were the dominant native species (35% and archeophytes were the dominant anthropophytes (69%. The analysis of the life spectrum revealed that there were more therophytes (50% than hemicryptophytes (39%. What is more, non-perennial species constituted 56% and perennials 44% of the segetal flora established in the Middle Vistula River Valley. The large proportion of archeophytes (26% may indicate that traditional farming predominated in the study area.

  11. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  12. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report

  13. Pesticide residues in the soil of the Central Jordan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples were taken from three zones in the Central Jordan Valley to evaluate the range of contamination with pesticides. Several pesticides belonging to different groups, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as the DDT family and cyclodienes, were detected. In zone I, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides occurred in open fields cultivated with tomatoes at a depth of 30-60 cm, at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 30-60 cm in zone III. When considering pesticide residues under plastic house conditions cultivated with tomatoes, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues were detected at a depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone I, at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone III of the Central Jordan Valley. (author). 13 refs, 3 tabs

  14. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Trapped mountain wave excitations over the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Ram P.; Maharjan, Sangeeta

    2015-11-01

    Mid-wintertime spatial and temporal distributions of mountain wave excitation over the Kathmandu valley has been numerically simulated using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system. The study shows that low-level trapped mountain waves may remain very active during the night and early morning in the sky over the southern rim of the surrounding mountains, particularly, over the lee of Mt. Fulchoki. Calculations suggest that mountain wave activities are at minimum level during afternoon. The low-level trapped mountain waves in the sky over southern gateway of Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA) may pose risk for landings and takeoffs of light aircrafts. Detailed numerical and observational studies would be very important to reduce risk of air accidents and discomfort in and around the Kathmandu valley.

  16. Master Agreement between Board of Directors of Iowa Valley Community College District (Merged Area VI) and Iowa Valley Community College Education Association/ISEA, 1987-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Valley Community Coll. District, Marshalltown, IA.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Directors of the Iowa Valley Community College District and the Iowa Valley Community College Education Association outlines the terms of employment for all faculty, librarians, and counselors and certain other professional staff at Marshalltown and Ellsworth Community Colleges. The 13…

  17. Overseas Tech Firms Ramp Up Hiring In Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fpr years, U.S.high-tech executives have fretted about the loss of technology jobs to countries such as China and India.But there is a countervailing force: Foreign companies are leaning heavily on engineers they hire in Silicon Valley. Companies from Europe and Asia increasingly are using high-tech teams in the Bay Area to conduct long-range research and help design cutting-edge products for global markets.

  18. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  19. The Lurin Valley, Peru, A.D. 1000-1532

    OpenAIRE

    Feltham, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the post-Middle Horizon archaeology of one of the smaller central coast valleys of Peru. It focuses on a zone between 400 and 1000 metres above sea level and analyses data collected over several field seasons. There are two appendices dealing with ceramic analysi8 and excavations. An introduction defines the problems raised by previous work and discusses field procedures. There is a full treatment of the environment in order to show the potential sel...

  20. Fission track ages of some Himalayan muscovites (Kathmandu valley, Nepal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fossil fission track technique has been used for dating of Himalayan muscovites of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. The mean ages obtained for different locations range from 2.5 +- 0.6 m.y. to 23 +- 3.3 m.y. The uranium concentration has been estimated to be 10-10 atom/atom. The experimental results confirm that the Himalayan orogeny belongs to the tertiary era. (author)

  1. Justice and Immigrant Latino Recreation Geography in Cache Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jodie; Radel, Claudia; Endter-Wada, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Latinos are the largest U.S. non-mainstreamed ethnic group, and social and environmental justice considerations dictate recreation professionals and researchers meet their recreation needs. This study reconceptualizes this diverse group’s recreation patterns, looking at where immigrant Latino individuals in Cache Valley, Utah do recreate rather than where they do not. Through qualitative interviews and interactive mapping, thirty participants discussed what recreation means to them and explai...

  2. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  3. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  4. Marketed Surplus and Price Spread of Vegetables in Kashmir Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, S.H.; Wani, M.H.; Wani, S A; Yousuf, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    The paper has reported the growth of vegetable sector in relation with technology mission, extent and determinants of marketed surplus and price spread of vegetables in the Kashmir valley. A substantial increase in the area and production of vegetables has been observed under Mini-Mission-II scheme of Technology Mission. At the farm level, vegetables have been observed to occupy an important place in the cropping pattern. The intensity of cropping in the study area has become more than 250 pe...

  5. A Tour of the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardenski, Brooke; Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) is located in a remote area of the Mojave Desert, 40 miles north of Barstow, California. The antenna, identified as DSS-12, is a 34-meter diameter dish, 11 times the diameter of a ten foot microwave dish used for satellite television. DSS-12 has been used by NASA to communicate with robotic space probes for more than thirty years.

