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Sample records for amarga manihot esculenta

  1. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sukhumal_wha

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its application in analysis of ... Relative real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a well- established method ... Key words: Cassava, housekeeping gene, hydroxynitrile lyase, linamarase, real-time polymerase chain reaction ...

  2. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plants is an indispensable technique used for fundamental research and crop improvement. Recent advances in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) transformation have facilitated the effective generation of stably transformed cassava plants with favorable traits. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable, embryogenic callus has evolved to become the most widely used approach and has been adopted by research laboratories in Africa. This procedure utilizes axillary meristem tissue (buds) to produce primary and secondary somatic embryos and subsequently friable, embryogenic callus. Agrobacterium harboring a binary expression cassette is used to transform this tissue, which is regenerated via cotyledons and shoot organogenesis to produce rooted in vitro plantlets. This chapter details each step of the procedure using the model cultivar 60444 and provides supplementary notes to successfully produce transgenic cassava.

  3. Manihot esculenta crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... study was to identify the best improved varieties regarding these characteristics. The physico- chemical, biochemical ... through its processing into various industrial products. (Amani et al., 2005; FAO, 2008). ..... esculenta, Crantz) en vue d'améliorer la qualité alimentaire de l'attiéké et du placali. Thèse de ...

  4. Micropropagation of selected cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava, (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial woody herb which is cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia for its edible starchy roots and its ability to withstand marginal environmental conditions. Due to high seed dormancy and sluggish germination rate, farmers normally practice propagation of ...

  5. Field Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Tissue culture-derived plantlets, Field plant growth, Yield, Root tuber characteristics,. Cassava. Introduction. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown in the lowlands of Asia,. Africa and· South America for its thickened and tuberose roots. It produces more calories per unit of land than any other ...

  6. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Manioc (Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to identify on maps where and when manioc (Manihot esculenta developed importance for different prehistoric groups of Native Americans. This information indicates, among other things, that significant interest in manioc developed at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread in the New World.

  7. Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du prélèvement des boutures de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en cours de vegetation sur la sévérité des maladies et ravageurs : Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants on the severity of pests and diseases.

  8. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] sowing dates on the yield performance of the component species in cassava/soybean intercrop under the humid tropical lowlands of southeastern Nigeria.

  9. Physiological causes of yield variation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in many parts of the tropics, being mainly cultivated for its storage roots. Farmers' yields are low and one of the constraints to higher yields is the lack of adequate clones. At the beginning of the 1970s an extensive

  10. Field Screening of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Marmey P., Beeching J. R., Hamon S. and Charrier A. (1994). Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection using RAPD markers. Euphytica 74: 203–209. Roa A. C., Maya, M. M., Duque M. M., Tohme J., Allen A. C. and Bonierbale M. W. (1997). AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and ...

  11. Effect of varying levels of dietary cassava ( Manihot esculenta, Crantz )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60 day old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used for this study which lasted for 7 weeks. Four experimental diets A, B, C and D were formulated and were designed to be both isonitrogenous and isocaloric in formulation. While diet A contained no cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal (CLM) and served as the control, diets B, ...

  12. Factors affecting in vitro propagation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a perennial shrub of the Euphorbiaceae family native of eastern tropical South America, grown in the tropics of Africa and Asia for its tuberous roots. Its cultivation is constrained by several problems including the use of cuttings infected with diseases and pests, the lack of high quality ...

  13. ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ) chips production in rural Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey aimed at collecting information on practices and constraints in the production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chips, a transformed cassava product obtained through fermentation and drying of its fresh roots was carried out in 45 villages located in three geographical regions (Yaoundé, Mbalmayo, and ...

  14. Efficacy Of Jatropha gossypifolia And Manihot esculenta Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of physic nut (Jatropha gossypifolia linn) and cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) seed extracts in controlling Sclerotium rolfsii sacc and Fusarium ... growth radii of the fungus among the various concentrations and 1000pm of J. gossypifolia was most effective in reducing the growth radii of the fungal pathogens.

  15. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  16. Cardiovascular effects of the crude extract of Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular effects of the crude extract of Manihot esculenta crantz (Cassava) in animal models. P.M Emeka, A Akintonwa, O.O Adeyemi, C Nwaigwe, B.J Adegunloye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Natural poisoning by Manihot esculenta in horses - Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Barnabé Escodro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Escodro P.B., Silva T.J.F., Notomi M.K., do Nascimento T.G., Mariz T.M. de A. & da Fonseca L.S. [Natural poisoning by Manihot esculenta in horses - Case reports.] Intoxicação natural por Manihot esculenta em equinos - Relato de casos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:382-386, 2016. Grupo de Pesquisa e Extensão em Equídeos, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Unidade de Ensino Viçosa, Fazenda São Luis s/n, Viçosa, AL 57700-000, Brasil. Email: pierre.escodro@vicosa.ufal.br The cyanogenic plants are responsible for most cases of poisoning in farm animals, mainly cattle and small ruminants, being less frequent in horses due to the high selectivity food and non-use of derivatives of cassava in the feed species. This paper reports with unprecedented intoxication three horses Mangalarga Marchador by Manihot esculenta (manioc offered to the animals under confinement, which after continuous intake, had followed colic syndrome and clinical signs consistent with poisoning by cyanogenic plants, succeeding clinical treatment using support associated with sodium thiosulfate intravenously.

  18. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  19. Development of polymorphic markers from expressed sequence tags of Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangphatsornruang, S; Sraphet, S; Singh, R; Okogbenin, E; Fregene, M; Triwitayakorn, K

    2008-05-01

    In this study, 49 primers were designed from sequences containing di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide motifs with a minimum of four repeats and presence of motif size polymorphisms (insertion/deletion) from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) expressed sequence tags deposited in public sequence database. Each locus was subsequently screened on 29 M. esculenta Crantz obtained from 15 different countries. Cross-amplification was tested with M. esculenta Crantz (ssp. flabellifolia) and four different Manihot species, M. chlorosticta, M. carthaginensis, M. filamentosa and M. tristis. Of these, nine loci showed polymorphic profiles within M. esculenta Crantz, which revealed two to four alleles per locus. The average unbiased and direct count heterozygosities were 0.4901 and 0.5674, respectively. © 2007 The Authors.

  20. Household utilization of Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoki, Penina N; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie

    2010-01-01

    Mozambique is ranked ninth of top manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) producing countries in the world. Manioc roots are a staple to people living in the northern part of the country. Despite this, information on production, utilization, postharvest handling, and marketing is scarce. The purpose of this baseline study was to document selected information on manioc, from the production to marketing stage. To gather this information, 70 focus groups consisting of 1,724 participants purposely sampled from 10 districts were engaged in discussions using a questionnaire. The results show that manioc is the most important crop in terms of contribution to household food security and income in the region. Both men and women participate in the delivery of manioc production chain. Typically, 5 to 15 varieties identified by local language can be found on most farms in the study area. Manioc leaves and roots are the parts of the plant used as human food. Sun dried manioc roots are principally marketed within the locality of production by individual farmers. This baseline study suggests the need for location-targeted interventions as the farmers reported varied challenges along the manioc production chain.

  1. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Simon; Chavarriaga, Paul; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  2. Apomixia em Manihot esculenta e em seus híbridos interespecíficos Apomixis in Manihot esculenta and in its interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie dos Santos de Sousa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a citogenética e a morfologia do saco embrionário dos clones EB1 (Manihot esculenta Crantz e EB12 (geração F3 de M. esculenta x M. glaziovii Muell, dos híbridos F1 e F2 de M. neusana Nassar x M. esculenta e da espécie silvestre M. neusana, para verificar o fenômeno da apomixia. Os óvulos foram analisados pelo método de clarificação. Foi verificada apomixia, do tipo apospórica, no clone EB12, no híbrido F2, e em M. neusana. Foi demonstrada a estrutura embriônica da mandioca; foram observados dois sacos embrionários no mesmo óvulo do híbrido F2.The objective of this work was to study cytogenetic and morphology of the embryonic sac of clones EB1 (Manihot esculenta Crantz and EB12 (F3of M. esculenta x M. glaziovii Muell, of F1 and F2 hybrids of M. neusana Nassar x M. esculenta and of the wild species M. neusana, to verify the phenomenon of apomixis. Ovules were observed by the clarification method. Aposporic apomixis was observed in the EB12 clone, in the F2 hybrid and in M. neusana. The embryonic structure of Manihot was demonstrated and two embryonic sac were observed in the same ovule of F2.

  3. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the

  4. Effets de l'inclusion de feuilles de manioc ( Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tourteau de soja, faine de feuilles de manioc, gestation, performances de reproduction. English Title: Effects of inclusion of cassava leaf meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the diet on reproductive performances of Cameroonian local guinea pig (Cavia porcellus L.) English Abstract. Seventy two guinea pigs of six months ...

  5. Diversite génétique du manioc ( Manihot esculenta crants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) est une plante à multiplication végétative, introduite dans les années 1850 par le Nord-Est de la République Centrafricaine (Tisserant, 1953). Des accessions sont mises en collection dans la station du Centre de Recherche Polyvalent Régional du village Boukoko (CRPR-Boukoko).

  6. Unveiling the Micronome of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogans, Sarah Jane; Rey, Chrissie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of endogenous non-coding single-stranded small RNAs (21-24 nt in length), which serve as post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression in plants. Despite the economic importance of Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) only 153 putative cassava miRNAs (from multiple germplasm) are available to date in miRBase (Version 21), and identification of a number of miRNAs from the cassava EST database have been limited to comparisons with Arabidopsis. In this study, mature sequences of all known plant miRNAs were used as a query for homologous searches against cassava EST and GSS databases, and additional identification of novel and conserved miRNAs were gleaned from next generation sequencing (NGS) of two cassava landraces (T200 from southern Africa and TME3 from West Africa) at three different stages post explant transplantation and acclimatization. EST and GSS derived data revealed 259 and 32 miRNAs in cassava, and one of the miRNA families (miR2118) from previous studies has not been reported in cassava. NGS data collectively displayed expression of 289 conserved miRNAs in leaf tissue, of which 230 had not been reported previously. Of the 289 conserved miRNAs identified in T200 and TME3, 208 were isomiRs. Thirty-nine novel cassava-specific miRNAs of low abundance, belonging to 29 families, were identified. Thirty-eight (98.6%) of the putative new miRNAs identified by NGS have not been previously reported in cassava. Several miRNA targets were identified in T200 and TME3, highlighting differential temporal miRNA expression between the two cassava landraces. This study contributes to the expanding knowledge base of the micronome of this important crop.

  7. Nutritional composition of "gari" analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-11-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist.

  8. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  9. Non-hierarchical clustering of Manihot esculenta Crantz germplasm based on quantitative traits

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Eder Jorge de; Aud, Fabiana Ferraz; Morales, Cinara Fernanda Garcia; Oliveira, Saulo Alves Santos de; Santos, Vanderlei da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The knowledge of the phenotypic variation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm allows the estimative of the genetic variability to support the selection of contrasting genitors. Therefore, the aim of this work was to define homogeneous groups of cassava germplasm based on yield traits, disease resistance and root quality using K-means as a non-hierarchical method. Breeding values estimated by Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (BLUP) were used for the cluster analysis. The num...

  10. Isolation and characterisation of starch biosynthesis genes from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Munyikwa, T.R.I.

    1997-01-01


    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop grown for its starchy thickened roots, mainly by peasant farmers, in the tropics, for whom it is a staple food. There is an increasing demand for the use of cassava in processed food and feed products, and in the paper and textile industries amongst others. This thesis describes research on the cloning of the genes encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small and large subunits (AGPase B and S, respectively)...

  11. Development of cosmetic formulations containing glucan polymer of Cassava (Manihot esculenta: stability and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Manço

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development, rheological behaviour determination, and sensory analysis of cosmetic formulations containing glucan biopolymer (Manihot esculenta, a tensor agent that was proposed to produce an immediate lifting and smoothing effect. For this purpose, formulations were developed and supplemented or not with 4 % of hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract and submitted to preliminary stability tests. These formulations were evaluated in terms of rheological behaviour over 90 days. Sensory analysis was carried out through a research with 20 cosmetic consumers who answered a questionnaire regarding their perception to the cosmetic qualities. The formulations presented pseudoplastic behavior and were considered stable in the physical stability studies, with the exception of the gel formulation based on Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer. The formulations were well evaluated in the sensory parameters. The gel formulations based on Polyacrylamide, C13- 14 Isoparaffin, and Laureth-7 were stable and presented the best sensory profile in some evaluated parameters, such as spreadability, smoothness and skin moisturizing, and can be considered an appropriate vehicle for formulations containing hydrolysed Manihot esculenta tuber extract.

  12. Wound healing potential of Nuclea latifolia and Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was designed to ascertain this claim and to investigate the possible mechanism of action in relation to their phytochemical contents, using crude extracts of N. latifolia and M. esculenta leaves on topical wound in a rat model of Type 1 diabetes. Methods and Materials: The leaves were air-dried under ...

  13. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant.

  14. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta Extracts on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zenon Machado; da Trindade, Lenilson Santos; Santana, Genelane Cruz; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; da Costa Mendonça, Marcelo; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; López, Jorge A.; Macedo, Maria Lucila Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Background: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Conclusions: Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. SUMMARY Antibacterial effect of T. indica and M. esculenta leaf extract was evaluated.T. indica extract displayed activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.M. esculenta showed effect on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Abbreviations Used: BHI: Agar brain heart infusion, CAPES: Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, FAPITEC/SE: Foundation for support to research and technological innovation of the state of

  15. Microbiologia de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz durante o armazenamento Microbiology of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Ferreira Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características microbiológicas em farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz simples e temperadas, armazenadas durante 180 dias. Os materiais consistiram de cinco amostras, sendo uma de farinha de mandioca sem mistura (simples e as demais de farinhas de mandioca temperadas. A farinha simples foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade com capacidade de 1,0kg e as farinhas temperadas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos de polipropileno pigmentado, com capacidade 0,5kg. Em todas as amostras, foram realizadas contagens de coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. As análises foram realizadas em intervalos de 30 dias. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as características microbiológicas das amostras simples e das temperadas. O armazenamento não alterou os padrões microbiológicos das amostras. As amostras apresentaram esterilidade para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp. e Staphylococcus aureus. Os valores encontrados para coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, bactérias mesófilas e para bolores e leveduras estavam dentro dos padrões fixados pela legislação brasileira.This work was accomplished with the aim of evaluating the microbiological characteristic in cassava flours (Manihot esculenta Crantz simple and temperate, stored during 180 days. The materials consisted of five samples, being one of cassava flour without mixture (simple and the others of temperate cassava flours. The simple flour was packed in polyethylen bags of low density with capacity of 1,0kg and the temperate flours were packed in colored polipropilen bags, with capacity of 0.5kg. In all the samples fecal coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophile bacterias, yeasts counting and Salmonella sp research were accomplished. The analyses were accomplished in intervals of 30 days. Differences were not

  16. Izoenzimas esterases para discriminar cultivares "sem nome" de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Esterase isozymes for the characterization of "unnamed" cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pablos de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas como marcadores moleculares para discriminar e agrupar sete cultivares "sem nomes" (acessos A-G de Manihot esculenta. Os cultivares "sem nomes" de mandioca foram comparados com 25 diferentes cultivares (BG que vêm sendo mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia, da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Acetato e propionato de 4-metilumbeliferona e acetato de α–naftil, foram os substratos utilizados para a detecção e análise comparativa das isoesterases. A similaridade entre as plantas, usando o coeficiente de Jaccard, variou de 47,6% até 100%. O dendrograma produzido pela análise de agrupamento mostrou identidade entre as plantas do cultivar BG23 e as plantas do acesso D. As plantas dos acessos B e G também foram agrupadas com o cultivar BG 23, mostrando similaridade de 95% e 89%, respectivamente. As plantas dos acessos A e E foram similares às plantas BG 1, mostrando 95% e 90% de similaridade, respectivamente. As plantas do acesso F foram agrupadas com as plantas do cultivar BG 9, mostrando 94% de similaridade. O dendrograma mostrou também que a maioria dos cultivares foram agrupados com 85-90% de similaridade. Assim, concluímos que as isozimas esterases podem ser utilizadas como marcadores moleculares de genótipos de mandioca, para a caracterização dos cultivares sem nomes de M. esculentaEsterase isozymes were used as molecular markers to discriminate and cluster seven "unnamed" cultivars (accesses A-G of M. esculenta. The "unnamed" cassava cultivars were compared to 25 different M. esculenta cultivars (cultivars BG, which have been maintained in the germplasm collection of the Agronomy Department, State University of Maringá. 4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate, 4-methylumbelliferyl propionate and α–naphthyl acetate were utilized as substrates for isoesterase detection and comparative analysis. Similarity between plants, using Jaccard’s coefficient, ranged from 47.6% to 100

  17. Nutritional composition of “gari” analog produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ogundele, Femi G; Ojubanire, Basirat A; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Bello, Olayide W

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties ofgari analog produced from coprocessing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) were investigated. Cassava tuber and cocoyam were coprocessed at different percentages before frying separately. Proximate composition, mineral content, antinutritional factors, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results showed that the moisture content of all the samples was in the same range (7.28 ± 0.30 to 7.78 ± 0.14%). The protein content (1.57 ± 0.14 to 4.43 ± 0.16), ash (1.89 ± 0.10 to 2.15 ± 0.30), and crude fiber (1.53 ± 0.50 to 2.19 ± 0.10%) showed a significant increase with increase in the level of cocoyam substitution. The fat and carbohydrate content decreased with an increase in cocoyam level. The mineral contents of the samples increased with an increase in cocoyam content with sample F having the highest value of potassium, followed by samples E and D (68 mg/100 g, 35 mg/100 g, and 24 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors of all the samples were at very low concentration while samples B, C, and D competed favorably with sample A (control) in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, coprocessing of cassava and cocoyam improved the nutritional quality of thegari produced with high level of acceptance from the taste panelist. PMID:25493189

  18. Pathological and Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris Strains Causing Diseases of Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Valérie; Boher, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; Geiger, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-one strains representing Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae and different pathovars occurring on plants of the family Euphorbiaceae were characterized by ribotyping with a 16S+23S rRNA probe of Escherichia coli and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with a plasmid probe from X. campestris pv. manihotis. Pathogenicity tests were performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta). Histological comparative studies were conducted on strains of two pathovars of X. campestris (vascular and mesophyllic) that attack cassava. Our results indicated that X. campestris pv. manihotis and cassavae have different modes of action in the host and supplemented the taxonomic data on restriction fragment length polymorphism that clearly separate the two pathovars. The plasmid probe could detect multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms among strains of the pathovar studied. Ribotyping provides a useful tool for rapid identification of X. campestris pathovars on cassava. Images PMID:16349463

  19. FLOWERING LOCUS T Triggers Early and Fertile Flowering in Glasshouse Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E; Alder, Adrian; Barsan, Cristina; Kohler, Mathias; Hennig, Lars; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2017-05-27

    Accelerated breeding of plant species has the potential to help challenge environmental and biochemical cues to support global crop security. We demonstrate the over-expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T in Agrobacterium -mediated transformed cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz; cultivar 60444) to trigger early flowering in glasshouse-grown plants. An event seldom seen in a glasshouse environment, precocious flowering and mature inflorescence were obtained within 4-5 months from planting of stem cuttings. Manual pollination using pistillate and staminate flowers from clonal propagants gave rise to viable seeds that germinated into morphologically typical progeny. This strategy comes at a time when accelerated crop breeding is of increasing importance to complement progressive genome editing techniques.

  20. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  1. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jim?nez, Laura; V?squez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; L?on, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; L?pez, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Background Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving it...

  2. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu Chike D; Kolade Olufisayo A; Anderson James V; Raji Adebola AJ; Dixon Alfred GO; Ingelbrecht Ivan L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 ca...

  3. Manihot esculenta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-15

    Oct 15, 2014 ... (2) dried pounded in a tunnel solar dryer, filled in high density polyethylene material, sealed and placed into opaque cartons. The packing ... crop plants and one of the priority crops that are being promoted for economic ... temperature, oxygen and light, is very important to post- pone rotting and spoilage of ...

  4. Manihot esculenta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... DNA quantification and PCR amplification. The quality of a subset of 724 extracted DNA samples was examined by loading 2 µl of each sample on 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples were randomly selected for accurate quantification using a NANODROP® spectrophotometer (Thermo.

  5. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Adebola Aj; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred Go; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

    2009-09-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification, taxonomic studies, and

  6. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz: prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chike D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula and castor bean (Ricinus communis. Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8% displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1% amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita whereas 13 (15.3% amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6% amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for

  7. Meristem micropropagation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) evokes genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitimu, Shedrack R; Taylor, Julian; March, Timothy J; Tairo, Fred; Wilkinson, Mike J; Rodríguez López, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes associated with plant in vitro culture known as somaclonal variation. In vitro propagation systems that are based on the use of microcuttings or meristem cultures are considered analogous to clonal cuttings and so widely viewed to be largely free from such somaclonal effects. In this study, we surveyed for epigenetic changes during propagation by meristem culture and by field cuttings in five cassava (Manihot esculenta) cultivars. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis of profiles generated by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism revealed clear divergence between samples taken from field-grown cuttings and those recovered from meristem culture. There was also good separation between the tissues of field samples but this effect was less distinct among the meristem culture materials. Application of methylation-sensitive Genotype by sequencing identified 105 candidate epimarks that distinguish between field cutting and meristem culture samples. Cross referencing the sequences of these epimarks to the draft cassava genome revealed 102 sites associated with genes whose homologs have been implicated in a range of fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, development, sugar metabolism, DNA methylation, stress response, photosynthesis, and transposon activation. We explore the relevance of these findings for the selection of micropropagation systems for use on this and other crops.

  8. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish E; Kale, Ranjana S

    2015-01-01

    Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats.

  9. The growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on various alternative gelling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DODY PRIADI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelling agents which is an important component in plant tissue culture media is considered expensive which causes high cost of plant micropropagation in developing countries. The objective of the study was to evaluate various commercial starches (hunkue, sago, tapioca, maize and arrowroot and food agars for substitution of standard technical agar which commonly used in tissue culture medium. Young stem cuttings with five buds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. genotype Iding and Gebang cultured on MS hormone-free media solidified with those starches and agars. Parameters observed were total and length of shoots and rate of contamination. Result of study showed that the highest total shoots (2.45 on genotype Iding obtained from Agar Swallow 0.8% (control, meanwhile on Gebang (2.85 obtained from tapioca 25%. The highest shoot length on genotype Iding (17.2 mm obtained from maize, meanwhile on Gebang obtained from agar Sinar Kencana 2% (8.95 mm. Contamination rate of explants caused by bacteria or fungi on genotype Iding was 30-70%, meanwhile on Gebang was 20-60%. Further study needs to be done to evaluate more gelling agents from different sources and their combinations.

  10. Neurotoxic effect of linamarin in rats associated with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a plant widely used for food consumption in different processed products in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Cassava is a good source of carbohydrates and micronutrients. However, if it is not adequately processed or the consumer has nutritional deficiencies, then its cyanogenic glycoside (i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin) content makes it potentially neurotoxic. In the present study, the neurotoxic effects of different concentrations of linamarin (0.075, 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mg/kg) contained in cassava juice were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor alterations in adult male Wistar rats. The linamarin concentration in cassava juice was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the juice was administered intraesophageally for 28 days. The results suggested that the consumption of linamarin in cassava juice increased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field test and caused behavioral deficiency, reflected by lateral swimming, in the swim test on days 21 and 28 of treatment. These alterations are possibly related to neuronal damage caused by linamarin in cassava juice in structures of the central nervous system involved in motor processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphoagronomic characterization of (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones obtained by in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Beovides

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz micropropagation have been refined in Cuba; however, few surveys have been carried out on characterization. A set of plants from ‘Señorita’, ‘CEMSA 74-725’ and ‘CMC-76’ clones was characterized. These plants were propagated by traditional methods (cuttings, organogenesis and starting from somatic embryos, so as, to study the genetic stability of the material through morphoagronomic descriptors taking into consideration in vitro culture techniques. 44 descriptors were evaluated and nine quantitative and eight qualitative variables were determined as the most important. Differences (between and within clones were only detected for quantitative variables: width and length of leaf lobules, length of leaf stalk, total height and height of the first branch, stem number, number of marketable roots per plant, weight of commercial roots and stem thickness. These results obtained in this crop for the first time in Cuba are of great importance for a better knowledge of studied clones and constitute a base for further analysis to validate implemented in vitro culture methods. Key words: morphoagronomic descriptors, genetic stability, cassava, organogenesis, embryogenesis

  12. Development of retrotransposon-based markers IRAP and REMAP for cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B C; Mangolin, C A; Souto, E R; Vicient, C M; Machado, M F P S

    2016-04-07

    Retrotransposons are abundant in the genomes of plants. In the present study, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers were developed for the cassava genome (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Four cassava cultivars (Fécula Branca, IPR-União, Olho Junto, and Tamboara, two samples per cultivar) were used to obtain IRAP and REMAP fingerprints. Twelve designed primers were amplified alone and in combinations. The 42 IRAP/REMAP primer combinations amplified 431 DNA segments (bands; markers) of which 36 (8.36%) were polymorphic. The largest number of informative markers (16) was detected using the primers AYF2 and AYF2xAYF4. The number of bands for each primer varied from 3 to 16, with an average of 10.26 amplified segments per primer. The size of the amplified products ranged between 100 and 7000 bp. The AYF2 primer generated the highest number of amplified segments and showed the highest number of polymorphic bands (68.75%). Two samples of each cassava cultivar were used to illustrate the usefulness and the polymorphism of IRAP/REMAP markers. IRAP and REMAP markers produced a high number of reproducible bands, and might be informative and reliable for investigation of genetic diversity and relationships among cassava cultivars.

  13. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S.; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties. PMID:27795688

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant.

  15. Analysis of heterogeneity of Copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R

    2011-12-20

    Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.

  16. Transgenic Biofortification of the Starchy Staple Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Generates a Novel Sink for Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhary, Mohammad; Siritunga, Dimuth; Stevens, Gene; Taylor, Nigel J.; Fauquet, Claude M.

    2011-01-01

    Although calorie dense, the starchy, tuberous roots of cassava provide the lowest sources of dietary protein within the major staple food crops (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (Montagnac JA, Davis CR, Tanumihardjo SA. (2009) Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:181–194). Cassava was genetically modified to express zeolin, a nutritionally balanced storage protein under control of the patatin promoter. Transgenic plants accumulated zeolin within de novo protein bodies localized within the root storage tissues, resulting in total protein levels of 12.5% dry weight within this tissue, a fourfold increase compared to non-transgenic controls. No significant differences were seen for morphological or agronomic characteristics of transgenic and wild type plants in the greenhouse and field trials, but relative to controls, levels of cyanogenic compounds were reduced by up to 55% in both leaf and root tissues of transgenic plants. Data described here represent a proof of concept towards the potential transformation of cassava from a starchy staple, devoid of storage protein, to one capable of supplying inexpensive, plant-based proteins for food, feed and industrial applications. PMID:21283593

  17. Diallel analysis of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert S; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-09-01

    Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits. Fifteen F 1 families generated from the diallel crosses were evaluated in two environments using a randomized complete block design. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for TCC and DMC, suggesting the relative importance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits in cassava. On the other hand, non-additive effects were predominant for root and shoot weight. MH02-073HS, with the highest level of TCC, was the best general combiner for TCC while NASE 3, a popular white-fleshed variety grown by farmers in Uganda, was the best general combiner for DMC. Such progenitors with superior GCA effects could form the genetic source for future programs targeting cassava breeding for TCC and DMC. A negative correlation was observed between TCC and DMC, which will require breeding strategies to combine both traits for increased adoption of provitamin A cassava varieties.

  18. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-07-14

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system.

  19. Some Nutritional Characteristics of Enzymatically Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) native starch was treated with pyroconversion and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce a pyrodextrin and an enzyme-resistant maltodextrin. Some nutritional characteristics were quantified for both compounds. Pyroconversion was done using a 160:1 (p/v) starch:HCl ratio, 90 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. The resulting pyrodextrin contained 46.21% indigestible starch and 78.86% dietary fiber. Thermostable α-amylase (0.01%) was used to hydrolyze the pyrodextrin at 95 °C for 5 min. The resulting resistant maltodextrin contained 24.45% dextrose equivalents, 56.06% indigestible starch and 86.62% dietary fiber. Compared to the cassava native starch, the pyrodextrin exhibited 56% solubility at room temperature and the resistant maltodextrin 100%. The glycemic index value for the resistant maltodextrin was 59% in healthy persons. Its high indigestible starch and dietary fiber contents, as well as its complete solubility, make the resistant maltodextrin a promising ingredient for raising dietary fiber content in a wide range of foods, especially in drinks, dairy products, creams and soups.

  20. Pertumbuhan Tunas Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Genotipe Jame-jame secara In Vitro

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    Candra Catur Nugroho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe continuous supply of true-to-type seedling through in vitro technique is very important for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. as the demand for seedlings is increasing. The research consisted of two experiments and they were conducted from February 2013 to February 2014. The first experiment was in vitro shoot multiplication to evaluate the effect of culture medium and single node position on growth and shoot multiplication of cassava Jame-jame genotype. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with two factors and four replications. The first factor was culture medium (MS0 and MSB3 and the second factor was single node positions used as explant (basal, middle, and top section of the stem. The result showed that middle section of the stem cultured on MS0 medium had the highest shoot height, number of leaves, and number of nodes. The second experiment was the acclimatization to evaluate the effect of culture period on the success of the acclimatization. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with culture period prior to acclimatization as treatment. The results showed that seedlings from period of 12 and 24 weeks after culture showed higher survival rates (80% than seedling from period of 36 and 48 weeks after culture (50 and 40%. Culture period prior to acclimatization had no significant effect on plant height and number of leaves.Keywords: BAP, culture period, single node position, shoot multiplication

  1. KARAKTERISTIK SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA UBI KAYU (Manihot esculenta BERDASARKAN LOKASI PENANAMAN DAN UMUR PANEN BERBEDA

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    Susilawati Susilawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is the third primary food in Indonesia after rice and corn. Cassava doesn’t have distinctive harvest period, therefore the harvesting period can be varied and resulting differences physical and chemical properties. Production rate and physical and chemical properties will vary due to soil fertility of cassava plantation. The purpose of this study is to analysis physical and chemical properties at Gunung Agung village Sekampung Udik district and Sinar Baru village Marga Tiga district, at Lampung Timur regency with different harvesting periods. The method used in this study was a descriptive method with two factors : harvesting age and plant location. The results show that Kasetsart variety with ten month of harvesting age at location A (Gunung Agung village Sekampung Udik had better physical and chemical properties, and these can be seen from the fresh cassava water content (60,67%, cassava density (1,15 g/mL, starch content (35,93%, starch yield (18,94%, starch moisture (8,17%, amilose content (18,03% and amylopectin content (81,97% and enzymaticly conversion of starch to glucose (64,92%. Different plan locations and harvesting periods resulted in different physical and chemical properties. These indicated that Kasetsart variety grown at location A is more suitable to be converted to bioethanol compared to those of at location B. Keywords:  Bioethanol, harvesting period, Kasetsart cassava, physical and chemical properties.

  2. Identificación de polimorfismos en genes candidatos de resistencia en yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Identification of polymorphisms in resistance gene candidates in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Andrea Vásquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta es la base de la alimentación para más de 1000 millones de personas en el mundo. La producción es severamente afectada por enfermedades ocasionadas por diferentes patógenos. Las plantas de yuca han desarrollado una serie de proteínas de resistencia (R para defenderse de infecciones virales, bacterianas y fúngicas, las cuales son capaces de reconocer moléculas específicas de los patógenos. Un repertorio amplio de estas proteínas ha sido identificado en varias especies vegetales, no obstante, a pesar de conferir resistencia a patógenos diversos, presentan unos pocos dominios conservados. A partir de la reciente liberación de la secuencia completa del genoma de yuca se identificaron secuencias similares a proteínas R en este genoma. Con esta información se diseñaron cebadores para amplificar 13 genes R, logrando la amplificación de 10 de ellos en las variedades TMS30572 y CM2177-2, las cuales representan los parentales empleados en la construcción del mapa genético de yuca. A partir de la secuenciación de los amplicones obtenidos se identificaron 37 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms de los cuales 18 (48.6% corresponden a transiciones y 19 (45.9% a transversiones. El restante corresponde a inserciones/deleciones. Este conocimiento permitirá desarrollar estrategias adecuadas para marcadores moleculares tipo CAPs (del inglés Cleaved Amplified Polymorphism para posteriormente evaluar su segregación en la población F1 y permitir de esta manera, posicionar estos marcadores en el mapa genético de yuca.Cassava production can be detrimentally affected by diseases caused for different pathogens. To defend against viral, bacterial and fungal diseases, plants have developed a group of resistance proteins (R, which are able to recognize pathogen’s molecules. A wide repertoire of R proteins has been identified in a large group of plants. Even though conferring resistance to different pathogens, these R

  3. Cassava chip (Manihot esculenta Crantz as an energy source for ruminant feeding

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    Metha Wanapat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is widely grown in sub-tropical and tropical areas, producing roots as an energy source while the top biomass including leaves and immature stems can be sun-dried and used as cassava hay. Cassava roots can be processed as dried chip or pellet. It is rich in soluble carbohydrate (75 to 85% but low in crude protein (2 to 3%. Its energy value is comparable to corn meal but has a relatively higher rate of rumen degradation. Higher levels of non-protein nitrogen especially urea (1 to 4% can be successfully incorporated in concentrates containing cassava chip as an energy source. Cassava chip can also be processed with urea and other ingredients (tallow, sulfur, raw banana meal, cassava hay, and soybean meal to make products such as cassarea, cassa-ban, and cassaya. Various studies have been conducted in ruminants using cassava chip to replace corn meal in the concentrate mixtures and have revealed satisfactory results in rumen fermentation efficiency and the subsequent production of meat and milk. In addition, it was advantageous when used in combination with rice bran in the concentrate supplement. Practical home-made-concentrate using cassava chip can be easily prepared for use on farms. A recent development has involved enriching protein in cassava chips, yielding yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP of up to 47.5% crude protein, which can be used to replace soybean meal. It is therefore, recommended to use cassava chip as an alternative source of energy to corn meal when the price is economical and it is locally available.

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DE COMPONENTES NUTRICIONAIS DE CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

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    Giovana Cristina CENI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da mandioca. Portanto, foram investigadas a composição química (composição centesimal, cálcio, cobre, ferro, magnésio, manganês, potássio, sódio e nitrogênio de cinco cultivares (BRS Rosada, Casca Roxa, BRS Dourada, BRS Gema de Ovo e Saracura de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz in natura. As cultivares BRS Rosada, Casca Roxa e BRS Dourada apresentaram teores menores de amido e diferiram signifi cativamente (p<0,05 das cultivares BRS Gema de ovo e Saracura. A cultivar Casca Roxa e BRS Gema de ovo apresentaram teores de fi bra-bruta signifi cativamente (p<0,05 superiores das demais cultivares. O teor de proteína variou entre 1,19 e 1,83 g/100 g, sendo que a BRS Gema de Ovo e BRS Rosada apresentaram valores superiores. A mandioca pode ser considerada como fonte apreciável de potássio (808 a 1319 mg/100 g, b.s. A cultivar BRS Rosada destacouse nos teores de magnésio (126 mg/100 g, b.s e ferro (5 mg/100 g, b.s. Com base nos resultados verifi cou-se que a composição química é específi ca não somente para a cultivar, como também depende principalmente de fatores genéticos associados.

  5. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

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    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  6. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

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    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

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    Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

    2012-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics.

  8. Influência de sistemas de preparo do solo na produtividade da mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

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    J. O. A. P. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo no noroeste do estado do Paraná, durante os anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1996/97, para avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de preparo em algumas propriedades físicas e químicas de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico e na cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz. Os tratamentos utilizados constituíram-se de três sistemas de preparo de solo: plantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação + gradagem niveladora e preparo convencional (arado de aiveca + gradagem niveladora. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com seis repetições. Na camada de 0-0,10 m, os maiores valores de macroporosidade foram obtidos com os sistemas de preparo mínimo e preparo convencional, enquanto o plantio direto apresentou os maiores valores de densidade do solo. O preparo mínimo propiciou as maiores concentrações de P disponível, de K+ e de Ca2+, bem como menor concentração de Mg2+, na camada de 0-0,05 m do solo. O teor de matéria orgânica do solo não sofreu influência dos sistemas de preparo. O preparo mínimo e o convencional propiciaram maior altura de plantas e maior produção de raízes tuberosas, nos dois anos de avaliação. Comparado aos outros sistemas de preparo, o plantio direto propiciou menores produtividades de parte aérea e de raízes tuberosas.

  9. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

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    Balyejusa Kizito, Elizabeth; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Fregene, Martin; Westerbergh, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop grown in the tropics mainly by small-scale farmers even though agro-industrial processing is rapidly increasing. For this processing market improved varieties with high dry matter root content (DMC) is required. Potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the leaves and translocated to the roots. Selection for varieties with low cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and high DMC is among the principal objectives in cassava breeding programs. However, these traits are highly influenced by the environmental conditions and the genetic control of these traits is not well understood. An S(1) population derived from a cross between two bred cassava varieties (MCOL 1684 and Rayong 1) that differ in CNP and DMC was used to study the heritability and genetic basis of these traits. A broad-sense heritability of 0.43 and 0.42 was found for CNP and DMC, respectively. The moderate heritabilities for DMC and CNP indicate that the phenotypic variation of these traits is explained by a genetic component. We found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy and/or linkage of QTL. The two QTL for CNP showed additive effects while the six QTL for DMC showed additive effect, dominance or overdominance. This study is a first step towards developing molecular marker tools for efficient breeding of CNP and DMC in cassava.

  10. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) landraces from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongomake, Kone; Doungous, Oumar; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to regenerate cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars from Cameroon via somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed. Shoot apical meristems and immature leaf lobes were used as explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing 33 or 50 µM of the auxins Picloram (Pic), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Dicamba (Dic), and α-Naphthalene acetic acid. Cultivar performance was assessed using SE and number of somatic embryos produced. Overall, the frequency of primary somatic embryogenesis (PSE) and the mean number of somatic embryos produced varied considerably with genotype, type of auxin and concentration tested. For example, cultivar (cv.) Ngan Mbada showed the best performance on MS medium supplemented with 50 µM Pic with a SE frequency of 40 % and an average number of somatic embryos of 90. The second best performance was recorded in cv. Local Red on MS medium supplemented with 33 µM 2,4-D, where the SE frequency was 40 % and an average number of somatic embryos of 60.5. Cultivar Ekona Red recorded the best performance on medium supplemented with 50 µM Pic showing a SE frequency of 47 % and an average number of somatic embryos of 45. We further examined secondary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis (SSE, CSE) and both were also observed to vary with genotype, however, both exhibited significantly higher frequencies of SE compared with PSE. SE started to decline at the fourth cycle of embryogenesis. Examination of organogenesis showed that shoot bud induction from green cotyledons varied across cultivars and benzylaminopurine was shown to outperform Thidiazuron in the ability to induce organogenesis. Furthermore, the frequencies of bud induction were identical under light and dark conditions. Finally, regenerated plants grew easily in the greenhouse with 90-100 % survival rate and did not display detectable variation in morphology.

  11. High-resolution identification and abundance profiling of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) microRNAs.

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    Khatabi, Behnam; Arikit, Siwaret; Xia, Rui; Winter, Stephan; Oumar, Doungous; Mongomake, Kone; Meyers, Blake C; Fondong, Vincent N

    2016-01-28

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are endogenous sRNAs that play regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, one subset of sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit tissue-differential expression and regulate gene expression mainly through direct cleavage of mRNA or indirectly via production of secondary phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that silence cognate target transcripts in trans. Here, we have identified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) miRNAs using high resolution sequencing of sRNA libraries from leaf, stem, callus, male and female flower tissues. To analyze the data, we built a cassava genome database and, via sequence analysis and secondary structure prediction, 38 miRNAs not previously reported in cassava were identified. These new cassava miRNAs included two miRNAs not previously been reported in any plant species. The miRNAs exhibited tissue-differential accumulation as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, largely reflecting levels observed in sequencing data. Some of the miRNAs identified were predicted to trigger production of secondary phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) from 80 PHAS loci. Cassava is a woody perennial shrub, grown principally for its starch-rich storage roots, which are rich in calories. In this study, new miRNAs were identified and their expression was validated using qRT-PCR of RNA from five different tissues. The data obtained expand the list of annotated miRNAs and provide additional new resources for cassava improvement research.

  12. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%), followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%). Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the problem of post

  13. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly.

  14. Identification of QTLs Associated to Plant Architecture in Cassava (Manihot esculenta

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    Camilo López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta es el cuarto cultivo en importancia a nivel mundial como fuente de calorías para la población humana después del arroz, el azúcar y el maíz, posicionándose por esta razón como un cultivo primordial para la seguridad alimentaria. Su arquitectura ha sido considerada como un factor clave que subyace a la fisiología del rendimiento, relacionando características morfológicas con productividad. En este trabajo se evaluaron diferentes características de arquitectura vegetal en yuca. Los caracteres fueron evaluados en una población F1 compuesta por 133 hermanos completos (familia K sembrados en dos lugares biogeográficamente diferentes: La Vega (Cundinamarca y Arauca (Arauca en Colombia. Las características evaluadas relacionadas con la arquitectura vegetal fueron altura de la planta (AT, número de brotes (NB, longitud entrenudos (LE, número de raíces (NR, peso de raíces (PR, pigmentación del peciolo (PP, área de la hoja (AH y tipo de hoja (TH. A partir de los datos obtenidos y empleando un mapa genético de alta densidad basado en SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms se llevó a cabo un análisis de QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci. Se lograron identificar tres QTLs para La Vega asociados con los caracteres altura total, número de brotes y área de la hoja. Para Arauca se detectaron tres QTLs asociados con altura total, longitud de entrenudos y número de brotes. Los QTLs se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de ligamiento y explicaron entre 18,93 y 41,92 % de la variación genética.