  6. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  7. Glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane documented in the Central Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Anil; Hanson, Bradley D.; Hembree, Kurt J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, growers and pest consultants have reported poor control of the weed hairy fleabane in some areas of the Central Valley. Hairy fleabane seeds were collected from Esparto, Fresno and Reedley, Calif., and greenhouse-grown seedlings were treated at several different glyphosate rates and compared with an untreated control. None of the Esparto or Fresno plants survived glyphosate rates greater than 0.78 pounds acid equivalent per acre (lb ae/ac), while some of the plants from Reedl...

  8. Indirect detection of subsurface outflow from a Rift Valley lake

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, W. G.; Allen, D J; Armannsson, H.

    1990-01-01

    Naivasha, highest of the Kenya (Gregory) Rift Valley lakes, has no surface outlet. However, unlike other Rift lakes it has not become saline despite high potential evaporation rates, which indicates that there must be some subsurface drainage. The fate ofthis outflow has been the subject of speculation for many years, especially during the general decline in lake water level during the I980's. Particularly to the south of the lake, there are few opportunities to obtain information from direct...

  9. Investigation of Canine Brucellosis in Klang Valley Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Bahaman; Ardhy-Adnan; Khairani-Bejo

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty three (123) blood samples were collected from dogs in Klang Valley Malaysia to investigate the present of brucellosis. On culture, all blood samples were negative for Brucella sp. The serological tests carried out were Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination test (ME-TAT). The RBPT found that all serum samples were negative for Brucella infection. However, ME-TAT shown six serum samples were positive to Brucella infection with a high antib...

  10. Segetal flora of the Middle Vistula River Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Ługowska

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the segetal flora of the Middle Vistula River Valley. A total of 367 species were recorded in spring and winter cereals, tuber crops, and stubble fields. Such floristic abundance may be due to the fact that the study area is located in the proximity of a river where semi-natural communities interact directly with communities inhabiting cultivated fields and that fields are fragmented and characterised by different habitats. There were more apophytes ...

  11. Humanoid Robot Head Design Based on Uncanny Valley and FACS

    OpenAIRE

    Jizheng Yan; Zhiliang Wang; Yan Yan

    2014-01-01

    Emotional robots are always the focus of artificial intelligence (AI), and intelligent control of robot facial expression is a hot research topic. This paper focuses on the design of humanoid robot head, which is divided into three steps to achieve. The first step is to solve the uncanny valley about humanoid robot, to find and avoid the relationship between human being and robot; the second step is to solve the association between human face and robot head; compared with human being and robo...

  12. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  13. Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Timothy; Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay; Medellín–Azuara, Josué

    2016-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6 Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic o...

  14. Water Allocation and Supply Reliability in the Murrumbidgee Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Randall E.; Musgrave, Warren F.; Bryant, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the average annual income and income variance of alternative irrigation water allocations and associated supply reliabilities in the Murrumbidgee Valley. Traditionally, water supply authorities have aimed to supply irrigators with their full allocations in all but the most severe drought years. This means that a substantial amount of water is held in storage as a reserve and in most years it is not utilised for irrigation or other, including environ...

  15. EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA: A SERIES OF 12 PATIENTS IN KASHMIR VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Qayoom Seema; Masood Qazi; Sultan Javeed; Hassan Iffat; Jehangir Majid; Bhat Yasmeen; Bhat Taseer; Chisti Muzamil

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) is a genetically determined mechano-bullous disorder of the skin encompassing a group of conditions that share skin fragility as a common feature. Materials and Methods: Twele patients with Epidermolysis Bullosa from Kashmir valley are reported. Results: Our series included 12 patients, 5 males and 7 females. Features were consistent with EB simplex in 8 patients, EB pruriginosa in 2 patients, generalized atrophic benign EB in one patient and EB acquista...

  16. DYNAMICS OF A KIND OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) is studied, which is an ordinary differential equation model for a population of mosquito species and the hosts. A disease-free equilibrium is discussed as well as its local stability. The prevalence of disease is proved under some conditions. Finally the vertical transmission is considered in a model for such a mosquito population.

  17. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Zafar Alam; Ahmad Habib; Zada Bakht; Khan Zahid; Sualeh Mohammad; Shah Muhammad Ajmal

    2012-01-01

    The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but als...