  15. Non-destructive determination of photosynthetic rates of eight varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadu, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Cassava is an important food security crop in Ghana and in the wake of climate change there is the need for plant breeders to develop varieties with high water use efficiency as well as high photosynthetic rate in order to adapt to the changing climate. Thus, the photosynthetic rates of eight cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties were non-destructively evaluated using photosynthesis meter miniPPM300, from June 2014 to May 2015, with the aim of selecting varieties with high photosynthetic rate for future breeding programmes. The mean photosynthetic rate varied depending on the varieties ranging from 40.5 μmol/m 2 s in Bosom nsia to 45.2 μmol/m 2 s in Gbenze. However, the presence of African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD) marginally reduced the photosynthetic rate to below 40 μmol/m 2 s in all the varieties. Similarly, the chlorophyll content index (CCI) as measured by chlorophyll meter and spectrophotometer also varied from one variety to another; it was low in Nandom (17.9 CCI) and high in Gbenze (39.93 CCI) using the chlorophyll meter and was also reduced by the presence of the virus. Although, the stomatal density varied between the varieties it was not influenced by virus infection. Furthermore, ACMD significantly decreased the leaf surface area from 5705.8mm 2 in uninfected plants to 1251.6mm 2 in infected plants, consequently reducing the number and weight of tubers produced 11 month after planting (MAP). Molecular Testing of the viruses using virus specific primers JSP001/JSP002, EAB555F/EAB555R, EACMV1e/EACMV2e at 6 MAP and 11MAP, showed that the mosaic symptoms were caused by African Cassava Mosaic virus disease. Cassava varieties with high photosynthetic efficiency and low virus infection can be used in cassava improvement programmes in Ghana. (au)

  16. (manihot esculenta crantz parte I: respuesta a la compresión unidireccional

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    HECTOR JOSÉ CIRO VELÁSQUEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación experimental del comportamiento reológico de los productos agrícolas a través de la determinación y análisis de las curvas de flujo de la yuca (Manihot esculenta crantz variedad chirosa obtenidas en compresión unidireccional. Las propiedades reológicas evaluadas fueron la resistencia mecánica del producto hasta el punto de falla (esfuerzo y deformación unitaria, tenacidad y módulo de deformabilidad . Los tubérculos fueron sometidos a pruebas de compresión unidireccional hasta la fractura a una velocidad de deformación de 1 mm/s, condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa de 21ºC y 65% respectivamente. Los ensayo reológicos fueron evaluados en dos sentidos de carga de acuerdo a las fibras (longitudinal y transversal y dos niveles de contenido de humedad (producto fresco y producto deshidratado. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron que el comportamiento reológico del producto depende del contenido de humedad del producto y el sentido de carga, indicando que el material vegetal presenta una resistencia mecánica a la falla (esfuerzo de falla y tenacidad mas alta en sentido longitudinal que transversal. Además la rigidez del producto expresada por el modulo de deformabilidad indica que el producto es menos rígido a medida que se diminuye el contenido de humedad del producto.

  17. Analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ESTs: A tool for the discovery of genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Andres; Neme, Rafik; Sanabria, Carolina; Lopez, Camilo

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the main source of calories for more than 1,000 millions of people around the world and has been consolidated as the fourth most important crop after rice, corn and wheat. Cassava is considered tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress conditions; nevertheless these characteristics are mainly present in non-commercial varieties. Genetic breeding strategies represent an alternative to introduce the desirable characteristics into commercial varieties. A fundamental step for accelerating the genetic breeding process in cassava requires the identification of genes associated to these characteristics. One rapid strategy for the identification of genes is the possibility to have a large collection of ESTs (expressed sequence tag). In this study, a complete analysis of cassava ESTs was done. The cassava ESTs represent 80,459 sequences which were assembled in a set of 29,231 unique genes (unigen), comprising 10,945 contigs and 18,286 singletones. These 29,231 unique genes represent about 80% of the genes of the cassava's genome. Between 5% and 10% of the unigenes of cassava not show similarity to any sequences present in the NCBI database and could be consider as cassava specific genes. a functional category was assigned to a group of sequences of the unigen set (29%) following the Gene Ontology Vocabulary. the molecular function component was the best represented with 43% of the sequences, followed by the biological process component (38%) and finally the cellular component with 19%. in the cassava ESTs collection, 3,709 microsatellites were identified and they could be used as molecular markers. this study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of the functional genomic structure of cassava and constitutes an important tool for the identification of genes associated to agricultural characteristics of interest that could be employed in cassava breeding programs.

  18. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Samrina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%, followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%. Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the

  19. CRECIMIENTO IN-VITRO DE RAICES DE MANIHOT ESCULENTA EN DISTINTAS CONDICIONES DE ILUMINACION Y TEMPERATURA

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    J D Portuguez Arias

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el crecimiento in-vitro de raíces de Manihot esculenta en condiciones de iluminación y temperatura diferentes.Se utilizaron raíces obtenidas de ápices cultivados in-vitro en medio de Torrey (sólido, en cuartos, invernáculos y estufas, haciendo tres variantes: 1- Luz contínua durante las 24 hs.; 2- Día natural (de 11 hs. de luz y 13 hs. de oscuridad; 3- Oscuridad durante las 24 hs. En cada variante se estudiaron dos subvariantes: a- con temperaturas elevadas día y noche yb- temperatura alta de día y baja de noche. La fuente de iluminación en la variante de luz contínua fue el sol durante el día y luz artificial de noche.Se encontró que la composición del medio nutritivo influye en el crecimiento de los ápices y en la rizogénesis, dando mejor resultado el medio de Torrey que el de White; que la temperatura Alta de día y Alta de noche con luz contínua o natural, coayudan al crecimiento de las raíces cultivadas invitro. Además se encontró una coloración verde en las raíces, posiblemente debido a la formación de clorofila por efecto de la iluminación.

  20. A purely green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia: synthesis and antibacterial evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiuddin, Achmad; Salmiati; Hadibarata, Tony; Salim, Mohd Razman; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-09-01

    Green procedure for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered due to its economy and toxic-free effects. Several existing works on synthesizing AgNPs using leaves extract still involve the use of physical or mechanical treatment such as heating or stirring, which consume a lot of energy. To extend and explore the green extraction philosophy, we report here the synthesis and antibacterial evaluations of a purely green procedure to synthesize AgNPs using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia leaves extract without the aforementioned additional treatment. The produced AgNPs were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and antibacterial investigations. For antibacterial tests, two bacteria namely Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were selected. The presently employed method has successfully produced spherical AgNPs having sizes ranging from 9 to 69 nm, with plasmonic characteristics ranging from 356 to 485 nm, and energy-dispersive X-ray peak at approximately 3 keV. In addition, the smallest particles can be produced when Manihot esculenta leaves extract was applied. Moreover, this study also confirmed that both the leaves and synthesized AgNPs exhibit the antibacterial capability, depending on their concentration and the bacteria type.

  1. Variasi morfologi dan pola pita protein uni kayu (Manihot esculenta varietas Adira1 dan Cabak makao di Ngawi, Jawa Timur

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    TRIBADI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tribadi, Suranto, Sajidan. 2010. Variasi morfologi dan pola pita protein uni kayu (Manihot esculenta varietas Adira1 dan Cabak makao di Ngawi, Jawa Timur. Bioteknologi 7: 73-84. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi dan anatomi serta pola pita protein ubi kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz yang tumbuh pada tiga daerah ketinggian berbeda. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode sampel acak sederhana (simple random sampling pada tiga ketinggian tempat yang berbeda yaitu 50,300,1000 m dpl di Kabupaten Ngawi, Jawa Timur serta analisis pola pita protein dilakukan dengan metode SDS-PAGE. Hasil penelitian morfologi dan anatomi diuraikan secara deskriptip dan disajikan dalam bentuk tabel, histogram dan gambar. Analisis pola pita protein dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisis kuantitatif dan kualitatif yaitu berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita protein pada gel dengan menghitung berat molekul berdasarkan marker kode S 8445 dan metode kualitatif berdasarkan kualitas pita yang terbentuk.Pola pita yang terbentuk diestimasikan dan disajikan dalam bentuk zimogram. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa ketinggian habitat berpengaruh terhadap variasi morfologi akar, batang, dan daun. Umbi akar terpanjang pada ketinggian 50 m dpl (Cabak makao, diameter batang terlebar pada ketinggian 50 m dpl (Cabak makao, panjang daun dan tangkai terpanjang pada ketinggian 300 m (Cabak makao dan1000 m dpl (Cabak makao.Tidak ada perbedaan anatomi pada akar, batang dan daun serta tidak ada perbedaan pola pita protein baik pada varietas Adira-1 maupun Cabak makao.

  2. Diversity of begomoviruses associated with mosaic disease of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relative (Manihot glaziovii Mull. Arg.) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sserubombwe, W S; Briddon, R W; Baguma, Y K; Ssemakula, G N; Bull, S E; Bua, A; Alicai, T; Omongo, C; Otim-Nape, G W; Stanley, J

    2008-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) growing in Uganda during 2001-2002 has been screened for the presence of begomoviruses using PCR-RFLP, cloning full-length genomic components and nucleotide sequence analysis. In contrast with a recent survey in neighbouring Kenya, which identified three distinct strains of East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV, EACMV-UG and EACMV-KE2) as well as East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus and the new species East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, only EACMV-UG and, to a lesser extent, African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) were found associated with cassava in Uganda. The integrity of the cloned genomic components of representative virus isolates was confirmed by demonstrating their infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana and cassava using biolistic inoculation, providing a convenient means to screen cassava varieties for disease resistance. Both EACMV-UG and ACMV were also associated with Manihot glaziovii. Infectivity studies using cloned components confirmed that viruses from one host could infect the other, suggesting that this wild relative of cassava might be a reservoir host for the disease. The relatively low level of diversity of begomoviruses associated with cassava mosaic disease in Uganda is consistent with reports that EACMV-UG has displaced other begomovirus species and strains during the recent epidemic that swept through the country.

  3. Crossability studies and zygotic embryo culture in cassava (manihot esculenta crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunekpeku, W.

    2010-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm in Ghana is mostly uncharacterized and includes a large collection of landraces variously suitable for specific end-uses at different locations across the country. None of the existing released varieties meets the requirements of an emerging local industry in starch production. In the absence of an active molecular genetic research group in the country to facilitate the incorporation of desired genes for high yield, high starch content and disease resistance into a single genotype, intra-specific hybridization remains a viable option in creating variability from which new varieties with a combination of the desired characteristics may be selected. Following a study of their phenological and reproductive characteristics, crosses were carried out among nine accessions of cassava (Megyewontem, Bamboo Akwetey, Ankra, BNARI Selection-1, Afisiafi, Security, Larbi, Asare and HO-008, abbreviated as ME, BA, AN, BS-1, AF, SE, LA, AS and HO-008 respectively). Flowering and fruiting characteristics differed significantly among the accessions. Percent crossability ranged from 0% (in AN x HO-008, AF x ME and LA x HO-008 crosses) to 88% (in AS x AF crosses). No clear relationship existed between seed set and embryo formation among the accessions. Fruit drop rate ranged from 11.7% to 83.3%. Zygotic embryos were harvested prior to seed maturity and cultured in vitro on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium to raise a collection of F 1 base population lines. In vitro germination rates of the hybrid embryos harvested at 45DAP ranged from 32.14% to 100%. Ex vitro acclimatization of 237 plantlets recovered from zygotic embryo cultures resulted in the survival of 35 hybrid progenies. These were grown for six months in a plant barn. Preliminary characterization of the hybrids with reference to above- and below-ground morphological traits, using IBPGR descriptors, revealed that they are generally similar in terms of pubescence of young

  4. BIOCOMBUSTIBLES Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA: LA YUCA (Manihot esculenta COMO MODELO DE INVESTIGACIÓN.

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    Simon Cortes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los combustibles obtenidos a partir de materia vegetal, como el etanol y el biodiesel, están tomando importancia en la dinámica energética mundial, gracias principalmente a que son más económicos y menos contaminantes del medio ambiente que los combustibles fósiles. El mercado de biocombustibles ha producido un incremento en las áreas de cultivo tanto de plantas regularmente usadas como materia prima para su obtención como de aquellas con potencial de ser nuevas fuentes de producción, al igual que ha impulsado la investigación básica orientada hacia el incremento en calidad y producción de diferentes cultivos. Las plantas que almacenan cantidades importantes de almidón, azúcares simples o aceites son el blanco principal para la producción de biocombustibles, aunque nuevas tecnologías están permitiendo la utilización de celulosa como materia prima. El cultivo de yuca (Manihot esculenta está ampliamente distribuido en toda la zona tropical y es la base alimenticia de cerca del 10% de la población mundial. El alto contenido de almidón en las raíces almacenadoras de la yuca hace de este cultivo una opción para la obtención de etanol. El uso de técnicas de mejoramiento no convencional de variedades de yuca permitirá la generación de plantas más aptas para la industria de biocombustibles. En este artículo de reflexión se revisa el estado actual de los biocombustibles a nivel mundial y nacional, y se comentan los beneficios y retos a afrontar en cuanto a las implicaciones respecto al medio ambiente y la alimentación humana. Finalmente se discute el potencial de la yuca como fuente eficiente de materia prima para la obtención de biocombustibles en Colombia.

  5. Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Tuberous Roots of Six Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Varieties Reveals Proteins Related to Phenotypic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gabriela Justamante Händel; de Magalhães Andrade, Jonathan; Valle, Teresa Losada; Labate, Carlos Alberto; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2016-04-27

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food and an important source of starch, and the attributes of its tuberous root largely depend on the variety. The proteome of cassava has been investigated; however, to date, no study has focused on varieties that reveal the molecular basis of phenotypical characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to compare the proteome of the tuberous roots of six cassava varieties that differed in carbohydrates, carotenoids, and resistance to diseases, among other attributes. Two-dimensional gels showed 146 differential spots between the varieties, and the functional roles of some differential proteins were correlated to phenotypic characteristics of the varieties, such as the amount of carbohydrates or carotenoids and the resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. The results obtained here highlight elements that might help to direct the improvement of new cultivars of cassava, which is an economically and socially relevant crop worldwide.

  6. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism by triazole growth regulators in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); effects on tuber production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathinayagam, Muthiah; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2007-09-01

    We have evaluated the ability of two triazole growth regulators, viz. triadimefon (TDM) and hexaconazole (HEX), in the enhancement of tuber production and quality in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) through their effects on carbohydrate metabolism. One litre of 20 mg(-1) TDM and 15 mg(-1) HEX solution per plant were used for the treatments and groundwater was given to control plants. Triazole treatments reduced plant height and leaf area, but increased fresh and dry weights. Plants treated with TDM showed an increased net assimilation rate, which is followed by HEX and control plants. Triazole compounds increased the relative growth rate of cassava after 200 DAP, i.e. in the phase of tuber enlargement. Triazole compounds increased the starch and other carbohydrate contents and carbohydrate metabolising enzyme activities. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that these triazoles can significantly enhance the tuber production and quality by affecting the starch metabolism, apart from their fungicidal properties.

  7. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability.

  8. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. Copyright © 2015 International Cassava Genetic Map Consortium (ICGMC).

  9. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Genetic diversity and total carotene content in accessions of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is a perennial shrub cultivated in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. It is an important dietary source for humans in tropical countries. Carotenoids are natural pigments that are widely distributed in the nature, where about 50 of them have provitamin A activity, b-carotene has been the most efficient. Among the procedures to fortify (enrich or increase the nutritional content of foods or crops cassava varieties, the study of genetic variability of the content of carotenoids in the root is one of the most common to carried out processes of selection and recombination in the breeding program which will allow the

  10. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and Its Wild Relatives.

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    Feifei An

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14. The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  11. Domestication Syndrome Is Investigated by Proteomic Analysis between Cultivated Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Its Wild Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Chen, Ting; Stéphanie, Djabou Mouafi Astride; Li, Kaimian; Li, Qing X; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Tomlins, Keith; Li, Jun; Gu, Bi; Chen, Songbi

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wild relatives remain a largely untapped potential for genetic improvement. However, the domestication syndrome phenomena from wild species to cultivated cassava remain poorly understood. The analysis of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic activity showed significantly different between cassava cultivars SC205, SC8 and wild relative M. esculenta ssp. Flabellifolia (W14). The dry matter, starch and amylose contents in the storage roots of cassava cultivars were significantly more than that in wild species. In order to further reveal the differences in photosynthesis and starch accumulation of cultivars and wild species, the globally differential proteins between cassava SC205, SC8 and W14 were analyzed using 2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 175 and 304 proteins in leaves and storage roots were identified, respectively. Of these, 122 and 127 common proteins in leaves and storage roots were detected in SC205, SC8 and W14, respectively. There were 11, 2 and 2 unique proteins in leaves, as well as 58, 9 and 12 unique proteins in storage roots for W14, SC205 and SC8, respectively, indicating proteomic changes in leaves and storage roots between cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. These proteins and their differential regulation across plants of contrasting leaf morphology, leaf anatomy pattern and photosynthetic related parameters and starch content could contribute to the footprinting of cassava domestication syndrome. We conclude that these global protein data would be of great value to detect the key gene groups related to cassava selection in the domestication syndrome phenomena.

  12. Potential of tannin-rich plants, Leucaena leucocephala, Glyricidia sepium and Manihot esculenta, to reduce enteric methane emissions in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, H; Rira, M; Barde, D J; Labirin, F; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Calif, B; Periacarpin, F; Fleury, J; Rochette, Y; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M

    2016-12-01

    An in vivo trial was conducted in sheep to investigate the effect of three tropical tannin-rich plants (TRP) on methane emission, intake and digestibility. The TRP used were leaves of Glyricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Manihot esculenta that contained, respectively, 39, 75 and 92 g condensed tannins/kg DM. Methane was determined with the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique. Eight rumen-cannulated sheep of two breeds (four Texel, four Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Four experimental diets were tested. They consisted in a tropical natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. fed alone (C) or in association with G. sepium (G), L. leucocephala (L) or M. esculenta (M) given as pellets at 44% of the daily ration. Daily organic matter intake was higher in TRP diets (686, 984, 1054 and 1186 g/day for C, G, L and M respectively; p  0.05). Methane emission was 47.1, 44.9, 33.3 and 33.5 g/kg digestible organic matter intake for C, G, L and M, respectively, and was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for L and M than for G and C. Our results confirm the potential of some TRP to reduce methane production. The strong decrease in methane and the increase in intake with TRPs may be due to their presentation as pellets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Identification and characterization of a novel cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) clone with high free sugar content and novel starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Joaquim Castelo Branco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Batista; de Mattos Cascardo, Julio César; Junior, Carlos Bloch; Campos, Laura

    2004-11-01

    This study reports the identification of a new class of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with a storage root showing unusual free sugar accumulation and novel starch. Twenty-seven clones high in free sugar were identified under cultivation in primitive rural community areas in the Amazon. Iodine test and glucose oxidase-peroxidase reagent strips were used, in the field, for identification of starch and glucose, respectively. Five out of these 27 clones of cassava were cultivated at EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology and used for biochemical characterization, starch synthesis enzyme activities and gene expression analysis. Carbohydrates were fractioned into free sugar, polymerized water-soluble and -insoluble alpha-polyglucan. Clones of series CAS36 accumulate over 100 times more free sugar (mainly glucose) than commercial varieties. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed one clone with distinct water-soluble sugars not present in the commercial cultivar. Structure analysis of the water-soluble and -insoluble alpha-polyglucan revealed the presence of a glycogen-like starch in clone CAS36.1. This clone indicated disruption in the starch synthesis pathway for enzyme activities and protein blot analyses in ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and branching enzyme, and their corresponding protein. Gene expression analysis indicated the lack of transcript for the gene coding for branching enzyme, but not for the gene coding for the ADPG-pyrophosphorylase small subunit. In addition, the pattern of distribution of sugar and starch content showed to be related to tissue age in the storage root.

  14. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Crops and Their Derived Foodstuffs: Safety, Security and Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Piccirillo, Clara; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela E

    2016-12-09

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) are tropical crops consumed by ca. 2 billion people and represent the main source of carbohydrate and energy for the approximately 700 million people living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. They are a guarantee of food security for developing countries. The production of these crops and the transformation into food-derived commodities is increasing, it represents a profitable business and farmers generate substantial income from their market. However, there are some important concerns related to the food safety and food security. The high post-harvest losses, mainly for yam, the contamination by endogenous toxic compounds, mainly for cassava, and the contamination by external agents (such as micotoxins, pesticides, and heavy metal) represent a depletion of economic value and income. The loss in the raw crops or the impossibility to market the derived foodstuffs, due to incompliance with food regulations, can seriously limit all yam tubers and the cassava roots processors, from farmers to household, from small-medium to large enterprises. One of the greatest challenges to overcome those concerns is the transformation of traditional or indigenous processing methods into modern industrial operations, from the crop storage to the adequate package of each derived foodstuff.

  15. Genetic relatedness between cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and M. flabellifolia and M. Peruviana based on both RAPD and AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Manihot is still uncertain and the genetic origin of cassava (M. esculenta Crantz continues to be controversial. We studied the degree of genetic relatedness between cassava and two naturally occurring species (M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana which are probably involved in the evolution of cassava, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers. Thirty-three clonal accessions of cassava of known genetic diversity and 15 accessions of the wild species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana were analyzed using 92 polymorphic RAPD bands and 73 polymorphic AFLP bands. The genetic markers were unable to differentiate the two wild species, which confirms their botanical similarity. Half of the total number of amplified bands were monomorphic in all of the genotypes evaluated. The mean genetic similarity (Jaccard between cassava and the species M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana was 0.59. A grouping analysis (neighbor-joining method with RAPD markers of cultivated cassava, M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana and the other wild species located the genotypes of cassava and M. flabellifolia/M. peruviana at one extremity and the three Mexican species (M. aesculifolia, M. michaelis and M. chlorostica at the other. An intermediate position between these groups was occupied by two wild species (M. glaziovii and M. reptans native to central and northeastern Brazil. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the species M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana gave rise to the cultivated species.

  16. In vitro assessment of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of boiled juice (tucupi) from Manihot esculenta Crantz roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, L A; Mota, T C; Cardoso, P C S; Alcântara, D D F Á; Burbano, R M R; Guimarães, A C; Khayat, A S; Rocha, C A M; Bahia, M O

    2016-10-05

    The population of Pará (a state in Brazil) has a very characteristic food culture, as a majority of the carbohydrates consumed are obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) derivatives. Tucupi is the boiled juice of cassava roots that plays a major role in the culinary footprint of Pará. Before boiling, this juice is known as manipueira and contains linamarin, a toxic glycoside that can decompose to hydrogen cyanide. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tucupi on cultured human lymphocytes were assessed using the comet assay and detection of apoptosis and necrosis by differential fluorescent staining with acridine orange-ethidium bromide. Tucupi concentrations (v/v) were determined using the methylthiazole tetrazolium biochemical test. Concentrations of tucupi that presented no genotoxic effects (2, 4, 8, and 16%) were used in our experiments. The results showed that under our study conditions, tucupi exerted no genotoxic effects; however, cytotoxic effects were observed with cell death mainly induced by necrosis. These effects may be related to the presence of hydrogen cyanide in the juice.

  17. Large-scale SNP discovery through RNA sequencing and SNP genotyping by targeted enrichment sequencing in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Shearman, Jeremy R; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crop species being the main source of dietary energy in several countries. Marker-assisted selection has become an essential tool in plant breeding. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery via transcriptome sequencing is an attractive strategy for genome complexity reduction in organisms with large genomes. We sequenced the transcriptome of 16 cassava accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified 675,559 EST-derived SNP markers. A subset of those markers was subsequently genotyped by capture-based targeted enrichment sequencing in 100 F1 progeny segregating for starch viscosity phenotypes. A total of 2,110 non-redundant SNP markers were used to construct a genetic map. This map encompasses 1,785 cM and consists of 19 linkage groups. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling starch pasting properties was identified and shown to coincide with the QTL previously reported for this trait. With a high-density SNP-based linkage map presented here, we also uncovered a novel QTL associated with starch pasting time on LG 10.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the KUP Family under Abiotic Stress in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenjun; Mao, Xiang; Huang, Chao; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Wu, Chunlai; Xia, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenquan; Zhou, Shiyi; Li, Kaimian; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    KT/HAK/KUP (KUP) family is responsible for potassium ion (K+) transport, which plays a vital role in the response of plants to abiotic stress by maintaining osmotic balance. However, our understanding of the functions of the KUP family in the drought-resistant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is limited. In the present study, 21 cassava KUP genes (MeKUPs) were identified and classified into four clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis revealed the expression diversity of cassava KUPs in various tissues of three genotypes. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the activation of MeKUP genes by drought was more in roots than that in leaves of Arg7 and W14 genotypes, whereas less in roots than that in leaves of SC124 variety. These findings indicate that different cassava genotypes utilize various drought resistance mechanism mediated by KUP genes. Specific KUP genes showed broad upregulation after exposure to salt, osmotic, cold, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Taken together, this study provides insights into the KUP-mediated drought response of cassava at transcription levels and identifies candidate genes that may be utilized in improving crop tolerance to abiotic stress. PMID:29416511

  19. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (red-fleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition.

  20. Leaf proteomic analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) during plant development, from planting of stem cutting to storage root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitprasat, Mashamon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiemsup, Surasak; Boonseng, Opas; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2011-06-01

    Tuberization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) occurs simultaneously with plant development, suggesting competition of photoassimilate partitioning between the shoot and the root organs. In potato, which is the most widely studied tuber crop, there is ample evidence suggesting that metabolism and regulatory processes in leaf may have an impact on tuber formation. To search for leaf proteins putatively involved in regulating tuber generation and/or development in cassava, comparative proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor differentially expressed leaf proteins during root transition from fibrous to tuberous. Stringent cross comparison and statistical analysis between two groups with different plant ages using Student's t test with 95% significance level revealed a number of protein spots whose abundance were significantly altered (P < 0.05) during week 4 to week 8 of growth. Of these, 39 spots were successfully identified by ion trap LC-MS/MS. The proteins span various functional categories from antioxidant and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, cyanogenesis, energy metabolism, miscellaneous and unknown proteins. Results suggested possible metabolic switches in the leaf that may trigger/regulate storage root initiation and growth. This study provides a basis for further functional characterization of differentially expressed leaf proteins, which can help understand how biochemical processes in cassava leaves may be involved in storage root development.

  1. Molecular cloning, subcellular localization and characterization of two adenylate kinases from cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. KU50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonrueng, Channarong; Tangpranomkorn, Surachat; Yazhisai, Uthaman; Sirikantaramas, Supaart

    2016-10-01

    Adenylate kinase (ADK) is a phosphotransferase that plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Many isozymes located in different subcellular compartments have been reported. In this study, we focus on the characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) ADKs. We found 15 ADKs that are publicly available in the African cassava genome database. We cloned two ADKs, namely MeADK1 and MeADK2, which are phylogenetically grouped together with the plastidial ADK in potato. Both MeADK1 and MeADK2 showed 66% identity in the amino acid sequences with plastidial ADK in potato. However, we demonstrated that they are localized to mitochondria using GFP fusions of MeADK1 and MeADK2. The Escherichia coli-produced recombinant MeADK1 and MeADK2 preferred forward reactions that produce ATP. They exhibited similar specific activities. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MeADK1 and MeADK2 in 2-month-old leaves have similar expression patterns under a diurnal light-dark cycle. However, MeADK2 transcripts were expressed at much higher levels than MeADK1 in 5-month-old leaves and roots. Thus, we conclude that MeADK2 might play a vital role in energy homeostasis in cassava mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the KUP Family under Abiotic Stress in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenjun; Mao, Xiang; Huang, Chao; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Wu, Chunlai; Xia, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenquan; Zhou, Shiyi; Li, Kaimian; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    KT/HAK/KUP (KUP) family is responsible for potassium ion (K + ) transport, which plays a vital role in the response of plants to abiotic stress by maintaining osmotic balance. However, our understanding of the functions of the KUP family in the drought-resistant crop cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is limited. In the present study, 21 cassava KUP genes ( MeKUPs ) were identified and classified into four clusters based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Transcriptome analysis revealed the expression diversity of cassava KUPs in various tissues of three genotypes. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the activation of MeKUP genes by drought was more in roots than that in leaves of Arg7 and W14 genotypes, whereas less in roots than that in leaves of SC124 variety. These findings indicate that different cassava genotypes utilize various drought resistance mechanism mediated by KUP genes. Specific KUP genes showed broad upregulation after exposure to salt, osmotic, cold, H 2 O 2 , and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Taken together, this study provides insights into the KUP -mediated drought response of cassava at transcription levels and identifies candidate genes that may be utilized in improving crop tolerance to abiotic stress.

  3. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.

  4. SIMBIOSIS MICORRIZICA ARBUSCULAR Y ACUMULACIÓN DE ALUMINIO EN Brachiaria decumbens Y Manihot esculenta SIMBIOSE MICORRIZICA ARBUSCULAR E ACUMULAÇÃO DE ALUMÍNIO EM Brachiaria decumbens E Manihot esculenta ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL SYMBIOSIS AND ACUMULATION OF ALUMINUM Brachiaria decumbens AND Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ ELENA GUERRA S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Suelos dedicados al monocultivo de Elaeis guineensis Jacq en Puerto Wilches-Santander-Colombia, presentan baja fertilidad, altas saturaciones de aluminio y baja densidad de esporas de hongos micorrizicos. Se evaluó el comportamiento de la simbiosis micorrizica utilizando suelos nativos con micorrizas (MA+ y sin micorrizas (MA-, en Brachiaria decumbens y Manihot esculenta, quienes poseen alta micotrofia y capacidad de retención del ión aluminio. Se consideraron las variables densidad de esporas, porcentaje de colonización micorrizica, biomasa seca y longitud radicular, concentración de aluminio foliar y radicular. Se realizó una (ANOVA de dos vías con un modelo lineal general. Se observaron porcentajes de colonización micorrizica superiores al 70% en B. decumbens en suelos con concentraciones de 0,6 y 1,4 meq/100 g de Aluminio. M. esculenta presento 50 % de simbiosis micorrizica, en todos los tipos de suelo. Se incrementaron las esporas nativas de palma aceitera hasta un 200% en las dos plantas huespéd. Las concentraciones de aluminio a nivel radicular fueron mayores en plantas micorrizadas, mientras que a nivel foliar los valores fueron más bajos.Solos dedicados à monocultura de Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Puerto Wilches-Santander apresentam baixa fertilidade, alta saturação de alumínio e baixa densidade de esporos de fungos micorrízicos. Avaliaram-se o comportamento da simbiose micorrízica usando solos nativos com fungos micorrízicos (MA+ e sem fungos micorrízicos (MA-, na Brachiaria decumbens e Manihot esculenta, plantas com alto grau de micotrofia e capacidade de retenção de íons de alumínio. Considerou-se as variáveis: densidade de esporos, porcentagem de colonização micorrízica, biomassa seca, longo da raiz e concentração de alumínio nas folhas e raízes. Realizou-se uma (ANOVA de duas vias com o modelo linear geral. Observou-se porcentagens de colonização micorrízica acima de 70% na B. decumbens em solos com

  5. Identificación de harinas de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) con alto contenido proteico mediante espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Torres, Paola Andrea

    2007-01-01

    La espectroscopia de reflectancia en el infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) fue usada para predecir el contenido de proteína cruda en harina de raíces de clones pertenecientes al banco de germoplasma de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) del CIAT. Se usaron 166 muestras para la calibración, las cuales fueron analizadas por el método de referencia para proteína cruda (Kjeldahl) y sus espectros fueron también colectados usando un instrumento monocromador (FOSS NIRsystem 6500) en reflectancia (400-2500 nm). ...

  6. Alterações na qualidade de raízes de mandioca(Manihot esculenta Crantz minimamente processadas Quality alterations in cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Alves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A conservação pós-colheita das raízes de mandioca tem sido uma preocupação das indústrias e produtores, devido ao curto tempo de estocagem e a alta perecibilidade das raízes. Dois fenômenos são apontados como responsáveis pela deterioração das raízes, um de ordem fisiológica, provocando a perda inicial da qualidade por meio do desenvolvimento da descoloração vascular do tecido parenquimatoso, e o outro, de ordem microbiana, que se segue à fisiologia, responsável pela decomposição do produto. Dessa forma, com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a conservação das raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, submetidas à higienização em água clorada e armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens, bandeja de isopor envolta em filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC, embalagem multicamada (poliéster Saram-13,5µ/polietileno-100µ com e sem vácuo e resfriadas (5 ± 0,5°C, mediante análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas, fisiológicas e sensoriais. A conservação de mandioca minimamente processada sob refrigeração para os tratamentos realizados, é possível diferenciando-se o período de armazenamento, sendo que para as amostras armazenadas em bandeja, o período de armazenamento foi de 7 dias, no selado e a vácuo foi de aproximadamente 24 dias, respectivamente.Post harvest of cassava roots has been a great concern in food industries and producers due to the short shelf life and high perishability. Several phenomena have been pointed out as responsible for root deterioration. Among them there are physiological aspects, that lead to losses in initial quality through vascular discoloration of parenchymatous tissue. On the other hand, phenomena from microbial origin, which follow the physiological alterations, are responsible for product decomposition. In this context, this work was aimed at investigating the conservation of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz submitted to chlorinated water, and stored using

  7. Importance of Abscisic Acid (ABA in the In Vitro Conservation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Importancia del Ácido Abscísico (ABA en la Conservación In Vitro de la Yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    L. Pedro Barrueto Cid

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional technology for in vitro plant conservation for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz germplasm collections is laborious due to the need for several sub-culturing procedures per year. This practice implies high costs for medium preparation, tissue culture tubes, time-consuming labor, risks of contamination, mislabeling of accession, and the need for large growth chambers. We have developed a new procedure using in vitro cultivated nodal axillary buds treated with different abscisic acid (ABA concentrations to reduce the time for recycling transplants cultivated in a SP basic nutritive medium. Nodal explants were stored for three months with ABA. Plants were obtained after nodal axillary buds were placed in SP medium without ABA. Results indicated that 20 and 30 mM ABA induced bud dormancy and delayed sprouting without affecting subsequent growth of plants after treatment.La tecnología usual para conservación in vitro de colecciones de germoplasma de yuca (Manihotesculenta Crantz es corrientemente laboriosa y emplea varias transferencias por año. Este procedimiento envuelve altos costos en preparación de medios, consumo de tiempo, riesgos de manipulación y necesidad de mucho espacio para la mantención de colecciones en cámaras de cultivos. Se desarrolló un nuevo procedimiento usando yemas axilares nodales cultivadas in vitro con diferentes concentraciones de ácido abscísico (ABA, con el objetivo de reducir los ciclos de transferencia de los cultivos mantenidos en un medio nutritivo básico tal como el SP. Los segmentos nodales fueron almacenados por tres meses en presencia de ABA. Las plantas fueron obtenidas después que los segmentos nodales fueron transferidos al medio SP sin ABA. Los resultados indican que 20 y 30 mM de ABA indujeron una completa dormancia de yemas, sin afectar el desarrollo posterior de las yemas nodales y su consecuente conversión en planta.

  8. Marker-based estimates reveal significant non-additive effects in clonally propagated cassava (Manihot esculenta): implications for the prediction of total genetic value and the selection of varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In clonally propagated crops, non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited by the identification of superior genetic individuals as varieties. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop that feeds hundreds of millions. We quantified the amount and natur...

  9. microARNs conservados en Yuca (Manihot esculenta identificados con secuenciación de nueva generación

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    Álvaro Luis Pérez-Quintero

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Los microARNs son moléculas pequeñas de ARN utilizadas por los eucariotas como un mecanismo de control de la expresión génica. En plantas los microRNAs están implicados en la regulación de distintos aspectos del crecimiento y desarrollo, así como en la tolerancia a estrés biótico y abiótico. Muchos microRNAs de plantas se encuentran conservados desde musgos a dicotiledóneas, sin embargo aun existen muchas plantas para las que no se conoce el reportorio de microRNAs, asimismo se desconoce el papel que algunos microRNAs pueden tener en procesos como defensa contra patógenos. En este trabajo se construyó una librería de ARNs pequeños a partir de muestras de tejidos de Manihot esculenta (yuca inoculados con la bacteria fitopatógena Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam, y se secuenciaron utilizando técnicas de secuenciación de nueva generación (Illumina o Solexa. Se identificaron en la librería 47 familias de microARNs de yuca conservados en otras plantas. Se cuantificó la expresión de éstos microARNs, encontrándose similitudes con perfiles de expresión en otras plantas obtenidos por las mismas técnicas. Se encontró la secuencia de los precursores para algunas de las familias en secuencias de ESTs y GSSs de yuca. Asimismo se predijeron los blancos de estos microRNAs en el set de ESTs encontrándose que muchos microARNs están dirigidos contra factores de transcripción, y que existe un gran porcentaje de posibles blancos con función desconocida. Este trabajo es el primer paso hacia entender cómo la vía de microARNs puede estar implicada en la interacción planta-patógeno en el sistema M.esculenta-Xam.

  10. Impact Of Thermotherapy And Chlorothalonil On Plantlets Production Of Some Genotypes Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz Produce In Benin

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    J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Manihot esculenta is a starchy root plant of great economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Benin. Its production is confronted to virus diseases which cause a considerable losses of yield. This work aims to determine the impact of thermotherapy and chlorothalonil in the production of cassava material of plantation. Cuttings of four varieties RB89509 BEN86052 9102319 92B0057 are cultivated under two conditions of thermotherapy and a control under greenhouse during 4 weeks. These different conditions are a closed drying oven with 16 hours photoperiod at 40 C the day and 36C the night a drying oven Binder with photoperiod of 12 hours at 38C the day and 28C the night and the control carried out under the conditions of the greenhouse. The media used was Murashige and Skoog MS added with various amounts of chlorothalonil 0.6 gl and 2gl and control without chlorothalonil. Both techniques of thermotherapy eliminate the virus symptoms of cassava at the rate of 0 seedling infected in thermotherapy against 16 seedlings in natural condition. The technique of closed drying oven significantly favors the production of nodes at 5 level p0.000 and shoots p0.02 on the other hand Binder drying oven has no significant effect on the production of shoots p0.68. The chlorothalonil had a positive effect on in vitro infestations elimination of cassava p0.05 but influenced the growth and development of cassava explants by reducing of nodes production p0.01 without a lethal effect on the plantlets until the dose of 2gl.

  11. Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from cultured cells of Manihot esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Yong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) cDNA, mSOD2, encoding cytosolic copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) cDNA was isolated from suspension-cultured cells of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by cDNA library screening, and its expression was investigated in relation to environmental stress. mSOD2 is 774 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 152 amino acids, corresponding to a protein of predicted molecular mass 15 kDa and a pI of 5.22. One copy of the mSOD2 gene was found to be present in the cassava genome by Southern analysis using an mSOD2 cDNA-specific probe. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed diverse expression patterns for the mSOD2 gene in various tissues of intact cassava plants, at various stages of the growth in suspension cultures, and in the leaf tissues exposed to different stresses. The mSOD2 gene was highly expressed in suspension-cultured cells and in the stems of intact plants. However, it was expressed at low levels in leaves and roots. During suspension cell growth, the mSOD2 transcript progressively increased during culture. Moreover, the mSOD2 gene in excised cassava leaves responded to various stresses in different ways. In particular, it was highly induced in leaf tissue by several abiotic stresses, including high temperature (37 degrees C), chilling (4 degrees C), methyl viologen (MV) exposure, and wounding treatment. These results indicate that the mSOD2 gene is involved in the antioxidative process triggered by oxidative stress induced by environmental change.

  12. Quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with starch pasting viscosity characteristics in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanyasiriwat, T; Sraphet, S; Whankaew, S; Boonseng, O; Bao, J; Lightfoot, D A; Tangphatsornruang, S; Triwitayakorn, K

    2014-01-01

    Starch pasting viscosity is an important quality trait in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars. The aim here was to identify loci and candidate genes associated with the starch pasting viscosity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for seven pasting viscosity parameters was carried out using 100 lines of an F1 mapping population from a cross between two cassava cultivars Huay Bong 60 and Hanatee. Starch samples were obtained from roots of cassava grown in 2008 and 2009 at Rayong, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. The traits showed continuous distribution among the F1 progeny with transgressive variation. Fifteen QTL were identified from mean trait data, with Logarithm of Odds (LOD) values from 2.77-13.01 and phenotype variations explained (PVE) from10.0-48.4%. In addition, 48 QTL were identified in separate environments. The LOD values ranged from 2.55-8.68 and explained 6.6-43.7% of phenotype variation. The loci were located on 19 linkage groups. The most important QTL for pasting temperature (PT) (qPT.1LG1) from mean trait values showed largest effect with highest LOD value (13.01) and PVE (48.4%). The QTL co-localised with PT and pasting time (PTi) loci that were identified in separate environments. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL peak regions. However, the major genes of interest, encoding the family of glycosyl or glucosyl transferases and hydrolases, were located at the periphery of QTL peaks. The loci identified could be effectively applied in breeding programmes to improve cassava starch quality. Alleles of candidate genes should be further studied in order to better understand their effects on starch quality traits. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Diversity of LTR-retrotransposons and Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator-like transposons in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Wills, Matthew A; Beeching, John R

    2008-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), though a major world crop with enormous potential, is very under studied. Little is known about its genome structure and organisation. Transposable elements have a key role in the evolution of genome structure, and can be used as important tools in applied genetics. This paper sets out to survey the diversity of members of three major classes of transposable element within the cassava genome and in relation to similar elements in other plants. Members of two classes of LTR-retrotransposons, Ty1/copia-like and Ty3/gypsy-like, and of Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator (En/Spm)-like transposons were isolated and characterised. Analyses revealed 59 families of Ty1/copia, 26 families of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, and 40 families of En/Spm in the cassava genome. In the comparative analyses, the predicted amino acid sequences for these transposon classes were compared with those of related elements from other plant species. These revealed that there were multiple lineages of Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava and suggested that vertical and horizontal transmission as the source of cassava Mecops may not be mutually exclusive. For the Ty3/gypsy elements network, two groups of cassava Megyps were evident including the Arabidopsis Athila lineage. However, cassava En/Spm-like elements (Meens) constituted a single group within a network of plant En/Spm-like elements. Hybridisation analysis supported the presence of transposons in the genome of cassava in medium (Ty3/gypsy and En/Spm) to high (Ty1/copia) copy numbers. Thus the cassava genome was shown to contain diverse members of three major classes of transposable element; however, the different classes exhibited contrasting evolutionary histories.

  14. Characterization of an 18,166 EST dataset for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) enriched for drought-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokko, Y; Anderson, J V; Rudd, S; Raji, A; Horvath, D; Mikel, M A; Kim, R; Liu, L; Hernandez, A; Dixon, A G O; Ingelbrecht, I L

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for over 600 million people in the tropics and subtropics and is increasingly used as an industrial crop for starch production. Cassava has a high growth rate under optimal conditions but also performs well in drought-prone areas and on marginal soils. To increase the tools for understanding and manipulating drought tolerance in cassava, we generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from normalized cDNA libraries prepared from dehydration-stressed and control well-watered tissues. Analysis of a total of 18,166 ESTs resulted in the identification of 8,577 unique gene clusters (5,383 singletons and 3,194 clusters). Functional categories could be assigned to 63% of the unigenes, while another approximately 11% were homologous to hypothetical genes with unclear functions. The remaining approximately 26% were not significantly homologous to sequences in public databases suggesting that some may be novel and putatively specific to cassava. The dehydration-stressed library uncovered numerous ESTs with recognized roles in drought-responses, including those that encode late-embryogenesis-abundant proteins thought to confer osmoprotective functions during water stress, transcription factors, heat-shock proteins as well as proteins involved in signal transduction and oxidative stress. The unigene clusters were screened for short tandem repeats for further development as microsatellite markers. A total of 592 clusters contained 646 repeats, representing 3.3% of the ESTs queried. The ESTs presented here are the first dehydration stress transcriptome of cassava and can be utilized for the development of microarrays and gene-derived molecular markers to further dissect the molecular basis of drought tolerance in cassava.

  15. Comparative morphology, biology and histology of reproductive development in three lines of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae: Crotonoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Quintero, M; Dedicova, B; Kularatne, J D J S; Ceballos, H

    2013-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major food staple in the tropics and subtropics, thrives even in environments undergoing threatening climate change. To satisfy the increasing demand for crop improvement and overcome the limitations of conventional breeding, the introduction of inbreeding techniques such as the production of doubled haploid lines via androgenesis or gynogenesis offers advantages. However, comprehensive studies on cassava flower bud biology or structural development are lacking and precise structural and biological information is a prerequisite to enhance the efficiency of these techniques. The floral biology of three selected cassava lines was studied, focusing on morphology, phenology and pollen biology (quantity, viability and dimorphism). Histological studies were also conducted on microsporogenesis/microgametogenesis and megasporogenesis/megagameto-genesis to generate precise developmental data for these lines. Male and female cyathia have distinct developmental phases. Pollen viability was high during immature stages of plant development; however, pollen mortality was common at later stages. Pollen trimorphism in male gametophytes towards the larger or smaller pollen size, as compared with normal size, was observed. Ten characteristic events were identified in male gametogenesis and six in female gametogenesis that were correlated with flower bud diameter. Male gametophyte diameter at different developmental stages was also determined. Results indicate that the three lines did not differ significantly, except regarding a few morphological aspects such as plant height, flower colour and number of male cyathia. Pollen grains were initially viable, but viability decreased drastically at later stages of growth. Abnormal meiosis or mitosis triggered pollen trimorphism. The demonstrated sequential events of reproductive development generated valuable information at the cellular level, which will help close the current information gap for cassava

  16. Ground penetrating radar: a case study for estimating root bulking rate in cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Alfredo; Hays, Dirk B; Bruton, Richard K; Ceballos, Hernán; Novo, Alexandre; Boi, Enrico; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Understanding root traits is a necessary research front for selection of favorable genotypes or cultivation practices. Root and tuber crops having most of their economic potential stored below ground are favorable candidates for such studies. The ability to image and quantify subsurface root structure would allow breeders to classify root traits for rapid selection and allow agronomist the ability to derive effective cultivation practices. In spite of the huge role of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz), for food security and industrial uses, little progress has been made in understanding the onset and rate of the root-bulking process and the factors that influence it. The objective of this research was to determine the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to predict root-bulking rates through the detection of total root biomass during its growth cycle. Our research provides the first application of GPR for detecting below ground biomass in cassava. Through an empirical study, linear regressions were derived to model cassava bulking rates. The linear equations derived suggest that GPR is a suitable measure of root biomass ( r  = .79). The regression analysis developed accounts for 63% of the variability in cassava biomass below ground. When modeling is performed at the variety level, it is evident that the variety models for SM 1219-9 and TMS 60444 outperform the HMC-1 variety model (r 2  = .77, .63 and .51 respectively). Using current modeling methods, it is possible to predict below ground biomass and estimate root bulking rates for selection of early root bulking in cassava. Results of this approach suggested that the general model was over predicting at early growth stages but became more precise in later root development.

  17. Evaluation sensorielle du couscous de farine de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz substituée par celle de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas, Lam

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    Amadou, NM.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer Acceptance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour's fufu substituted by Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam Flour. This study investigated the consumer acceptance of fufu made by substituting cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam flour at the Food Technology and Post-harvest laboratory of IRAD in Bambui, Cameroon. Four samples of Fufu flour samples F0, F1, F2 and F3 obtained by substituting cassava flour with 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% potato flour respectively were compared. A panel of 30 persons (habitual consumers of Cassava fufu flour carried out a sensory evaluation of the four samples and gave their level of appreciation with regards to taste, aroma, colour, and texture. The study showed that, the substitution of cassava flour with sweet potato flour had no effect on the aroma of the fufu. The sample containing 20% of sweet potato flour (F1 showed no significant difference in texture and aroma compared (p>0.05 to the control (F0. It was also considered as having the best taste (p<0.05 and was the sample preferred by the panelists. In conclusion, an increase in the proportion of sweet potato flour in the cassava flour had a negative influence on the colour, texture, taste and on the acceptance of the fufu.

  18. In vitro cultured primary roots derived from stem segments of cassava (Manihot esculenta) can behave like storage organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ricardo D; Faloci, Mirta M; Gonzalez, Ana M; Mroginski, Luis A

    2007-03-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) has three adventitious root types: primary and secondary fibrous roots, and storage roots. Different adventitious root types can also regenerate from in vitro cultured segments. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of in vitro production of storage roots. Morphological and anatomical analyses were performed to identify and differentiate each root type. Twenty-nine clones were assayed to determine the effect of genotype on the capacity to form storage roots in vitro. The effects of cytokinins and auxins on the formation of storage roots in vitro were also examined. Primary roots formed in vitro and in vivo had similar tissue kinds; however, storage roots formed in vitro exhibited physiological specialization for storing starch. The only consistent diagnostic feature between secondary fibrous and storage roots was their functional differentiation. Anatomical analysis of the storage roots formed in vitro showed that radial expansion as a consequence of massive proliferation and enlargement of parenchymatous cells occurred in the middle cortex, but not from cambial activity as in roots formed in vivo. Cortical expansion could be related to dilatation growth favoured by hormone treatments. Starch deposition of storage roots formed in vitro was confined to cortical tissue and occurred earlier than in storage roots formed in vivo. Auxin and cytokinin supplementation were absolutely required for in vitro storage root regeneration; these roots were not able to develop secondary growth, but formed a tissue competent for starch storing. MS medium with 5 % sucrose plus 0.54 microM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine was one of the most effective in stimulating the storage root formation. Genotypes differed significantly in their capacity to produce storage roots in vitro. Storage root formation was considerably affected by the segment's primary position and strongly influenced by hormone treatments. The storage

  19. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jiménez, Laura; Vásquez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; Léon, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; López, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-03-16

    Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving its quality. Cassava is threatened by several pathogens, but the mechanisms of defense are far from being understood. Besides, there has been a lack of information about the number of genes related to immunity as well as their distribution and genomic organization in the cassava genome. A high dense genetic map of cassava containing 2,141 SNPs has been constructed. Eighteen linkage groups were resolved with an overall size of 2,571 cM and an average distance of 1.26 cM between markers. More than half of mapped SNPs (57.4%) are located in coding sequences. Physical mapping of scaffolds of cassava whole genome sequence draft using the mapped markers as anchors resulted in the orientation of 687 scaffolds covering 45.6% of the genome. One hundred eighty nine new scaffolds are anchored to the genetic cassava map leading to an extension of the present cassava physical map with 30.7 Mb. Comparative analysis using anchor markers showed strong co-linearity to previously reported cassava genetic and physical maps. In silico based searching for conserved domains allowed the annotation of a repertory of 1,061 cassava genes coding for immunity-related proteins (IRPs). Based on physical map of the corresponding sequencing scaffolds, unambiguous genetic localization was possible for 569 IRPs. This is the first study reported so far of an integrated high density genetic map using SNPs with integrated genetic and physical localization of newly annotated immunity related genes in cassava. These data build a

  20. Dry matter production and distribution in three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars during the second vegetative plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Araruna County, State of Paraná, to understand the relationship between the total dry matter yield and its proportion allocated to the storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz plants in the second vegetative cycle. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split-plot scheme with four replications. The plots consisted of the Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 cultivars and the monthly harvesting dates were assessed in the sub-plots. The results showed that the Mico and IAC 13 cultivars were more efficient in allocating dry matter to the storage roots. The IAC 14 cultivar allocated a higher proportion of assimilates to stems compared with the other two cultivars. With regard to the influence of harvesting time, the lowest harvest indexes were observed in the periods of more intense vegetative growth. However, the highest carbohydrate proportions were allocated to the storage roots during periods of low vegetative growth.Com o objetivo de uma melhor compreensão da relação entre a produtividade total de massa seca e a proporção de alocação desta nas raízes tuberosas em plantas de mandioca, foi conduzido no município de Araruna-PR, um experimento em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram dispostas três cultivares (Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14, e nas subparcelas dez épocas de colheita mensais, a partir do início do segundo ciclo vegetativo das plantas. As cultivares Mico e IAC 13 foram mais eficientes do que a IAC 14 em alocar massa seca nas raízes tuberosas, ao passo que esta última alocou maior proporção de massa seca em suas hastes. Em relação às épocas, os menores índices de colheita ocorreram em períodos de mais intenso crescimento vegetativo das plantas, ao passo que a maior proporção de carboidratos foi alocada nas raízes tuberosas em períodos de baixo crescimento vegetativo.

  1. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Jcb; Agustini, Marco Av; Anderson, James V; Vieira, Eduardo A; de Souza, Claudia Rb; Chen, Songbi; Schaal, Barbara A; Silva, Joseane P

    2016-06-10

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root provides a staple food source for millions of people worldwide. Increasing the carotenoid content in storage root of cassava could provide improved nutritional and health benefits. Because carotenoid accumulation has been associated with storage root color, this study characterized carotenoid profiles, and abundance of key transcripts associated with carotenoid biosynthesis, from 23 landraces of cassava storage root ranging in color from white-to-yellow-to-pink. This study provides important information to plant breeding programs aimed at improving cassava storage root nutritional quality. Among the 23 landraces, five carotenoid types were detected in storage root with white color, while carotenoid types ranged from 1 to 21 in storage root with pink and yellow color. The majority of storage root in these landraces ranged in color from pale-to-intense yellow. In this color group, total β-carotene, containing all-E-, 9-Z-, and 13-Z-β-carotene isomers, was the major carotenoid type detected, varying from 26.13 to 76.72 %. Although no α-carotene was observed, variable amounts of a α-ring derived xanthophyll, lutein, was detected; with greater accumulation of α-ring xanthophylls than of β-ring xanthophyll. Lycopene was detected in a landrace (Cas51) with pink color storage root, but it was not detected in storage root with yellow color. Based on microarray and qRT-PCR analyses, abundance of transcripts coding for enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were consistent with carotenoid composition determined by contrasting HPLC-Diode Array profiles from storage root of landraces IAC12, Cas64, and Cas51. Abundance of transcripts encoding for proteins regulating plastid division were also consistent with the observed differences in total β-carotene accumulation. Among the 23 cassava landraces with varying storage root color and diverse carotenoid types and profiles, landrace Cas51 (pink color storage root) had low

  2. Inhibition of chemically induced inflammation and pain by orally and topically administered leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Yemitan, Omoniyi K; Afolabi, Lateef

    2008-09-02

    The aqueous leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MELE) is being used orally and topically in traditional African medicine for the treatment of inflammation and pain, and claimed to be safe. The anti-inflammatory effects of MELE (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. or 1-4%, w/w in petroleum jelly, topically) were tested against carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats as well as against xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The analgesic effect of MELE (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. or 1-4%, w/w in petroleum jelly, topically) was tested against acetic acid-induced (20 microl, 0.6%, v/v in normal saline, i.p.) and acetylcholine-induced (8.3 mg/kg, i.p.) mouse writhing models. At 100-400 mg/kg, p.o. and 1-4% (w/w), topically, MELE produced significant inhibitions of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and xylene-induced ear swelling in mice. Effects produced by MELE were significantly higher than those produced by indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c. or 1%, w/w in petroleum jelly) in the anti-inflammatory models. For the analgesic effect, MELE (100-400 mg/kg, orally) and (1-4%, w/w, topically), like aspirin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited significant (P<0.05) inhibition of acetic acid- and acetylcholine-induced mouse writhing tests, compared to untreated control. Effects produced by MELE were significantly lower than those produced by aspirin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the analgesic models, except for the topically administered extract on acetylcholine-induced pain. Acute oral administration up to 10 g/kg did not cause death within 14 days, but mortalities were produced in i.p. administered extract with LD(50) of 2.5+/-0.3 g/kg. Based on these, the extract may contain orally safe, topically and orally effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic principles, which justify its use in traditional African medicine.

  3. Application of molecular markers in germplasm enhancement of Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz) and Yams (Dioscorea spp.) at IITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignouna, H.D.; Asiedu, R.; Dixon, A.G.O.; Tonukari, J.; Ng, N.Q.; Thottappilly, G.; Knox, M.; Ellis, T.H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic variation among 28 varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz), collected from different parts of the Republic of Benin was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A set of ten primers out of the one hundred that were screened, detected polymorphisms. Thirty-five cassava landraces from three countries of West Africa, along with five improved varieties and one genetic stock (58308), were analysed using both micro satellite markers and nine selected random primers which generated fifty-four polymorphic markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six major groups of clusters were identified among the forty one genotypes. Clone 58308, the original source of resistance to African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) in IITA's cassava breeding program, and TMS 30572, an improved cultivar derived from clone 58308, were found in the same cluster group. All 34 of the landraces that are known to be resistant to ACMD were genetically distant from 58308 and TMS 30572. A diallel mating programme has been initiated to elucidate the genetics of these new sources of resistance to ACMD and determine their complementarity as well as allellism for resistance. A set of eight random primers for RAPD and two combinations of enzymes and specific primers for AFLP were used to generate DNA fingerprinting of twenty varietal groups among the 32 described for cultivated yams in the region. The results obtained confirm that a given varietal group is a mixture of different genotypes. The molecular taxonomy of 30 accessions of cultivated yams, D. rotundata and D. cayenensis, and 35 accessions of wild yams from Nigeria was established using RAPD and micro satellite markers. The cultivated yams separated into two distinct groups corresponding to the two species. D. rotundata genotypes showed relationship to the wild species D. abyssinica and D. praehensilis, whereas D. cayenensis

  4. Análisis de ESTs de yuca (Manihot esculenta: una herramienta para el descubrimiento de genes.

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    Andres Zapata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta constituye la base de la alimentación para más de 1.000 millones de personas en el mundo, consolidándose como el cuarto cultivo más importante en el mundo después del arroz, el maíz y el trigo. La yuca es considerada como un cultivo relativamente tolerante a condiciones de estrés abiótico y biótico, sin embargo estas características se encuentran principalmente en variedades no comerciales. Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético convencional o mediadas por transformación genética representan una alternativa para introducir las características deseadas dentro de las variedades comerciales. Un paso fundamental con miras a acelerar los procesos de mejoramiento genético en yuca requiere el descubrimiento de los respectivos genes relacionados con las características buscadas, para lo cual los ESTs (del inglés Expressed Sequence Tags son una vía rápida para este fin. En este estudio se realizó un análisis de la colección completa de ESTs disponibles en yuca, representada por 80.459 secuencias, los cuales fueron ensamblados en un conjunto de de 29.231 genes únicos (unigen, representado por 10.945 contigs y 18.286 singletones. Estos 29.231 genes únicos pueden representar cerca del 80% de los genes del genoma de yuca. Entre el 5 y 10% de los unigenes de yuca no presentaron similitud con las secuencias presentes en las bases de datos de NCBI y pueden constituir genes específicos de yuca. A un grupo de secuencias del set unigen (29% fue posible asignarles una categoría funcionales de acuerdo al vocabulario Gene Ontology. El componente función molecular es el mejor representado con 43% de las secuencias, seguido por el componente proceso biológico (38% y finalmente el componente celular (19%. Dentro de la colección de ESTs de yuca se identificaron 3.709 microsatélites que podrán ser empleados como marcadores moleculares. Este estudio representa una contribución importante al conocimiento de la

  5. Tolérance de quelques cultivars de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz et de l'espèce sauvage (Manihot glaziovii à la mosaïque virale africaine et à la cercosporiose du manioc

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    Ongono, YSB.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance of some Cassava Cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz and the Wild Species (M. Glaziovii to Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease and Brown Leaf Spot. A study of the tolerance of three cultivars of Manihot esculenta Crantz (one local cultivar, Alot-Bikon, and two improved: IITA 8034, IITA 8061 and wild cassava (M. glaziovii collected from the Mbam and Kim forest (Cameroon towards the cassava mosaic virus disease (CMVD and brown leaf spot (BLS, was carried out in Yaoundé. CMVD was studied under natural conditions, whereas BLS was inoculated through a solution of Cercospora henningsii in concentration around 20 × 10² conidia/ml. Sixteen weeks after planting the cuttings, M. glaziovii plants were tallest (156 cm, whereas highest number of leaves (113 was obtained on the IITA 8061 cultivar. The lowest infection degrees by CMVD (17.2% and BLS (2.7% were registered on the wild species. Consequently, wild species seem to be more tolerant of the diseases studied. IITA 8061 cultivar is moderately resistant to CMVD (28.9% and rather resistant to BLS (7.8%. Cultivars IITA 8034 and the local variety are more sensitive respectively to CMVD (53.1 and 54.5% and BLS (18.8 and 32.8%. The highest yield in tubers was obtained from cultivar IITA 8061 (34.5 t/ha followed by IITA 8034 (32.1 t/ha and local cultivar, Alot-Bbikon (15.6 t/ha. These results show that the tolerance of cassava cultivars to disease has a large influence on tuber yield.

  6. DESEMPENHO VEGETATIVO E PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz A PARTIR DE MANIVAS COM DIFERENTES DIÂMETROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.S. CÂMARA

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se esta pesquisa com a finalidade de se estudar a viabilidade da utilização de manivas com três diferentes diâmetros relacionados a três diferentes posições nas plantas de origem, avaliando-se seus efeitos na emergência, desenvolvimento e produção de três cultivares de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. A pesquisa no campo foi realizada em dois anos, durante o período compreendido entre 23/09/1980 e 23/07/1981 e entre 01/09/1981 e 20/07/1982, em Piracicaba, SP. Ramas maduras e sadias foram obtidas de plantas com cerca de 12 meses de idade, pertencentes aos cultivares Mantiqueira, Jaçanã e Pirassununga. Destas ramas, foram preparadas manivas com comprimento de 20 cm e diâmetros de 2,6 ± 0,2 cm, 2,0 ± 0,2 cm e 1,4 ± 0,2 cm, representando, respectivamente, manivas retiradas das hastes principais, ramificações primárias e ramificações secundárias das plantas de origem. O delineamento experimental foi um fatorial 3 x 3 em blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram determinados a velocidade e porcentagem de emergência, número de raízes tuberosas por planta, massa da raiz e o rendimento de raízes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos pode-se concluir: 1 O vigor da muda de mandioca, expresso através dos diversos diâmetros da maniva, manifesta-se significativamente no estádio de emergência da cultura; 2 Manivas com 2,0 ± 0,2 cm ou 2,6 ± 0,2 cm de diâmetros, retiradas respectivamente das ramificações primárias e hastes principais, devem ser preferidas para maior velocidade e porcentagem de emergência; 3 Menor número de raízes tuberosas produzidas por planta é compensado pela maior massa individual da raiz; 4 Para a produção de raízes por área, é indiferente a utilização de manivas com diâmetro de 2,6 ± 0,2 cm, 2,0 ± 0,2 cm e 1,4 ± 0,2 cm; 5 Os três cultivares utilizados no experimento são de alto rendimento em raízes, destacando-se o cultivar Mantiqueira

  7. The protective effect of two commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava juice (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Vázquez-Luna, A; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Mérida-Portilla, C V; Díaz-Sobac, R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 2 commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice consumption in male Wistar rats. The effects were evaluated with the open field and swim tests at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment, one hour after administering the product. Compared to controls, open field crossings increased after day 21 of cassava juice consumption, and lateral swimming in the swim test was reported after day 7. Ginkgo biloba extracts prevented motor alterations associated with cassava juice consumption, probably due to the flavonoid content in both formats of Ginkgo biloba. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) after recent introduction into a South Pacific Island system: the contribution of sex to the diversification of a clonally propagated crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; McKey, D; Duval, M F; Malapa, R; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2008-11-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated crop that was introduced into the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu in the 1850s. Based on a survey conducted in 10 different villages throughout the archipelago, we present here a study of its diversity. Farmers' knowledge about cultivation cycle and sexual reproduction of cassava was recorded during group interviews in each village. Using a set of 11 SSR markers, we genotyped the 104 landraces collected and 60 supplementary accessions from a within-landrace study (12 landraces x 5 plants). Out of the 104 landraces collected, we discovered 77 different multilocus genotypes and the within-landrace study identified several polyclonal landraces. Our data suggest a number of hypotheses about the dynamics of diversity of cassava in Vanuatu.

  9. Highly efficient mesophyll protoplast isolation and PEG-mediated transient gene expression for rapid and large-scale gene characterization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Zheng; Liu, Qin; Geng, Xiao-Shan; Li, Kai-Mian; Luo, Li-Juan; Liu, Jin-Ping

    2017-03-14

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major crop extensively cultivated in the tropics as both an important source of calories and a promising source for biofuel production. Although stable gene expression have been used for transgenic breeding and gene function study, a quick, easy and large-scale transformation platform has been in urgent need for gene functional characterization, especially after the cassava full genome was sequenced. Fully expanded leaves from in vitro plantlets of Manihot esculenta were used to optimize the concentrations of cellulase R-10 and macerozyme R-10 for obtaining protoplasts with the highest yield and viability. Then, the optimum conditions (PEG4000 concentration and transfection time) were determined for cassava protoplast transient gene expression. In addition, the reliability of the established protocol was confirmed for subcellular protein localization. In this work we optimized the main influencing factors and developed an efficient mesophyll protoplast isolation and PEG-mediated transient gene expression in cassava. The suitable enzyme digestion system was established with the combination of 1.6% cellulase R-10 and 0.8% macerozyme R-10 for 16 h of digestion in the dark at 25 °C, resulting in the high yield (4.4 × 10 7 protoplasts/g FW) and vitality (92.6%) of mesophyll protoplasts. The maximum transfection efficiency (70.8%) was obtained with the incubation of the protoplasts/vector DNA mixture with 25% PEG4000 for 10 min. We validated the applicability of the system for studying the subcellular localization of MeSTP7 (an H + /monosaccharide cotransporter) with our transient expression protocol and a heterologous Arabidopsis transient gene expression system. We optimized the main influencing factors and developed an efficient mesophyll protoplast isolation and transient gene expression in cassava, which will facilitate large-scale characterization of genes and pathways in cassava.

  10. Toxicidade de manipueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz e erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii St. Hill a adultos de Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Aphididae Toxicity of cassava manipueira (Manihot esculenta Crantz and erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii St. Hill to adults of Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dantas Gonzaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de extratos de plantas pode ser uma alternativa para o controle de pragas. Dentre as plantas com atividade inseticida, destacam-se a erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii e o subproduto (manipueira da produção de farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, plantas comuns na região Amazônica. Esse trabalho teve, como principal objetivo, investigar o potencial inseticida da manipueira e do extrato de erva-de-rato sobre Toxoptera citricida (pulgão-preto do citros. Os extratos liofilizados de manipueira e de erva-de-rato foram pulverizados sobre plantas de citros contendo pulgões em cinco concentrações (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml e 50mg/ml. Todas as concentrações analisadas causaram mortalidade dos pulgões superior a 50%, sendo que a maior concentração causou a mortalidade de todos os insetos. O potencial destes extratos demonstrado no experimento coloca os mesmos como uma alternativa ao uso de inseticidas sintéticos no controle do pulgão-preto dos citros.The utilization of plant extracts might be an alternative for the control of crop pests. Between the plants with insecticide potential, stands-out: Erva-de-rato (Palicourea marcgravii and the Cassava, a byproduct of the manipueira (Manihot esculenta,common plants in the amazon region. That work had as main objective , to investigate the insecticide potential of Manihot esculenta (manipueira of cassava and Palicourea marcgravii (erva-de-rato on Toxoptera citricida (brown citrus aphid, in experimental conditions. The freeze dryed Manipueira and and Erva-de-rato extracts, were sprayed on citrus plants infected by brown citros aphid. In laboratory, extracts of these two plants were obtained in five concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 50mg/ml. All the analyzed concentrations (10 to 50mg/ml caused mortality on T. citricida of above 50%, and the higher concentration of 50mg/ml caused the mortality of all the insects (n = 100% in application processes

  11. (manihot esculenta) plantain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past~ng properties (gelatinization temperature, gelatinization time, viscosity, ease of cooking and starch stat;ility) of cassava, plantain and banana flours have been found to be affected by processing. Roasting and boiling, reduced peak viscosities drastically. Boiling reduced the peak viscosity of cassava from 1575 to 65Bu, ...

  12. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msikita, Weston; Ihemere, Uzoma; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T

    2006-01-01

    During the last three years the generation of stably transformed cassava plants having value-added traits has become a reality. Currently, two Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems are routinely used to engineer cassava. These systems use either somatic embryos or friable embryogenic calli. This paper presents detailed protocols for the transformation of cassava using primary somatic embryos. The effects of explant types, tissue culture conditions, and bacterial and plasmid related factors on transformation efficiency are discussed.

  13. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    brevis, L. acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis inhibited the growth of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibition of the pathogenic microorganisms was probably due to the production of organic acids and bacteriocins. Key words: Cassava product microflora, antagonism, bacteriocins, organic acids. INTRODUCTION.

  14. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTP), diamètre au collet (DCO), longueur du pétiole. (LPE), longueur du lobe central (LLC). Les modalités des variables ont été codifiées. Analyse statistique des données. La matrice des données morphologiques composées des moyennes des.

  15. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2013 ... 1 Université Jean Lorougnon Guède, Département des Sciences de la Terre, 02 BP 150 Daloa 02, Côte d'Ivoire. 2 Centre Suisse ..... Plate-forme. Espèces tropicales et méditerranéennes, http://www.brg.prd.fr/brg/ecrans/rgvPi_manioc.ht m. Rossignol J-L, 1992. Génétique. MASSON (Edition),. France, Paris ...

  16. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Key words: Media design, biotechnological transference, canonical biplot analysis. INTRODUCTION. Plant tissue culture methodologies were ... Agriculture Applications Grade x x. Plant Tissue Grade x x x x x x. Vitamins ... and diseases or to environmental constrains. However, to reach a technological ...

  17. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Potential retroviruses in plants: Tat1 is related to a group of arabidopsis thaliana ty3/gypsy retrotransposons that encode envelope-like proteins. Genetics, 149: 703-715. Wright DA, Voytas DF (2002). Athila4 of arabidopsis and calypso of soybean define a lineage of endogenous plant retroviruses. Genome.

  18. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... xidase, hormones such as absiscic acid and pigments such as chlorophylls and carotenoids. As a result, the cassava plant is enabled not only to recover after the stress (Okogbenin et al., 2010) but also to regain capa- city to restore its normal metabolic activities in a shorter time and produce decent yield.

  19. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  20. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-09-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  1. Características agronômicas e culinárias de clones de mandioca Agronomic and culinary traits of several cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Campinas, SP, nos anos agrícolas de 1982/83, 1983/84 e 1984/85, avaliaram-se oito diferentes clones de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz selecionados para mesa quanto à produtividade de raízes e ramas, índice de colheita, cozimento culinário, teor de ácido cianídrico e cor da polpa das raízes. Os experimentos, instalados no início das chuvas (setembro/outubro e colhidos nove meses após o plantio, foram conduzidos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Entre o material estudado, os clones IAC 59-210, de polpa branca (obtido por autofecundação do cv. IAC Mantiqueira e IAC 289-70, de polpa amarela (originário do cruzamento do cv. SRT 797 - Ouro do Vale, com o cv. SRT 1 - Vassourinha Paulista, mostraram, no conjunto de caracteres avaliados, o melhor comportamento, superando o 'IAC Jaçanã' e o 'IAC 14-18', utilizados como testemunhas. O clone IAC 289-70 destacou-se pela facilidade de cozimento culinário, baixa concentração de HCN, alto índice de colheita, produtividade média de 18,7 t/ha e polpa amarela das raízes, indicando a presença de pigmentos carotenóides. A característica mais relevante do IAC 59-210 foi a maior produtividade média, 20,6 t/ha, em magnitude.Eight cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz clones were evaluated concerning root yields and other traits during three growing seasons (1982/83, 1983/84 and 1984/85, in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Field trials were carried out in completely randomized block designs with four replications. The plants were harvested nine months after planting. The clones IAC 59-210 (derived from self-fertilization of 'IAC Mantiqueira', and IAC 289-70 (obtained from SRT 797 -'Ouro do Vale' x SRT 1 -'Vassourinha Paulista' crossing, were superior for most of the traits studied, when compared to two commercial varieties used as control. IAC 289-70 presented low cooking time, low HCN levels, high harversting index, average yield of 18.7 t/ha and yellow pulp of roots

  2. Novel allergens from ancient foods: Man e 5 from manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cross reacts with Hev b 5 from latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Keity Souza; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Vejvar, Eva; Arcuri, Helen Andrade; Galvão, Clovis Eduardo; Yang, Ariana Campos; Resende, Virgínia Maria Ferreira; Martins, Carlo de Oliveira; Himly, Martin; Mari, Adriano; Liso, Marina; Pomponi, Debora; Breiteneder, Heimo; Wagner, Stefan; Kalil, Jorge; Ferreira, Fátima; Castro, Fábio Fernandes Morato

    2013-06-01

    Manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a tuber mainly consumed in the Southern Hemisphere and used worldwide by food and chemistry industry. We aimed to recombinantly produce and characterize the first manioc allergen and evaluate its IgE reactivity in sera of Brazilian and Italian patients. The molecule, termed Man e5, was expressed in E. coli, characterized by amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, HPLC, and dynamic light scattering. A tertiary structural model of the protein was produced using bioinformatics and susceptibility to pepsin digestion was analyzed in vitro. Based on its high content of charged residues, heat stability, flexibility and lack of secondary structure elements, the allergen was determined a member of the intrinsically disordered protein family. Brazilian patients were selected based on manioc allergy and Italians based on latex allergy and sensitization to Hev b 5.71% of Brazilians and 40% of Italians were in vitro IgE positive to Man e5. Cross-inhibition assays suggest a possible involvement of this allergen in the latex-fruit syndrome. Man e5, the first purified allergen from manioc demonstrates IgE cross-reactivity with Hev b 5. Data suggest Hev b 5 might act as primary sensitizer and could therefore lead to allergic manifestations upon manioc consumption without prior exposition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashipour, Mohammad; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2011-05-01

    Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the possibility of expression of the highly active and soluble mutant MeHNL-His103Leu as well as wild-type enzyme in several expression systems. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae and two cell-free translations, including an E. coli lysate (WakoPURE system) and wheat germ translation system were used to compare expression profiles of the genes. Two distinguishable protein expression patterns were observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems. The wild-type and mutant enzyme showed high activity for both genes (up to 10 U/ml) in eukaryotic hosts P. pastoris and L. tarentolae, while those of E. coli exhibited about 1 and 15 U/ml, respectively. The different activity level in prokaryotic systems but the same level among the eukaryotic hosts indicate the phenomenon is specific to the E. coli system. Both the wild-type and mutant enzymes were functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems, probably using the folding assistants such as chaperones. Properties of expression systems used in this study were precisely compared, too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel biochar from Manihot esculenta Crantz waste: application for the removal of Malachite Green from wastewater and optimization of the adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakou, Buscotin Horax; El Hassani, Kaoutar; Houssaini, Mohammed Amine; Belbahloul, Mounir; Oukani, Elhassan; Anouar, Abdellah

    2017-09-01

    The adsorptive removal of Malachite Green (MG) by a novel biochar namely Cassava Rind Carbon (CRC) was studied in a batch system. Moreover, Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize operating conditions of the adsorption process. Characterization was done by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and pH zero charge point (pH ZCP ). The pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model provided the best fit for kinetic and isotherm, respectively. The maximum capacity of dye adsorbed was 932.98 mg/g at 25 °C. The influence of temperature, the mass of adsorbent and the concentration of dye was studied. The optimal amount of adsorbed MG was 1,363.58 mg/g corresponding to 50 °C, 5 mg of CRC and 150 mg/L of dye. According to the high performance exhibited by CRC in this study, Manihot esculenta Crantz waste can be used as a better and low-cost biomass for wastewater decolourization.

  5. Caracterização molecular e análise filogenética do fitoplasma associado à plantas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta) com sintomas da doença "couro de sapo" no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Adriana Neves

    2012-01-01

    Doenças causadas por fitoplasmas têm emergido em diversas culturas nas últimas décadas tornando-se responsáveis por perdas econômicas significativas. Dentre os fitoplasmas causadores de doenças na cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz), se destaca o causador da doença do “Couro de Sapo da mandioca” (DCSM), o qual é responsável por grandes perdas na cultura em alguns países da América do Sul. Com o objetivo de detectar e caracterizar o fitoplasma causador da DCSM no Brasil, 30 plantas ...

  6. Heterologous co-expression in E. coli of isoamylase genes from cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz 'KU50' achieves enzyme-active heteromeric complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpetch, Pawinee; Field, Robert A; Limpaseni, Tipaporn

    2018-01-29

    Cloning of two isoamylase genes, MeISA1 and MeISA2, from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers, accompanied by their co-expression in E. coli demonstrates a requirement for heteromeric complex formation to achieve debranching activity. Starch debranching enzyme (DBE) or isoamylase (ISA) (EC.3.2.1.68), an important enzyme in starch metabolism, catalyses the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glycosidic linkages of amylopectin. Isoforms of ISAs have been reported in higher plants and algae (Fujita et al. in Planta 208:283-293, 1999; Hussain et al. in Plant Cell 15:133-149, 2003; Ishizaki et al. in Agric Biol Chem 47:771-779, 1983; Mouille et al. in Plant Cell 8:1353-1366, 1996). In the current work, cassava ISA genes were isolated from cDNA generated from total RNA from tubers of Manihot esculanta Crantz cultivar KU50. MeISA1 and MeISA2 were successfully amplified and cloned into a pETDuet1 vector. The putative MeISA1 and MeISA2 proteins comprised 763 and 882 amino acids, with substantial similarity to StISA1 and StISA2 from potato (84.4% and 68.9%, respectively). Recombinant MeISA1 and MeISA2 were co-expressed in Escherichia coli SoluBL21 (DE3). Histrap TM -Purified rMeISA1 and rMeISA2 showed approximate molecular weights of 87 and 99 kDa, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. Debranching activity was only detectable in the column fractions where both recombinant ISA isoforms were present. The heteromeric DBE from crude extracts of 4-5 h induced cultures analysed by gel filtration chromatography and western blot showed combinations of rMeISA1 and rMeISA2 at ratios of 1:1 to 4:1. Pooled fractions with DBE activity were used for enzyme characterisation, which showed that the enzyme was specific for amylopectin, with optimum activity at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Enzyme activity was enhanced by Co 2+ , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , but was strongly inhibited by Cu 2+ . Debranched amylopectin products showed chain length distributions typical of plant DBE.

  7. Use of PCR-DHPLC with fluorescence detection for the characterization of the bacterial diversity during cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, C S; Cuadros-Orellana, S; Bandeira, C H M M; Graças, D A; Santos, A S; Silva, A

    2014-02-28

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been described as a suitable method to study DNA polymorphisms. Here, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation liquor was examined using DHPLC analysis to characterize the bacterial diversity during the fermentation process. GC-clamped amplicons corresponding to a variable region of the bacterial community 16S rDNA were synthesized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then resolved on a base-composition basis using preparative DHPLC. Eluate fractions were collected at random and used as a source of whole community DNA that could be used to determine the bacterial diversity. As a first approach, GC-clamps were removed from the eluted DNA fragments using PCR to avoid the possible bias these clamps could cause during the construction of clone libraries. As a second approach, a clone library of each eluate sample was constructed, preserving the GC-clamps of the DNA fragments. The first approach generated 132 bacterial rDNA sequences with an average size of 200 bp, 45% of which had similarity to unculturable or non-classified bacteria. The second approach produced 194 sequences identified as Proteobacteria (48%), uncultured or non-classified environmental bacteria (40%) and Firmicutes (12%). We detected a remarkably greater bacterial diversity using the first approach than the second approach. The DHPLC-PCR method allowed for the fast and non-laborious detection of a vast bacterial diversity that was associated with cassava fermentation, and we conclude that it is a promising alternative for the characterization of the overall microbial diversity in complex samples.

  8. Transgenic rice expressing a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plasma membrane gene MePMP3-2 exhibits enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Cui, Y C; Ren, C; Rocha, P S C F; Peng, M; Xu, G Y; Wang, M L; Xia, X J

    2016-02-05

    Plasma membrane proteolipid 3 (PMP3) is a class of small hydrophobic proteins found in many organisms including higher plants. Some plant PMP3 genes have been shown to respond to abiotic stresses and to participate in the processes of plant stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) MePMP3-2 gene and functionally characterized its role in tolerance to abiotic stress by expressing it in rice (Oryza sativa L.). MePMP3-2 encodes a 77-amino acid protein belonging to a subgroup of plant PMP3s that have long hydrophylic C-terminal tails of unknown function. In silico analysis and co-localization studies indicated that MePMP3-2 is a plasma membrane protein with two transmembrane domains, similar to other PMP3s. In cassava leaves, MePMP3-2 expression was up-regulated by salt and drought stresses. Heterologous constitutive expression of MePMP3-2 in rice did not alter plant growth and development but increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. In addition, under stress conditions MePMP3-2 transgenic plants accumulated less malondialdehyde, had increased levels of proline, and exhibited greater up-regulation of the stress-related genes OsProT and OsP5CS, but led to only minor changes in OsDREB2A and OsLEA3 expression. These findings indicate that MePMP3-2 may play an important role in salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic rice.