  18. Climate change and the Lower Fraser Valley. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic changes that are expected to occur in British Columbia's Lower Fraser Valley over the next century were described in this report which included information about the science of climate change and the development of global climate models that provide estimates of global climate for the coming century. The confidence that scientists have in these models was reflected in the fact that most can simulate the important seasonal and geographical large scale features of the global climate, and that many of the large scale changes that are effected by greenhouse gas concentrations can be explained in terms of physical processes which operate around the world. The models also reproduce with reasonable accuracy the variations of climate such as the El Nino phenomena., the cooling due to the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 and the global warming that occurred over the past 100 years. Three climate stations were analyzed in this study to assess the climate change of the Valley. Climatic change is influenced by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which in turn cause accelerated global warming. Scientists generally believe that the combustion of fossil fuels and other human activities are a major reason for the increased concentration of carbon dioxide. Plant respiration and the decomposition of organic matter releases 10 times more CO2 than that released anthropogenically, but these releases are in balance with plant photosynthesis. The rate of warming in the Lower Fraser Valley is uncertain, but climate models suggest it could be about 3 to 4 degrees warming with wetter winters and drier summers by the end of the century. The Valley currently has mild temperatures and high precipitation because of its proximity to the Pacific Oceans and the surrounding mountains. Global warming can have an impact on sea levels along the coast, spring flooding, summer drought, coastal ecosystems, air quality, occurrences of forest fires, and recreation

  19. Information and Governance in the Silicon Valley Model

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Aoki

    1999-01-01

    October 1999 This paper argues that the truly unique role of venture capitalists is found in their information-mediating and governance functions, which can be understood only in the context of relationships between the "clustering" of entrepreneurial firms and (a club) of venture capitalists. The entrepreneurial firms in Silicon Valley compete in innovation and thus their activities are fundamentally substitutes. Therefore, their information processing activities need to be encapsulated from...

  20. Magmatism of the Kenya Rift Valley : a review.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary–Recent magmatism in the Kenya Rift Valley was initiated c. 35 Ma, in the northern part of Kenya. Initiation of magmatism then migrated southwards, reaching northern Tanzania by 5–8 Ma. This progression was accompanied by a change in the nature of the lithosphere, from rocks of the Panafrican Mozambique mobile belt through reworked craton margin to rigid, Archaean craton. Magma volumes and the geochemistry of mafic volcanic rocks indicate that magmatism has resulted from the interacti...

  1. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable

  2. Quantum Superposition States of Two Valleys in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Jia-Bin; Chu, Zhao-Dong; Wu, Liang-Mei; He, Lin

    2014-01-01

    A system in a quantum superposition of distinct states usually exhibits many peculiar behaviors. Here we show that putting quasiparticles of graphene into superpositions of states in the two valleys can complete change the properties of the massless Dirac fermions. Due to the coexistence of both the quantum and relativistic characteristics, the superposition states exhibit many oddball behaviors in their chiral tunneling process. We further demonstrate that a recently observed line defect in ...

  3. Sludge washing and dissolution of Melton Valley Storage Tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus is on experimental and modeling R ampersand D for comprehensive sludge/supernatant processing flowsheet being done for the Underground Storage Tank Integration Demonstration; emphasis is on Hanford tank waste disposal involving dissolution of the sluge before pretreatment. Combination of tests on actual Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludge, tests on sludge simulants, and modeling of sludge chemistry provides a broad evaluation of sludge and supernate processing. The information is useful for both MVST and Hanford tank wastes

  4. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: psychosocial impact

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm Silke; Lokuge Kamalini; Ford Nathan; Kam Saskia; de Jong Kaz; van Galen Renate; Reilley Brigg; Kleber Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in high levels of exposure to violence among the civilian population of Kashmir (India). A survey was done as part of routine programme evaluation to assess confrontation with violence and its consequences on mental health, health service usage, and socio-economic functioning. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts of Kashmir (India) using q...

  5. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: Exposure to Violence

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Kaz; van der Kam, Saskia; Ford, Nathan; Lokuge, Kamalini; Fromm, Silke; van Galen, Renate; Reilley, Brigg; Kleber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Background: India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for manyyears, resulting in high levels of exposure to violence among the civilian population of Kashmir(India). A survey was done as part of routine programme evaluation to assess confrontation withviolence and its consequences on mental health, health service usage, and socio-economicfunctioning. Methods: We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts of Kashmir (India)using ques...

  6. The Economical Effects of Mining Activity Restructuring in Jiu Valley

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2007-01-01

    Restructuring process in Romania, which starting in 1990, affected all the mining areas, one of these being Jiu Valley – an area with specific characteristics. This process generated an increasing in local unemployment rate and also caused many subsequent economical effects. Under the coal sector restructuring circumstances it is necessarily to analyze the economical effects, and to find some solutions which have to be in the accordance with the economical and political rules and to encourage...