  9. Increased expression of native cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improves tolerance to oxidative and chilling stresses in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Yang, Jun; Duan, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yueming; Zhang, Peng

    2014-08-05

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop, and is therefore, extremely sensitive to low temperature; its antioxidative response is pivotal for its survival under stress. Timely turnover of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells generated by chilling-induced oxidative damages, and scavenging can be achieved by non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactions in order to maintain ROS homeostasis. Transgenic cassava plants that co-express cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD), MeCu/ZnSOD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), MeAPX2, were produced and tested for tolerance against oxidative and chilling stresses. The up-regulation of MeCu/ZnSOD and MeAPX2 expression was confirmed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and enzymatic activity analyses in the leaves of transgenic cassava plant lines with a single-transgene integration site. Upon exposure to ROS-generating agents, 100 μM ROS-generating reagent methyl viologen and 0.5 M H₂O₂, higher levels of enzymatic activities of SOD and APX were detected in transgenic plants than the wild type. Consequently, the oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll degradation and H₂O₂ synthesis, were lower in the transgenic lines than the wild type. Tolerance to chilling stress at 4°C for 2 d was greater in transgenic cassava, as observed by the higher levels of SOD, catalase, and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (e.g., APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reducatase and glutathione reductase) and lower levels of malondialdehyde content. These results suggest that the expression of native cytosolic SOD and APX simultaneously activated the antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic ROS scavenging, thereby improving its tolerance to cold stress.

  10. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  11. RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Zainuddin, Ima M; Vanderschuren, Herve; Doughty, James; Beeching, John R

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root.

  12. Cinética de adsorción de agua en purés deshidratados de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Brousse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El puré deshidratado de mandioca es un producto obtenido a partir de la raíz de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, mediante un proceso tecnológico sobre raíces limpias y peladas. Será utilizado como tal o como materia prima para la producción de pastas alimenticias o mezclas para pastas. El conocimiento de las propiedades, fisicoquímicas y funcionales del puré deshidratado de mandioca y del producto reconstituido constituye información fundamental para poder analizar las actuales y futuras aplicaciones tecnológicas. En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de la temperatura sobre el proceso de rehidratación y el efecto del tamaño de partícula sobre la cinética adsorción de agua de purés deshidratados de dos variedades de mandioca, "Pomberi" y "Concepción". El efecto de la temperatura fue evaluado mediante los Índices de Adsorción de Agua a tres temperaturas (30, 40 y 50 ºC. La cinética de adsorción de agua fue estudiada con los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial. El Índice de Adsorción de Agua aumentó con el incremento de la temperatura en los purés de las dos variedades de mandioca. Los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial describieron adecuadamente la cinética de adsorción de agua. La velocidad de adsorción de agua fue mayor en el puré con las partículas de menor tamaño.

  13. Cinética de adsorción de agua en purés deshidratados de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Brousse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El puré deshidratado de mandioca es un producto obtenido a partir de la raíz de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, mediante un proceso tecnológico sobre raíces limpias y peladas. Será utilizado como tal o como materia prima para la producción de pastas alimenticias o mezclas para pastas. El conocimiento de las propiedades, fisicoquímicas y funcionales del puré deshidratado de mandioca y del producto reconstituido constituye información fundamental para poder analizar las actuales y futuras aplicaciones tecnológicas. En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de la temperatura sobre el proceso de rehidratación y el efecto del tamaño de partícula sobre la cinética adsorción de agua de purés deshidratados de dos variedades de mandioca, ‘Pomberi’ y ‘Concepción’. El efecto de la temperatura fue evaluado mediante los Índices de Adsorción de Agua a tres temperaturas (30, 40 y 50 ºC. La cinética de adsorción de agua fue estudiada con los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial. El Índice de Adsorción de Agua aumentó con el incremento de la temperatura en los purés de las dos variedades de mandioca. Los modelos de Pilosof y Exponencial describieron adecuadamente la cinética de adsorción de agua. La velocidad de adsorción de agua fue mayor en el puré con las partículas de menor tamaño.

  14. Study of the microbiological conditions of marketing of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour in supply center of Alagoinhas, Bahia Estudo das condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz comercializadas no centro de abastecimento de Alagoinhas, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelza Silva Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Alagoinhas, Bahia, and in most Northeastern states, the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz flour is produced in a craft house, most often located in the place of production. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological conditions of cassava flours marketed Supply Centre in Alagoinhas, Bahia. We collected 30 samples of cassava flour, 100 grams, which were placed in sterile, insulated container. The samples were tested for heterotrophic bacteria using the method of standard plate count, followed by Gram staining, the search for total and fecal coliforms was performed by the Most Probable Number (MPN. The results indicate that the samples that the samples are in accordance with current legislation regarding the analysis of total coliforms and thermotolerant (No município de Alagoinhas, Bahia, e na maioria dos estados do Nordeste, a farinha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz é produzida de forma artesanal em casas-de-farinha, na maioria das vezes localizadas no próprio local de plantio da mandioca. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições microbiológicas de farinhas de mandioca comercializadas no Centro de Abastecimento em Alagoinhas-Bahia. Foram coletadas 100 gramas de 30 amostras de farinha de mandioca, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos estéreis, em recipiente isotérmico. As amostras foram submetidas à pesquisa de bactérias heterotróficas empregando-se o método de contagem padrão em placas, seguido da coloração de Gram, e a pesquisa para coliformes totais e termotolerantes foi realizada pela técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP. Os resultados indicam que as amostras estão em conformidade com a legislação vigente em relação à análise de coliformes totais e termotolerantes (<3NMPg-1, na contagem de bactérias heterotróficas algumas amostras mostraram-se fora dos padrões aceitáveis. Na coloração de Gram foram observados bacilos, diplobacilos e estreptobacilos Gram positivos e Gram

  15. Desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 alimentados com rações contendo farinha de crueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz em substituição ao milho (Zea mays Performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 fed diets containing crueira manioc flour (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in replacement of corn (Zea mays

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    Geraldo Pereira Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, alimentados com níveis crescentes de farinha de crueira de mandioca, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, como substituto do milho (Zea mays. Os peixes (peso médio inicial de 6,6 ± 0,1 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 grupos (20 peixes/grupo e alimentados com as dietas experimentais em quatro repetições para avaliação da performance de crescimento, eficiência alimentar, composição corporal e os custos de produção. As performances de crescimento não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O teor de lipídio no músculo foi diferentemente significativo em peixes alimentados com 40% e 100% em relação aos outros tratamentos. O custo de produção de milho diminuiu linearmente com a substituição. O valor da dieta diminuiu de R $ 1,43 kg-1 a R $ 1,21 kg-1 e o peixe de R $ 1,54 kg-1 a R $ 1,30 peixe kg-1. Concluiu-se que o milho pode ser totalmente substituído por farinha de crueira de mandioca na dieta de juvenil de tambaqui, sem prejudicar o seu desempenho.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of young tambaqui (Colossoma macropum, fed with increasing levels of cassava flour, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, as corn (Zea mays replacement. Fish (initial body weight 6.6 ± 0.1 g were randomly distributed in 24 groups (20 fish/group with four replications. They were fed with the experimental diets for evaluation of growth performances, feed utilization, body composition and production costs. Growth performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. Lipid content in muscle were significant different in fish fed 40% and 100% substitution when compared to the other treatments. The production cost decreased linearly with corn substitution. Diet decreased from R$ 1.43 kg-1 to R$ 1.21 kg-1 and fish production cost from R$ 1.54 kg-1 to R$ 1.30 kg-1 fish. It was

  16. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  17. Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by primed in situ labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J F; Yin, H; Gao, H Q; Zhuang, N S; Liu, J P

    2015-07-28

    Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were achieved using primed in situ labeling. Amplified signals for both the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were consistently observed in different stages of cell division. A comparison of the length, arm ratio, and other morphological characteristics of somatic metaphase chromosomes in karyotype analysis indicated that the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were localized on the short and long arm of cassava chromosome 11 with the relative map positions of 41.67 and 23.07, respectively. The physical localization of the 2 markers on chromosome 11 of the karyotype corresponds to their positions on the 15th linkage group in cassava.

  18. Mycoflora and nutrient analysis of sundried cassava chips (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-22

    Manihot esculenta) during twenty weeks of storage and the ... The nutritional composition of cassava chips were depleted by the associated fungi during storage. Therefore ... chips by cutting the roots into slices. The slices were.

  19. Domestication syndrome in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Assessing morphological traits and differentially expressed genes associated with genetic diversity of storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava is a starchy root crop that provides a staple food source for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Brazil is considered the major center of diversification for species of the genus Manihot. It is also a center of domestication for the cul...

  20. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  1. Evaluación de pretratamientos químicos para la hidrólisis enzimática de residuos lignocelulósicos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibeth Niño López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de diferentes pretratamientos químicos con ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4, hidróxido de sodio (NaOH y peróxido de hidrogeno (H2O2, fueron evaluados mediante la cuantificación de azucares reductores totales producidos durante la etapa de hidrólisis enzimática de los residuos lignocelulósicos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz y el porcentaje (% de remoción de lignina después del pretratamiento. La cantidad de residuos utilizados (1 y 5% (w/v a diferentes tamaños de partícula (1,18 y 0,6mm fueron pretratados por separado (hojas y tallos con H2SO4, NaOH y H2O2 a diferentes concentraciones (1 y 5% (w/v. Los residuos vegetales fueron hidrolizados con la enzima accellerase 1500 a 50°C, pH 5 y 140 rpm. El pretratamiento con NaOH permite la mayor liberación de azucares reductores totales durante la hidrólisis enzimática (3,7g/L en hojas seguido del pretratamiento con H2SO4 (2,11g/L y H2O2 (1,54g/L. En tallos las concentraciones de azúcares son menores.

  2. Enhancing the biodegradation process of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels have been implicated in serious environmental pollution. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of N.P.K (15:15:15) and microbial inoculants on the biodegradation process of cassava peels. Fresh cassava peels were subjected to biodegradation process for twenty weeks.

  3. Zonificación agroecológica y estimación del rendimiento potencial del cultivo de la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz en el estado de Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rivera-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Tabasco es el principal productor de yuca (Manihote esculenta Crantz en México, mismo que ha perdido en los últimos cinco años cerca del 45% de la superficie dedicada a este cultivo. Razón por la cual, las políticas actuales de desarrollo rural se enfocan a dirigir todo tipo de apoyos, especialmente los económicos, hacia las áreas con mayor potencial productivo para diferentes cultivos, entre ellos, la yuca. Derivado de esta política y del interés del gobierno del estado de Tabasco, se realizó el presente estudio, con los objetivos de conocer las áreas con mayor potencial productivo en el estado y estimar el rendimiento potencial esperado del cultivo de la yuca. Para ello, se utilizó el procedimiento de zonificación agro-ecológica (zae propuesto por la Fao para áreas muy aptas y para una situación de alta inversión en condiciones de agricultura de temporal. Se analizaron cuatro variables climáticas y seis propiedades edafológicas. El análisis de las variables climáticas y edafológicas (físicas y químicas y su posterior representación cartográfica mostraron que en el estado de Tabasco existen 476,617 hectáreas con alto potencial edafoclimático para cultivar yuca, con rendimientos potenciales de 42.3 t ha-1.

  4. Cinética de secado de la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz variedad CORPOICA M-tai en función de la temperatura y de la velocidad de aire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Salcedo Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El secado de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz variedad CORPOICA M-tai, fue realizado en un secador de bandejas a escala de laboratorio. Muestras de yuca con espesor de 0,2cm y diámetro de 0,4cm fueron colocadas en el equipo en contacto directo con aire caliente, bajo distintas condiciones de operación. Se evaluó el efecto de la temperatura (35, 45 y 55ºC y la velocidad del aire (1,0, 2,0 y 3,0m/s sobre el tiempo de secado y la difusividad efectiva. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que a una temperatura y flujo de aire de 55°C y 3,0 m/s respectivamente, el tiempo de secado fue de 4,5h, alcanzándose una humedad de 4,87%. Los datos derivados de las curvas de secado fueron ajustados a los modelos de Newton, el de Dos términos exponencial, el de Wang y Singh, el de Henderson y Pabis modificado y el Difusión aproximal. De acuerdo con los resultados el modelo matemático que describió mejor el comportamiento cinético de las curvas de secado fue el modelo Difusión aproximal con una regresión lineal (0,958 ≤ R2 ≤ 0,993. La difusividad efectiva (Df de la yuca varió entre 1,26 x 10-10 y 4,14 x 10-10m2/s y la energía de activación (Ea varió entre 33,66 a 16,16KJ /mol.

  5. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit, seed and embryo developments of different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes, as well as embryo rescue, were investigated. The fruits of three genotypes after uncontrolled open pollination presented the same progressive development with similar sizes at different stages. There are large differences in ...

  6. Exploring the African cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic-embryogenic competence of eleven cassava genotypes was determined in induction media containing 8 and 12 mg/l of the auxin picloram, using axillary meristems and leaf lobes as explants. There were significant differences (p<0.01) among the cassava genotypes for ability to form somatic embryos. Proembryo ...

  7. Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Q; Sautter, C; Potrykus, I; Puonti-Kaerlas, J

    1996-06-01

    Genetic engineering can be used to complement traditional breeding methods in crop plant improvement. Transfer of genes from heterologous species provides the means of selectively introducing new traits into crop plants and expanding the gene pool beyond what has been available to traditional breeding systems. The prerequisites for genetic engineering are efficient transformation and tissue culture systems that allow selection and regeneration of transgenic plants. Cassava, an integral plant for food security in developing countries, has until now been recalcitrant to transformation approaches. We report here a method for regenerating stably transformed cassava plants after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which opens cassava for future improvement via biotechnology.

  8. Del Charco del Agua Amarga (Alcañiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás MAIGI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En agosto de 1947, habiendo llegado a la excelentísima Diputación Provincial de Teruel rumores de recientes deterioros en el friso pintado del abrigo rupestre del "Charco del Agua Amarga", nos fué requerida oficialmente, por dicha Corporación, la presentación de un informe sobre la realidad de los hechos expuestos, así como el planeamiento de las medidas adecuadas para salvaguardar en forma eficaz, en el futuro, las referidas pinturas.

  9. Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens Influencia de harinas de yuca y de batata sobre pigmentación, contenido de carotenoides en la yema y desempeño productivo de aves en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos L Hernán

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens. Eight diets (T1:without pigment, T2: commercial pigment, T3: cassava meal 15%, T4: cassava meal 30%, T5: sweet potato meal 15%, T6: sweet potato meal 30%, T7: cassava and sweet potato meal 15% each, T8: cassava and sweet potato meal 25% each in a randomized design using four replicates of three hens each during seven experimental periods were evaluated. Diets were iso-energetics (2.9 kcal/g and iso-proteis (14.5% CP. Carotenoid concentrations (UV-visible chromatography had differences (P<0.01 among diets. Pigmentation (Fan Roche and carotenoid concentration in egg yoks to come from cassava and sweet potato diets did not show differences (P>0.05 A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05. A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05 between egg yolk to come from diet without pigment and cassava and sweet potato diets. Lutein, -carotene, -carotene, and 9-cis-- carotene were the

  10. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta (Crantz) planting methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-01-05

    Jan 5, 2008 ... Tel: 08034608421, 08081828916. make major demands on resources at different times thereby resulting in better temporal use of growth resources (Ile et al., 1996, Mbah and Muoneke, 2007). Soybean is a relatively new grain legume and oilseed crop in Nigeria. It provides cheap dietary protein, infant.

  11. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  12. Catalase activity of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) plant under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated ...

  13. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemakers, C J; Schavemaker, C M; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R G

    1993-02-01

    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The production of embryos in liquid medium was distinctly higher, faster and more synchronized than on solid medium. Lower densities and fragmentation of starting embryos improved the production significantly. The highest production found was 32.1 embryos per initial embryo. In all treatments the explants initiated multiple embryos. The production of single embryos was achieved by pressing starting embryos through a fine meshed sieve, indicating that embryos can be produced from a piece of tissue with a restricted number of cells. The shoot conversion rate of embryos from liquid medium was comparable with that of embryos from solid medium.

  14. Primary and cyclic somatic embryogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cassava is one of the major food crops in the tropics. Several of the major problems in cassava can probably only be solved by breeding with cellular and molecular techniques, e.g., the introduction of specific genes (virus resistance, protein content, quality aspects and so on). These

  15. Is the cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) product, garri, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The difference in the garri eating habits (both in quantity and frequency) between the 16 garri making mothers of the patients and age-matched 16 mothers of healthy babies from the same geographical area selected as control, was in the length of time the garri stayed after processing and frying before consumption.

  16. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Schavemaker, C.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    1993-01-01

    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The

  17. Case of escape in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N M A; Mendonza, M

    2017-02-08

    Two cassava escapes where collected from cultivated fields near natural habitat in Bolivia. They are described morphologically and analyzed cytogenetically in this study. It is suggested that they are the product of backcrosses of cassava interspecific hybrids with the cultigen itself, and that selective conditions have developed in which certain forms of cassava segregates have adapted to grow wildly in natural habitats near cassava fields. These segregates may hybridize with cultivated cassava upon coming in contact with such varieties. Because these escapes have incorporated useful genes from the wild into their genetic structure, they could be used for cassava improvement since their genetic barriers with other forms of cassava are very weak.

  18. Growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, T.; Muraleedharan Nair, G.; Indira, P.

    1984-07-01

    The growth and development of twelve cassava genotypes were studied under the shade in a coconut garden. Internodal elongation, thin leaves and absence of branching were the most significant morphological changes noticed under shade. Cross section of leaves grown under shade showed poor starch deposition in vascular region. Most of the photosynthates of shade grown cassava were utilized for shoot growth affecting tuber development significantly. The cultivars H 165 and CI 590 recorded higher yield under shade when compared to other cultivars. Wider spacings of cassava in coconut garden resulted in higher tuber yield. 9 references.

  19. Anatomical alterations due to polyploidy in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nagib M A; Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Fernandes, S D C; Araujo, P C

    2008-04-01

    Information on anatomical structure is needed by breeders working on improvement for drought tolerance. For studying the effect of polyploidy on cassava anatomy and its significance to tolerance to drought, we induced a polyploidy type of a selected clone (UnB 530) by applying an aqueous solution of 0.2% colchicine on lateral buds for a period of 12 h. The stem identified as tetraploid was propagated to produce the whole plant. Free-hand cross-sections of the median portion between stem internodes were made. They were clarified using 50% sodium hypochlorite solution, stained with 1% safranin-alcian blue, passed through an ethanol series and butyl acetate and mounted in synthetic resin. The tetraploid type showed more prismatic and druse crystals in the cortical parenchyma, and its pericycle fibers had thicker walls. The secondary xylem of tetraploid types was wider than diploid ones, having thinner walls and less starch.

  20. Regeneration and transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofiari, E.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes different regeneration systems of cassava. In the first system the embryos were highly organized. The use of the auxins NAA and 2,4-D to induce this organized system of somatic embryogenesis were compared in several genotypes. Bombardment of organized tissues did not result in

  1. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degradation of the starch granules was concentrated in the amorphous regions.Amilases fúngicas são comumente empregadas a amidos com o intuito de otimizar o rendimento de leveduras, modificar a textura de produtos panificados e prolongar a vida de prateleira do produto final. A hidrólise parcial enzimática pode auxiliar no entendimento da estrutura do amido ganular. Amido de mandioca parcialmente hidrolisado por á-amilase fúngica foi investigado utilizando-se técnicas termoanalíticas, microscopia ótica e difratometria por raios X. A degradação térmica iniciou-se a temperaturas menores após o tratamento enzimático e a análise por DSC mostrou uma próxima faixa de temperatura de gelatinização, porém, a entalpia necessária para o evento foi maior para os grânulos parcialmente hidrolisados. Os resultados sugerem que a degradação parcial do amido granular foi concentrada em regiões amorfas.

  2. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that cyanide derived from linamarin is a major source of reduced nitrogen for cassava root protein synthesis. Disruption of linamarin transport from leaves in CYP79D1/D2 anti-sense plants prevents the growth of cassava roots in the absence of an alternate source of reduced nitrogen. An alternative strategy for reducing cyanogen toxicity in cassava foods is to accelerate cyanogenesis and cyanide volatilization during food processing. To achieve this objective, we have expressed the leaf-specific enzyme hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) in roots. HNL catalyzes the breakdown of acetone cyanohydrin to cyanide. Expression of HNL in roots accelerated cyanogenesis by more than three-fold substantially reducing the accumulation of acetone cyanohydrin during processing relative to wild-type roots.

  3. Microbial load and Microflora of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial load of cassava tubers that were grown at Awassa, Ethiopia, was analysed. The total viable microbial count of fresh cassava, before cleaning, ranged from 8.7x104 to 2.1x109 c.f.u/g whereas, in thoroughly cleaned product it was reduced to 106 c.f.u/g (% C.V., 19.5). Enterobacteriacae and spore former ...

  4. Adaptability of four cassava ( Manihot esculenta crantz ) cultivars in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deep water table site at Alabata had the highest growth indices and yield in valley bottom and the lowest in the fringe, while the shallow water table site at Ibadan recorded higher yield and growth indices in the fringe than the other positions. The shallowest water table depths at Ibadan and Alabata were and below ...

  5. Etude du caractere cyanogenetique du manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de G.H.

    1971-01-01

    The tuberous roots of cassava can release such quantities of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) that consumption without pretreatment may be very dangerous. Methods to eliminate the poison are known but cases of poisoning, of which some are fatal, still occur; moreover these methods often reduce the food

  6. Catalase activity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant under African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    . E-mail: sabastina.amoako@kintampo-hrc.org. Tel: +233543550743. Abbreviations: CBSD, Cassava brown streak disease; ACMV, African cassava mosaic virus; ROS, reactive oxygen species; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; BSA, bovine serum ...

  7. Biolistic inoculation of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... East African cassava mosaic virus-Cameroon (EACMV-CM) and a recombinant East African cassava mosaic virus-India/Cameroon (EACMV-CM/IC) can be transmitted easily and repeatedly to Nicotiana benthamiana plants, difficulty in mechanical transmission and multiplication of EACMV-UG and South African cassava ...

  8. Toxicity of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) effluent on the Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of cassava tuber was conducted to determine some of the active ingredients and the toxicity of cassava effluent on the fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and phytate. While hydrogen cyanide and oxalate ...

  9. Effect of cassava ( Manihot esculenta crentz ) on thyroid status under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased thyroid weight (P < 0.001), inhibited thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity and reduced thyroid hormone profiles (P < 0.001) were noted in fresh and cooked cassava fed rats, resembling a relative state of morphological as well as biochemical hypothyroidism even in presence of adequate iodine. African Journal of ...

  10. Etude de la culture en couloirs de manioc ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de l'étude est de recommander aux paysans un système de production de manioc à la fois rentable et préservatrice de l'environnement. Pour atteindre cet objectif, deux systèmes améliorés de culture en couloirs (manioc amélioré Yavo/soja vert (Mung bean)/Gliricidia sepium avec un apport de fumure de fond ...

  11. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Albuquerque

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo inadequado das plantas daninhas é uma das principais causas da baixa produtividade da cultura da mandioca no Brasil. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar as espécies de plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura da mandioca e o grau de interferência que estas exercem sobre o cultivo, em função do período de convivência com a cultura. Dois experimentos foram realizados em áreas adjacentes, no município de Viçosa-MG, utilizando-se o cultivar Cacauzinha, do grupo das mandiocas mansas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos do primeiro experimento foram compostos por períodos iniciais de convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 dias após o plantio (DAP; no segundo experimento, as plantas de mandioca, inicialmente, permaneceram livres das plantas daninhas pelos mesmos períodos. Em ambos os experimentos adotou-se o espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,5 m, sendo a área útil da parcela constituída pelas duas linhas centrais, deixando-se 1,0 m em cada extremidade como bordaduras frontais, totalizando 8,0 m². As plantas daninhas foram avaliadas aos 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325 e 350 DAP. As características produtividade de raízes, peso da parte aérea, índice de colheita, teor de amido e matéria seca das raízes foram avaliadas aos 12 meses após o plantio. As espécies de plantas daninhas que predominaram na área experimental foram: Bidens pilosa, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cyperus rotundus e Commelina benghalensis, com a primeira delas predominando em quase todas as épocas de coletas. Os períodos de convivência com as plantas daninhas não interferiram nos índices de colheita, teor de amido e matéria seca das raízes. Todavia, considerando a produtividade de raízes, o final do período anterior à interferência foi próximo dos 25 dias, e o período crítico de prevenção da interferência situou-se entre 25 e 75 DAP. Cultivos realizados após 75 DAP não afetaram as características da cultura da mandioca avaliadas.Inadequate handling of weeds is one of the main causes of cassava low yield in Brazil. The objective of this work was to identify the weed species interfering in cassava crop and the degree of this interference, in function of then coexistence period. Two experiments were carried out in adjacent areas in Viçosa-MG, Brazil, using the "cacauzinha" cultivar of the cassava group. A randomized block design was adopted, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments in the first experiment were composed by the initial crop periods and weed coexistence 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 days after planting (DAP. In the second experiment, the cassava plants initially remained weed-free for the same periods. For both experiments, 1.0 x 0.5 m spacing was adopted, being the useful portion area constituted by the two central lines, with 1.0 m being left in each extremity as front borders, totaling 8.0 m².. The weeds were analyzed at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325 and 350 DAP. The characteristics root yield, aerial part weight, crop index, starch content and root dry matter were evaluated at twelve months after planting. The prevailing weed species in the experimental area were: Bidens pilosa, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cyperus rotundus and Commelina benghalensis, with Bidens pilosa prevailing in almost all collection times. The coexistence periods with the weeds did not interfere in the crop indexes, starch content and root dry matter. However, taking into account root yield, the end of the period before interference was close to 25 days and the interference prevention critical period was between 25 and 75 DAP. Crops sown after 75 DAP did not affect the analyzed cassava crop characteristics.

  12. [Poisoning by Geromitra esculenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, D

    1989-01-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Persoon ex Fries) mushrooms have been responsible for severe intoxications and even deaths. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhoea, and, afterwhile, by jaundice, convulsions and coma. The species of concern are mainly G. esculenta, G. fastigiata and G. gigas; nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other species within the Ascomycetes may prove also toxic. The toxins, i.e. gyromitrin (N-methyl-N-formyl-N-acetyl-hydrazone) and its higher homologues, are converted in vivo into MFH (N-methyl-N-formyl-hydrazine), then into MMH (N-Methylhydrazine). The toxicity of these latter chemicals, which are chiefly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo, and, in vitro experiments with monocelled cultures and biochemical systems. Considering the chemical structure and the reactivity of these natural compounds, chemical and biochemical mechanisms are suggested in order to explain their intrinsic biological activity.

  13. ATIVIDADE DE DETERRÊNCIA ALIMENTAR DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE LARANJA AMARGA SOBRE Helicoverpa armigera HÜBNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Luiz de Souza Lima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas plantas possuem compostos secundários com propriedades inseticidas e o óleo essencial de laranja amarga mostra-se com grande potencial para o controle de pragas. Recentemente, foi registrada no Brasil a espécie Helicoverpa armigera, uma das maiores pragas da agricultura mundial. Tendo em vista a falta de métodos alternativos aos inseticidas para o controle dessa praga, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo essencial de laranja amarga sobre H. armigera. Foi realizado um teste de escolha para avaliar a atividade deterrente. Folhas de tomate foram imersas em soluções contendo óleo de laranja amarga em três concentrações (1, 10 e 100 mg L-1. As folhas tratadas com óleo e folhas não tratadas foram oferecidas à lagartas de segunda instar e após 24h foi calculado o índice de deterrência alimentar (IDA. A concentração de 1 mg L-1 apresentou 71% de deterrência alimentar. Porém as concentrações de 10 e 100 mg L-1 causaram fitotoxidez às folhas de tomate, inviabilizando o consumo pelas lagartas e a estimativa do IDA. Novos testes devem ser realizados com concentrações menores para evitar a fitotoxidez.

  14. Specificity of HPLC to assess the chemical stability based on partenine from Parthenium hysterophorus L. powdered dry foliage (escoba amarga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo Hernandez, Yanelis; Mohamad Safa, Bassam; Gonzalez Bedia, Mirtha Mayra

    2010-01-01

    It is required a specific analysis technique allowing the follow-up to stability study intrinsic of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (escoba amarga) powdered dry foliage to achieve in a pharmaceutical way a antiparasitic usefulness with the quality, safety and effectiveness demanded requirements. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to P. hysterophorus degraded samples under degradation conditions in an oxidative, basic and acid medium. The analysis technique specificity was assessed to detect the interest component without interferences of its degradation products and its possible usefulness in studies on solid stability in the plant powder

  15. Energetic analysis of the ethanol production systems of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); Analise energetica de sistemas de producao de etanol de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salla, Diones A. [Secretaria de Extensao Agroflorestal e Producao Familiar (SEAPROF), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil)], email: diones.salla@gmail.com; Furlaneto, Fernanda P.B.; Kanthack, Ricardo A.D. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA) Medio Paranapanema, Assis, SP (Brazil)], emails: fernandafurlaneto@apta.sp.gov.br, kanthack@apta.sp.gov.br; Cabello, Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP/CERAT), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes e Amidos Topicais], email: dircerat@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the energetic consumption of the ethanol production system, using the cassava as carbohydrates source. The researches were carried out from the field in the mid region of Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo state, during the period January to December, 2007. The energy consumption referring to the phases of crop production and industrial processing were appraised. It was verified that the total energetic cost of the crop production corresponded to 9,528.33 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the most onerous item was the inputs (35.72%). In the industrial step, the energetic consumption was equivalent to 2,208.28 MJ t{sup -1}. The operations of hydrolysis/saccharification/ treatment of the juice represented 56.72% of the total energetic expenditure. The cassava crop presented an energetic cost of 1.54 MJ L{sup -1} in relation to the ethanol produced in the main agronomic operations crop production, and 11.76 MJ L{sup -1} in the industrial processing. The energy efficiency observed in the cultivation and industrialization of the cassava was of 1.76. (author)

  16. Hemaglutinina de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz: purificação parcial e toxicidade Hemaglutinin of cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz: partial purification and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystian Araujo Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos componentes da multimistura para suplementação alimentar de populações carentes é a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM que possui elevado conteúdo em proteínas, vitaminas e minerais. Todavia, as folhas de mandioca também apresentam substâncias antinutritivas e/ou tóxicas, como cianeto, polifenóis, nitrato, ácido oxálico, hemaglutinina, saponinas e inibidores de tripsina. Objetivou-se neste trabalho extrair as proteínas da FFM, purificando-as em coluna cromatográfica e determinar sua atividade hemaglutinante e toxicidade. Foram testadas várias estratégias de extração e precipitação das proteínas, sendo que o maior teor protéico e atividade hemaglutinante foi obtido na extração com água destilada na proporção 1:20 (p/v seguida da precipitação com sulfato de amônio a 80% de saturação. As proteínas precipitadas foram purificadas em coluna Q-Sepharose. Das quatro frações obtidas na purificação (I, II, III e IV, a I e a II apresentaram maiores atividades hemaglutinantes. As mesmas frações foram injetadas via intraperitoneal em camundongos com doses de 2mg (fração I, 3mg (fração II, 54mg (fração III e 52mg (fração IV para cada animal com 20g de peso médio, não sendo observadas mortes ou quaisquer efeitos adversos após 120h.One of the components of the multimixture to the feed supplementation of low-income populations is cassava leaf flour (FFM, with high content of proteins, vitamins and minerals. However, cassava leaves also present substance regarded as antinutritive and/or toxic, such as cyanide, polyphenols, nitrate, oxalic acid, hemagglutinin, saponins and trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this work was to extract proteins from FFM, purifying them in chromatographic column and determine their hemagglutinating activity and toxicity. A number of strategies of extraction and precipitation of proteins were tested; the highest protein content and hemagglutinating activity were obtained in the extraction with distilled water at the 1:20 ratio (p/v followed by the precipitation with ammonium sulfate at 80% of saturation. The precipitated proteins were purified in Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column. Out of the four purification fractions (I, II, III e IV, the I and II activities presented higher specific activity. The same fractions were injected intraperitoneal via in mice of 20g weight with doses of 2mg (fraction I, 3mg (fraction II, 54mg (fraction III and 52mg (fraction IV. No deaths or any adverse effects was observed after 120h.

  17. Cianeto na farinha e folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cyanide in the leaves and cassava leaves flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM vem sendo usada no combate à desnutrição, por ser fonte de vitaminas e minerais, além de ser um subproduto de ampla disponibilidade e baixo custo. Porém, a toxicidade, devido à presença de cianeto, pode restringir seu uso na alimentação humana. Determinaram-se os teores de cianeto nas folhas e nas FFM de cinco cultivares (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 e Mocotó, a fim de selecionar a cultivar com menores níveis desse antinutriente. Constatou-se que as cultivares apresentaram diferentes teores de cianeto e percentuais de perdas, destacando-se a IAC 289-70, com os níveis mais baixos e os maiores percentuais de perdas de cianeto. Portanto, antes de se indicar uma cultivar para a inclusão na dieta da população, faz-se necessário avaliar os teores de cianeto.In Brazil, cassava leaves flour (CLF has been used to combat undernourish, because it is a source of vitamins and minerals. Besides that, it is a sub-product of wide availability and low cost material. However, the toxicity, due to the presence of cyanide, can restrict its use for human feeding. The contents of cyanide in leaves and in CLF of five cultivars (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 and Mocotó, were determined, in order to select cultivars with smallest levels of these substance. It was verified that cultivars presented different levels of cyanide and percentile of losses, standing out the IAC 289-70 with the lowest levels and the largest losses of cyanide. Therefore, before indicating a cultivar for the inclusion in the population diet it is necessary to evaluate the contents of cyanide.

  18. Genetic Improvement of Taro (Colocasia esculenta var esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    officially worldwide. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is vegetatively propagated, hence induced mutations offer the best way to induce variability in breeding program. In-vitro culture ... Islands produce large corm taro for house and domestic consumption and for export to New. Zealand, Australia and the USA. In Mauritius, the ...

  19. Nutritional composition of fufu analog flour produced from Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) and Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B; Oladiran, Dolapo A; Akande, Ebunoluwa O

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional properties of fufu analog produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam were studied. Cassava and cocoyam were fermented for 72 h, dried to obtain fufu flour. Proximate, functional, minerals, antinutritional factor, pasting properties, and sensory evaluation of various samples were determined. The results revealed that the moisture contents of the samples showed significant difference from control with values between 6.50 and 7.30%. The protein contents (1.68-4.98%), ash (1.84-4.01%), and crude fiber (1.42-4.56%) showed significant increase with increasing level of cocoyam, while the crude fat and carbohydrate reduced with increase in cocoyam. The minerals also increased with increase in cocoyam level with sample E having the highest value of Magnesium (32.15 mg/100 g). The antinutritional factors were very low and the pasting properties revealed the importance of cocoyam in the fufu analog produced. In conclusion, fufu produced from co-processing of cassava and cocoyam has more nutritional qualities than the common fufu made from cassava alone.

  20. Resistance to the Whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in Wild Populations of Cassava, Manihot Tristis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabalí, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis. PMID:21062208

  1. The Diversity of Bitter Manioc (Manihot Esculenta Crantz Cultivation in a Whitewater Amazonian Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While bitter manioc has been one of the most important staple crops in the central Amazon for thousands of years, there have been few studies of its cultivation in the fertile whitewater landscapes of this region. Anthropological research on bitter manioc cultivation in the Amazon has focused almost exclusively on long-fallow shifting cultivation in marginal upland areas of low soil fertility. This has contributed to the persistence of the oversimplified notion that because bitter manioc is well adapted to infertile upland soils; it cannot yield well in alluvial and/or fertile soils. I hypothesized that bitter manioc cultivation would be well adapted to the fertile soils of the whitewater landscapes of the central Amazon because of the centrality of this crop to subsistence in this region. In this article, I examine one such whitewater landscape, the middle Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil, where smallholders cultivate bitter manioc on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE and floodplain soils, and on infertile Oxisols and Ultisols. In this region, cultivation on fertile soils tends to be short-cycled, characterised by short fallowing (0–6 years and shorter cropping periods (5–12 months with a predominance of low starch fast maturing “weak” landraces. By contrast, cultivation on infertile soils is normally long-cycled, characterised by longer fallows (>10 years and longer cropping periods (1–3 years with a predominance of high starch slow maturing “strong” landraces. This diversity in bitter manioc cultivation systems (landraces, fallow periods, soils demonstrates that Amazonian farmers have adapted bitter manioc cultivation to the specific characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit. I conclude that contrary to earlier claims, there are no ecological limitations on growing bitter manioc in fertile soils, and therefore the cultivation of this crop in floodplain and ADE soils would have been possible in the pre-Columbian period.

  2. Efficient production of transgenic plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.M.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible method was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of cassava. LBA4404(pTOK233), containing the nptII, hph and gus marker genes, was used in the experiments. Chemical selection by means of kanamycin was used to establish

  3. Molecular assessment of the bacterial community associated with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Begoude, Aime Didier Boyogueno; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Araki, Shigeru; Nawata, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient cycles and plant development. Their distribution and activity may depend on location and environmental heterogeneity. This study characterized soil bacterial communities in cassava fields of Eastern (Andom) and Southern (Bityili) Cameroon using molecular tools. In both sites, two improved varieties (TMS-96/1414; TMS-92/0326) and a local variety (Local) were grown in a randomized block design. Composite bulk soils were collected at 10months after planting from cassava plots. The 16S rDNA region was amplified, MiSeq was performed and sequence data analyzed. The same 17 bacterial phyla were present in both Andom and Bityili, while Chlorobi and Deinococcus-Thermus were only specific to Andom. The phyla Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant. Although both sites shared similar phyla, the principal coordinate analysis revealed significant variations in their composition, suggesting that the functions of the bacteria in nutrients cycling are likely to differ between Andom and Bityili. Cassava yields were generally higher in Andom which also displayed a higher diversity of bacterial communities. This study provides useful information on the composition of bacterial communities in cassava fields in two agro-ecologies of Cameroon. It constitutes to our knowledge the first report describing soil bacterial communities in association with cassava growth in the country, using molecular tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. 273 Etude de la culture en couloirs de manioc (Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administrateur

    La culture en couloirs a enregistré un rendement moyen général en racines tubéreuses fraîches de 40 t/ha contre 13 t/ha dans ..... Le soja vert a eu des taux moyens de germination supérieurs à la moyenne (50% d'émergence) sur les deux années de ..... Afrique, 14 – 19 août 1983, Douala, Cameroun. Ottawa, Ont., CRDI.

  5. Regeneration of transgenic cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from microbombarded embryogenic suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpke, C; Taylor, N; Cárcamo, R; Konan, N K; Marmey, P; Henshaw, G G; Beachy, R N; Fauquet, C

    1996-06-01

    A protocol was established for the introduction of DNA into embryogenic suspension-derived tissues of cassava via microparticle bombardment, for the selection of genetically transformed cells, and for the regeneration of fully transgenic plants from these cells. The plasmid DNA used for bombardment contained a gene encoding neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (uidA). Selection of bombarded tissue with paromomycin resulted in the establishment of putative transgenic embryogenic calli. In most of these calli, beta-glucuronidase was detected histochemically. Molecular analysis of paromomycin-resistant embryogenic calli and of plants regenerated from these calli, confirmed the stable integration of bombarded DNA into the cassava genome.

  6. Development of friable embryogenic callus and embryogenic suspension culture systems in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N J; Edwards, M; Kiernan, R J; Davey, C D; Blakesley, D; Henshaw, G G

    1996-06-01

    Procedures for the production of a new and highly prolific embryogenic culture system have been developed in cassava. The importance of the basal salts and type of auxin in controlling the development of cassava embryogenic tissues has been demonstrated, with culture on Gresshoff and Doy basal medium in the presence of 4-amino-3,5,6,trichloro-picolinic acid (picloram) inducing the formation of friable embryogenic callus from which highly totipotent embryogenic suspension cultures could be established. Plants have been regenerated from these cultures. The availability of embryogenic suspension cultures is considered to have important implications for the application of genetic transformation and other biotechnologies in the agronomic improvement of cassava.

  7. Biosafety considerations for selectable and scorable markers used in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, William; Umbeck, Paul; Hokanson, Karen; Halsey, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Cassava is an important subsistence crop grown only in the tropics, and represents a major source of calories for many people in developing countries. Improvements in the areas of resistance to insects and viral diseases, enhanced nutritional qualities, reduced cyanogenic content and modified starch characteristics are urgently needed. Traditional breeding is hampered by the nature of the crop, which has a high degree of heterozygosity, irregular flowering, and poor seed set. Biotechnology has the potential to enhance crop improvement efforts, and genetic engineering techniques for cassava have thus been developed over the past decade. Selectable and scorable markers are critical to efficient transformation technology, and must be evaluated for biosafety, as well as efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In order to facilitate research planning and regulatory submission, the literature on biosafety aspects of the selectable and scorable markers currently used in cassava biotechnology is surveyed. The source, mode of action and current use of each marker gene is described. The potential for toxicity, allergenicity, pleiotropic effects, horizontal gene transfer, and the impact of these on food or feed safety and environmental safety is evaluated. Based on extensive information, the selectable marker genes nptII, hpt, bar/pat, and manA, and the scorable marker gene uidA, all have little risk in terms of biosafety. These appear to represent the safest options for use in cassava biotechnology available at this time.

  8. Genetic diversity characterization of cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz.: I RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity of 31 Brazilian cassava clones. The results were compared with the genetic diversity revealed by botanical descriptors. Both sets of variates revealed identical relationships among the cultivars. Multivariate analysis of genetic similarities placed genotypes destinated for consumption "in nature" in one group, and cultivars useful for flour production in another. Brazil?s abundance of landraces presents a broad dispersion and is consequently an important resource of genetic variability. The botanical descriptors were not able to differentiate thirteen pairs of cultivars compared two-by-two, while only one was not differentiated by RAPD markers. These results showed the power of RAPD markers over botanical descriptors in studying genetic diversity, identifying duplicates, as well as validating, or improving a core collection. The latter is particularly important in this vegetatively propagated crop.

  9. Effect of irradiation and colchicine on callus and somatic embryo formation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzimega, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the mutagenic effect of gamma radiation on sprouting and height in four local cassava accessions. The four cassava accessions were assessed for their callus induction and somatic embryo formation ability from leaf lobes from gamma irradiated stakes as well as colchicine treated leaf lobes on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. The cassava accessions were irradiated at 0, 32, 35, 45 and 50 Gy and planted in pots filled with loamy soil. The height of the shoots was measured with rule after sprouting. The leaf lobes were collected from the shoots and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram. Another set of leaf lobes were treated with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 g/l colchicine for one hour and thereafter culture on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2,4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram as described above. Callus induction from leaf lobes in 45 and 50 Gy were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the irradiation. On the other hand, Callus induction from leaf lobes in 0.1-0.25 g/l colchicine were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the mutagenic treatment whereas callus induced from leaf lobes in 0.05 g/l colchicine was not significantly (p≤0.05) affected. Callus induced on 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l picloram gave the best response in Ankrah and all control tested while Tomfa recorded the least. Colchicine at a concentration of 0.05 g/l and radiation dose of 32 Gy treatments gave the best response of callusing. Callus induction decreased with increasing colchicine concentration and gamma irradiation. Callus derived from irradiated and colchicine leaf lobes appeared soft but friable and tiny, compact, respectively, predominately with creamy to brown colouration. Calli obtained were sub-cultures on embryo regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with 0.01mg/1 NAA and o.1 mg/1 BAP. There was no plantlet regeneration. Instead, embryo formation and prolific root was observed in cases where there was no embryo. Similarly, somatic embryo formation was significantly (p≤0.05) different among the accessions. No response to callus formation was observed in 0.25 g/l colchicine treatment after 30 days. Among the four accessions evaluated, Ankrah was the most promising accession in terms of callus induction frequency and somatic embryo formation ability. The results presented in this thesis clearly show that, sprouting in all accessions decreased as the dose of irradiation increased. Gamma irradiation had significantly (p≤0.05) affected height of cassava plant but this varied among accessions. Also, among the four accessions studied Ankrah and Tuaka were the most promising accession in terms of callus induction and somatic embryo formation ability. (author)

  10. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI LINAMARASE HASIL ISOLASI DARI UMBI SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askur Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the optimum condition of linamarase enzymatic reaction from bitter cassava. These studies are designed in several stages of interrelated. Starting with the determination of cyanide content of cassava tubers, Isolation andcharacterization linamarase on cassava tuber. The research result showed that linamarase had optimum condition in some activities; pH for about 6, temperature for about 40OC, incubation period for about 3 hours, and Km for about 0.012% and Vmaks for about 0.296 unit.

  11. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). I. Crop development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological development of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made over a year and each grown for 1 year duration, were studied with sequential harvests in the relatively high latitude (27 degrees 37'S) environment of SE Queensland, Australia under favourable moisture and nutritional conditions. The extent and timing of storage root initiation was relatively unaffected by the different temperature, solar radiation and photoperiod conditions associated with the different planting dates. Likewise, main stem and lateral branch number showed little variation either between planting dates or with time in any one planting. The time to first flowering and forking was substantially reduced for mid-summer planting dates, an effect being most likely related to the longer photo-periods of these months. Canopy development was also highly seasonal with leaf area indices ranging from above 10.0 in March and April for early planted crops to zero in the cooler months of August and September for all planting dates. (Refs. 26).

  12. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  13. Fertilidad del suelo y calidad nutricional de estacas de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López F. Yamel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the changes in nutritional content of cassava stems as a result of different soil fertilization levels, and on the effect of the stakes obtained from these stems on the subsequent crop. Results showed that the mother plants had different height and vigor depending on the 9 different nutritional levels of fertilizer application to the soils where they were grown. Stems of each of the 9 treatments produced stakes with different weights. Both the concentration ami the N-P-K content varied considerably depending on the fertilization treatment. These two parameters were lower when the amount of nutrient applied to the soil was lower. Germination percentage was strongly influenced by the level of K application as well as by its balance with N and P. The lowest germination percentage was registered by the treatment that received no K, but which had received a high level of N and P, which caused an disequilibrium in absorption of the elements. Germination potential was not affected by having planted the stakes in soils with or without fertilizer application, since what is important for this process was the amount of nutritional reserves that the stakes already brought with them, Stakes coming from plots with the highest level of N-PK application became plants with greater production of foliage and stems that were apt to be used as vegetative seed. These stakes also resulted in plants with greater total rood yield and greater production of commercial size roots.

    Se estudió el cambio en el contenido nutricional de los tallos de yuca ocasionado por diferentes niveles de fertilización al suelo y el efecto de las estacas obtenidas de esos tallos sobre el cultivo subsiguiente. Los 9 niveles nutricionales del suelo incidieron en la altura y vigor de las plantas madres. Tanto la concentración como el contenido de N-P-K variaron notablemente según el nivel de fertilización utilizado, siendo más bajos entre más baja fuera la cantidad de cada nutrimento aplicada. La germinación más baja ocurrió con potasio o niveles altos de N y de P. La siembra del material en un suelo con o sin fertilizante no incidió en su capacidad de germinación debido al efecto de las reservas nutricionales de la estaca. La mayor producción de follaje y de tallos aptos para usar como material de siembra, el mayor rendimiento de raíces totales y la mayor producción de raíces de tamaño comercial se obtuvieron utilizando estacas provenientes de las parcelas a las cuales se aplicaron los niveles más altos de N-P-K.

  14. Unraveling complex viral infections in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Olaya, Cristian; Lozano, Ivan; Cuervo, Maritza; Castaño, Mauricio; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2014-06-24

    In the Americas, different disease symptoms have been reported in cassava including leaf mosaics, vein clearings, mottles, ring spots, leaf distortions and undeveloped and deformed storage roots. Some viruses have been identified and associated with these symptoms while others have been reported in symptomless plants or latent infections. We observed that reoviruses associated with severe root symptoms (RS) of Cassava Frogskin Disease (CFSD) are not associated with leaf symptoms (LS) observed in the cassava indicator plant 'Secundina'. Neither were these LS associated with the previously characterized Cassava common mosaic virus, Cassava virus X, Cassava vein mosaic virus or phytoplasma, suggesting the presence of additional pathogens. In order to explain LS observed in cassava we used a combination of biological, serological and molecular tests. Here, we report three newly described viruses belonging to the families Secoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae and Luteoviridae found in cassava plants showing severe RS associated with CFSD. All tested plants were infected by a mix of viruses that induced distinct LS in 'Secundina'. Out of the three newly described viruses, a member of family Secoviridae could experimentally induce LS in single infection. Our results confirm the common occurrence of complex viral infections in cassava field-collected since the 1980s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Sojikul, Punchapat; Viboonjun, Unchera; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of noncoding endogenous small RNAs involved in plant growth and development as well as response to environmental stresses. miRNAs have been extensively studied in various plant species, however, only few information are available in cassava, which serves as one of the staple food crops, a biofuel crop, animal feed and industrial raw materials. In this study, the 169 potential cassava miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified by computational approach. Interestingly, mes-miR319b was represented as the first putative mirtron demonstrated in cassava. A total of 15 miRNA clusters involving 7 miRNA families, and 12 pairs of sense and antisense strand cassava miRNAs belonging to six different miRNA families were discovered. Prediction of potential miRNA target genes revealed their functions involved in various important plant biological processes. The cis-regulatory elements relevant to drought stress and plant hormone response were identified in the promoter regions of those miRNA genes. The results provided a foundation for further investigation of the functional role of known transcription factors in the regulation of cassava miRNAs. The better understandings of the complexity of miRNA-mediated genes network in cassava would unravel cassava complex biology in storage root development and in coping with environmental stresses, thus providing more insights for future exploitation in cassava improvement.

  16. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, O Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J; Setter, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding.

  17. Performances and haematological profile of broilers fed fermented dried cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-10-01

    The effect of feeding fermented dried cassava (gathot) on the performances and haematological profile of broilers was investigated. There were four dietary treatments arranged in a completely randomized design, i.e. control diet and diets containing 25, 50 or 100 g/kg gathot. The birds were provided with the treatment diets ad libitum from 8 to 35 days of age. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly. At day 32, the birds were blood sampled, sacrificed and immediately the internal organs and abdominal fat were removed and weighed. Feeding gathot at various levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the growth and FCR, but tended (P = 0.09) to reduce the feed cost per kilogramme live weight gain of broilers. The dietary treatments did not cause toxicological effect on broilers, indicated by the values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that were not different from those in the control diet. Dietary inclusion of gathot lowered heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L ratio) (P < 0.05) and albumin to globulin ratio (A/G ratio) (P = 0.14) of broilers as compared to the control diet. Total triglyceride was lower (P < 0.05) in the serum of broilers fed diets containing 5 and 10 % of gathot, when compared with that in the control diet. The treatments resulted in reduced abdominal fat deposition in broilers. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of gathot at up to 10 % had no negative impact on the growth performance of broilers. Feeding gathot has potential to improve the health and physiological stress responses as well as reduce body fat deposition in broilers.

  18. Molecular and supra-molecular structure of waxy starches developed from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Sanchez, Teresa; Buléon, Alain; Colonna, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Peng; Dufour, Dominique

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the amylopectin of low amylose content cassava starches obtained from transgenesis comparatively with a natural waxy cassava starch (WXN) discovered recently in CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). Macromolecular features, starch granule morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of these starches were determined. M¯(w) of amylopectin from the transgenic varieties are lower than WXN. Branched and debranched chain distributions analyses revealed slight differences in the branching degree and structure of these amylopectins, principally on DP 6-9 and DP>37. For the first time, a deep structural characterization of a series of transgenic lines of waxy cassava was carried out and the link between structural features and the mutated gene expression approached. The transgenesis allows to silenced partially or totally the GBSSI, without changing deeply the starch granule ultrastructure and allows to produce clones with similar amylopectin as parental cassava clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were anal...

  20. Identification of radiation induced mutants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz using morphological and physicochemical descriptors1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofino Adriana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For mutants of starch and other desirable traits of interest in cassava, we evaluated the physical-chemical morphology of the root and paste in inbred populations of six M2 families, derived from irradiated seeds. 1,097 plants were established, 829 of Gamma treatment and 268 of neutrons. In the morphological description, most chimeras recorded in M1 were identified except hermaphrodite flowers and bark of different colors on the same plant, new abnormalities in M2 were found, such as root without suberification, no anthesis, early flowering, meristems and changes in the supply-demand relationship. However, mortality, reduced vigor, yield and anthesis loss have also been identified as effects of inbreeding. Simple techniques such as optical microscopy and iodine staining were effective for the identification of mutants of the granule and the results were confirmed with electron microscopy analysis and pulp properties, except in mutant granule hole, in which no abnormalities of the granule were correlated with significant variations in the paste. However, Pearson correlations associated the hot paste viscosity with consistency and reorganization. Variability was found in the granule characteristics and properties of the paste between years, suggesting significant influence of genotype-environment interaction. Similarly, there were differences in paste properties associated with the type of radiation. In addition, promising mutants were identified with post-harvest physiological deterioration tolerance associated mainly to gamma.

  1. SSR and EST-SSR-based genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraphet, Supajit; Boonchanawiwat, Athipong; Thanyasiriwat, Thanwanit; Boonseng, Opas; Tabata, Satoshi; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Lightfoot, David A; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn

    2011-04-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers provide a powerful tool for genetic linkage map construction that can be applied for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, a total of 640 new SSR markers were developed from an enriched genomic DNA library of the cassava variety 'Huay Bong 60' and 1,500 novel expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) loci were developed from the Genbank database. To construct a genetic linkage map of cassava, a 100 F(1) line mapping population was developed from the cross Huay Bong 60 by 'Hanatee'. Polymorphism screening between the parental lines revealed that 199 SSRs and 168 EST-SSRs were identified as novel polymorphic markers. Combining with previously developed SSRs, we report a linkage map consisted of 510 markers encompassing 1,420.3 cM, distributed on 23 linkage groups with a mean distance between markers of 4.54 cM. Comparison analysis of the SSR order on the cassava linkage map and the cassava genome sequences allowed us to locate 284 scaffolds on the genetic map. Although the number of linkage groups reported here revealed that this F(1) genetic linkage map is not yet a saturated map, it encompassed around 88% of the cassava genome indicating that the map was almost complete. Therefore, sufficient markers now exist to encompass most of the genomes and efficiently map traits in cassava.

  2. CaCl2 enhanced somatic embryogenesis in Manihot esculenta Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Li, Kai-Mian; Fu, Shao-Ping; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2009-11-01

    Primary cassava somatic embryos were induced on a medium without CaCl(2), however, no or only a few secondary somatic embryos were formed from them. With 15 mM CaCl(2) in the medium for induction of cassava primary embryos, more secondary somatic embryos were produced from them, and they were much effective in maintaining their embryogenic capacity than the controls of embryos which were induced without CaCl(2).

  3. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava.

  4. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Chiwona-Karltun, Linley; Kawuki, Robert S; Baguma, Yona

    2012-05-01

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH ≈ 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  5. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  6. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Berg, H.; Krol, van der A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence

  7. Thermomechanical characterization of an amylose-free starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Díaz, Adriana; Lourdin, Denis; Della Valle, Guy; Fernández Quintero, Alejandro; Ceballos, Hernán; Tran, Thierry; Dufour, Dominique

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the melting (T m ), glass transition (T g ) and mechanical relaxation (T α ) temperatures of a new waxy cassava starch. Thermal transitions measurements were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The experimental data showed a high correlation between water volume fraction and melting temperature (T m ) indicating that the Flory-Huggins theory can be used to describe the thermal behavior of this starch. The T m of waxy cassava starch-water mixes were lower than a waxy corn starch-water reference system, but differences were not statistically significant. The mechanical relaxation temperatures taken at tan δ peaks were found 29-38°C larger than T g . The T α and T g measured for waxy cassava starch exhibited similar properties to the ones of waxy corn starch, implying that waxy cassava starch can be used in food and materials industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urribarrí, Lauris; Chacón, David; González, Orlaidy; Ferrer, Alexis

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, cassava leaves were treated with 0.5 kg ammonia/kg dry matter at 78 degrees C and 30% moisture content in a 2-kg reactor. Protein extraction was carried out with a calcium hydroxide solution (pH 10) for 30 min at several temperatures (30 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C) and solid/liquid ratios (1:10 and 1:15) in a thermostatized bath. Soluble protein content of the extracts was determined by Lowry's method. Dry substrate concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and enzyme doses of 2 and 5 IU/g dry matter were used for the enzymatic hydrolysis in an orbital incubator at 50 degrees C and 100 rpm. Both cellulase and xylanase were used. Reducing sugars produced were determined with the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highest protein extraction yield for the ammonia-treated leaves was 29.10%, which was 50% higher than with the untreated leaves (20%), and was obtained at 90 degrees C with a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio. The concentrate had a protein content of 36.35% and the amino acid profile was suitable for swine and poultry. The highest sugar yield was 54.72% with respect to theoretical and was obtained with 5% solids and an enzyme dose of 5 IU/g dry matter. This yield was 3.4 times higher than the yield of the untreated leaves (16.13%). These results indicate that cassava leaves have a great potential for animal feeding and ethanol production. Both protein extraction and sugar yields may be enhanced by optimizing the ammonia treatment.

  9. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuling; Djabou, Astride Stéphanie Mouafi; An, Feifei; Li, Kaimian; Li, Zhaogui; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Songbi

    2017-01-01

    Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9) and PPD-tolerant (QZ1) genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  10. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwamanya, Ephraim; Kawuki, Robert S.; Baguma, Yona [National Agricultural Research organization, National Crops Resources Research Inst. (NaCRRI), Kampala (Uganda); Chiwona-Karltun, Linley [Dept. of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)], email: Linley.karltun@slu.se

    2012-03-15

    Global climate issues and a looming energy crisis put agriculture under pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate adaptation measures must entail sustainable development benefits, and growing crops for food as well as energy may be a solution, removing people from hunger and poverty without compromising the environment. The present study investigated the feasibility of using non-food parts of cassava for energy production and the promising results revealed that at least 28% of peels and stems comprise dry matter, and 10 g feedstock yields >8.5 g sugar, which in turn produced >60% ethanol, with pH {approx} 2.85, 74-84% light transmittance and a conductivity of 368 mV, indicating a potential use of cassava feedstock for ethanol production. Thus, harnessing cassava for food as well as ethanol production is deemed feasible. Such a system would, however, require supportive policies to acquire a balance between food security and fuel.

  11. Novel activated carbon from Manihot esculenta Crantz for removal of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscotin Horax Beakou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive removal of Methylene Blue by a novel bio char namely Cassava Rind Carbon was studied in a batch system. Moreover, several experiments were performed to optimize operating conditions of the adsorption process. Thermo gravimetric analysis investigates the thermal behaviour of the raw material. The surface functional groups were identified with Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. The carbon surface was also characterised by BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zero charge point of pH. Among the three kinetic models used to calculate the adsorption rate constants, the pseudo-second order was the most accurate. The experimental isotherms were analysed and Redlich-Peterson's model provided the best fit. The maximum capacity according to Langmuir model was 565 mg g−1 at 25 °C. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption is endothermic, physical and random. The temperature, the mass of adsorbent and the concentration of dye were the three factors optimized in a Box Behnken Response Surface Methodology, with an optimal amount of adsorbed MB of 771 mg g−1.

  12. PENGARUH PROSES PENGOLAHAN DAUN SINGKONG (Manihot esculenta Crantz DENGAN BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN TERHADAP KADAR β-KAROTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiliana Liem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pada banyak negara berkembang, defisiensi vitamin A menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang serius. Pemanfaatan bahan pangan nabati yang dapat menjadi sumber utama vitamin A merupakan salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Daun singkong adalah salah satu bahan pangan nabati yang kaya β-karoten, dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap kebutuhan vitamin A, dan mudah didapatkan oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh variasi pengolahan daun singkong terhadap kadar β-karoten. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan unit eksperimental 100 gram daun singkong yang mirip dengan variasi Adira 4, segar, berwarna hijau cerah, tidak ada cacat atau noda pada permukaan kulit, dan bagian pucuk tanaman (3-5 susun daun. Daun singkong dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok perlakuan pengolahan (segar, perebusan dengan air garam, perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan perebusan dengan santan, dan perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan dengan penumisan dengan minyak goreng dengan 5 kali replikasi. Kadar β-karoten olahan daun singkong diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri. Hasil menunjukkan kadar β-karoten berbeda secara signifikan pada semua kelompok perlakuan pengolahan (p=0,001. Perlakuan yang satu dengan perlakuan yang lain pada semua pasangan perlakuan juga memiliki perbedaan yang signifikan. Kadar β-karoten olahan daun singkong dari yang tertinggi berturut-turut didapatkan dari pengolahan perebusan dengan air garam (79,534 ± 5,784 µg/g, perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan penumisan dengan minyak goreng (65,926 ± 6,244 µg/g, daun singkong segar (43,530 ± 11,062 µg/g, dan perebusan dengan air garam dilanjutkan perebusan dengan santan (19,022 ± 3,509 µg/g. Variasi cara pengolahan mempengaruhi kadar β-karoten dalam daun singkong akibat faktor-faktor pengolahan, seperti suhu, pH, waktu, matriks pangan, dan pemakaian minyak kelapa sawit. Daun singkong sebaiknya direbus dengan air garam untuk memperoleh manfaat β-karoten secara optimal. Kata Kunci: β-karoten, daun singkong, pengolahan, kadar Abstract In many developing countries, vitamin A deficiency is a serious public health problem. Vegetables become the main source of vitamin A to solve the problem. Cassava leaves are rich of β-carotene and easily obtained by Indonesians. This study aimed to determine the effect of processing practices of cassava leaves on the β-carotene content. This study used an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD with an experimental unit of 100 grams of cassava leaves, which are similar to the variation Adira 4, fresh, bright green, no defects or stains on the leaf surface, and the shoots of plants (3-5 stacks. Cassava leaves were divided into 4 treatment groups of processing (fresh, boiling with salt water, boiling with salt water followed by boiling coconut milk, and boiling with salt water followed by sauteing with cooking oil with 5 replications. β-carotene content of processed cassava leaves was measured by spectrophotometry method. The results are differed significantly in all groups (p = 0.001. One with another treatment from all couples treatments also had significant differences. β-carotene content of processed cassava leaves from the highest was obtained from the processing of boiling with salt water (79.534 ± 5.784 µg/g, boiling with salt water followed by sauteing with cooking oil (65.926 ± 6.244 µg/g, fresh cassava leaves (43.530 ± 11.062 µg/g, and boiling with salt water followed by boiling with coconut milk (19.022 ± 3.509 µg/g. Variation of processing practices affected β-carotene in cassava leaves due to the processing factors, such as temperature, pH, time, food matrix, and the use of palm oil. The best preparation method for cassava leaves is boiling with salt water to obtain the benefits of β-carotene optimally. Keywords: β-carotene, cassava leaves, processing practices, content

  13. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Garcia Domínguez, Moralba; Sánchez, Teresa; Luna Meléndez, Jorge Luis; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall l...

  14. Proteomic analysis of injured storage roots in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Qin

    Full Text Available Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9 and PPD-tolerant (QZ1 genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Ninety-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified from SC9 and QZ1 genotypes in the pairwise comparison of 24h/0h, 48h/0h, 72h/0h and 96h/0h. Of those proteins were associated with 13 biological functions, in which carbohydrate and energy metabolism related proteins were the biggest amount differential proteins in both genotypes, followed by chaperones, DNA and RNA metabolism, and defense system. We speculated that SOD in combination with CAT activities would be the first line of defense against PPD to support PPD-tolerant cassava varieties. The four hub proteins including CPN60B, LOS2, HSC70-1 and CPN20B, produced from the network of protein-protein interaction, will be the candidate key proteins linked with PPD. This study provides a new clue to improve cassava PPD-tolerant varieties and would be helpful to much better understand the molecular mechanism of PPD of cassava injured storage roots.

  15. Pendugaan Masa Kadaluarsa Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz Instan pada Beberapa Bahan Kemasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Elza Fitriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life estimating of instant cassava were determined by analyzing the moisture sorption of it. The instant cassava was made into cube form with dimension of 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm and used as samples to analyzing the moisture sorption isotherm characteristic. Moisture sorption isotherms of it were determined at 28±2°C using standard gravimetric static method over a range of equilibrium relative humidity (ERH from 6.90%-97.90%. The experimental data were fitted by Henderson model and well predicted almost at each point of aw. The data of instant cassava’s moisture sorption isotherm followed type II behavior. The shelf life of it were calculated using Labuza equation with three different packaging materials: low density polyethylene (LDPE of 0.03 mm thickness, polypropylene (PP of 0.03 mm thickness and retort pouch. The shelf life of instant cassava using those three packaging materials were obtained for 103, 88 and 3502 days, respectively.

  16. Pendugaan Masa Kadaluarsa Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Instan pada Beberapa Bahan Kemasan

    OpenAIRE

    Pande Elza Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    The shelf life estimating of instant cassava were determined by analyzing the moisture sorption of it. The instant cassava was made into cube form with dimension of 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm x 0,5 cm and used as samples to analyzing the moisture sorption isotherm characteristic. Moisture sorption isotherms of it were determined at 28±2°C using standard gravimetric static method over a range of equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) from 6.90%-97.90%. The experimental data were fitted by Henderson model an...

  17. MODEL KINETIKA PERUBAHAN WARNA LABEL INDIKATOR DARI KLOROFIL DAUN SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddwina Aidila Fitria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Time Temperature Indicators (TTI is a smart packaging that important for consumers to know the appropriateness of product through an indicator colour change. Currently, there is no development of the kinetics models at TTI to give information for users about the relationship between colour change indicator and time storage. The objective of this research was to develop a kinetic model of smart label. This label was made from chitosan and PVA were added by chlorophyll extracted from cassava leaves. Indicator label stored at five storage temperatures to check the label performance at temperatures of freezer (-10±2°C, refrigerator (2±3oC, air conditioning (17±2oC, room (25±2oC, and hot temperature (50oC. Parameter was observed in the colour change at the label is the value of ohue which show the real colour.The results showed that label indicator changed colour from green to brown. The changes of colour indicator label wouldldarker when stored at high temperatures.The kinetic model of chlorophyll discolouration was developed by Arrhenius equation using ordo 0 and ordo 1. The plot of ln k value and 1/T has resulted on the equation for kinetic model discolouration label the values of k = 9.22.1010 e -15294,7/T with activation energy of 15.2947 kkal/mol for ordo 0 and k = 1.81.1012 e -19891,9/T with activation energy of 19.8919 kkal/mol for ordo 1. The model could predict the quality change of some product accordance with the kinetic model.

  18. Salinity reduces carbon assimilation and the harvest index of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lopes Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effects of salinity on the growth and gas exchange of cassava plants, cultivar Verdinha. The four concentrations of NaCl (mM were as follows: 0, 20, 40, and 60. Under salinity, the lowest concentration of Na+ ions was observed in the tuberous roots; however, the dry matter of tuberous roots was reduced with an application of just 20 mM NaCl. The harvest index was reduced 50% with the highest salt concentration. Salinity reduced carbon assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration, and the instantaneous water use efficiency. The correlation between gs and A was high and positive, showing that stomatal movement was one of the responsible for the lower A. Under salt stress, there was an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration, indicating the impairment of carbon metabolism. Based on the reduction of dry matter of the tuberous roots (reduction of 81% under 60 mM NaCl, it was concluded that cassava is sensitive to salinity. The growth of shoots and the absorbing roots were minimally affected by salinity, even in the situation where A was reduced; therefore, the sensitivity of cassava was related to the high sensitivity of the tuberous roots to the ionic and/or osmotic effects of salinity. Thus, tuberous roots can be the target organ in studies that aim to improve the tolerance of cassava to salinity.

  19. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2013-01-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  20. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a widely grown root crop in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Netherlands Liaison Office

    primers previously developed from cassava were used to detect polymorphic 21 alleles in a sample of 69 ... security and in some areas for sale in fresh or processed ... evolving biotic factors as pests and diseases to cassava farming. Genetic diversity can most efficiently be quantified using molecular markers. The simple.

  1. Reproductive performance of breeding rabbits fed by graded levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahemen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Twenty breeding does and 4 rabbit bucks aged 28 weeks, weighing between 1622 to 1746g ,were used to investigate the reproductive performance of breeding does fed by graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T (control, T , T and T with CLM inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, after balancing for live weight. Each rabbit was 1 2 3 4 individually caged and served as a replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 17 weeks. The results showed that does on diet T (100% achieved the 2 highest conception rate, followed by T (75% and T (75% and the least in T (66.67%. Average daily weight change and change in weight 3 4 1 during pregnancy were the highest (p<0.05 in T . Litter size at birth was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T (2.67, while litter size at weaning was 4 4 significantly (p<0.05 higher in T (3.67 Average birth and weaning weights were significantly (p<0.05 higher in treatment T . Percentage of still 3 . 4 birth was higher in T (60% while pre-weaning mortality was the highest in T (5. It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 30% of CLM in 2 1 rabbit diet may support reproductive performance in female rabbits. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potential of cassava leaf meal at higher levels of inclusion on reproductive performance be investigated.

  2. PREDIKSI KADAR PATI UBI KAYU (Manihot esculenta PADA BERBAGAI UMUR PANEN MENGGUNAKAN PENETROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurdjanah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, determination of starch content by the buyers on the field is performed based on the difference between cassava’s weight on the air and that of in the water, then counted based on the formula designed by International Starch Institute (ISI. This method has been proven to be highly correlated with the starch content determined chemically such as acid hydrolysis. However, this method is less practical due to the need of a large amount of water which is rarely found on cassava plantation. The aims of this study were : 1 to find alternative way to measure cassava’s starch content on the field using penetrometer, 2 to find correlation between starch content measurement using penetrometer and weighing method as described by ISI; correlation between hardness measured using penetrometer and acid hydrolysis. The experiment was arranged as a single treatment harvesting period consisted of 7, 8, 9 and 10 month in a complete randomized  design  with three replications. Data were analyzed using linier regression to find correlation between hardness and starch content analyzed using acid hydrolysis ; correlation between starch yield and starch content analyzed using acid hydrolysis; correlation of starch content analyzed using acid hydrolysis and that of using ISI method. The result shows that there is a high positive correlation between cassava’s hardness using penetrometer and cassava’s starch content using acid hydrolysis method. This implies that penetrometer is a potential tool for predicting cassava’s starch content. Keywords : cassava, penetrometer, hardness, starch content

  3. Tractor Effects on Soil Properties and the Consequences on Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Yield in Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Edem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical degradation of the soil could be said to mean the loss of soil’s structural quality. It is observed both on the surface where thin crust may be seen and also below th e surface in or below the ploughed horizon where compacted layers may be formed, particularly in conditions of excess moisture. The experiment assessed the influence of the weight of tractor passage on soil failure and compaction. The study of resistance to penetration is produced on three worked soils; unploughed, single ploughed and double ploughed at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depths. This study showed that the number of passage of the tractor affects resistance to penetration by 44 % compared to the initial state (passage 0 and the second pass makes accentuation of 11% relative to the first pass; which shows that the first pass performs compaction most important and most severe. Thus, after sometimes, it was noticed that there's a decrease compaction at 30-60cm depth which shows that the ground based of the ploughed soil experienced a decreasing compaction function..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12190International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 210-223    

  4. Induced mutation breeding in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabu, R.K.A.; Klu, G.Y.P.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in the lowland tropics. In most cassava producing countries, it is mainly utilized for human consumption. Cassava leaves are a good source of protein and vitamins, and are used as food in Africa. In Ghana, 'Bosom Nsia' is one of the most widely grown cultivars probably because of its good cooking quality and fast maturation in six months. However, this cultivar is highly susceptible to cassava mosaic virus disease (CMV), hence the need to improve its resistance to the disease. Various in vitro techniques have been developed for cassava research, Klu and Lamptey reported irradiation doses of 25 and 30 Gy to be ideal for in vitro mutagenesis of cassava. These doses were applied to in vivo and in vitro mutation for breeding CMV resistance in the cultivar 'Bosom Nsia'. 6 refs

  5. Respuesta fotosintética de la yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz en dos ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkawy Mabrouk El-

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Field work was carried out two locations of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, namely Riohacha, in the Guajira Department, and Santo Tomás, in the Atlantic Department. The former is a semi-arid zone and the latter a sub-humid zone. Ten Cassava cultivars were evaluated for their photosynthetic response to relative humidity by means of an open system photosynthesis recorder. Evaluations were done from 8:00 a.m. through 1:00 p.m. in plots of randomized block trials with four replications. In each plot, two plants were selected for readings, which were performed on a healthy and well formed leaf among the first expended leaves in the upper part of the plant. For each location, data were significant between cassava clones for the photosynthesis, conductance and transpiration variables. The T-test was highly significant between locations, and for all variables tested, Plants in the sub-humid zone showed the highest photosynthetic rate; this indicates that cassava production is higher in areas where air relative humidity is high, independent of the plant response to soil water content. Leaves saturate at light intensities of around 1000 µmolm-1 s1- . Considering the soil deficit that affected plants at the time of the evaluation, this relatively high value indicates that CO2 fixation rate in cassava leaves is high even under water stress conditions.

    El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo en dos localidades de la costa Atlántica Colombiana, Riohacha en la Guajira, considerada como zona semi-arida y Santo Tomás Atlántico, como zona sub-húmeda. La respuesta a la humedad relativa se evaluó en diez cultivares, entre las 8 y las 13 horas empleando un equipo de fotosíntesis portátil de sistema abierto; en ensayos diseñados en bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones; las lecturas se realizaron en la primera hoja expandida, sana y bien formada de parte superior de dos plantas de cada parcela. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre clones para cada localidad en las variables de fotosíntesis, conductancia y transpiración. La prueba de T mostró diferencias altamente significativas entre las localidades para todas las variables. En la condición sub-húmeda se presentó la que mayor tasa de fotosíntesis, lo cual indica que la yuca produce mejor en condiciones de alta humedad relativa en el aire y que responde a esta en forma independiente a la humedad del suelo. Las hojas de yuca se saturan a intensidades de más o menos de 1000 µmol m-1 s-1 valor relativamente alto, si se tiene en cuenta el déficit de agua en el suelo al que estaban sometidas las plantas en el momento de las evaluaciones. Esto muestra el alto potencial que tienen las hojas de yuca a la fijación de CO2 aun en condiciones de estrés hídrico.

  6. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  7. Relaciones hidrogeológicas y medioambientales entre el mar Mediterráneo, el Saladar y el acuífero de Agua Amarga (provincia de Alicante)

    OpenAIRE

    Alhama Manteca, Iván

    2017-01-01

    [ESP] El Saladar de Agua Amarga, situado al sur de Alicante, se encuentra sobre un acuífero costero del mismo nombre que en las últimas décadas ha sido escenario de dos intervenciones antrópicas sucesivas: la actividad de una industria salinera y la explotación para el abastecimiento de las desaladoras de Alicante I y II. Estas intervenciones han condicionado sensiblemente tanto la calidad química de las aguas subterráneas, cuya elevada salinidad es consecuencia de las antiguas salinas, como ...

  8. Factors controlling micropropagation of Myrica esculenta buch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various factors such as browning, season, media type and plant growth regulators influence the micropropagation of female trees of Myrica esculenta. These factors have successfully been addressed after addition of some media additives, collection of the explant at right season, standardizing the media type and use of ...

  9. Novel steroidal saponins from Dioscorea esculenta (Togedokoro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Jae; Watanabe, Bunta; Nakayasu, Masaru; Onjo, Michio; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen steroidal saponins 1-15, which include 4 furostanol glycosides 1-3 and 15, and 11 spirostanol glycosides 4-14, were isolated from the tubers and leaves of lesser yam (Dioscorea esculenta, Togedokoro). Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy. Four steroidal saponins 9, 11, 14, and 15 were found to be novel compounds.

  10. Study on Esterification Reaction of Starch Isolated from Cassava (Manihot esculeta) with Acetic Acid and Isopropyl Myrtistate Using Ultrasonicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wika Amini, Helda; Masruri; Mariyah Ulfa, Siti

    2018-01-01

    Cassava starch is a polysaccharide consists of amylose and amylopectin. This research was purposed to modify the starch isolated from local cassava (Manihot esculenta). Modification was undertaken to study the esterification reaction of cassava starch with acetic acid and with isopropyl myristate. Moreover, morphology observation was also conducted both for original starch and its modification yields. It was found that cassava’s starch was isolated in 16.4% yield as a white powder. Esterification on the starch provided DS value 0.549 for ratio 1:2 of starch-acetic acid. It gave DS value 0.356 for ratio 1:3 of starch-isopropyl myristate. Treatment by ultrasonication from 0 to 60 minutes was significantly improved the DS value to 0.549 for starch-acetic acid. But it gave DS value to 0.413 for 30 minute ultrasonication of starch-isopropyl myristate. In addition, morphology of the starch observed by microscope gave different features with starch ester acetate and starch ester myristate. The original starch consists of granules, but starch ester acetate indicates a non-granules shape (amorf solid). Moreover for starch ester myristate shows a rather bigger size of granules, and all of the granules afforded were round and oval.

  11. Poisoning by Gyromitra esculenta--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, D; Toth, B

    1991-08-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.: Fr.) Fr. and a few other mushrooms have caused severe poisonings and even deaths in humans. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhoea, followed by jaundice, convulsions and coma. Gastrointestinal disorders distinguish this poisoning. Frequent consumption can cause hepatitis and neurological diseases. The species of concern are mainly G. esculenta and G. gigas (Kromb.) Cooke (non Phill.). Nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other Ascomycetes species also may prove toxic. Gyromitrin (acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone, G) and its homologues are toxic compounds that convert in vivo into N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine (MFH), and then into N-methylhydrazine (MH). The toxicity of these chemicals, which are chiefly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo and in vitro experiments using animals, cell cultures and biochemical systems. When we consider the chemical nature and the reactivity of these natural compounds, we suggest that chemical and biochemical mechanisms may explain their intrinsic biological activity.

  12. Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on wistar rats. J. O. Olayemi and E. O. Ajaiyeoba*. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Accepted 4 July, 2007. The defatted methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber was evaluated for anti-inflammatory.

  13. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1973-06-22

    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  14. Antinutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf powder at three ages of the plant Antinutrientes na farinha de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz em três idades da planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the cassava leaf meal (CLM has been used to strive against undernourishment because it is a high source of vitamins and minerals. However, the wide variation in the chemical composition of the different cultivars, as well as their antinutritional substances may be a restriction to their uses. The levels of some antinutrients in CLM from five cultivars at three ages of the plant (TAP were investigated, in order to select the cultivars and plant ages that would be more appropriate for human consumption. The lowest contents of antinutrients were observed in the 12-month old plants, except for nitrate and hemagglutinin from which the lowest contents were found for the 17 month old ones. The cultivar IAC 289-70 had the lowest antinutrient levels, except for saponin and oxalate. Thus, the cultivar IAC 289-70 at 12 months is the most appropriate for human consumption.No Brasil, a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM vem sendo usada no combate à desnutrição por ser fonte de vitaminas e minerais. Todavia, a grande variação na composição química dos diferentes cultivares e a presença de substâncias antinutricionais tem restringido o seu uso. Investigaram-se os níveis de alguns antinutrientes da FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta (TIP, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades mais adequadas para o consumo humano. Aos 12 meses foram observados os menores teores de antinutrientes, exceto para nitrato e hemaglutinina, os quais foram inferiores aos 17 meses. O cultivar IAC 289-70 destacou-se com os menores níveis dos antinutrientes, exceto para a saponina e oxalato. Portanto, o cultivar IAC 289-70, aos 12 meses, é o mais adequado para o consumo humano.

  15. Efeito de três sistemas de preparo do solo sobre a rentabilidade econômica da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz = Effects of three tillage systems on economic profitability of cassava crop (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Genildo Pequeno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rentabilidade econômica da cultura damandioca em três sistemas de preparo de solo durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/2000 a2002/2003, em Araruna, Estado do Paraná. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o deblocos completos casualizados, com oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos deplantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação e preparo convencional (aração + gradagemniveladora. A força de tração e o consumo de combustível requeridos nas operações depreparo do solo e de plantio da mandioca foram maiores no sistema de preparoconvencional. Os maiores custos com combustível, preparo do solo e plantio da mandioca, ecusto operacional relativo às culturas de inverno e à cultura da mandioca, bem como a maiorrenda bruta foram observados no sistema de preparo convencional, seguidos pelo preparomínimo e plantio direto. A maior renda líquida e a melhor relação benefício/custo foramobservadas no sistema de preparo convencional que proporcionou maior produtividade deraízes tuberosas em relação aos sistemas de preparo mínimo e de plantio direto.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the economicprofitability of cassava crop submitted to the three soil tillage systems during the years1999/2000 to 2002/2003, in Araruna, state of Parana. The treatments consisted of three soiltillage systems: no-tillage, minimum tillage using chiseling, and conventional tillage withmoldboard plow and disking, arranged in a randomized complete blocks with eightreplications. The traction strength and fuel consumption in the soil tillage and in the cassavasowed operation were more required in the conventional tillage system. The conventionaland the minimum tillage systems showed the highest costs for fuel, soil tillage and cassavasowed. They also presented the highest gross income. The greatest net income and the bestbenefit/cost relation were observed in the conventional tillage system, which showed thehighest storage root yield compared to the minimum and to the no-tillage systems.

  16. Nutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf meal at three ages of the plant Nutrientes na farinha de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz em três idades da planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The high number of cassava cultivars adapted to many different regions provides a wide variation in the chemical composition of cassava leaves meal (CLM. Therefore, the contents of some nutrients in CLM from five cultivars at three ages of the plant were investigated in order to select the cultivars and ages with superior levels of these nutrients. When the plants were 12 months old, the highest levels of crude protein (CP, beta-carotene, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur were observed. The IAC 289-70 cv. showed the highest levels of magnesium, as well as considerable contents of CP, beta-carotene, iron, zinc and sulfur, which did not differ statistically from the cultivars showing the highest levels of these nutrients.O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM. Portanto, foram investigados os teores de alguns nutrientes nas FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades com níveis superiores destes nutrientes. Aos 12 meses de idade da planta, observaram-se os maiores níveis de proteína bruta (PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, magnésio, fósforo e enxofre. O cultivar IAC 289-70 apresentou os maiores níveis de magnésio, assim como teores apreciáveis de PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, zinco e enxofre, pois não diferiu estatisticamente dos cultivares com os níveis mais elevados destes nutrientes.