  7. A simulation of the Neolithic transition in the Indus valley

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmen, Carsten; Khan, Aurangzeb

    2011-01-01

    The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was one of the first great civilizations in prehistory. This bronze age civilization flourished from the end of the fourth millennium BC. It disintegrated during the second millennium BC; despite much research effort, this decline is not well understood. Less research has been devoted to the emergence of the IVC, which shows continuous cultural precursors since at least the seventh millennium BC. To understand the decline, we believe it is necessary to inve...

  8. Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Ye, Ziliang; Zhu, Hanyu; Zhao, Mervin; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Jianhua; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Electrically controlling the flow of charge carriers is the foundation of modern electronics. By accessing the extra spin degree of freedom (DOF) in electronics, spintronics allows for information processes such as magnetoresistive random-access memory. Recently, atomic membranes of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) were found to support unequal and distinguishable carrier distribution in different crystal momentum valleys. This valley polarization of carriers enables a new DOF for information processing. A variety of valleytronic devices such as valley filters and valves have been proposed, and optical valley excitation has been observed. However, to realize its potential in electronics it is necessary to electrically control the valley DOF, which has so far remained a significant challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the electrical generation and control of valley polarization. This is achieved through spin injection via a diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor and measured through the helicity of the electroluminescence due to the spin–valley locking in TMDC monolayers. We also report a new scheme of electronic devices that combine both the spin and valley DOFs. Such direct electrical generation and control of valley carriers opens up new dimensions in utilizing both the spin and valley DOFs for next-generation electronics and computing.

  9. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  10. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  11. Alluvium of antiquity: Polycyclic terraces in a confined bedrock valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermode, S. J.; Cohen, T. J.; Reinfelds, I. V.; Nanson, G. C.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2012-02-01

    Confined river valleys are not the localities where long term preservation of alluvium would be expected. The 25 km long low gradient (0.0014 m.m - 1 ) confined valley setting of the Shoalhaven River has archived alluvium of middle Pleistocene age to maintain a relatively uniform channel as an efficient conduit for a wide range of flows in a confined bedrock valley of variable morphology. Single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has identified polycyclic terraces up to 193 ka in age (marine isotope stage [MIS] 7) with lower terrace remnants dating from 173-140 ka (MIS 6) and 106 ka (MIS 5). Holocene alluvium 2-3.5 ka in age caps these old Pleistocene units and a well-constrained combination of one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydraulic modelling demonstrates that these polycyclic terraces are clearly within reach of the modern hydrological regime. The 106 ka terrace at 17 m above low flow is inundated by floods recurring on average every ~ 20 years, and the 140-193 ka terraces at 20-22 m are overtopped every 50-100 years. These ancient diachronous landforms exhibit complex depositional histories and are on-lapped by longitudinal benches of modern sand and gravel. Their polycyclic nature appears to be a response to flow reduction, using alluvium to adjust the boundary of the otherwise inflexible morphology of a bedrock gorge.

  12. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  13. Resource development and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes to the resource management regime of the Northwest Territories based on land claim agreements with native peoples which result from the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act are the result of commitments made by Canada during the negotiation of these land claims. This statute effects important changes to the legislative framework for environmental impact assessment and land and water management. It also establishes land use planning processes for the Gwich'in and Sahtu settlement areas and will result in an environmental and cumulative effects monitoring program for the Mackenzie Valley. The Act also establishes new institutions of public government responsible for environmental impact assessment, land and water management, and land use planning. These boards will play an internal and continuing role in resource development and management in the Mackenzie Valley. A brief overview is included of some features of the new legislative scheme, specifically focussing on environmental impact assessment and water management. An understanding of the new regime will be important for oil and gas companies that are looking north with renewed interest as a result of improved oil and gas prices and also for mining companies given the continuing interest in diamond exploration and development in the Northwest Territories. 29 refs

  14. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppenjan, S,; Martinez, M.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE`s Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ``chirped`` FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  15. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  16. Evapotranspiration of applied water, Central Valley, California, 1957-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alex K.

    1982-01-01

    In the Central Valley, Calif., where 57% of the 20,000 square miles of land is irrigated, ground-water recharge from agricultural lands is an important input to digital simulation models of ground-water flow. Several methods of calculating recharge were explored for the Central Valley Aquifer Project and a simplified water budget was designed where net recharge (recharge minus pumpage) equals net surface water diverted minus evapotranspiration of applied water (ETAW). This equation eliminates the need to determine pumpage from the water-table aquifer, assuming that the time lag for infiltration is not longer than the time intervals of interest for modeling. This study evaluates only the evapotranspiration of applied water. Future reports will describe the other components of the water budget. ETAW was calculated by summing the products of ETAW coefficients and respective crop areas for each 7 1/2-minute quadrangle area in the valley, for each of three land-use surveys between 1957 and 1978. In 1975 total ETAW was 15.2 million acre-feet, a 43% increase since 1959. The largest increases were in the south, especially Kern County, which had a sixfold increase, which was caused by the import of surface water in the California Aqueduct. (USGS)

  17. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenjan, S.,; Martinez, M.