  17. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ);Acao da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas e sensoriais da mandioca (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ) minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simioni, Karime Raya

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from {sup 60}Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes in the sensorial analysis during the period of storage. It was concluded that the minimally processed cassava may be irradiated with the dose of 8 kGy and conserved under ambient temperature up to 21 days of storage without alterations in its characteristics. (author)

  18. Análise energética de sistemas de produção de etanol de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Energetic analysis of the ethanol production systems of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones A. Salla

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, com este trabalho, analisar energeticamente o sistema de produção de etanol utilizando como fonte de carboidratos, a mandioca. As pesquisas de campo foram realizadas na região do Médio Paranapanema, Estado de São Paulo, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2007. Avaliou-se o consumo energético referente às fases de produção e processamento industrial e se verificou que o custo energético total da produção agrícola correspondeu a 9.528,33 MJ ha-1, sendo que o item mais oneroso foi o de insumos (35,72%. Nas etapas industriais o consumo energético foi equivalente a 2.208,28 MJ t-1. As operações de hidrólise/sacarificação/tratamento do caldo representaram 56,72% do dispêndio energético total. A mandioca apresentou um custo energético de 1,54 MJ L-1 em relação ao etanol produzido nas principais operações agronômicas de produção e 11,76 MJ L-1 nas etapas de processamento industrial. A eficiência energética observada no cultivo e industrialização da mandioca foi de 1,76.This work aimed to analyze the energetic consumption of the etanol production system, using the cassava as carbohidrates source. The researches were carried out from the field in the mid region of Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo state, during the period January to December, 2007. The energy consumption referring to the phases of crop production and industrial processing were appraised. It was verified that the total energetic cost of the crop production corresponded to 9,528.33 MJ ha-1, and the most onerous item was the inputs (35.72%. In the industrial step, the energetic consumption was equivalent to 2,208.28 MJ t-1. The operations of hydrolysis/saccharification/ treatment of the juice represented 56.72% of the total energetic expenditure. The cassava crop presented an energetic cost of 1.54 MJ L-1 in relation to the etanol produced in the main agronomic operations crop production, and 11.76 MJ L-1 in the industrial processing. The energy efficiency observed in the cultivation and industrialization of the cassava was of 1.76.

  19. Período de interferência de plantas daninhas em mandioca (Manihot esculenta no noroeste do Paraná Period of weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta in northwestern Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Biffe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca é uma exploração agrícola importante no Estado do Paraná. No entanto, há limitadas informações relacionadas à interferência das plantas daninhas nessa cultura. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI na cultura da mandioca (variedade Fécula Branca, nas condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná. O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos de tratamentos: com períodos crescentes na presença de plantas daninhas (PAI; e com períodos crescentes na ausência de plantas daninhas (PTPI. Foram identificadas as espécies de plantas daninhas e densidades de infestação na área e calculada a importância relativa (IR, avaliando-se também o estande da cultura e a produtividade de raízes comerciais. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área e que apresentaram os maiores valores de IR foram Cenchrus echinatus e Brachiaria decumbens. Aceitando-se uma tolerância de redução de produtividade de 5%, o PAI ajustado foi de 18 dias após o plantio da cultura, e o PTPI, de 100 dias. Concluiu-se que o PCPI da cultura para as condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná situa-se entre 18 e 100 dias após o plantio.Although cassava is a major agribusiness crop in Paraná, technical information related to weed interference in this crop is limited. This work aimed to evaluate the critical period of weed interference (PCPI in cassava (var. Fécula Branca, for local climate and soil under northwestern Paraná conditions. The experiment was constituted of two groups: the first with increasing periods of weed interference (PAI and the second with increasing periods without weed interference (PTPI. Main weed species in the area were identified and accounted for densities and relative importance (RI during the cycle; crop stand and commercial root yield were also evaluated. The highest RI values were found for Cenchrus echinatus and Brachiaria decumbens. Considering a tolerance of 5% of crop yield reduction, the adjusted PAI was 18 days after crop planting and PTPI was 100 days. Thus, it was concluded that the critical period of weed interference, under the northwestern Parana conditions, was from 18 to 100 days after planting.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus, FED CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta FOLIAGE IN DIETS RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DO PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus, ALIMENTADO COM RAMA DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta NA RAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Teodoro Padua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of cassava. Leafs and stem of cassava can be a alternative source of protein for omnivorous fish. However, the potential use is limited by the presence of high level of cyanide acid. The present study evaluated physiological responses of juvenile pacu submitted to increasing levels of the final third of the cassava foliage meal in diets. A completely randomized design was used in factorial scheme 4x2, four levels, 0, 12, 24 and 36 % of cassava foliage meal (CFM, and 2 levels of crude protein (CP, 24 % and 30 %, with three replicates. Three hundred twelve fish (55.33±6.19 g were distributed into 24 ponds of 13 m2. Results indicated that the levels of CFM inclusion affected the hemoglobin values (P<0.01, as well as the CP level (P<0.05, with interaction of these factors (P<0.01. Significant interaction among the CFM levels and CP was also observed for hematocrit, plasma protein (P<0.01 and plasma lipid (P<0.05. In the 24 % CP level was observed higher values of Hb in control and 36 % of CFM (3.51 g/dl and 3.25 g/dl respectively while with 30 % CP the control diet and 36 % CFM presented the smallest values (3.29 g/dl and 2.78 g/dl respectively. The higher level of CFM tested, inside of any protein level, had low influence on the pacu metabolism.

    KEY WORDS: Cassava leaf and stem fish metabolism, pacu, P. Mesopotamicus.
    O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de mandioca, disponibilizando a rama de mandioca como fonte alternativa na alimentação de peixes onívoros. No entanto, o potencial de uso da rama é limitado pela toxidez do ácido cianídrico. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta fisiológica do pacu alimentado com níveis crescentes da rama de mandioca. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x2, quatro níveis de rama de mandioca (RM (0%, 12%, 24% e 36% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB (24% e 30% com três repetições. Trezentos e doze peixes (55,33±6,19 g foram distribuídos em 24 viveiros de 13 m2 cada. A RM influenciou a taxa de hemoglobina (P<0,01. Ocorreu interação entre RM e PB para as variáveis hemoglobina, hematócrito, proteína plasmática (P<0,01 e lipídio plasmático (P<0,05. Com 24% de PB foi observado maior valor de Hb nos tratamentos controle (3,51 g/dl e 36 % de RM (3,25 g/dl, enquanto que, com 30 % de PB, os tratamentos controle e 36 % de RM apresentaram os menores valores, 3,29 g/dl e 2,78 g/dl, respectivamente. Comportamento semelhante foi observado no Ht. As alterações metabólicas observadas evidenciaram que a utilização de até 36% do terço final da RM processado é uma alternativa na alimentação do pacu em crescimento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Metabolismo de peixe, pacu, P. mesopotamicus, rama de mandioca.

  1. Bagaço de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na dieta de vacas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes Cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the diet of lactating cows: intake of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis (0, 5, 10 e 15% de bagaço de mandioca à dieta de 12 vacas mestiças leiteiras Holandês x Zebu (composição racial com variação de ¼ a ¾ de sangue H x Z com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Foi avaliado o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos totais (CHT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Forneceu-se silagem de capim-elefante como fonte de volumoso. As relações volumoso:concentrado utilizadas foram de 65,19:34,81; 61,59:38,41; 59,08:40,92 e 54,76:45,24. Formularam-se as dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas. Houve aumento linear do consumo de MS, MO, PB, CHT, CNF e NDT, efeito quadrático do consumo de EE e redução do consumo de FDA com o aumento do BM, enquanto o consumo de FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos.O bagaço de mandioca pode ser utilizado até o nível de 15% de inclusão na dieta total de vacas mestiças leiteiras sem trazer transtornos fisiológicos ou nutricionais aos animais.The effect of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, and 15% of cassava bagasse to the diet of 12 Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (breed composition varying from ¼ to ¾ H x Z blood, averaging 478.5kg body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk was evaluated. Cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total carbohydrates (TC, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. Elephant grass silage was provided as roughage source. The roughage:concentrate ratios were 65.19:34.81; 61.59:38.41; 59.08:40.92; and 54.76:45.24. Isonitogen and isoenergetic diets were formulated. There was a linear increase in DM, OM, CP, TC, NFC, and TDN intakes, quadratic effect of EE intake, and a reduction of ADF intake with the increase of the BM; while no diference among treatments was observed for NDF intake. The cassava bagasse can be used until 15% inclusion level in the total diet of crossbred dairy cows without physiological or nutritional damage.

  2. Isolamento, fracionamento e caracterização de paredes celulares de raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz Isolation, fractionation and characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz root cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Tschopoko Pedroso Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante a cocção de mandiocas o amido é gelatinizado e as paredes celulares sofrem alterações físicas e químicas que modificam a coesão das células e causam o amaciamento dos tecidos. Isolar, fracionar e caracterizar paredes celulares durante o envelhecimento de raízes, de duas cultivares, foram os objetivos deste trabalho. O amido foi eliminado por tamização e hidrólise enzimática e o material de paredes celulares foi fracionado em celulose, hemicelulose e pectina. Quantitativamente celulose foi a maior fração constituindo entre 57,2 e 70% do material inicial de paredes celulares isoladas, seguido por pectina e hemicelulose. O material isolado como paredes celulares diminuiu com o tempo de plantio das raízes e a concentração de celulose foi menor no material isolado de raízes mais velhas. A fração pectina diferiu em concentração de açúcares entre raízes de idades diferentes, sendo mais alta em raízes mais velhas enquanto a concentração de ácidos urônicos diferiu entre idades e cultivares.During cooking of cassava tubers starch gelatinizes and there are physical-chemical alterations in cell wall material, reducing intercellular cohesion and softening the tissue, playing an important role in cooking time. Cell wall material from tubers at two harvesting ages of two cultivars were isolated, fractionated and evaluated. Starch was eliminated by wet sieving and enzymatic hydrolysis and the cell wall material was fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Quantitatively cellulose had the highest concentration varying from 57.2 to 70% of the initial isolated cell wall material, followed by pectin and hemicellulose. Cell wall material isolated decreased with the age of the roots and cellulose concentration decreased in the older roots. Pectin fraction differed in sugar concentration between roots of different ages, higher in older roots while for uronic acid content there were differences for age of roots and cultivars.

  3. Characteristics of Chemical and Functional Properties of Modified Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta) by Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecep Erwan Andriansyah, Raden; Rahman, Taufik; Herminiati, Ainia; Rahman, Nurhaidar; Luthfiyanti, Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    The modified cassava flour can be made using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle (AAC). The stability of the warming can be seen from the decreasing value of breakdown viscosity, while the stability of the stirring process can be seen by the decreasing value of setback viscosity. The stages of research include: (1) the making of cassava flour, (2) the making of modified cassava flour by the method of treatment of ACC with a variety of flour concentration and autoclaving time, (3) chemical analysis of the moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate; The functional properties of the pasting characteristics to the initial temperature of the pasting, peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity. The result shows that cassava flour modified by treatment of flour concentration 16% and autoclaving time 41 minutes having pasting code and pasting viscosity which is resistant to high temperature. Flour with this character is flour that is expected to maintain the texture of processed products with a paste form that remains stable. Utilization of modified cassava flour by the ACC method can be applied to the pasting product such as noodle and spaghetti, hoping to support for food diversification program to reduce dependence on wheat flour in Indonesia.

  4. Effect of Medium Salt Concentration on Differentiation and Maturation of Somatic Embryos of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    GROLL, J.; MYCOCK, D. J.; GRAY, V. M.

    2002-01-01

    Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro‐ and micro‐nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter‐, half‐, full‐ or double‐strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half‐ or full‐strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full‐strength...

  5. Effect of medium salt concentration on differentiation and maturation of somatic embryos of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, J; Mycock, D J; Gray, V M

    2002-05-01

    Culture of cassava somatic embryos on media with an altered macro- and micro-nutrient salt concentration affected embryo development and germination capability. In the tests, quarter-, half-, full- or double-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were compared. The maximum number of somatic embryos differentiated from a proliferative nodular embryogenic callus (NEC) on either half- or full-strength MS medium, and the greatest numbers of cotyledonary stage embryos were formed on full-strength MS medium. Developed somatic embryos were then desiccated above a saturated K2SO4 solution for 10 d. After transfer to germination medium, embryos that had developed on half- and full-strength MS medium yielded 8.3 and 8.6 germinants g(-1) NEC tissue, respectively. For this important but often disregarded culture factor, either half- or full-strength MS medium is recommended for both the differentiation and development of cassava somatic embryos that are capable of germination.

  6. microARNs conservados en Yuca (Manihot esculenta) identificados con secuenciación de nueva generación

    OpenAIRE

    López Camilo Ernesto; Pérez-Quintero Álvaro Luis; Zapata Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Los microARNs son moléculas pequeñas de ARN utilizadas por los eucariotas como un mecanismo de control de la expresión génica. En plantas los microRNAs están implicados en la regulación de distintos aspectos del crecimiento y desarrollo, así como en la tolerancia a estrés biótico y abiótico. Muchos microRNAs de plantas se encuentran conservados desde musgos a dicotiledóneas, sin embargo aun existen muchas plantas para las que no se conoce el reportorio de microRNAs, asimismo se desconoce el p...

  7. Cloning, 3D Modeling and Expression Analysis of Three Vacuolar Invertase Genes from Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif, RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs, while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs. All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.

  8. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  9. Evaluating Changes In Fertility Status Of An Alfisol Under Different Growth Stages Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osundare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluating changes in soil nutrient status under different growth stages of cassava makes possible determination of the most critical stage in its vegetative growth phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. Determining the most critical stage in cassava vegetative growth phase when its nutrient demand is highest will enhance properly timed fertilizer application in such a way the application will coincide with the most critical stage in cassava vegetative phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. In view of this a two year field experiment was designed to assess changes in nutrient status of an Alfisol under different growth stages of cassava during 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti Ekiti State Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The different growth stages of cassava when changes in nutrient status of Alfisol were evaluated included 3 6 9 and 12 months after planting MAP. The results indicated existence of significant P 0.05 differences among the different growth stages of cassava as regards their effects on chemical properties of Alfisol. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.88 0.80 0.72 and0.64 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. Similarly during 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.80 0.73 0.66 and0.58 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.57 0.50 0.43 and0.35 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.54 0.47 0.41 and0.32 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively.

  10. Resilience of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to salinity: implications for food security in low-lying regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadow, Ros; Pegg, Amelia; Blomstedt, Cecilia K

    2016-10-01

    Rising sea levels are threatening agricultural production in coastal regions due to inundation and contamination of groundwater. The development of more salt-tolerant crops is essential. Cassava is an important staple, particularly among poor subsistence farmers. Its tolerance to drought and elevated temperatures make it highly suitable for meeting global food demands in the face of climate change, but its ability to tolerate salt is unknown. Cassava stores nitrogen in the form of cyanogenic glucosides and can cause cyanide poisoning unless correctly processed. Previous research demonstrated that cyanide levels are higher in droughted plants, possibly as a mechanism for increasing resilience to oxidative stress. We determined the tolerance of cassava to salt at two different stages of development, and tested the hypothesis that cyanide toxicity would be higher in salt-stressed plants. Cassava was grown at a range of concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) at two growth stages: tuber initiation and tuber expansion. Established plants were able to tolerate 100mM NaCl but in younger plants 40mM was sufficient to retard plant growth severely. Nutrient analysis showed that plants were only able to exclude sodium at low concentrations. The foliar cyanogenic glucoside concentration in young plants increased under moderate salinity stress but was lower in plants grown at high salt. Importantly, there was no significant change in the cyanogenic glucoside concentration in the tubers. We propose that the mechanisms for salinity tolerance are age dependent, and that this can be traced to the relative cost of leaves in young and old plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), polysaccharides, and protein contents associated with the early events of postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava roots. Increases in APX and GPX activity, as well as total protein contents occurred from 3 to 5 days of storage and were correlated with the delay of PPD. Cassava samples stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) highlighted the presence of starch and cellulose. Degradation of starch granules during PPD was also detected. Slight metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue is indicative of increasing of acidic polysaccharides and may play an important role in PPD delay. Principal component analysis (PCA) classified samples according to their levels of enzymatic activity based on the decision tree model which showed GPX and total protein amounts to be correlated with PPD. The Oriental (ORI) cultivar was more susceptible to PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variations in the chemical composition of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves and roots as affected by genotypic and environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anna Elizabeth; Gleadow, Roslyn Margaret; Zacarias, Anabela M; Cuambe, Constantino Estevão; Miller, Rebecca Elizabeth; Cavagnaro, Timothy Richard

    2012-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of cassava cultivars, in terms of cyanogenic potential and composition of macro- and micronutrients, sampled from different locations in rural Mozambique. Total cyanide concentrations in fresh cassava tissues were measured using portable cyanide testing kits, and elemental nutrients were later analyzed from dried plant tissue. Variation in cyanogenic potential and nutrient composition occurred both among cultivars and across locations. The majority of cultivars contained >100 ppm total cyanide, fresh weight, and are therefore considered to be dangerously poisonous unless adequately processed before consumption. Leaf cyanogenic and nutrient content varied with plant water status, estimated using carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C). The colonization of roots of all cultivars by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also quantified and found to be high, indicating that mycorrhizas could play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition in these low-input farming systems.

  13. Isolation and partial characterization of a root-specific promoter for stacking multiple traits into cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2011-06-07

    Cassava can be cultivated on impoverished soils with minimum inputs, and its storage roots are a staple food for millions in Africa. However, these roots are low in bioavailable nutrients and in protein content, contain cyanogenic glycosides, and suffer from a very short post-harvest shelf-life, and the plant is susceptible to viral and bacterial diseases prevalent in Africa. The demand for improvement of cassava with respect to these traits comes from both farmers and national agricultural institutions. Genetic improvement of cassava cultivars by molecular biology techniques requires the availability of appropriate genes, a system to introduce these genes into cassava, and the use of suitable gene promoters. Cassava root-specific promoter for auxin-repressed protein was isolated using the gene walking approach, starting with a cDNA sequence. In silico analysis of promoter sequences revealed putative cis-acting regulatory elements, including root-specific elements, which may be required for gene expression in vascular tissues. Research on the activities of this promoter is continuing, with the development of plant expression cassettes for transformation into major African elite lines and farmers' preferred cassava cultivars to enable testing of tissue-specific expression patterns in the field.

  14. Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar TME14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaboga, Evans N; Njiru, Joshua M; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Routine production of large numbers of transgenic plants is required to fully exploit advances in cassava biotechnology and support development of improved germplasm for deployment to farmers. This article describes an improved, high-efficiency transformation protocol for recalcitrant cassava cultivar TME14 preferred in Africa. Factors that favor production of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) were found to be use of DKW medium, crushing of organized embryogenic structures (OES) through 1-2 mm sized metal wire mesh, washing of crushed OES tissues and short exposure of tyrosine to somatic embryos; and transformation efficiency was enhanced by use of low Agrobacterium density during co-cultivation, co-centrifugation of FEC with Agrobacterium, germination of paramomycin resistant somatic embryos on medium containing BAP with gradual increase in concentration and variations of the frequency of subculture of cotyledonary-stage embryos on shoot elongation medium. By applying the optimized parameters, FEC were produced for cassava cultivar TME14 and transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA2301. About 70-80 independent transgenic lines per ml settled cell volume (SCV) of FEC were regenerated on selective medium. Histochemical GUS assays confirmed the expression of gusA gene in transformed calli, somatic embryos and transgenic plants. The presence and integration of the gusA gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively. RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants confirmed the expression of gusA gene. This protocol demonstrates significantly enhanced transformation efficiency over existing cassava transformation protocols and could become a powerful tool for functional genomics and transferring new traits into cassava.

  15. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum thiocyanate concentration. Although inclusion of 100 g/kg PCRM showed some economic sense, dietary inclusion of either peeled or unpeeled cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks.

  16. Genetic inheritance of pulp colour and selected traits of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) at early generation selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwumuremyi, Athanase; Melis, Rob; Shanahan, Paul; Theodore, Asiimwe

    2017-12-12

    The early generation selection of cassava quantitative and qualitative traits saves breeding resources as it can shorten breeding schemes. Inheritance analysis provides important breeding information for developing new improved varieties. This study aimed at developing an F1 segregating cassava population and determining mode of gene action of pulp colour and selected traits at early generation selection (F1 seedling and clones). The 15 families exhibited significant (P < 0.05) phenotypic variation between offspring. The general combining ability (GCA) was significant for all traits except cassava brown streak disease on leaves, whereas specific combining ability (SCA) was significant for all evaluated traits. The Garukansubire and Gitamisi genotypes were the best general combiners for improving fresh storage root yield, while G1 and G2 were the best general combiners for improved carotenoid (yellow/orange pulp colour) and delayed physiological postharvest deterioration. The pulp colour had the highest GCA/SCA ratio and percent sum of squares due to GCA. The 15 F1 families exhibited essential genetic diversity for cassava improvement. The expression of most cassava traits was controlled by both additive and non-additive gene action. The study elucidated the role of dominance effects over the additive effects for the evaluated traits. However, the pulp colour was predominantly controlled by additive gene action. This implies the possibility of improving cassava through conventional breeding using recurrent selection for most traits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). II. Crop growth rate and biomass yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Frequent harvests of serial plantings of cassava (cv. M Aus 10) in S.E. Queensland, Australia (latitude 27 degrees 37'S) were used to examine the effect of environment on dry matter growth and biomass yield. Maximum crop growth rates (CGR) calculated from fitted logistic curves ranged from 23.8 to 2.4 g m-2 day-1 for the various planting dates and occurred in late summer to autumn, becoming progressively smaller and later for plantings made later in the growth season. Crop growth rate declined to zero or near zero for all planting dates in late winter. Maximum CGR's were higher than those reported for cassava at lower latitudes but, because of the restricted growing season, annual biomass yields from early planting times were similar and of the order of 30 tons per hectare-1 year-1. Multiple regression models were developed which could account for 89% of the variation in CGR in terms of mean air temperature or solar radiation and leaf area index (LAI). Temperature and solar radiation were highly correlated at this experimental site and it was not possible to distinguish their separate effects on CGR. (Refs. 18).

  18. Analysis of Variance, Heritability, Correlation and Selection Character of M1 V3 Generation Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Henda Yani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic variability and correlation between qualitative character and yield are important to support a selection program. The objective of this research was to determine genetic variability, heritability, and path analysis of M1 V3 cassava mutants’ characters. This research was conducted at Bogor Agricultural University Experimental Field Research from May 2014 to May 2015. This research used 32 mutants from five cassava parent lines which were Malang-4 and Adira-4 (national varieties, UJ-5 (Introduction variety from Thailand, and two local genotypes from Halmahera which were Jame-jame and Ratim. The results showed that gamma ray irradiation increased variability from five cassava genotypes. Characters that had high heritability were length of leaf lobe, lengthof petiole, stem diameter, and the height of plant. The path correlation analysis showed that number of tubers, number of economic tuber (> 20 cm, height to first branchingand stem diameter had direct correlation with tuber mass per plant. The characters can be used for the selection of M1 V4 generation.

  19. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  20. Cloning, 3D modeling and expression analysis of three vacuolar invertase genes from cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Meng-Ting; Li, Rui-Mei; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-05-15

    Vacuolar invertase is one of the key enzymes in sucrose metabolism that irreversibly catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in plants. In this research, three vacuolar invertase genes, named MeVINV1-3, and with 653, 660 and 639 amino acids, respectively, were cloned from cassava. The motifs of NDPNG (β-fructosidase motif), RDP and WECVD, which are conserved and essential for catalytic activity in the vacuolar invertase family, were found in MeVINV1 and MeVINV2. Meanwhile, in MeVINV3, instead of NDPNG we found the motif NGPDG, in which the three amino acids GPD are different from those in other vacuolar invertases (DPN) that might result in MeVINV3 being an inactivated protein. The N-terminal leader sequence of MeVINVs contains a signal anchor, which is associated with the sorting of vacuolar invertase to vacuole. The overall predicted 3D structure of the MeVINVs consists of a five bladed β-propeller module at N-terminus domain, and forms a β-sandwich module at the C-terminus domain. The active site of the protein is situated in the β-propeller module. MeVINVs are classified in two subfamilies, α and β groups, in which α group members of MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in reproductive organs and tuber roots (considered as sink organs), while β group members of MeVINV3 are highly expressed in leaves (source organs). All MeVINVs are highly expressed in leaves, while only MeVINV1 and 2 are highly expressed in tubers at cassava tuber maturity stage. Thus, MeVINV1 and 2 play an important role in sucrose unloading and starch accumulation, as well in buffering the pools of sucrose, hexoses and sugar phosphates in leaves, specifically at later stages of plant development.

  1. Alpha-Glucan, Water Dikinase 1 Affects Starch Metabolism and Storage Root Growth in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzhi; He, Shutao; Naconsie, Maliwan; Ma, Qiuxiang; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-29

    Regulation of storage root development by source strength remains largely unknown. The cassava storage root delay (srd) T-DNA mutant postpones storage root development but manifests normal foliage growth as wild-type plants. The SRD gene was identified as an orthologue of α-glucan, water dikinase 1 (GWD1), whose expression is regulated under conditions of light/dark cycles in leaves and is associated with storage root development. The GWD1-RNAi cassava plants showed both retarded plant and storage root growth, as a result of starch excess phenotypes with reduced photosynthetic capacity and decreased levels of soluble saccharides in their leaves. These leaves contained starch granules having greatly increased amylose content and type C semi-crystalline structures with increased short chains that suggested storage starch. In storage roots of GWD1-RNAi lines, maltose content was dramatically decreased and starches with much lower phosphorylation levels showed a drastically reduced β-amylolytic rate. These results suggested that GWD1 regulates transient starch morphogenesis and storage root growth by decreasing photo-assimilation partitioning from the source to the sink and by starch mobilization in root crops.

  2. Tracking crop varieties using genotyping-by-sequencing markers: a case study using cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ismail Y; Kulakow, Peter A; Manu-Aduening, Joseph A; Dankyi, Ansong A; Asibuo, James Y; Parkes, Elizabeth Y; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Girma, Gezahegn; Gedil, Melaku A; Ramu, Punna; Reyes, Byron; Maredia, Mywish K

    2015-09-23

    Accurate identification of crop cultivars is crucial in assessing the impact of crop improvement research outputs. Two commonly used identification approaches, elicitation of variety names from farmer interviews and morphological plant descriptors, have inherent uncertainty levels. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used in a case study as an alternative method to track released varieties in farmers' fields, using cassava, a clonally propagated root crop widely grown in the tropics, and often disseminated through extension services and informal seed systems. A total of 917 accessions collected from 495 farming households across Ghana were genotyped at 56,489 SNP loci along with a "reference library" of 64 accessions of released varieties and popular landraces. Accurate cultivar identification and ancestry estimation was accomplished through two complementary clustering methods: (i) distance-based hierarchical clustering; and (ii) model-based maximum likelihood admixture analysis. Subsequently, 30% of the identified accessions from farmers' fields were matched to specific released varieties represented in the reference library. ADMIXTURE analysis revealed that the optimum number of major varieties was 11 and matched the hierarchical clustering results. The majority of the accessions (69%) belonged purely to one of the 11 groups, while the remaining accessions showed two or more ancestries. Further analysis using subsets of SNP markers reproduced results obtained from the full-set of markers, suggesting that GBS can be done at higher DNA multiplexing, thereby reducing the costs of variety fingerprinting. A large proportion of discrepancy between genetically unique cultivars as identified by markers and variety names as elicited from farmers were observed. Clustering results from ADMIXTURE analysis was validated using the assumption-free Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) method. We show that genome-wide SNP markers from increasingly affordable GBS methods coupled with complementary cluster analysis is a powerful tool for fine-scale population structure analysis and variety identification. Moreover, the ancestry estimation provides a framework for quantifying the contribution of exotic germplasm or older improved varieties to the genetic background of contemporary improved cultivars.

  3. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). III. Assimilate distribution and storage organ yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Assimilate distribution and storage organ (storage roots plus swollen planting piece) yield of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made throughout a year, and grown for one year duration were studied with sequential harvests in S.E. Queensland (latitude 27 degrees 37'S), Australia. Seasonal differences in the proportion of total dry matter assimilation partioned to storage organs over a given time period (referred to as distribution ratio, DR) were observed with low DR over the mid-summer (January to March) period (0.1 to 0.3) when crop growth rate (CGR) was at a maximum compared with 0.4 to 0.5 in November to December and 0.5 to 1.0 in late autumn to winter (April to July). This period of low DR restricted storage organ yields which generally lower (6-9 t DW ha-1 year-1) than those reported for adapted germplasm at lower latitudes. Multiple regression models were developed which accounted for much of the variation in DR in terms of mean air temperature of photoperiod and leaf area index (R2 = 0.73). High temperatures, long photoperiods and high leaf area indices were associated with reduced DR. Mean air temperature and photoperiod are highly correlated in this environment and their separate effects on DR could not be distinguised. This model of distribution ratio was combined with earlier published models of CGR, and storage organ growth rate predicted. (Refs. 20).

  4. The Metabolic Effects of Consumption of Yellow Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeme, Nelson; Okafor, Polycarp; Eleazu, Chinedum

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of yellow cassava (variety TMS 01/1368) was investigated in male albino rats fed a diet containing yellow cassava for 7 to 28 days. There were significant increases (P 0.05) in the serum total proteins of the experimental rats compared with the control. The experimental rats treated for 7, 14, 21, or 28 days exhibited body weight decreases of 5.11%, 11.10%, 19.16%, and 24.18%, respectively, whereas the control group showed 9.17% gain in body weight. Total and free cyanide concentrations were detected in the liver, kidney, and heart of most of the rats in both the experimental and control groups, except for free cyanide in the control group that was not detected. Metabolism of the yellow cassava variety in experimental rats was capable of exposing the animals to cyanide, underscoring the need for its proper processing before consumption by humans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Influence of 2,4-D and picloram on embryogenic competence of three cassava (manihot esculenta crantz) accessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elegba, W.

    2008-06-01

    The influence of 2,4-D and picloram on embryogenic competence of three local cassava accessions namely, Nkabom, Wenchi and ADI 001 was studied. Young leaf lobes of cassava cultured on MS medium supplemented with 4 to 20 mg/L 2,4-D or picloram (initiation medium) resulted in 90 to 100% embryogenic calli formation depending on the accession. The transfer of embryogenic calli to an MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L BAP produced primary embryos. The duration and number of primary embryos produced on the maturation medium depended on the auxin as well as the genotype. picloram decreased the number of days to maturation and produced comparatively more embryos at both the primary and cyclic stages than 2,4-D. However, the optimal concentration required for increased embryo production in picloram was higher (16 mg/L) than 2,4-D ( 8 mg/L). Fragmentation of matured primary somatic embryos and reculture on initiation medium led to cyclic embryo production. Cyclic embryogenesis doubled (with 2,4-D) or tripled (with picloram) the number of embryos produced at the primary stage. However, recycling of embryos through three successive cycles resulted in a slight reduction in the number of embryos produced. The presence of lower concentration of ABA (1 mg/L) in the maturation medium enhanced embryo maturation and plantlet regeneration while increased concentration of ABA (2 or 4 mg/L) decreased embryo production and plantlet regeneration indicating inhibition or dormancy effect of the growth regulator on germination of embryos. Desiccation significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved plantlet regeneration from both 2,4-D and picloram-induced somatic embryos in all the accessions. However, comparatively high somatic embryos derived from picloram germinated into plantlets than 2,4-D.This study has shown that all three accessions, are embryogenically competent and picloram is a superior auxin to 2,4-D in somatic embryo production and successful regeneration of plantlets. This holds great potential for the generation of more calli or somatic embryos for irradiation to produce mutant cassava for both domestic, industrial and biofuel usage (au).

  6. Mineral and Nutrient Leaf Composition of Two Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars Defoliated at Varying Phenological Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adigun DADA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defoliation on mineral and food value of two cassava varieties defoliated at varying phenological phases was studied to ascertain the appropriate phenological phase when harvested leaves would contain the optimum mineral and proximate composition, gross energy and the least cyanide content. Two cassava cultivars were subjected to defoliation at varying phenological stages including logarithmic, vegetative and physiological maturity phases. The mineral content was highest at the logarithmic phase than any other phases. The proximate composition of the cassava leaves showed that crude protein was highest at physiological maturity, while the least HCN was observed in cassava defoliated at logarithmic phase. Analysis of mineral and proximate content showed that leaf of the �TMS30572� cultivar had the highest mineral content, fat, fibre, ash, dry matter and gross energy at the logarithm phase while �Oko-Iyawo� had the highest crude protein and HCN at physiological maturity. This study indicates the high potential of cassava leaf as an unconventional source of protein for both humans and animals when defoliated at logarithmic growth phase.

  7. Utilization of unpeeled cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal supplemented with or without charcoal by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Akapo, O; Sanwo, K A; Bamgbose, A M

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted using 480-day-old, male Marshall broilers to study the utilization of unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM) supplemented with or without 6 g/kg charcoal. The experimental design was laid out in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments having three inclusion levels of UCRM (0, 100 and 200 g/kg) with or without 6 g/kg charcoal supplementation. Each treatment consisted of 80 birds replicated eight times with 10 birds per replicate. Main effect of inclusion level of UCRM and supplementation of charcoal showed reduced (p charcoal showed higher (p charcoal. Supplementation of charcoal in diet containing 100 g/kg UCRM resulted in improved (p charcoal. Broilers fed diet containing no UCRM but supplemented with charcoal had the highest overall (p charcoal recorded the poorest (p charcoal resulted in increased (p charcoal. In conclusion, supplementation of diet containing up to 100 g/kg UCRM with 6 g/kg charcoal showed improved weight gain without any deleterious effect on serum metabolites. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The use of PCR techniques to detect genetic variations in Cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz): minisatellite and RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, N.; Sangwan, R.S.; Sangwan-Norreel, B.; Koffi Konan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Cassava is an important tuber crop grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, we developed protocols for efficient somatic embryogenesis using zygotic embryos and nodal axillary meristems in order to reduce the genotype effect. Thereafter flow cytophotometry and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess the ploidy level and the genetic fidelity of cassava plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. No change in the ploidy level of the regenerated plants was observed in comparison with the control plants. In the same way, monomorphic profiles of RAPD were obtained for the different cassava plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis. The genetic analysis of calli showed only a few differences. Using two pairs of heterologous micro satellite primers developed in a wild African grass, a monomorphic pattern was also detected. Moreover, cultivars of different origins were also analysed using these PCR techniques. Our data from RAPD and materialistic analyses suggested that these techniques can be efficiently used to detect genetic variations in cassava. (author)

  9. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p....3+or-0.4 and 20.4+or-1.4 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight by Cooke's, acid hydrolysis and solid state methods, respectively. However, at very low cyanogen levels, less than 5 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight, the acid hydrolysis method overestimates by 3-5 times. Otherwise, their coefficients of variations...

  10. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amuge, T.; Berger, D. K.; Katari, M. S.; Myburg, A. A.; Goldman, S. L.; Ferguson, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several ...

  11. A time series transcriptome analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties challenged with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuge, T; Berger, D K; Katari, M S; Myburg, A A; Goldman, S L; Ferguson, M E

    2017-08-29

    A time-course transcriptome analysis of two cassava varieties that are either resistant or susceptible to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted using RNASeq, after graft inoculation with Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). From approximately 1.92 billion short reads, the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was obtained in the resistant (Namikonga) variety at 2 days after grafting (dag) (3887 DEGs) and 5 dag (4911 DEGs). At the same time points, several defense response genes (encoding LRR-containing, NBARC-containing, pathogenesis-related, late embryogenesis abundant, selected transcription factors, chaperones, and heat shock proteins) were highly expressed in Namikonga. Also, defense-related GO terms of 'translational elongation', 'translation factor activity', 'ribosomal subunit' and 'phosphorelay signal transduction', were overrepresented in Namikonga at these time points. More reads corresponding to UCBSV sequences were recovered from the susceptible variety (Albert) (733 and 1660 read counts per million (cpm)) at 45 dag and 54 dag compared to Namikonga (10 and 117 cpm respectively). These findings suggest that Namikonga's resistance involves restriction of multiplication of UCBSV within the host. These findings can be used with other sources of evidence to identify candidate genes and biomarkers that would contribute substantially to knowledge-based resistance breeding.

  12. Induction and identification of a small-granule, high-amylose mutant in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Sánchez, Teresa; Denyer, Kay; Tofiño, Adriana P; Rosero, Elvia A; Dufour, Dominique; Smith, Alison; Morante, Nelson; Pérez, Juan C; Fahy, Brendan

    2008-08-27

    Only two mutations have been described in the literature, so far, regarding starch and root quality traits in cassava. This article reports on an induced mutation in this crop, first identified in 2006. Botanical seed from five different cassava families were irradiated with gamma rays. Seed was germinated, transplanted to the field (M1 plants), and self-pollinated to produce the M2 generation. Abnormal types regarding starch granule morphology were identified during the single plant evaluation of M2 genotypes. To confirm these characteristics, selected genotypes were cloned and a second evaluation, based on cloned plants obtained from vegetative multiplication, was completed in September 2007. Two M2 genotypes presented small starch granules, but only one could be fully characterized, presenting a granule size of 5.80 +/- 0.33 microm compared with three commercial clones with granule sizes ranging from 13.97 +/- 0.12 to 18.73 +/- 0.10 microm and higher-than-normal amylose content (up to 30.1% in cloned plants harvested in 2007, as compared with the typical values for "normal" cassava starch of around 19.8%). The gels produced by the starch of these plants did not show any viscosity when analyzed with the rapid viscoanalyzers (5% suspension), and the gels had low clarity. Low viscosity could be observed at higher concentrations (8 or 10% suspensions). Preliminary results suggest that the mutation may be due to a lesion in a gene encoding one of the isoforms of isoamylase (probably isa1 or isa2).

  13. Pengaruh Berbagai Konsentrasi Benzil Adenin dan Asam Naftalen Asetat pada Kultur In Vitro Singkong (Manihot Esculenta Crantz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardian, Ardian; Kresna, Kresna; Agustiansyah, Agustiansyah

    2012-01-01

    Propagation of cassava through in vitro culture is needed by farmers and agro industries to fulfill the need of the best and the newest clone as soon as after it is released by government. The objective of this research was to know the effects of the application of some concentrations of benzyl adenine and naphthalene acetic acid on in vitro growth and multiplication of micro-shoot of cassava. Explants used were one-node green cuttings of cassava, which were derived from cutting seedling. Thi...

  14. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  16. ESTRATEGIAS ALIMENTARIAS Y DE SUBSISTENCIA PREHISPÁNICA EN EL CENTRO-OESTE DE MENDOZA: CONSUMO Y DESCARTE EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO AGUA AMARGA / Food and subsistence strategies in the prehispanic Mendoza Midwest: Consumption and discard at Agua Amarga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ots

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis de un depósito de desechos asociados a la alimentación en Agua Amarga (departamento de Tupungato, en el Centro Oeste de la provincia de Mendoza. Agua Amarga es un sitio residencial de actividades múltiples ubicado en el piedemonte del Valle de Uco, a 1000 msnm. Los fechados obtenidos sobre cerámica y restos vegetales del contexto lo ubican en el período tardío y de dominación incaica regional. El propósito del trabajo es estudiar estrategias de procesamiento, consumo y descarte de alimentos que asimismo contribuyan a la discusión sobre las estrategias de subsistencia prehispánicas en el Norte y Centro de Mendoza. Se aplican métodos y técnicas específicos para la identificación y el análisis de los restos, y se proponen hipótesis alternativas sobre dicho contexto. Los materiales recuperados, la mayoría de ellos termoalterados y muy fragmentados, incluyen macrorrestos arqueobotánicos (principalmente Zea mays y Phaseulus vulgaris, restos óseos (algunos elementos identificados como Lama sp., fragmentos de distintos recipientes cerámicos y de artefactos de molienda.  Finalmente, se discuten prácticas asociadas con la alimentación y la subsistencia, con especial referencia a la producción y consumo de maíz en el área.   Palabras clave: alimentación, subsistencia, maíz, Mendoza   Abstract We present the study of a refuse deposit associated with feeding activities in the archaeological site Agua Amarga (Tupungato department, Middle West of Mendoza province. This is a residencial site of multiple activities located in the foothill in Valle de Uco, to 1000 masl. We dated ceramics and vegetal remains that locate the context in the late period and during regional inca domination. Our goal is to study strategies of processing, consumption and discarding of foods that also contribute in the discussion on the prehispanic strategies of subsistence in the North and Center of Mendoza province. In this paper

  17. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.

  18. La palma amarga (Sabal mauritiiformis, Arecaceae en sistemas productivos del Caribe: estudio de caso en Piojó, Atlántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Andrade-Erazo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La palma Sabal mauritiiformis es un recurso importante en el Caribe colombiano debido al uso de sus hojas para techar. Para evaluar el estado de sus poblaciones en Piojó (Atlántico, uno de los municipios más productores de hojas, se estudió la densidad y la estructura poblacional de la palma. Se establecieron 16 parcelas de 0,1 ha, en los tres sistemas de uso de suelo más comunes en la zona: ganadería (6, cultivos (5 y rastrojo (5. Se encontró que la palma amarga constituye un recurso silvestre, muy resistente y capaz de adaptarse a ambientes perturbados pues está incorporada en sistemas productivos de cultivos, rastrojos y ganadería, donde las prácticas de manejo influyen en la densidad y estructura de sus poblaciones. La palma es muy resistente y capaz de adaptarse a ambientes perturbados. El área estudiada incluyó 5349 individuos distribuidos en cuatro categorías de tamaño. Los rastrojos (3620 ± 2808 individuos/hectárea y los cultivos (5612 ± 3361 ind/ha presentaron más individuos y mejores estructuras poblacionales que las áreas de ganadería (1488 ± 827 ind/ha, en las cuales se encontraron poblaciones más deterioradas por efecto del pisoteo y el forrajeo. La prevalencia de individuos en algunas clases de tamaño refleja las condiciones de manejo actual e histórico; actividades como el pastoreo o las quemas, sin una apropiada planificación, pueden comprometer el desarrollo de las poblaciones de la palma y la futura disponibilidad del recurso.

  19. Ressenya a Sònia Gros, «Aquella dolçor amarga». La tradició amatòria clàssica en el Curial e Güelfa. València, Publicacions de la Universitat de València, 2015, 346 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-9648-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrià Martí i Badia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review to Sònia Gros, «Aquella dolçor amarga». La tradició amatòria clàssica en el Curial e Güelfa. València, Publicacions de laUniversitat de València, 2015, 346 pp, ISBN: 978-84-370-9648-3

  20. The ability of Abelmoschus manihot L. leaf extract in scavenging of free radical DPPH and total flavonoid determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudewi, S.; Lolo, W. A.; Warongan, M.; Rifai, Y.; Rante, H.

    2017-11-01

    Abelmoschus manihot L. has reported to have flavonoids content. This study aims were to determine the ability of A. manihot extract in counteracting free radical DPPH and determine the content of total flavonoids. A. manihot leaf was taken from 2 regions in North Sulawesi, namely Tomohon and Kotamobagu. The maceration was carried out to extract the active compound in a 96% ethanol solvent. Free radical scavenging analysis was carried out by DPPH and determination of its total flavonoid in the extract was measured using spectrophotometri method. The results showed that A. manihot extract from Tomohon and Kotamobagu could counteract free radical of DPPH with value of free radical activity of 88.151 and 88.801 %, respectively. A. manihot leaf from Kotamobagu has higher total flavonoids content 61.763 mg/g compare to Tomohon 46.679 mg/g which presented as quercetin. A. manihot has antioxidant activity.

  1. Specificity of neuro-hypophysis hormones in Rana esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Race, B.

    1958-11-01

    This academic work reports the study of the specificity of the neuro-hypophysis factor acting on sodium transport in frog (Rena esculenta). This work comprised the preparation of standard neuro hypophysis extracts from Rena esculenta adapted to environments of different salinity, and also from a white rat. Then the author tested the oxytocic and antidiuretic activity of these extracts. She also compared in vitro the effect of these different extracts on the active transport of sodium at the level of the green frog skin [fr

  2. Gyromitra esculenta mushroom: a comparative assessment of its carcinogenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Gannett, P

    1994-01-01

    A comparative assessment is performed on one of the false morel mushrooms, Gyromitra esculenta, including the amounts of some hydrazines present in this fungus, the cancer-inducing doses of these chemicals or the mushroom used in animal experiments, the total amounts of the hydrazines or mushroom needed to induce neoplasms in mice and the estimated total amounts of hydrazines or mushroom needed to induce cancer in humans. When one compares the estimated amounts of hydrazines required to induce cancer with the amount of raw Gyromitra esculenta needed to yield a similar effect, it becomes clear that to date 37 percent of the carcinogenic ingredients of this fungus have been identified.

  3. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Optimization of metronidazole tablet formulation using Manihot utilissima starch and a combination of processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuike D. Nnamani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at optimizing the formulation of metronidazole tablet with Manihot utilissima starch. Starch from one year old Manihot utilissima plant was extracted, processed and analyzed. The processed Manihot ultilissima starch and corn starch (reference standard were used as formulation test polymers. A physical blend of metronidazole and starch polymer at 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1, was triturated with water/ethanol (1:1 solution of metronidazole, dried and blended with other formulation excipients and pulverized to size for compression. The FT - IR absorption spectrum of the metronidazole-Manihot ultilissima starch add mixture showed no chemical incompatibility. The metronidazole granules containing Manihot ultilissima starch had better particle size distribution and other micromeritic qualities in comparison with formulations of corn starch. Metronidazole tablets produced with the Manihot ultilissima starch gave good compact (9–10 Kgf hardness and low friability. Using a 6 × 3 contingency table for Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA in design without repeated values, and the effect of the starch polymer concentrations on metronidazole dissolution was analyzed. The F-ratio results were greater than the critical value of F-table; and therefore the null hypothesis that the effects of all treatment at different concentration are the same at 5% P value was rejected. The variation from critical difference was more significant at ratio 1:1 of corn and Manihot ultilissima starches. In conclusion, the 1:1 ratio of metronidazole and Manihot ultilissima starch using a combination of co-solvency, particle size reduction and solid dispersion techniques gave optimal tablet formulation.

  5. Evaluation of exotic genotypes of Taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Taro {Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott} in Nigeria had stagnated and even began to decline in the last few years due to several constraints including poor yield of local cultivars worsened by advent of taro leaf blight (TLB). Introduction and evaluation of exotic cultivars for adaptation to local production is a ...

  6. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis.

  7. Reproduction and hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of Rana esculenta water frogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager; Fog, Kåre; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2005-01-01

    All-hybrid populations of the water frog, Rana esculenta, are exceptional in consisting of independently and to some extent sexually reproducing interspecific hybrids. In most of its range R. esculenta reproduces hemiclonally with one of the parental species, R. lessonae or R. ridibunda, but viable...... gametogenesis and mating between frogs with incompatible gametes induce a significant hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of R. esculenta, and we discuss compensating advantages and potential evolutionary trajectories to reduce this hybrid load....

  8. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is

  9. Indução de resistência à podridão‑amarga em maçãs pelo uso de eliciadores em pós‑colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Alvarez Alamino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos eliciadores acibenzolar‑S‑metílico (ASM e proteína harpina, aplicados em pós‑colheita, na indução de resistência sistêmica à podridão‑amarga em maçãs. Realizaram-se ferimentos mecânicos em maçãs 'Royal Gala' seguidos da aplicação dos eliciadores. Doze horas depois, procedeu-se à inoculação do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Após 72 horas, realizaram-se as avaliações quanto à área lesionada e ao número de esporos, bem como a coleta de tecido dos frutos para quantificação de proteínas, açúcares totais e redutores, fenóis totais, e para determinação da atividade das enzimas fenilalanina amônia‑liase, superóxido dismutase, catalase, peroxidase e ascorbato peroxidase. A harpina e, em menor grau, o ASM proporcionaram aumento da atividade da enzima peroxidase e a consequente redução da área lesionada e da esporulação de C. gloeosporioides nas maçãs. Esses eliciadores podem ser utilizados como ferramenta de controle no manejo integrado da podridão‑amarga, em pós‑colheita de maçãs 'Royal Gala'.

  10. Phylogenetic studies in Ravenelia esculenta and related rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhe, K. R.; Kuvalekar, Aniket

    2007-01-01

    Ravenelia esculenta Naras. and Thium. is a rust fungus, which infects mostly thorns, inflorescences, flowers and fruits of Acacia eburnea Willd. Aecial stages of the rust produce hypertrophy in infected parts. DNA of the rust fungus was isolated from aeciospores by ‘freeze thaw’ method. 18S rDNA was amplified and sequenced by automated DNA sequencer. BLAST of the sequence at NCBI retrieved 96 sequences producing significant alignments. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences was done b...

  11. Phylogenetic studies in Ravenelia esculenta and related rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhe, K R; Kuvalekar, Aniket

    2007-09-01

    Ravenelia esculenta Naras. and Thium. is a rust fungus, which infects mostly thorns, inflorescences, flowers and fruits of Acacia eburnea Willd. Aecial stages of the rust produce hypertrophy in infected parts. DNA of the rust fungus was isolated from aeciospores by 'freeze thaw' method. 18S rDNA was amplified and sequenced by automated DNA sequencer. BLAST of the sequence at NCBI retrieved 96 sequences producing significant alignments. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences was done by ClustalW. Phylogenetic analysis was done by using MEGA 3.1. UPGMA Minimum Evolution tree with bootstrap value of 1000 replicates was constructed using these sequences. From phylogenetic tree it is observed that Ravenelia esculenta and the genus Gymnosporangium share a common ancestry, though Ravenelia esculenta is autoecious on angiosperm and the genus Gymnosporangium is heteroecious with pycnia, aecia on angiosperm and uredia, telia on gymnosperm. Two major clades are recognized which are based on the nature of aecial host (gymnosperm or angiosperm). These clades were also showing shift from pteridophytes to angiosperms as telial hosts. The tree can be interpreted in the other way also where there is separation of 14 families of Uredinales depending upon nature of teliospores, nature of aeciospores and structure of pycnia. These studies determine the phylogenetic position of Ravenelia esculenta among other rust fungi besides broad separation of Uredinales into two clades. These studies also show that there is phylogenetic correlation between molecular and morphological data. This is first report of DNA sequencing and phylogenetic positioning in genus Ravenelia from India.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DA DIVERSIDADE GENÉTICA ATRAVÉS DE RAPD DE ACESSOS DE MANIÇOBA (Manihot pseudoglaziovii PAX & HOFFM. E DE DUAS ESPÉCIES AFINS DE INTERESSE FORRAGEIRO

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    Fabiana Augusta Santiago Beltrão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to analyze the genetc variability in natural populations, 14 accesses of Manihot had been studied pseudglaziovii, collected in the state of the Paraíba, in the microregion Curimataú Paraibano, beyond an access of M. esculenta Cranz (cassava and a natural hybrid between these two species. Five plants of each access had been multiplied through statue and after that cultivated in an experimental area in standardized conditions, to have a homogeneous exteriorizacion of each genotype. The otimizaçãocion of the protocol of extraction of the DNA of some accesses of maniçoba and of two similar species of forager interest and to verify the genetic variability through the amplification with molecular markers RAPD saw PCR. Two methods of extraction of the DNA had been tested. The extraction protocol using detergent CTAB made possible to get clean products, less viscous and oxidized. In the analysis of genetic variability they had been used in a total of 10 starters (primers, and only 3 had produced bands, starter OPD2, OPD3 and OPD8 presented greater percentage of polymorphism followed of the OPD2, with values of 30,7% and 42,8%, respectively. These primers can discriminate molecular differences between the accesses of maniçoba and two similar species.

  13. Evaluation of performance of rice (Oryza sativa) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) in a mixed cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagoe, R.; Bam, R.; Manu-Adueing, J.; Haleegoah, J.; Tetteh, J.P.; Osei, J.K.; Safo-Kantanka, O.

    2004-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott var. esculenta) is widely distributed and cultivated in the wet tropics of the world. In Ghana, its cultivation is limited to river basins or banks in large cities. However, a few farmers grow it on a large scale and rank it as their main source of income. A

  14. Characterization of the natural products in cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O

    2016-12-01

    There is paucity of information in literature on the natural products in cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta Linn (Araceae)] that confer it with biological properties. This study investigated the antioxidant properties of C. esculenta and also reported for the first time the natural products in C. esculenta that justify its biological properties. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract (50-250 μg/mL) of C. esculenta was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reducing power assays. Characterization of the natural products in C. esculenta was done using the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) technique. The experiment lasted for 3 months. GC-MS analysis of methanol/chloroform extract of the flour of C. esculenta indicated the presence of eight compounds, namely hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (0.43%), octadecanoic acid (20.91%), 9,12-octadecadienoyl chloride (0.77%), 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (2.12%), 9-octadecenoic acid (64.37%), 3-hexadecyloxycarbonyl-5-(2-hydroxylethyl)-4-methylimidazolium(1.36%), hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester (1.36%) and 3,5-di-t-butyl phenol (3.27%). The total phenolic content of C. esculenta was 15.15 ± 0.35 mg Gallic Acid Equivalence/g and it was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the total flavonoid (8.50 ± 0.42 mg Quercetin Equivalence/g) and condensed tannin (4.40 ± 0.14 mg Catechin Equivalence/g) contents, respectively. C. esculenta possessed strong antioxidant capacity though it was lower than that of standard quercetin. Results showed that C. esculenta possesses strong antioxidant activity and also contains some important bioactive compounds that justify its medicinal properties as used in ethno-medicine.

  15. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....../Kg, n = 16. Osmolality of lymph was, 239 ± 4 mosmol/Kg, n = 8. Thus the flow of water across the epidermis would be in the direction from CSF to the interstitial fluid driven by the above osmotic gradients and/or coupled to the inward active Na+ flux via the slightly hyperosmotic paracellular...

  16. Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2006-07-01

    The bioconversion potential of two epigeic species (Eisenia foetida Sav. and Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (Linn) Schott in Schott and Endl). In different vermireactors, each run in triplicates with one of the two species of earthworms, and 60 g of 6:1 Colocasia:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was found to be more efficient producer of vermicasts than E. foetida. In all reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights and number.

  17. Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucena Amorim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Amostras das folhas frescas, murchas e dessecadas de Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. foram administradas manualmente por via oral a caprinos da raça Moxotó, em dosagens únicas de até 12g/kg de peso do animal. O teste do papel picrosódico foi realizado para determinar a presença do ácido cianídrico nas amostras de planta. A colheita da planta foi realizada no período de janeiro a junho de 2004. Os animais que apresentaram sinais clínicos foram tratados após apresentarem queda e permanência em decúbito lateral, com uma solução aquosa de tiossulfato de sódio a 20% na dose de 50ml/100kg por via endovenosa. O presente trabalho foi dividido em três experimentos. No Experimento 1, a planta recém colhida foi fornecida a 6 caprinos, sendo que 4 receberam a planta não triturada e 2 a planta triturada. A planta foi triturada em uma forrageira, sem peneira. No Experimento 2, a planta não triturada permaneceu na sombra, em local ventilado, acondicionada fora e dentro de saco plástico, os quais eram trocados todos os dias. A planta armazenada dentro de sacos plásticos foi administrada a 18 caprinos, nos períodos de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após a colheita e a armazenada fora de saco plástico foi administrada a 13 caprinos, nos períodos de 4, 24, 48, 72 horas e 9, 10, 23 e 30 dias após a colheita. No Experimento 3, a planta triturada e conservada dentro e fora de saco plástico foi administrada em diferentes períodos após a colheita (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Foram utilizados 33 animais (Exp. 3, 17 para a planta conservada dentro do saco plástico e 16 animais para a planta conservada fora do saco plástico. Nos Experimentos 2 e 3 foram utilizados um ou dois caprinos por cada período de administração. Foram utilizados 40 caprinos como controle, nos quais foram avaliadas a temperatura e as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória. No Experimento 1, as amostras da planta triturada e não triturada

  18. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca, and compare them with the farmers’ and processors’ perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%, starch (24.47% to 25.5% and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%, low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%, and cyanide (50 mg/kg contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers’ perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  19. Effects of mulch on soil properties and on the performance of late season cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz on an acid ultisol in Southwestern Zaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutaladio, NB.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulch effects on soil temperature, soil moisture content, soil chemical properties, growth and development, yield and yield components of late season cassava were investigated for three years on an acid ultisol in the tropical sa vanna zone of Southwestern Zaire. Diurnal soil temperature and soil moisture content were recorded at 30-day intervals during the first 4 months of growth. Cassava growth and development were monitored a t3, 6 and 9 months after planting while yield and yield components were noted at 12 months after planting. After each cropping year, changes in soil chemical constituents were recorded. Mulching significantly reduced soil temperature by about 3.5°C and increased soil moisture content by 6.1 % under late season cassava. Soil pH, soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and soil exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K increased as a result of increase in organic matter with continuous application of mulch for 3 years. Plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights of cassava plants given mulch were significantly increased as compared to the plants in unmulched plots. Cassava plants given mulch produced more and bigger storage roots than unmulched plants. Storage root yield increased by 16.7, 28.1 and 57.7 % respectively in the first, the second and the third years of mulch application. The beneficiai effect of mulching over no-mulching increased from year to year, irrespective of cassava cultivars.

  20. Effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and protein content of the leaves in five cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta, Crantz

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    Sagrilo Edvaldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of harvest period on the quality of storage roots and leaves of cassava cultivars was determined in an experiment carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a split plot scheme, with five cultivars in the plots and ten harvest times in the subplots. The IAC 13 cultivar had the highest rate of dry matter accumulation in the storage roots and the Mico cultivar the lowest. The period of least dry matter content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca, Mico and IAC 14 cultivars, and the minimum starch content in the storage roots occurred later for the Fécula Branca and Mico cultivars. In general, the IAC 13, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca cultivars had higher dry matter content in the storage roots, while higher starch content in the dry and fresh matter were obtained in the Fécula Branca cultivar. The crude protein content in the leaves decreased as the plant aged.

  1. Validación de TILLING en evaluación de progenies endocriadas de yuca irradiada (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofiño Adriana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el marco de la creciente tendencia a la agroindustrialización de la yuca, y dado que las características del almidón definen el potencial industrial de estas raíces, aquellas herramientas moleculares que permitan identificar variantes de interés deben integrarse a programas de mejoramiento genético para seleccionar eficientemente nuevos materiales parentales. En este trabajo se compararon los resultados de la técnica TILLING de genética reversa (modificada en cuanto a la visualización directa de los productos de digestión en gel de agarosa, con el método tradicional que utiliza gel de acrilamida y plataforma Li-Cor. La comparación se llevó a cabo a través de la evaluación de polimorfismo en 10 genes con control metabólico mayor de la ruta del almidón. En 150 líneas endocriadas M2, derivadas de semillas irradiadas, fueron identificadas fenotípicamente como probables mutantes y analizadas por TILLING. Solo 30% de los cebadores utilizados produjo datos de buena calidad pues la mayoría amplificó más de un blanco. Adicionalmente, la detección visual de SNP en agarosa no corresponde con los registros obtenidos a partir del genotipado por Li-Cor, pues con ella no se logró detección de SNP, ni en plantillas de mezclas de ADN, ni en muestras individuales.

  2. Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

    2010-05-01

    A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

  3. Densidade e distribuição estomática em mandioca Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivar IAC 576-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carlos de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn cassava the variation in stomata characteristics, such as density, polar diameter and functionality undergochanges due to the stomata frequency distributed in different regions of the leaf blade. This study aimed todetermine the density, diameters anddistribution of stomata in different regions of cassava leaf. We analyzedthe apices, median and basal expanded leaves of IAC 576-70. The experimental design was completelyrandomized with three regions sampled twenty replications, each leaf region observed in five microscopicfields. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared by Tukey test. We evaluateddata on the number, polar and equatorial diameter of the stomata and calculations of stomata density andfunctionality. There is no difference between stomata density, equatorial diameter and functionality of stomatain different regions of cassava leaf cultivar IAC 576-70, while the polar diameter of the stomata is smaller inthe apical and median regions of leaves.

  4. Studies on variation of carotenoid-proteins content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root reveal implications for breeding and the use of induced mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein content in storage roots of cassava is low but variable and characterization of this variability is lacking. Total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP) content in pigmented cassava landraces varied from 0.9-7.5 (mg/gDWt.) and correlated with total carotenoid content (R2=0.4757). More than 3x T...

  5. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2014-07-16

    Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with β-carotene (βC), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher βC than white cassava, and the additional complement of βC was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of βC per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of βC during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-βC from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with βC has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking.

  6. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoussi, Abadjayé Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yéyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agré, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  7. Genome-wide identification, 3D modeling, expression and enzymatic activity analysis of cell wall invertase gene family from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Geng, Meng-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Jiao; Li, Rui-Mei; Hu, Xin-Wen; Guo, Jian-Chun

    2014-04-28

    The cell wall invertases play a crucial role on the sucrose metabolism in plant source and sink organs. In this research, six cell wall invertase genes (MeCWINV1-6) were cloned from cassava. All the MeCWINVs contain a putative signal peptide with a predicted extracellular location. The overall predicted structures of the MeCWINV1-6 are similar to AtcwINV1. Their N-terminus domain forms a β-propeller module and three conserved sequence domains (NDPNG, RDP and WECP(V)D), in which the catalytic residues are situated in these domains; while the C-terminus domain consists of a β-sandwich module. The predicted structure of Pro residue from the WECPD (MeCWINV1, 2, 5, and 6), and Val residue from the WECVD (MeCWINV3 and 4) are different. The activity of MeCWINV1 and 3 were higher than other MeCWINVs in leaves and tubers, which suggested that sucrose was mainly catalyzed by the MeCWINV1 and 3 in the apoplastic space of cassava source and sink organs. The transcriptional levels of all the MeCWINVs and their enzymatic activity were lower in tubers than in leaves at all the stages during the cassava tuber development. It suggested that the major role of the MeCWINVs was on the regulation of carbon exportation from source leaves, and the ratio of sucrose to hexose in the apoplasts; the role of these enzymes on the sucrose unloading to tuber was weaker.

  8. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  9. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PERFIL HIGIÊNICO-SANITÁRIO DAS UNIDADES DE PROCESSAMENTO DA FARINHA DE MANDIOCA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ NA REGIÃO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Lacerda de OLIVEIRA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um diagnóstico higiênico-sanitário direcionado às unidades de processamento da farinha de mandioca na região Sudoeste da Bahia, visando detectar áreas/condições de risco à saúde pública em relação aos seguintes itens: situações e condições da edificação; equipamentos e utensílios; pessoal na área de produção / manipulação / venda; matérias-primas e produtos expostos à venda; fluxo de produção / manipulação / comercialização e controle de qualidade, além da obtenção de subsídios para elaboração de procedimentos adequados visando a qualidade em toda a fase de processamento da farinha de mandioca nesta região. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Vitória da Conquista, Belo Campo e Cândido Sales. O instrumento utilizado para coleta de dados foi a aplicação da “Ficha de Inspeção de Estabelecimentos na Área de Alimentos” (FIEAA, utilizada como modelo pelo Programa Alimentos Seguros, segmento indústria (PAS-INDÚSTRIA. A análise dos dados revelou deficiência em 100% das unidades de processamento da farinha de mandioca em todos os requisitos observados, comprovando a necessidade de medidas corretivas, visando garantir a inocuidade dos alimentos e a saúde do consumidor.

  11. Spatial patterns of diversity and genetic erosion of traditional cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in the Peruvian Amazon: an evaluation of socio-economic and environmental indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, L.; Scheldeman, X.; Soto Cabellos, V.; Salazar, S.R.; Guarino, L.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates quantitatively the suitability of the use of site-specific socio-economic and environmental data as indicators to rapidly assess patterns of diversity and genetic erosion risk in cassava. Socio-economic data as well as farmers¿ estimation of genetic erosion were collected in the

  12. Comparison of methods for phenotypic stability analysis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz genotypes for yield and storage root dry matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare different phenotypic stability methods by using yield and storage root dry matter content data of eight cassava genotypes, assessed in eight environments in northwest of Paraná State, Brazil. All the methodologies applied showed to be able to study the stability of cassava genotypes, but each with its peculiarities. The methodologies of Eskridge, Annicchiarico and Lin and Binns were the most appropriated on situation with smaller effect of G x E interaction. The AMMI analysis and the Toler and Burrows methodology were the most specific on detailing specific adaptations of cassava genotypes to favorable and unfavorable environments. It could be suggested to use simultaneous AMMI analysis and Toler and Burrows methodology. The clone IAC 190-89 was the most promising.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar diferentes metodologias de análise de estabilidade fenotípica considerando produção e teor de matéria seca nas raízes tuberosas de oito genótipos de mandioca, avaliados em oito ambientes na região Noroeste do Paraná. Todas as metodologias aplicadas se mostraram aptas no estudo da estabilidade dos genótipos avaliados, cada uma delas com suas particularidades. As metodologias de Eskridge, Annicchiarico e Lin e Binns se mostraram mais adequadas para situações de menor efeito da interação G x A. A análise AMMI e a metodologia de Toler e Burrows propiciaram um melhor detalhamento das adaptações específicas dos genótipos a ambientes favoráveis e desaforáveis. É sugerido o uso simultâneo da análise AMMI e da metodologia de Toler e Burrows. O clone IAC 190-89 mostrou-se mais promissor.

  13. Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Godoy, Ronoel; Pacheco, Sidney; Carvalho, José; Nutti, Marília

    2013-03-01

    The effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of all-trans-beta-carotene in biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots have not been investigated, although these are conventional methods of cassava preparation. The aims of the present study were to investigate beta-carotene micellarization efficiency of yellow-fleshed BRS Jari cassava roots after boiling and frying, as an indicator of the bioaccessibility of this carotenoid, and to apply fluorescence microscopy to investigate beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction. Uncooked, boiled, and fried cassava roots were digested in vitro for the evaluation, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), of the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-beta-carotene in BRS Jari cassava roots. Fluorescence microscopy of the micellar fraction was used to confirm the presence of beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction and to observe the structure of the microemulsion from the boiled and fried cassava samples. Fried cassava roots showed the highest (p < .05) micellarization efficiency for total carotenoids and all-trans-beta-carotene (14.1 +/- 2.25% and 14.37 +/- 2.44%, respectively), compared with boiled and raw samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that after in vitro digestion there were no carotenoid crystals in the micellar fraction, but rather that this fraction presented a biphasic system compatible with emulsified carotenoids, which was consistent with the expected high bioavailability of beta-carotene in this fraction. Increased emulsification and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from fried biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots compensates for chemical losses during preparation, indicating that this preparation is suitable for home use of BRS Jari cassava roots and might represent a relatively good food source of bioavailable provitamin A.

  14. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  15. Estudio preliminar de herencia del contenido de carotenoides en raíces de poblaciones segregantes de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Yacenia Morillo C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de vitamina A es un problema de enormes consecuencias en la salud pública de muchos países en desarrollo. El perfeccionamiento y difusión de variedades con altos contenidos de carotenoides provitamina A es una estrategia para resolver este problema. La yuca es un cultivo relevante en muchas regiones del mundo cuyos habitantes padecen deficiencia crónica y generalizada de vitamina A. A pesar de que se ha logrado incrementar significativamente el contenido total de carotenoides (CTC en raíces de yuca mediante el mejoramiento genético, es poco lo que se conoce sobre la herencia de CTC. En este estudio se analizaron numerosas familias de hermanos completos y S1 (resultantes de autofecundaciones. La heredabilidad, estimada por regresión padre-progenies, resultó ser alta (> 0.60 y el análisis de las segregaciones no permitió definir patrones de segregación mendeliana simple que explicaran la variación en todas las familias. Sin embargo, hay suficiente evidencia para plantear la hipótesis de que la herencia es relativamente simple y depende de dos o tres genes mayores, cuya expresión es afectada por unos pocos genes modificadores menores. Se propone que al menos uno de los genes mayores inhibiría la acumulación de carotenoides.

  16. The effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokerya, S; Waller, P J; Try, P; Höglund, J

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of long-term feeding of fresh or ensiled cassava foliage on gastrointestinal parasite in goats was evaluated. Eighteen male goats (15.15 +/- 2.83 kg and between 4-6 months) were randomly allocated into three treatments supplemented with 200 g of wheat bran head(-1) day(-1). All groups were fed ad-libitum on either grass (CO), fresh cassava (CaF) or ensiled cassava foliage (CaS). At the beginning of the trial, each goat was inoculated with 3000 L3 containing approximately 50% Haemonchus contortus. Individual LWt, FEC and PCV were measured at weekly intervals for 10 weeks. At the termination of the experiment all goats were slaughtered for worm recovery and enumeration. The goats in CaF and CaS had similar weight gains while those in CO lost weight (p ensiled cassava foliage reduced the H. contortus population while the fresh foliage only reduced worm fecundity.

  17. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  18. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE POLLINAZA SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y FERMENTATIVAS DEL ENSILADO DE SUBPRODUCTOS AGROINDUSTRIALES DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta

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    Jose Arce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de 0, 5, 10, 15 y 20% de pollinaza al subproducto de yuca en el proceso de ensilaje. Tanto las características de composición nutricional como las fermen - tativas fueron evaluadas. Se determinó que la adición de pollinaza favorece significativamente el incremento de MS, PC, EE, Ce, Ca, FDN, FDA, Cel y Hem en el ensilado, sin encontrar tendencias claras en el contenido de lignina. Por el contrario, la adición de pollinaza promovió un efecto detrimental en la concentración de CNF y en la DIVMS del ensilado. Se evaluaron además el pH, la capacidad amortiguadora, el contenido de nitrógeno amoniacal y las carac - terísticas sensoriales del ensilado en función del nivel de pollinaza. El pH mostró una tendencia al aumento conforme la adición de pollinaza, mien - tras la capacidad amortiguadora y el nitrógeno amoniacal se incrementaron significativamente al aumentar la proporción de pollinaza utilizada. La evaluación organoléptica dio como resultado mejores características en los tratamientos con mayor contenido de subproducto avícola, debido a un leve olor alcohólico en los tratamientos con menor contenido de pollinaza y la ausencia de aroma amoniacal en los 5 tratamientos estudia - dos. Se definió el nivel de 10% de pollinaza como el mejor en términos de características nutricio - nales y fermentativas del material obtenido.

  19. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-Slash and Burn [NSB]. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on sprouting percentage in 1994 but in 1995, HP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than others. Tillage had no marked effect on cassava height in both years while number of leaves only differed significantly (P < 0.05 8 months after planting with HP treatment being higher than others. Stem girth showed no marked differences among treatments in both years. Similarly, in both years, cassava fresh root yield and yield components were not significantly affected by tillage practices. NSB showed significantly higher soil bulk density at planting in both years than other treatments. Generally, soil chemical properties were not markedly affected by the tillage practices. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while RG produced the highest returns. The study suggests that successful growing of cassava under reduced tillage practices is practicable in an Alfisol in this agro-ecological zone.

  20. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, NU.; Aiyellari, EA.; Agboola, AA.

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-...

  1. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino,Fábio Pereira; Monteiro,Valdirene Neves; Asquieri,Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  2. KEMAMPUAN REPRODUKSI TUNGAU PREDATOR FAMILI PHYTOSEIIDAE PADA BERBAGAI KEPADATAN TETRANYCHUS URTICAE DAN POLEN TANAMAN DI SEKITAR TANAMAN SINGKONG (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

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    Bambang Heru Budianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The predatory mite of Phytoseiidae family have extensive cruising range that is not only found in cassava, but also a variety of weeds in cassava plants, such as Ageratum conyzoides and Cyperus cyperus. Extensive cruising range is also well explain the survival rate of the Phytoseiidae family at the time of the density of T. urticae decreased. The research objective is to determine the development period, fecundity and survival rate of Phytoseiidae predatory mite populations at different relative densities T. urticae and pollen. The research method used is an experimental laboratory. The procedure include the provision of A. conyzoides and C. rotundus pollen, the multiplication of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae, the determination of the development period, fecundity and survival rate of predatory mite families Phytoseiidae. The results showed that the length of time the development of predatory mites Amblyseius sp. and Phytoseius sp. faster one day of feeding on egg T. urticae feeding compared to the two types of pollen. Predatory mites survival rate Phytoseius sp. higher than the predatory mites Amblyseius sp. eggs fed T. urticae and both types of pollen. Similarly, the fecundity Phytoseius sp. higher than the mites Amblyseius sp. either fed eggs T. urticae as well as to two types of pollen.

  3. Effect Of Explant Source And Different Medium Culture On Friable Embryogenic Callus Induction Of Four Cultivars Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

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    Simplice Prosper Yandia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC for protoplast isolation we have evaluated in this research the competance for Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC of four cassava cultivars M61033 Rendre Yalipe and Six-mois in media containing MS supplemented with 8mgl 24-D MS supplemented with 10 mgl BAP and GD supplemented with 12mgl picloram using apical bud AB and immature leaves lobes ILL as explants. In general in the medium GD12mgl picloram the highest efficiencies of FEC ranged from 58 to 87 and the highest score of FEC ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 with explants AB however we have observed with explants ILL the efficiencies of somatic embryos ranged form 41 to 75 and the score ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. The mediums MS28 mgl 24-D have induced with explants AB the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 43 to 57 and the score ranged from 3.1 to 3.8 however with ILL explants the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 39 to 49 and the score ranged from 2.9 to 3.7. The least FEC were observed in the medium MS210 mgl BAP with BA explants however the efficiencies ranged from 6 to 11 and the score ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Whereas the efficiencies of FEC with ILL explants ranged from 4 to 7 and the score ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. All of four cultivars showed capability of producing FEC although their efficiency varied according to gonotype donors explants and medium taking into acount. Abbreviations GD Gressoff and Doy MS Murashige and Skoog 24-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid BAP Benzylamino-purin-Acid AB Apical Bud ILL Immature Leaves lobes

  4. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Agrobiodiversity and ethnoknowledge in Gleba Nova Olinda I, Pará: social interactions and sharing of manioc's germplasm (Manihot Esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae

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    Pedro Glécio Costa Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern of ethnobiology is to understand the social relations that favor the occurrence and expansion of biological diversity in the Neotropic. This article evaluates the richness of ethnovarieties of cassava cultivated in communities located in public forest lands named Gleba Nova Olinda I, Pará State, Brazil. Data were obtained in workshops with 46 informants, and were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. There are at least 52 manioc ethnovarieties on this site and germplasm sharing occurs both inside and outside the community. The knowledge improvement on this agrobiological resource by community members shows the important role that the inhabitants play in biological conservation of Gleba Nova Olinda I. Thus, support to local development should be grounded on ethnoknowledge.

  6. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  7. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  8. Morphological Variation, ITS and EF-1α Gene Nucleotide Polymorphism in Gyromitra esculenta (Discinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, Halil; SEVINDIK, Emre; GÜNGÖR, Mehrican YARATANAKUL; COŞKUN, Fatih; IŞILOĞLU, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. has many morphologically and microscopically different specimens. Sometimes these morphologically different specimens are called as a different taxon. In this study a collection of 143 Gyromitra esculenta specimens were analyzed using macroscopic and microscopic features. Then ten groups were obtained which are potentially confusable because of morphological and microscopical variations. nrDNA ITS and translation elongation factor (EF-1α) genes are used to dete...

  9. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  10. Cloning, expression, and characterization of soluble starch synthase I cDNA from taro (Colocasia esculenta Var. esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Gin; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2005-10-05

    Soluble starch synthase I (SSSI) cDNA was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends reaction. The transcript of this single-copy gene is 2340 bp and encodes 642 amino acids protein containing a putative transit peptide of 54 residues. Recombinant SSSI protein displayed both primer-dependent and primer-independent activities of starch synthase. More SSSI transcript was expressed in taro leaves than in tubers, with no evident expression in petioles; and more transcript and protein were found in tubers of 597 +/- 37 g of fresh weight than in smaller or larger ones. Two forms of SSSI, i.e., 72 and 66 kDa, exist in leaves, and only the 66 kDa form was found in tubers. The taro SSSI, proposed as a novel member, was located only in the soluble fraction of tuber extract, while SSSI from other sources exist in both soluble and granule-bound forms.

  11. Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-04-15

    Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tumor induction with hexanal methylformylhydrazone of Gyromitra esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Taylor, J; Gannett, P

    1991-08-01

    Hexanal methylformylhydrazone (HMFH) was administered to Swiss mice by intragastric instillations at weekly intervals of 52 times at 50 or 100 micrograms/g body weight. The treatment induced tumors of the lungs, liver and preputial glands. The tumor incidences in the group that received the lower dose were 74, 4 and 0% in females and 78, 8 and 6% in the males. In the group with the higher dose, the incidences were 90, 28 and 0% in females and 70, 6 and 86% in males. The corresponding tumor incidences in the untreated animals were 26, 0 and 0% in females and 26, 0 and 0% in males. The histopathological examination revealed adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, benign hepatomas and liver cell carcinomas, and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas and adenomas of preputial glands. HMFH is the sixth carcinogenic ingredient found in one of the false morel mushrooms, Gyromitra esculenta. Because this fungus is considered edible, the health hazard implications cannot be discounted.

  13. Carcinogenesis by pentanal methylformylhydrazone of Gyromitra esculenta in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Raha, C R

    1987-05-01

    Pentanal methylformylhydrazone (PMFH) given in propylene glycol as 52 weekly intragastric instillations on a 50 micrograms/g body weight basis, induced tumors of the lungs, liver and preputial glands in Swiss mice. The tumor incidences in these tissues were 72, 16 and 0% in the treated females, while these tumor incidences in the males of this group were 60, 2 and 12%, respectively. The corresponding tumor incidences in the propylene glycol instilled solvent control females were 26, 0 and 0%, whereas in the males of this group they were 22, 0 and 0%, respectively. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs, benign hepatomas and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas of the preputial glands. Pentanal methylformylhydrazone is an ingredient of the edible wild mushroom Gyromitra esculenta which is consumed by a segment of the human population around the world.

  14. Isolation and characterization of isolectins from Talisia esculenta seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M G; Machado, O L; Smolka, M B; Marangoni, S; Novello, J C; Macedo, M L

    2001-08-01

    Four isolectins (TEL-I, TEL-II, TEL-III and TEL-IV) were isolated from seeds of Talisia esculenta by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. RP-HPLC was performed on a u-Bondapack C18 column (0.78 cm x 30 cm) (Waters 991-PDA system) at room temperature. Rechromatography of the four fractions on a C18 column under the same conditions yielded lectins with two dissimilar subunits (Mr 20 kDa and 40 kDa) bound noncovalently. The isolectins showed very similar characteristics, such as molecular masses, N-terminal sequences, and hemagglutinating activity, but differed in their isoelectric points and in inhibition by carbohydrates.

  15. Neuropharmacological activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin; Sheth, Navin

    2010-11-01

    Although Colocasia esculenta Linn. (Araceae), commonly known as elephant ear (English), possesses diverse pharmacological activities in animals, little is known about its neuropharmacological activity. The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological activities of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta (HECE) using several experimental models. Adult Wistar albino rats were subjected to behavior despair and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Thiopental-induced sedation and rotarod tests were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The effects of HECE on anxiety, depression, thiopental-induced sleeping time, and rotarod performance were evaluated. The anxiolytic activity of HECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) per os (p.o.) was characterized by increased time spent and number of entries in open arms in the EPM paradigm as compared to control group (p < 0.001). The HECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent significant reduction in duration of immobility (p < 0.01) in the behavior despair test. The HECE at the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to produce a significant reduction in motor coordination (p < 0.001) and prolongation of thiopental-induced sleeping time (p < 0.001). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, β-sitosterol, and steroids. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses neuropharmacological activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the neurobehavioral activity of the constituents from this plant.

  16. Dynamic changes of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot different organs at different growth periods by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Du, Leyue; Tao, Jinhua; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jinao

    2017-08-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus has been clinically used to treat chronic kidney disease, oral ulcers, burns, and dysmenorrhea in China for many centuries. The major pharmacologically-active components of A. manihot are flavonoids. In this study, a rapid and highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS analysis method was established and successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of five major flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and myricetin) in different parts of A. manihot harvested at ten growth periods. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, good separation for five target components was obtained on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column within 18min. The total contents of the five investigated flavonoids in A. manihot roots, stems, leaves and flowers ranged from 2.86 to 123.7μg/g, 46.39 to 141.0μg/g, 929.4 to 3096μg/g, and 10,150 to 19,390μg/g, respectively, indicating that the total flavonoids in the four parts could be mainly arranged in a decreasing order as flower>leaf>stem>root. The peak of total flavonoids in flowers and leaves appeared at G8 and G9, respectively. These results will be helpful for the determination of the suitable harvest time of A. manihot and the improvement of the utility value of the disused parts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Rajnesh; Taylor, Mary; Tyagi, Anand

    2006-01-01

    In vitro shoot-tips of three cultivars of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Different conditioning treatments were required for each of the cultivars, while the vitrification protocol was constant for all. For the cultivars E399 and CPUK, shoot-tips from three-month-old in vitro plants grown on solidified MS were preconditioned on MS with 0.3 M sucrose in the dark for 16 h at 25 degree C. For the cultivar TNS, donor plants were preconditioned on solid MS with 90 g per liter sucrose for seven weeks before cryopreservation. For vitrification, the shoot-tips were loaded with a solution of 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degree C, dehydrated with PVS2 for 12 min at 25 degree C and plunged in liquid nitrogen. Vials were warmed by rapid shaking in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min 30. Shoot-tips were rehydrated in liquid MS with 1.2 M sucrose for 15 min at 25 degree C then plated on recovery medium. Shoot-tips resumed growth within a week and developed into plantlets six to eight weeks later without any callus formation. The best mean recoveries for the three cultivars were 21, 29 and 30 percent for E399, CPUK and TNS, respectively. This protocol was evaluated with five other taro cultivars with no success. However, this study has shown that vitrification has potential for cryopreserving tropical taro.

  18. Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 3, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    end of Lifuka in a coconut plantation with manioke ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ) and tall grass, 2.2/min (1000-1010 h). Only 3 collections were less...edulis (Inocarpus) 41 Enoplida 33 esculenta (Colocasia) 14 esculenta ( Manihot ) 43 Finlaya (subgenus) 13 futunae (Aedes) 6k, 8k, 9k, Map VIII, (16

  19. Talisia esculenta seed quality in function of drying temperatures and times

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    Edson Almeida Cardoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Talisia esculenta Radlk is a species of the Sapindaceae family native to the Amazon region. Its fruits are principally obtained by collecting in natura; its propagation is by seeds, which are of the recalcitrant type, with low longevity and sensitivity to dehydration. We evaluated the effects of different drying times and temperatures on T. esculenta seeds. The seeds were dried in a forced-air oven at 40, 45, and 50°C for periods of 0, 6, 12, 24, 30, and36 hours, using four replications of 25 seeds each. Tests were conducted to determine seed quality: moisture contents, emergence percentage, first counts, emergence speed index and the length and dry weight of the seedlings. The data was submitted to analysis of variance and polynomial regression, at a 5% level of probability. T. esculenta seeds should be dried at 40 or 45°C for no more than six hours for best initial seedling growth.