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a 'chirped' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  18. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  19. Geology of the Greenwater Range, and the dawn of Death Valley, California—Field guide for the Death Valley Natural History Conference, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzia, J.P.; Rämö, O.T.; Jachens, Robert; Smith, Eugene; Knott, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the age and formation of Death Valley, but that is one—if not the last—chapter in the fascinating geologic history of this area. Igneous and sedimentary rocks in the Greenwater Range, one mountain range east of Death Valley, tell an earlier story that overlaps with the formation of Death Valley proper. This early story has been told by scientists who have studied these rocks for many years and continue to do so. This field guide was prepared for the first Death Valley Natural History Conference and provides an overview of the geology of the Greenwater Range and the early history (10–0 Ma) of Death Valley.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  2. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  3. Analysis of measurements of the Bora wind in Vipava valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Maruška; Bergant, Klemen; Honzak, Luka; Rakovec, Jože; Skok, Gregor; Stanič, Samo; Žabkar, Rahela; Škraba, Primož

    2014-05-01

    Bora wind is a phenomenon observed on the lee side of mountain chains, where the cold air-masses flowing over the barrier cause strong downslope winds. The relief profile of the SW Slovenia, which within 30 km of the coastal line first rises to a Karst plateau (300 m above sea level), then falls into the Vipava valley (100 m a.s.l.) and rises again to a mountainous barrier with maximum altitudes of about 1500 m a.s.l., creates an ideal setting for the occurrence of downslope winds in the Vipava valley. The occurrence of strong winds is correlated to the presence of cold NE air-flows in the higher, stably stratified layer, flowing over the SW-oriented orographic barrier, and warmer air on the lee side of the mountain range. These conditions lead to the flow of cold air from behind the barrier sinking into the valley bellow, generating very gusty and strong winds. Our data sample includes wind and gust speed measurements in the period from 27 January to 24 April 2012, which was selected due to strong Bora wind outbursts at that time. Wind speeds were measured using 15 wind sensors, out of which 5 were dedicated cup anemometers, positioned 4 meters above the ground and arranged in a two lines perpendicular to the barrier, line A consisting of 3 and line B of 2 instruments. The remaining wind sensors were ultrasonic, positioned at various heights above the ground at 10 different locations along the Vipava valley. The obtained gust speed measurements were analyzed in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of the wind gusts. In order to eliminate longer time intervals with light- or no wind, which can not be characterized as Bora and do not add any information to the gust frequency analysis, Fourier transform of the data was made for short time periods, taking into account single Bora wind outbursts only. Wind speed measurements were studied separately for each instrument line. In the line A, the first instrument was positioned in an elevated up-wind location on

  4. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  5. Studies Related to Nutrients Entering Groundwater From the Heber Valley Sewer Farm and Daries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppson, Roland W.; McLean, Joan; Clyde, Calvin G.; Korom, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Foreword: This report includes the results from a two year study in the Heber Valley to determine amounts of nutrients that are entering the groundwaters of the Heber Valley, and might ultimately enter Deer Creek Reservoir. Since Deer Creek Reservoir in Heber Valley, Utah supplies approximately 65 percent of the water distributed to Salt Lake County, the maintenance of its quality is of considerable importance. To...

  6. Holocene valley-floor deposition and incision in a small drainage basin in western Colorado, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lawrence S.; Rosenburg, Margaret; del Mar Figueroa, Maria; McKee, Kathleen; Haravitch, Ben; Hunter, Jenna

    2010-01-01

    The valley floor of a 33.9 km^2 watershed in western Colorado experienced gradual sedimentation from before ~ 6765 to ~ 500 cal yr BP followed by deep incision, renewed aggradation, and secondary incision. In contrast, at least four terraces and widespread cut-and-fill architecture in the valley floor downstream indicate multiple episodes of incision and deposition occurred during the same time interval. The upper valley fill history is atypical compared to other drainages in the Colorado Pla...

  7. Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as

  8. 3d Transition Metal Adsorption Induced the valley-polarized Anomalous Hall Effect in Germanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P.; Sun, L. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Based on DFT + U and Berry curvature calculations, we study the electronic structures and topological properties of 3d transition metal (TM) atom (from Ti to Co) adsorbed germanene (TM-germanene). We find that valley-polarized anomalous Hall effect (VAHE) can be realized in germanene by adsorbing Cr, Mn, or Co atoms on its surface. A finite valley Hall voltage can be easily detected in their nanoribbon, which is important for valleytronics devices. Moreover, different valley-polarized current and even reversible valley Hall voltage can be archived by shifting the Fermi energy of the systems. Such versatile features of the systems show potential in next generation electronics devices.

  9. Electrical control of the valley Hall effect in bilayer MoS2 transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Mak, Kin Fai; Shan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    The valley degree of freedom of electrons in solids has been proposed as a new type of information carrier, beyond the electron charge and spin. The potential of two-dimensional semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides in valley-based electronic and optoelectronic applications has recently been illustrated through experimental demonstrations of the optical orientation of the valley polarization and of the valley Hall effect in monolayer MoS2. However, the valley Hall conductivity in monolayer MoS2, a non-centrosymmetric crystal, cannot be easily tuned, which presents a challenge for the development of valley-based applications. Here, we show that the valley Hall effect in bilayer MoS2 transistors can be controlled with a gate voltage. The gate applies an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the material, breaking the inversion symmetry present in bilayer MoS2. The valley polarization induced by the longitudinal electrical current was imaged with Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization was found to be present only near the edges of the device channel with opposite sign for the two edges, and was out-of-plane and strongly dependent on the gate voltage. Our observations are consistent with symmetry-dependent Berry curvature and valley Hall conductivity in bilayer MoS2. PMID:26809056

  10. Valley Hall effect in disordered monolayer MoS2 from first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Thomas; Souza, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Electrons in certain two-dimensional crystals possess a pseudospin degree of freedom associated with the existence of two inequivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone. If, as in monolayer MoS2, inversion symmetry is broken and time-reversal symmetry is present, equal and opposite amounts of k-space Berry curvature accumulate in each of the two valleys. This is conveniently quantified by the integral of the Berry curvature over a single valley-the valley Hall conductivity. We generalize this def...

  11. Electrical control of the valley Hall effect in bilayer MoS2 transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Mak, Kin Fai; Shan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    The valley degree of freedom of electrons in solids has been proposed as a new type of information carrier, beyond the electron charge and spin. The potential of two-dimensional semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides in valley-based electronic and optoelectronic applications has recently been illustrated through experimental demonstrations of the optical orientation of the valley polarization and of the valley Hall effect in monolayer MoS2. However, the valley Hall conductivity in monolayer MoS2, a non-centrosymmetric crystal, cannot be easily tuned, which presents a challenge for the development of valley-based applications. Here, we show that the valley Hall effect in bilayer MoS2 transistors can be controlled with a gate voltage. The gate applies an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the material, breaking the inversion symmetry present in bilayer MoS2. The valley polarization induced by the longitudinal electrical current was imaged with Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization was found to be present only near the edges of the device channel with opposite sign for the two edges, and was out-of-plane and strongly dependent on the gate voltage. Our observations are consistent with symmetry-dependent Berry curvature and valley Hall conductivity in bilayer MoS2.

  12. Magnetoelectric control of valley and spin in a silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xing-Tao, E-mail: anxt@hku.hk

    2015-03-20

    The control of valley and spin degrees of freedom and the transport properties of electrons in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices are investigated theoretically. Due to the valley–spin locking effect in silicene, the valley degree of freedom can be controlled by magnetic means. The valley or/and spin selection induced by the exchange field result in the perfect spin–valley filter and tunneling magnetoresistance effect in the double ferromagnetic barriers on the surface of the silicene nanoribbon. It is more interesting that there are valley-resolved minigaps and minibands in the zigzag silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices which give rise to the periodically modulated spin (or/and valley) polarization and tunneling magnetoresistance. The results obtained may have certain practical significance in applications for future valleytronic and spintronic devices. - Highlights: • The valley can be controlled by a magnetic field in silicene. • The valley-resolved miniband transport is studied in the silicene superlattices. • There are the perfect spin–valley filter and tunneling magnetoresistance effect.

  13. Late Cenozoic sedimentation in Pilot Knob Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittase, W. M.; Walker, J. D.; Kirby, E.; Andrew, J.; Wan, E.

    2012-12-01

    In Pilot Knob Valley (PKV), active inversion of a Pliocene-mid Pleistocene basin presents the opportunity to understand the spatial and temporal development of an enigmatic basin astride a major transform boundary in California. Here, a ~1000-m-thick package of exposed Late Cenozoic strata has been uplifted and tilted to the northeast. Based on new age and provenance data, we adopt the name Pilot Knob formation (PKfm) to describe much of these exposed rocks north of the Garlock fault (GF) and east of Christmas Canyon gate. Post-Miocene development of PKV is strongly influenced by the sinistral GF, the newly identified Marine Gate fault (MGF) and dextral Eastern California shear zone. The PKfm consists of three lithofacies members, from base to top: (1) rocks derived from Eagle Crags to the south; (2) Randsburg Wash lacustrine rocks; and (3) an upper member derived from the Slate Range. Tephrochronologic data from four PKfm ash samples brackets deposition of lacustrine Randsburg Wash Member rocks between 3.7-3.1 Ma and lacustrine rocks of the Slate Range Member between 1.2-0.6 Ma. A fifth tephrochronologic sample from lacustrine-distal alluvial sediments south of the GF near Christmas Canyon brackets deposition of a possible PKfm facies at ~3.1 Ma. A 3-stage tectonic model for northern PKV explains changing provenance patterns. Prior to ~3.1 Ma, the western PKV paleo-low lay north of the current GF adjacent to the southern Slate Range and connected to Searles Valley. The MGF cuts adjacent to the southern face of the Slate Range and southern Searles Valley with up to 7.5 km of sinistral oblique-normal slip between ~5-2.5 Ma. Eagle Crags fanglomerate deposition may continue after 3.7 Ma west of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway, but these rocks have been eroded away. By ~3.7 Ma, northward progradation of Eagle Crags fanglomerate waned and lacustrine sediments were deposited north of the GF and east of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway. At ~3.1 Ma

  14. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  15. The Pahrump Valley Museum Yucca Mountain History Exhibit - 12389

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its management of the Yucca Mountain project, the Department of Energy maintained several information centers to provide public access to information about the status of the Yucca Mountain project. Those information centers contained numerous displays, historical information, and served as the location for the Department's outreach activities. As the Department of Energy dealt with reduced budgets in 2009 following the Obama Administration's intent to terminate the program, it shut down its information centers. Nye County considered it important to maintain a public information center where people would be able to find information about what was happening with the Yucca Mountain project. Initially the Nye County assumed responsibility for the information center in Pahrump; eventually the County made a decision to move that information center into an expansion of the existing Pahrump Valley Museum. Nye County undertook an effort to update the information about the Yucca Mountain project and modernize the displays. A parallel effort to create a source of historical information where people could find out about the Yucca Mountain project was undertaken. To accompany the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, Nye County also sponsored a series of interviews to document, through oral histories, as much information about the Yucca Mountain project as could be found in these interviews. The paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, and the accompanying oral histories. An important conclusion that can be drawn from the interviews is that construction of a repository in Nevada should have been conceptualized as but the first step in transforming the economy of central Nevada by turning part of the Nevada National Security Site and adjoining area into a world-class energy production and energy research center. (authors)

  16. Aquaculture in the Imperial Valley -- A geothermal success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California has long been recognized as a hot spot of geothermal development. In the geothermal industry, this area has for some time been synonymous with electric power generation projects. Starting with the first plant in East Mesa in 1979, geothermal power has increased over the years to the present 400+ MW of installed capacity in the three primary areas of Salton Sea, Heber and East Mesa. Although most in the industry are aware of the millions of kilowatt-hours annually produced in this desert oasis of development, they remain surprisingly uninformed about the Valley`s other geothermal industry -- aquaculture. At present, there are approximately 15 fish farming (or aquaculture) operations clustered, for the most part, around the Salton Sea. All of these farms use geothermal fluids to control the temperature of the fish culture facilities so as to produce larger fish in a shorter period of time and to permit winter production which would otherwise not be possible. In aggregate, these farms produce on the order of 10,000,000 lbs of fish per year most of which is sold into the California market. Principle species are catfish, striped bass and tilapia. For the past several years, tilapia has been the fastest growing part of the aquaculture industry. In 1996, the total US consumption of tilapia was 62,000 lbs. Of this, only 16,000,000 lbs (26%) was domestically produced and the balance imported. The primary market for the fish on the West Coast is among the Asian-American populations in the major cities. Fish are shipped and sold liver at the retail level.

  17. Monitoring and conservation of bats in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjan Thapa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Kathmandu Valley has been a centre for bat study since the 19th century. Twenty five species of bats have been documented from Kathmandu Valley including two species of fruit bats until 1997. Opportunistic and sporadic survey was continued then after. There was a gap of more than a decade for monitoring. A recent preliminary survey in 2008 re-recorded only three species which revealed the need for detailed monitoring. Bats conservation is a rare practice in Nepal which lags behind neighboring countries. The negative perception of the bats and lack of awareness is the primary factor for the lack of conservation. This project is designed to redress this at twenty sites within the Kathmandu Valley where mist and scoop nettings together with roost survey were carried out. Lectures to schoolchildren were the primary conservation action along with radio-awareness programmes. Twelve species was re-recorded excluding fruit bats and two unidentified species (Pipistrellus sp. and Myotis sp.. Specific roost sites and foraging habitats were discovered and documented in the study area. A new site of occurrence of vulnerable species Mandelli’s Mouse-eared Myotis Myotis sicarius was identified. A special trend of seasonal variation in species at few study sites was observed while in few the species were found resident. Thirteen half hour radio programmes about bats were successfully broadcast throughout Nepal from Radio Kantipur. Lectures of 45 minutes were delivered to in an average 75 schoolchildren per school at twenty schools in fifteen project sites. Post project effectiveness evaluation should be carried out.

  18. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program in the Mojave Network, we conducted an inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Death Valley National Park in 2002-04. Objectives for this inventory were to: 1) Inventory and document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species occurring at DEVA, primarily within priority sampling areas, with the goal of documenting at least 90% of the species present; 2) document (through collection or museum specimen and literature review) one voucher specimen for each species identified; 3) provide a GIS-referenced list of sensitive species that are federally or state listed, rare, or worthy of special consideration that occur within priority sampling locations; 4) describe park-wide distribution of federally- or state-listed, rare, or special concern species; 5) enter all species data into the National Park Service NPSpecies database; and 6) provide all deliverables as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Methods included daytime and nighttime visual encounter surveys, road driving, and pitfall trapping. Survey effort was concentrated in predetermined priority sampling areas, as well as in areas with a high potential for detecting undocumented species. We recorded 37 species during our surveys, including two species new to the park. During literature review and museum specimen database searches, we recorded three additional species from DEVA, elevating the documented species list to 40 (four amphibians and 36 reptiles). Based on our surveys, as well as literature and museum specimen review, we estimate an overall inventory completeness of 92% for Death Valley and an inventory completeness of 73% for amphibians and 95% for reptiles. Key Words: Amphibians, reptiles, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, San Bernardino County, Esmeralda County, Nye County, California, Nevada, Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, inventory, NPSpecies.

  19. Variations of surface ozone concentration across the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Huey, Lim Shun; Juneng, Liew

    2012-12-01

    Hourly air quality data covering the period 2004-2008 was obtained from the Air Quality Division, the Department of Environment (DOE) through long-term monitoring by Alam Sekitar Sdn. Bhd. (ASMA) were analysed to investigate the variations of surface ozone (O3) in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of nine monitoring stations were selected for analysis in this study and the results show that there are distinct seasonal patterns in the surface O3 across the Klang Valley. A high surface O3 concentration is usually observed between January and April, while a low surface O3 concentration is found between June and August. Analysis of daily variations in surface O3 and the precursors - NO, NO2, CO, NMHC and UVb, indicate that the surface O3 photochemistry in this study area exhibits a positive response to the intensity and wavelength in UVb while being influenced by the concentration of NOx, particularly through tritration processes. Although results from our study suggested that NMHCs may influence the maximum O3 concentration, further investigation is required. Wind direction during different monsoons was found to influence the concentration of O3 around the Klang Valley. HYSPLIT back trajectories (-72 h) were used to indicate the air-mass transport patterns on days with high concentrations of surface O3 in the study area. Results show that 47% of the high O3 days was associated with the localized circulation. The remaining 32% and 22% were associated with mid-range and long-range transport across the South China Sea from the northeast.

  20. Fission valleys of double-magic superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative Z = 120 proton shell closure is analysed for the superheavy region. The proton magic numbers 114 and 120 are obtained for two different sets of the spin-orbit and l2 strength parameters, κ and μ. The possible double-magic superheavy nuclei 304 120 and 298 114 are compared within a four-dimensional space of deformation which includes mass-asymmetry and three geometrical degrees of freedom. The potential energy is calculated with the macroscopic-microscopic method. A well suited single-particle model for such a study is the two-center shell model. This model is used to obtain the energy levels. The shell corrections are computed using the Strutinsky method and are added to the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy. One considers axially symmetric shapes. Spherical ground states are assumed for the initial and final fragments. Different pairs of fragments are obtained by changing the mass asymmetry parameter η. Two energy valleys play a major role in this static study: one leading to the double magic light fragment 132 Sn corresponding to almost symmetric splitting, the other belonging to the double magic heavy fragment 208 Pb at larger mass asymmetry.The lead valley explains the cluster radioactivity for the lighter nuclei. Fission-like barriers are obtained by two intersected spheres with zero neck radius in-between. The fission barriers have been calculated by minimization of the energy within the three dimensional deformation space. At least one magic number and another one close to magic is needed within the fragment pair to shape a valley on the potential energy surfaces. The static barriers are more likely to favour the two fission modes leading to the above mentioned double-magic fragments due to the combined effect of two shell closures on the total energy value. (authors)