  20. Modelos para la estimación no destructiva del área foliar de dos cultivares de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz en la Argentina Models for non-destructive leaf area estimation of two cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz cultivars in Argentina

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    A.M. Burgos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La medición del área foliar (AF en mandioca es difícil de realizar, ya que sus hojas poseen lóbulos particularmente irregulares que precisan procedimientos meticulosos y lentos, y se requieren instrumentos sofisticados y costosos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue ajustar y evaluar modelos estadísticos predictivos para estimar, de manera simple y precisa, el AF de dos cultivares de mandioca cultivados en Corrientes, Argentina. En las diferentes muestras se determinaron las dimensiones lineales y el peso seco de las hojas. Se ajustaron ecuaciones de regresión lineal múltiple para estimar el AF mediante el método de selección de variables stepwise para dos cultivares de mandioca. El modelo seleccionado por su buen ajuste y precisión para estimar el área foliar fue: AF = ß0 + ß1.LP(cm +ß2.SLC(cm² ß3.ΣLL(cm , el cuál está basado en dimensiones no destructivas y de fácil medición. Dicho modelo requiere de diferentes estimaciones de sus parámetros para cada cultivar. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio demuestran que bajo las condiciones de evaluación, el área foliar puede ser estimada usando simples mediciones lineales, como ser la longitud del pecíolo, la sumatoria de la longitud de los lóbulos y la superficie del lóbulo central para ambos cultivares.It is difficult to make the measurement of the cassava leaf area (LA due to the irregular shape of the lobes which need meticulous, time consuming and tedious methods and demand sophisticated and expensive instruments. The aim of this research was to adjust and to evaluate simple and precise statistical predictive models in order to estimate the LA of two cassava cultivars grown in Corrientes, Argentina. In the different samples, leaves linear dimensions and leaf dry weight were determinated. Lineal regression equations for two cassava cultivars were tested to estimate LA though the stepwise variable selection method. The model selected due to its goodness of fit and precision to estimate LA was: LA = ß0 + ß1.PL(cm +ß2.CLA(cm² + ß3.ΣLL(cm , based on non-destructive and easy to measure dimensions. This model needs different estimations of the parameters for each cultivar. The results obtained in this research showed that under the evaluated conditions and for both cultivars, leaf area might be estimated using simple linear measurements, as petiole length, sum total of lobes length and central lobe area.

  1. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Varredura (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na Ração de Bezerros Holandeses.: 1. Desempenho e Parâmetros Sangüíneos Replacement of Corn for Cassava Meal (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the Holstein Calves Diets: 1. Performance and Blood Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Vieira Jorge

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%, base da matéria seca, sobre o consumo e conversão alimentar, ganho médio diário e níveis de hematócrito, glicose e uréia sanguíneos. Utilizaram-se 35 bezerros holandeses puros de origem ou puros por cruzamento, não castrados, com idade aproximada de 80 dias e peso vivo médio de 80 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade, até atingir o consumo de 4 kg/dia de concentrado. Como volumoso, foi utilizado feno inteiro de capim tifton 85. Os animais terminaram o experimento, com peso médio de 164 kg. A elevação dos níveis de substituição ocasionou uma resposta linear decrescente no consumo de matéria seca. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os ganhos diários para os dois primeiros períodos de 28 dias reduziram-se linearmente, com a elevação dos níveis de substituição, mas não diferiram no último período de 28 dias, apresentando valores estimados, variando de 0,93 a 0,68, 1,10 a 0,89 e 1,09 kg/dia, respectivamente. Os níveis de hematócrito, glicose e uréia não foram influenciados pelos níveis de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura.The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn for cassava meal (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, dry matter basis on the dry matter intake and feed:gain ratio, daily weight gain and levels of blood hematocrit, glucose and urea. Thirty five intact Holstein calves, averaging 80 days old and initial live weight of 80 kg, were allotted to a randomized block design and fed concentrate, ad libitum, to reach the intake of 4 kg/day. Tifton 85 bermudagrass was fed as roughage. The final average weight was of 164 kg. The dry matter intake showed a linear behavior as the replacement levels increased. The feed:gain ratio was not affected by the replacement levels. The daily weight gain for the two first periods of 28 days (period 1 and 2, respectively reduced as the replacement levels increased, but they were not affected in the last 28 days period (period 3, and the respective values ranged from 0.93 to 0.68, 1.10 to 0.89, and 1.09 kg/day. Levels of hematocrit, glucose and urea were not affected by the replacement of corn for cassava meal.

  2. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil Produção de xaropes de glicose e de fructose a partir de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantzusando enzimas produzidas por microorganismos isolados do solo de Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto do Nascimento Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA and glucose isomerase (GI producer sources. After characterization, GA and GI exhibited optimum pH 4.5 and 8.0, respectively. GA showed maximum activity at 60 ºC and GI at 85 ºC. GA and GI retained 65 and 80%, respectively, of initial activity after 180 minutes of incubation at 60 ºC. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmáx were 0.476 (mg.mL-1 and 8.58 (µmol/minute for GA and 0.082 (M and 48.20 (µmol/minute for GI. The maximum glucose syrups production occurred after 24 hours of reaction with a 98% yield. The production of fructose syrups with 42% (w/v was reached after 96 hours of reaction.A alta demanda por açúcares e o desenvolvimento da tecnologia enzimática têm aumentado a produção de adoçantes, principalmente xaropes de glicose e frutose. Este trabalho descreve uma tecnologia para a produção de xaropes de glicose e frutose a partir de amido de mandioca usando enzimas produzidas por microrganismos isolados do solo do Cerrado Brasileiro. Primeiramente, Aspergillus niger e Strepotmyces sp. foram isolados a partir do solo e usados como fontes produtoras de glicoamilase (GA e glicose isomerase (GI. Após caracterização GA e GI exibiram pH ótimo de 4,5 e 8,0, respectivamente. GA apresentou uma atividade máxima a 60 ºC enquanto que GI a 80 ºC. GA e GI mantiveram 65 e 80%, respectivamente, da atividade inicial, após 180 minutos de incubação a 60 ºC. Os parâmetros cinéticos Km e Vmáx foram 0,476 (mg mL-1 e 8,58 (µmol min-1 para GA e 0,082 (M e 48,20 (µmol min-1 para GI. A máxima produção de xarope de glicose ocorreu após 24 horas de reação com um rendimento de 98%. A produção de xarope de frutose com 42% (m/v foi alcançada após 96 horas de reação.

  3. Composição química de sementes de Manihot catingae Ule Chemical composition of Manihot catingae seeds

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    João Paulo Feijão Teixeira

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se sementes de Manihot catingae Ule, vulgarmente conhecida como maniçoba-brava ou maniçobeira-de-caatinga, coletadas de plantas existentes no Centro Experimental de Campinas, em dois anos consecutivos. Os resultados mostraram que as sementes contêm, em média, 11,6% de óleo e 8,5% de proteína na matéria seca. O óleo é composto dos ácidos graxos palmítico 8,5%, esteárico 1,3%, oléico 8,4%, linoléico 81,6% e linolênico 0,3%. Do óleo extraído, foi possível isolar ácido linoléico, principal constituinte, para utilização em análises químicas como substrato para a enzima lipoxigenase.Samples of Manihot catingae Ule seeds were collected in the Experimental Station of Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during two successive years. Seeds were analysed for protein, oil and fatty acids. On the average the seeds had 11.6% and 8.5% of oil and protein contents, respectively. The oil composition in fatty acids, was: palmitic 8.5%, stearic 1.3%, oleic 8.4%, linoleic 81.6%, and linolenic 0.3%. This fatty acid composition revealed the importance of this oil as a source of linoleic acid for analytical chemical purposes, which was isolated and used as substrate for the lipoxygenase enzyme.

  4. Formation of methylhydrazine from acetaldehyde N-methyl-N-formylhydrazone, a component of Gyromitra esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, D; Wallcave, L; Toth, B; Kupper, R

    1977-09-01

    Gyromitrin, acetaldehyde N-methyl-N-formylhydrazone, is a toxin present in edible wild mushroom Gyromitra esculenta. At 37 degrees under different acidic conditions (pH 1 to 3), mimicking the milieu of human stomach, gyromitrin is converted to methylhydrazine, a known tumor inducer in mice and hamsters, through an intermediate, N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine. In addition, methylhydrazine is formed in the mouse stomach after p.o. administration of gyromitrin. These findings imply that consumption of G. esculenta could present a carcinogenic, as well as an acutely toxic, health hazard.

  5. Detection and Identification of Dasheen mosaic virus Infecting Colocasia esculenta in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Binoy; Hegde, Vinayaka; Makeshkumar, T; Jeeva, M L

    2011-06-01

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the infected leaf samples of Colocasia esculenta plants showing severe whitish feathery symptoms were carried out using Potyvirus group specific primers, resulting in an amplicon of 327 bp, encoding the core region of the coat protein gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the virus is distinct, closely related to Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV). Sequence analysis revealed 86 and 96% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level respectively with the DsMV isolate SY1(accession Number AJ628756). This is the first molecular level characterisation of the DsMV infecting C. esculenta in India.

  6. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Chaïr

    Full Text Available Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements.

  7. Genetic Diversification and Dispersal of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaïr, H; Traore, R E; Duval, M F; Rivallan, R; Mukherjee, A; Aboagye, L M; Van Rensburg, W J; Andrianavalona, V; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A; Saborio, F; Sri Prana, M; Komolong, B; Lawac, F; Lebot, V

    2016-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas. However, its origin, diversification and dispersal remain unclear. While taro genetic diversity has been documented at the country and regional levels in Asia and the Pacific, few reports are available from Americas and Africa where it has been introduced through human migrations. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate the diversity and diversification of taro accessions from nineteen countries in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and America. The highest genetic diversity and number of private alleles were observed in Asian accessions, mainly from India. While taro has been diversified in Asia and the Pacific mostly via sexual reproduction, clonal reproduction with mutation appeared predominant in African and American countries investigated. Bayesian clustering revealed a first genetic group of diploids from the Asia-Pacific region and to a second diploid-triploid group mainly from India. Admixed cultivars between the two genetic pools were also found. In West Africa, most cultivars were found to have originated from India. Only one multi-locus lineage was assigned to the Asian pool, while cultivars in Madagascar originated from India and Indonesia. The South African cultivars shared lineages with Japan. The Caribbean Islands cultivars were found to have originated from the Pacific, while in Costa Rica they were from India or admixed between Indian and Asian groups. Taro dispersal in the different areas of Africa and America is thus discussed in the light of available records of voyages and settlements.

  8. Resistência genética à podridão amarga em maçãs, determinada pela taxa de desenvolvimento da doença em frutos com e sem ferimentos Genetic resistance to bitter rot on apples determined by the development rate of the disease on fruits with and without wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Denardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A maçã é um dos mais importantes produtos agrícolas de Santa Catarina e a segunda mais importante fruteira de clima temperado do Brasil. No entanto, a produção brasileira está alicerçada em cultivares importadas suscetíveis a diversas doenças. A podridão amarga causada pelo fungo Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman Spaulding & Schrenk, (forma imperfeita Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc. é uma das mais importantes doenças de verão, podendo causar perdas muito elevadas. No presente trabalho, a inoculação artificial de C. gloesporioides em frutos com e sem ferimentos objetivou verificar a diferença de evolução da podridão amarga e identificar possíveis fontes de resistência nas seleções e novas cultivares de macieira desenvolvidas pela Epagri. Verificou-se ampla variação na reação de resistência entre as cultivares e seleções estudadas. O estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento da podridão amarga mostrou-se muito mais rápido através de ferimentos. As seleções M-6/00 e M-13/00 manifestaram resistência superior à das atuais cultivares Gala, Fuji e Golden Delicious. Essas seleções também apresentaram resistência superior à cv. Melrose, indicada como resistente em outros estudos.Apple is one of the most important agricultural product of Santa Catarina State and represents the second most important temperate-zone fruit in Brazil. However the production is based on imported cultivars susceptible to many fungal diseases. Bitter rot caused by the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman Spaulding & Schrenk, (amorphous = Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., is one of the most important summer diseases of apple in southern Brazil. Severe damages may occur every year. In the present study, artificial inoculation of C. gloeosporioides on fruits with and without wounding was carried out to verify differences in the evolution of bitter rot and to identify sources of resistance to the disease among the new apple

  9. Radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotropin in the edible Frog Rana esculenta L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudry, Hubert; Leboulenger, Francois; Dupont, Willy; Vaillant, Rene

    1975-01-01

    In the green Frog (Rana esculenta) the plasma contains a polypeptide immunologically related to human and porcine corticotropins. A radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 4.10 -12 g hog ACTH has been used for a direct plasma ACTH assay in the Frog. Using this method the ACTH rate was determined both in untreated frogs and in animals under various experimental conditions [fr

  10. Karakterisasi talas (Colocasia esculenta berdasarkkan penanda morfologi dan pola pita isozim

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    SAJIDAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Karakterisasi talas (Colocasia esculenta berdasarkan penanda morfologi dan pola pita isozim. Bioteknologi 8: 32-41. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui: (i keragaman Colocasia esculenta berdasarkan karakter morfologi; (ii keragaman C. esculenta berdasarkan pola pita isozim, dan (iiii hubungan jarak genetik berdasarkan karakter morfologi dan pola pita isozim. Survei penelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Karanganyar, di ketinggian tinggi, sedang dan rendah. Sampel diambil menggunakan teknik random sampling purposif, mencakup 9 titik cuplikan. Data morfologi diuraikan secara deskriptif dan kemudian dibuat dendogram kekerabatan. Data pola pita isozim dianalisis secara kuantitatif berdasarkan ada atau tidaknya pita di gel, kemudian dibuat dendogramnya. Korelasi berdasarkan karakter morfologi dan pola pita isozim dianalisis berd asarkan korelasi koefisien momen-produk kriteria goodness of fit. Hasil penelitian menunjukan: (i di Karanganyar terdapat 10 varietas C. esculenta; (ii karakter morfologi tidak terpengaruh oleh ketinggian; (iii peroksidase membentuk 14 pola pita isozim, esterase membentuk 11 pola pita dan shikimate dehidrogenase membentuk 15 pola pita; (iv data morfologi dengan isozim peroksidase memiliki korelasi yang baik ( 0,893542288, sementara data morfologi dengan isozim esterase dan shikimate dehidrogenase memiliki korelasi yang sangat baik (0,917557716 dan 0,9121985446; (v data pola pita isozim mendukung data karakter morfologi.

  11. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  12. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreike, N.; Eck, van H.J.; Lebot, V.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were

  13. Characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers

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    SUGIYARTO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Characterization of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers. Nusantara Bioscience: 7-14. The aims of this research were to find out: (i the variety of Colocasia esculenta based on the morphological characteristics; (ii the variety of C. esculenta based on the isozymic banding pattern; and (iii the correlation of genetic distance based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern. Survey research conducted in the Karanganyar district, which include high, medium and low altitude. The sample was taken using random purposive sampling technique, including 9 sampling points. The morphological data was elaborated descriptively and then made dendogram. The data on isozymic banding pattern was analyzed quantitatively based on the presence or absence of bands appeared on the gel, and then made dendogram. The correlation based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern were analyzed based on the product-moment correlation coefficient with goodness of fit criterion. The result showed : (i in Karanganyar was founded 10 variety of C. esculenta; (ii morphological characteristics are not affected by altitude; (iii isozymic banding pattern of peroxides forms 14 banding patterns, esterase forms 11 banding patterns and shikimic dehydrogenase forms 15 banding patterns; (iv the correlation of morphological data and the isozymic banding pattern of peroxidase has good correlation (0.893542288 while esterase and shikimic dehydrogenase isozymes have very good correlation (0.917557716 and 0.9121985446; (v isozymic banding pattern of data supports the morphological character data.

  14. Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui F; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, Ana Margarida; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly known as taro, is an essential food for millions of people. The leaves are consumed in sauces, purees, stews, and soups, being also used in wound healing treatment. Nowadays, the consumers' demand for bioactive compounds from the diet led to the development of new agricultural strategies for the production of health-promoting constituents in vegetables. In this work, two strategies (variety choice and irrigation conditions) were considered in the cultivation of C. esculenta. The effect on the phenolic composition of the leaves was evaluated. Furthermore, a correlation between the biological activity of the different varieties and their chemical composition was established. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic composition were observed between varieties; furthermore, the irrigation conditions also influenced the composition. C. esculenta varieties were able to scavenge several oxidant species and to inhibit hyaluronidase, but data suggest that metabolites other than phenolics are involved. The results show that cultivation strategies can effectively modulate the accumulation of these types of bioactive compounds. Furthermore C. esculenta wound healing potential can be attributed, at least in part, to the protection of the wound site against oxidative/nitrosative damage and prevention of hyaluronic acid degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on Flowering Biology of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott.

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    MADE SRI PRANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An observation on flowering behaviour of 20 selected taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott. cultivars was conducted at the Germ Plasm Conservation Garden belonging to the Reserch Centre for Biotechnology of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong, Bogor Regency. The observation included the emergence of inflorescences, the number of inflorescences in a cluster, the opening of the inflorescence, maturity of pistilate and staminate flowers, and pollinating agents that might play role in the pollination process. The study was aimed at elucidating some baseline information that might be used as a base to carry out breeding programme for future cultivar improvement. The study indicated that the 20 cultivar studied may be divided into 3 cultivar groups, namely a Cultivars which fully did not appear to flower during the periode of obeservation, which includes Lampung, Enau, Siriwa, Ketan and Bentul biru, b Cultivars that produced only a few (not more than 3 inflorescences per cluster or per individul plant. This includes cultivars : Bogor, Bentul, Kaliurang and Ketan hitam and c Cultivars that were profusedly flowering (produced a lot of inflorescences, usually 4-5 inflorescences per cluster and several clusters in an individual plant. This includes cultivars : Sutera, Semir, Lampung hitam, Boring, Burkok, Berod, Lampung hitam, Lompong, Ketune dan Kudo. The cultivar Sutera produced flower quite readily, followed by Burkok. Apart from the few inflorescences it produced, the cultivar Kaliurang also produced rather abnormal shape of inflorescence with only a few pollen grains. Taro flowers proved to be protogenic since the atipulate flowers have become receptive 1-2 days prior to anther dehiscence. Pollination was due to the role of (Dacus dorsalis.

  16. High-resolution crystal structures of Colocasia esculenta tarin lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patricia R; Meagher, Jennifer L; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Paschoalin, Vânia M F; Silva, Joab T; Stuckey, Jeanne A

    2017-01-01

    Tarin, the Colocasia esculenta lectin from the superfamily of α-d-mannose-specific plant bulb lectins, is a tetramer of 47 kDa composed of two heterodimers. Each heterodimer possesses homologous monomers of ~11.9 (A chain) and ~12.7 (B chain) kDa. The structures of apo and carbohydrate-bound tarin were solved to 1.7 Å and 1.91 Å, respectively. Each tarin monomer forms a canonical β-prism II fold, common to all members of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) family, which is partially stabilized by a disulfide bond and a conserved hydrophobic core. The heterodimer is formed through domain swapping involving the C-terminal β-strand and the β-sheet on face I of the prism. The tetramer is assembled through the dimerization of the B chains from heterodimers involving face II of each prism. The 1.91 Å crystal structure of tarin bound to Manα(1,3)Manα(1,6)Man reveals an expanded carbohydrate-binding sequence (QxDxNxVxYx 4/6 WX) on face III of the β-prism. Both monomers possess a similar fold, except for the length of the loop, which begins after the conserved tyrosine and creates the binding pocket for the α(1,6)-terminal mannose. This loop differs in size and amino-acid composition from 10 other β-prism II domain proteins, and may confer carbohydrate-binding specificity among members of the GNA-related lectin family. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The genetic differentiation of Colocasia esculenta growing in gold mining areas with arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmee, Sirilak; Neeratanaphan, Lamyai; Tanee, Tawatchai; Khamon, Prodpran

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic is a heavy metal found in contaminated gold mining areas and which can affect plant and animal species. This study aims to determine the concentration of As in the aquatic plant Colocasia esculenta as well as this plant's genetic variability. Sediment and C. esculenta samples were collected from three studied sites at the edge of a stream around a gold mine. The arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples were analyzed using induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Genetic differentiations were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with dendrogram construction and analysis of genetic similarity (S). The results showed that the arsenic concentrations in sediment and C. esculenta samples ranged from 4.547 ± 0.318 to 229.964 ± 0.978 and 0.108 ± 0.046 to 0.406 ± 0.174 mg kg(-1), respectively. To compare the samples studied to the reference site, RAPD fingerprints from 26 primers successfully produced 2301 total bands used for dendrogram construction and S value analysis. The dendrogram construction separates C. esculenta into four clusters corresponding to their sampling sites. The S values of the studied sample sites compared to the reference site are 0.676-0.779, 0.739-0.791, and 0.743-0.783 for sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas the values of the individuals within each site are as high as 0.980. These results suggest that As accumulation in aquatic plant species should be of concern because of the potential effects of As on aquatic plants as well as humans.

  18. Arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Yaney, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area.

  19. Poisoning by Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Bezerra, Cícero W; Medeiros, Marcia A; da Silva, Tatiane R; Neto, Eldinê G Miranda; Medeiros, Rosane M T

    2014-05-01

    Talisia esculenta is a tree that produces pitomba, a fruit consumed by human beings in several regions of Brazil. The current study reports 3 outbreaks of poisoning by leaves and fruits of T. esculenta affecting sheep and cattle and the experimental reproduction of the disease in sheep. In the first investigated outbreak, sheep ingested the leaves of the plant; another outbreak affected cattle and sheep that ingested leaves and fruits; and in a third outbreak, sheep ingested only the fruits. The animals developed severe nervous signs, but most recovered. Poisoning was reproduced experimentally in 5 sheep by the administration of 30-60 g of leaves/kg body weight and in 2 sheep with doses of 5 and 10 g of seeds/kg body weight, respectively. No significant necropsy or histologic lesions were found. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. Characteristics and enhanced antioxidant activity of glycated Morchella esculenta protein isolate

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    Qiang ZHANG

    Full Text Available Abstract Morchella esculenta (L Pers. is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus that remains underutilized. For this study, the effects of glycation treatment on antioxidant activity and characteristics of the M. esculenta protein isolate (MPI were investigated via the Maillard reaction. Conjugation between MPI and xylose was proven via UV-vis, FT-IR, intrinsic fluorescence analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Amino acid analysis revealed involvement of lysine, arginine and tyrosine in MPI, forming a covalent cross-link with xylose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results showed that glycated MPI (MPIG possesses a more favorable thermal stability compared to native MPI (MPIN, heated MPI (MPIH and an unheated mixture of MPI and xylose (MPI-XM. MPIG exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant activity compared to MPIN, MPIH, and MPI-XM. These results indicate MPIG can serve as a promising novel source of nutraceutical and functional ingredients that exert antioxidant activity.

  1. [Impacts of digging Phascolosoma esculenta on the growth of mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings: a simulation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qin-Fei; Fan, Hang-Qing; Mo, Zhu-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Digging Phascolosoma esculenta to increase income is one of the main causes leading to the degradation of China mangroves. In order to understand the impact mechanisms of digging P. esculenta on the mangrove growth and to select indicators to evaluate the mangrove health, a simulative study was conducted to clarify the impacts of digging depth, radian, and frequency on the growth of 1-year old Avicennia marina seedlings, with the indices seedling height, basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, total biomass, and dead root dry mass measured. The results showed that digging activities decreased the increment of seedling height and basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, and total biomass significantly, and increased the dead root dry mass markedly. Digging depth and radian had obvious effects on the growth of A. marina seedlings, but digging frequency had minor effects. When the digging depth was 5 cm, the damage was quite serious.

  2. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and synergistic properties of two nutraceutical plants: Terminalia catappa L. and Colocasia esculenta L.

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDA, Sumitra; RAKHOLIYA, Kalpna; DHOLAKIA, Komal; BARAVALIA, Yogesh

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have been effective in treating infectious diseases, but resistance to these drugs has led to the emergence of new and reemergence of old infectious diseases. Using a combination of plant extracts and antibiotics is one way of combating these multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of 2 nutraceutical plants: Terminalia catappa and Colocasia esculenta. The antimicrobial activity of the plants was...

  3. Phylogenetic Analyses of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) and Related Species based on Esterase Isozymes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Viet Xuan; Yoshino, Hiromichi; Tahara, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the 84 accessions of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott), C gigantea Hook Alocasia macrorrhiza, A odora, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott and X. violaceum Schott were investigated using isozyme polymorphism of esterase. The phylogenetic tree estimated by the UPGMA analyses revealed that taro accessions formed a single cluster and C. gigantea was more closely related to Alocasia species than to taro. Taro accessions from Yunnan tended to share band patter...

  4. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

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    Chao Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  5. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

    2014-08-27

    The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 μM, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 μM). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  7. Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Gonçalves, Rui F; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Artur M S; Silva, João B; Santos, Delfim; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-18

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott, commonly called taro, is an ancient species selected for its edible tuber. Its huge "elephant ear" like leaves are also consumed in sauces and stews or as soups. Forty-one phenolic metabolites (11 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and 30 glycosylated flavonoids) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) in the leaves of two C. esculenta varieties cultivated in Azores Islands. To our knowledge, 34 of the 41 phenolic compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. Phenolics quantification was achieved by an HPLC-DAD accurate and sensitive validated method. Although the qualitative profile of the two varieties is quite similar, quantitative differences were observed between them. "Giant white" and "red" varieties (local denomination) contain, respectively, ca. 14 and 21% of phenolic acids, 37 and 28% of flavones mono-C-glycosides, 42 and 43% of flavones di-C-glycosides, 3 and 4% of flavones mono-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides, and both of them ca. 2% of flavones di-C-(O-glycosyl)glycosides and 2% of flavones-O-glycosides. Luteolin-6-C-hexoside was the compound present in higher amounts in both varieties. The established phenolic profile is an added value for the authenticity and quality control of C. esculenta and may be useful in the discrimination of its varieties.

  8. Dioscorea esculenta-induced increase in muscle sex steroid hormones is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-02-01

    The effects of chronic Dioscorea esculenta administration and exercise training on muscle sex steroid hormone levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes rats was assessed. Twenty-week-old male Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were assigned randomly to the control, D. esculenta treatment, D. esculenta with 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment, or the exercise training groups (running at 25 m/min for 1 h, 5 d/wk; n = 10 each group). Eight weeks of D. esculenta treatment or exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in plasma insulin and fasting glucose levels. Plasma and muscle concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the expression of 5α-reductase increased significantly in the D. esculenta-treated and exercise training groups, and both treatments led to the upregulation of glucose transporter-4 translocation with concomitant increases in PKB and PKC-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Furthermore, the glucose metabolic clearance rate, which represents insulin sensitivity, increased significantly in both the D. esculenta-treated and exercise training groups. These effects were suppressed by administration of the DHT synthetic inhibitor. Together, these findings suggest that the D. esculenta-induced increase in muscle sex steroid hormone levels helps decrease insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.-Sato, K., Fujita, S., Iemitsu, M. Dioscorea esculenta-induced increase in muscle sex steroid hormones is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in a type 2 diabetes rat model. © FASEB.

  9. Redução da severidade da podridão-amarga de maçã em pós-colheita pela imersão de frutos em quitosana Reduction of the severity of apple bitter rot by fruit immersion in chitosan

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    Ricardo Barbosa Felipini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação de quitosana no controle da podridão-amarga da maçã em pós-colheita e seus efeitos sobre Colletotrichum acutatum e a atividade da peroxidase nos frutos. Frutos previamente infectados com o patógeno foram imersos em suspensões de quitosana com diferentes concentrações e pHs. Para estudar possíveis mecanismos de ação envolvidos no controle da doença, foram realizados testes in vitro, para avaliar o efeito da quitosana sobre a germinação de conídios de C. acutatum e sobre o crescimento micelial. Foi avaliada a capacidade da quitosana de induzir a síntese de enzimas relacionadas à defesa da planta (peroxidases, por meio de ensaio espectrofotométrico. Houve efeito de doses e de pH da quitosana sobre a redução da severidade da podridão-amarga em maçã. A suspensão de quitosana a 10 g L-1 e pH 4 foi a mais apropriada tecnicamente para o controle da doença, pois reduziu a severidade em 26%. O polissacarídeo não elevou a atividade de peroxidases nos frutos, mas reduziu a germinação de conídios e o crescimento micelial do patógeno. A quitosana aplicada em pós-colheita é uma medida alternativa aos fungicidas para o manejo da podridão-amarga.The objective of this work was to evaluate the aplication of chitosan on the control of apple bitter rot in postharvest conditions and its effects on Colletotrichum acutatum and fruit peroxidase activity. Apple fruit previously infected with the pathogen were immersed in chitosan suspensions with different concentrations and pHs. To study some possible action mechanisms, in vitro tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on spore germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. The capacity of chitosan to induce the synthesis of defense enzymes (peroxidases was evaluated in fruits by spectrofotometric assay. Different doses and pH of chitosan were found to be effective in the reduction of the disease severity. Chitosan at

  10. Absorbtion Activity of Cassava Peel (Manihot utilissima as Chromium (VI Metal Biosorbent in Electroplating Waste

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    Iin Candrawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroplating is a process of metal veneering with another metal using the electric energy. The water waste of electroplating industry contains many kinds of heavy metal ions, especially chromium (Cr6+ which might cause pollutions if it's not processed and it presents above the threshold allowed . The use of cellulose can be a solution, because it has the functional groups which form bonding with the metal ions. Cassava peel is one of the sources of cellulose which contains 80-85% of cellulose. This proves that cassava peel (Manihot utilissimaI has the potential as the heavy metal biosorbent of chromium metal in electroplating waste. The methodology of the research is conducted in a series including analysis of heavy metal concentrations of chromium (VI in electroplating waste, biosorption treatment of cassava peel (Manihot utilissimaI biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M in electroplating waste with batch method, and analysis of heavy metal concentrations of chromium (VI in electroplating waste after biosorbtion process. Variation of biosorbent’s mass are (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 grams, and variation of biosorbent’s contact time are (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes. The result of the AAS (Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry shows that the level of total chromium in electroplating waste reaches 2.0777 ± 0.2785 ppm, so the chromium test solution used in this research is 2 ppm to know the optimum conditions of % chromium (VI absorbed with variation of mass and contact time. From the results of this research, the optimum mass and contact time of cassava peel biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M in % chromium (VI absorbed are 0.1 gram and 40 minute. Finally, the optimum mass and contact time of cassava peel biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M is applied to electroplating waste. The average of % chromium absorbed in electroplating waste with the addition of cassava peel biosorbent activated by HNO3 1.5 M is 61.72%.

  11. CUANTIFICACIÓN DE MERCURIO EN TERMOFORMADOS Y PELÍCULAS FLEXIBLES BIODEGRADABLES ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz POR ESPECTROMETRÍA DE ABSORCIÓN ATÓMICA QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE MERCÚRIO EM TERMOFORMADOS E PELÍCULAS FLEXÍVEIS BIODEGRADÁVEIS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz POR ESPECTROMETRIA DE ABSORÇÃO ATÔMICA QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN THERMOFORMED AND FLEXIBLE FILMS BIODEGRADABLE MADE FROM CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

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    ROBERTO JULIÁN DEL CASTILLO R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó el contenido de mercurio en siete muestras de termoformados y seis de películas flexibles biodegradables, por espectrometría de absorción atómica con vapor frío; previamente a ésta cuantificación, se realizó la implementación y estandarización del método analítico, en el cual se determinaron los parámetros de calidad estadística (Límite de detección y de cuantificación, intérvalo lineal, sensibilidad de calibración, precisión y exactitud, que establecieron el rendimiento del método. Los termoformados se digestaron con una mezcla HNO3:HClO4, relación 3:1, durante 3 horas a 70°C y las películas flexibles por 45 minutos a 50°C. Las muestras se cuantificaron por el método de curva de calibración a 253,7 nm, obteniéndose concentraciones de mercurio en el rango de no detectable a 60 µg/L en termoformados y de no detectable a 6 µg/L en las películas flexibles.Quantificamos o teor de mercúrio em sete amostras de termoformados e seis películas flexíveis biodegradáveis por espectrometria de absorção atômica com vapor frio; antes de esta medida, realizamos a implementação e padronização do método analítico, na qual os parâmetros de qualidade estatística foram determinados (limite de detecção e quantificação, faixa linear, sensibilidade de calibração, precisão e exatidão, que estabeleceu o desempenho do método. O digestor é termoformado com uma mistura HNO3:HClO4, uma proporção de 3:1 durante 3 horas a 70°C e filmes flexíveis por 45 min a 50°C. As amostras foram quantificadas pelo método da curva de calibração 253,7 nm, resultando em concentrações de mercúrio na faixa de não detectável a 60 mg/L em termoformados e não detectável a 6mg/L em filmes flexíveis.The mercury content of seven thermoformed and six biodegradable flexible films samples were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor; before the experiments, the statistical quality parameters were implemented and standardized (Detection and quantification limit, linear range, calibration sensitivity, precision and accuracy, who established the performance of the method. The thermoformed were digested with a mixture HNO3:HClO4, ratio 3:1, by 3 hours at 70°C and the flexible films by 45 minutes at 50°C. The calibration curve at 253.7 nm was the quantification method, obtaining concentrations of mercury in the range from not detectable to 60 µg/L in thermoformed and not detectable to 6 µg/L in the flexible films.

  12. CUANTIFICACIÓN DE MERCURIO EN TERMOFORMADOS Y PELÍCULAS FLEXIBLES BIODEGRADABLES ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) POR ESPECTROMETRÍA DE ABSORCIÓN ATÓMICA QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE MERCÚRIO EM TERMOFORMADOS E PELÍCULAS FLEXÍVEIS BIODEGRADÁVEIS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) POR ESPECTROMETRIA DE ABSORÇÃO ATÔMICA QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN THERMOFORMED AND FLEXIBLE FILMS BIODEGRADABLE MADE FROM CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO JULIÁN DEL CASTILLO R; MAITE DEL PILAR RADA-MENDOZA; OLGA LUCIA HOYOS S; HECTOR SAMUEL VILLADA C

    2012-01-01

    Se cuantificó el contenido de mercurio en siete muestras de termoformados y seis de películas flexibles biodegradables, por espectrometría de absorción atómica con vapor frío; previamente a ésta cuantificación, se realizó la implementación y estandarización del método analítico, en el cual se determinaron los parámetros de calidad estadística (Límite de detección y de cuantificación, intérvalo lineal, sensibilidad de calibración, precisión y exactitud), que establecieron el rendimiento del mé...

  13. Indução de resistência à podridão‑amarga em maçãs pelo uso de eliciadores em pós‑colheita Induction of resistance to bitter rot in apples by the use of elicitors in the postharvest

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    Douglas Alvarez Alamino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos eliciadores acibenzolar‑S‑metílico (ASM e proteína harpina, aplicados em pós‑colheita, na indução de resistência sistêmica à podridão‑amarga em maçãs. Realizaram-se ferimentos mecânicos em maçãs 'Royal Gala' seguidos da aplicação dos eliciadores. Doze horas depois, procedeu-se à inoculação do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Após 72 horas, realizaram-se as avaliações quanto à área lesionada e ao número de esporos, bem como a coleta de tecido dos frutos para quantificação de proteínas, açúcares totais e redutores, fenóis totais, e para determinação da atividade das enzimas fenilalanina amônia‑liase, superóxido dismutase, catalase, peroxidase e ascorbato peroxidase. A harpina e, em menor grau, o ASM proporcionaram aumento da atividade da enzima peroxidase e a consequente redução da área lesionada e da esporulação de C. gloeosporioides nas maçãs. Esses eliciadores podem ser utilizados como ferramenta de controle no manejo integrado da podridão‑amarga, em pós‑colheita de maçãs 'Royal Gala'.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the protein elicitors acibenzolar‑S‑methyl (ASM and harpin, applied during the postharvest handling, on a systemic resistance induction to bitter rot on apple. Mechanical injury were made on 'Royal Gala' apples, followed by application of the elicitors. Twelve hours later, inoculation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was performed. Seventy‑two hours later, evaluations were done for the injured area and the number of spores, and tissue samples were taken to determine the contents of proteins, total and reducing sugars, total phenolics, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia‑lyase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes. Harpin, and to a lesser extent, ASM increased the activity of peroxidase enzyme and, in consequence, reduced the injured area

  14. System for continuous production of cassava (Manihot sculenta Crantz. in the municipality of Trinidad.

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    Osdany de la Caridad Pérez González

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sancti Spiritus province there are limitations in the potential of cassava (Manihot sculenta Crantz. with the yield that doesn´t guarantee the alimentary supply to the population, this is reflected with more dimension in the municipality of Trinidad, one of the edges that can solve this problem is a handling of clones that will guarantee a self sufficiency of the municipality, so the objective of this work is to establish a staggered sowing system in the cultivation of cassava, using different existent clones in the city, having in mind its cycles and its agro production characteristic that will allow to elevate yields for hectare and to elevate the production volumes in correspondence with the population in the municipality of Trinidad. As a result was obtained a production in tons for hectares of the satisfactory tuber using four clones: CMC 40 of 6 to 8 months of consumption, belonging to plantations of short cycle, INIVIT AND-93-4 and it INIVIT Y-93-4 CENSA 74-725 of the 8 months of having sowed until the 11 months, belonging to plantations of short cycle and half respectively and the miss of consumption from 10 until the 11 months of having sowed of late cycle, this satisfied in different times of the year yucca´s production for the population's consumption in the Cooperative CPA of Agricultural Production "Pedro Lantigua."

  15. Repertório botânico da "Pitombeira" (Talisia esculenta (A. ST.-HIL.) Radlk. - Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GUARIM NETO, Germano; SANTANA, Santina Rodrigues; SILVA, Josefa Valdete Bezerra

    2003-01-01

    Os autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com o estudo de Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), denominada principalmente de "pitomba" ou "pitombeira", envolvendo aspectos botânicos referentes à morfologia, taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e respectivos usos. A espécie é bastante difundida no Brasil, sendo que nas regiões norte e nordeste o seu uso é intenso. The authors present results on research with Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae) commonly know ...

  16. Short synthesis of 3-(hydroxymethyl)xylitol and structure revision of the anti-diabetic natural product from Casearia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruomeng; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    3-(Hydroxymethyl)xylitol, a compound reportedly isolated from the root of Casearia esculenta (Roxb.), along with its three possible stereoisomers, has been synthesized for the first time by way of a triple dihydroxylation reaction performed upon the simplest cross-conjugated hydrocarbon, [3]dendralene. The data for the natural product do not match any of the isomeric 3-(hydroxymethyl)pentitols. The structure of the natural product from the root of Casearia esculenta (Roxb.) has been corrected by reanalysis of the published data.

  17. Cassava tissue culture and long-term preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is cultivated mainly for its starchy roots as an important staple food for the tropics. M. esculenta is the only cultivated species in the genus Manihot, which contains 98 species, mostly native to Brazil. In recent years several research groups have reported metho...

  18. pmker 24(3)\\KIMULUNGUI BS.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    ISOLATION OF MICROORGANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CASSAVA ROOT ROT (Manihot esculentaCRANTZ) IN GABON. Soft and dry root rot are mainly ... absent in savannas. Key words : Manihot esculenta, microorganisms, dry rot, soft rot, ecosystem. ..... Culturelle et Technique,. Presses universitaires de France, 172 p.

  19. Using Colocasia esculenta L. meal in feed for pigs and its effect on production parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragadvay-Yungán Ramón Gonzalo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was made in order to determine the effects on production by incorporating Chinese potato flour (Colocasia esculenta L. as a raw material in the production of pig diets post weaning parameters, taking into account production costs. In this sense balanced three formulations including 10, 20 and 30% flour Colocasia esculenta L. (B1-B2 and B3 respectively, to be compared against a standard formulation (B0 was developed. 16 pigs Large White x Pietrain 30 days old and live weight 7-10 kg were used. The experiment was conducted under a split plot design, distributed in 4 treatments and 4 replicates with two replicas. The results were analyzed with the statistical package Minitab 2000. As for the results, a final weight of 25.28 kg is reported, for the treatment B2 (20% flour Colocasia esculenta L, while for B1, B0 B3 and weights of 24.19 kg was found; 23.44 kg; and 22.87 kg respectively. A similar behavior was observed in weight gain, showing B2: 15.93 kg, statistically different (p <0.05 versus 14.47 kg, 13.88 kg and 13.36 kg corresponding to B1, B0 and B3. As regards B2 feed conversion showed a value of 1.30 that differ statistically (p <0.05 when compared with B0: 1.39, B1: B3 1.43 and 1.48. Moreover, the treatment B3 showed a net profit than other treatments worth $ 338.17.

  20. Induksi Tunas Ubi Kayu (Mannihot EsculentaCrantz.) Var. Adira 2 secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Khumaida, Nurul; Fauzi, Ahmad Rifqi

    2013-01-01

    The research aim was to evaluate the effect of culture medium compositon and BAP concentration on growth and shoot multiplication of in vitro-grown cassava (Mannihot esculentaCrantz.) var. €˜Adira 2€™. The experimental design was completely randomize design with two factors. The first factor was composition of basal medium including MS and ½ MS (half of macro and micro nutrients), and the second factor was concentration of BAP (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 ppm). The result showed that basal medium M...

  1. STORAGE OF PITOMBEIRA SEEDS [Talisia esculenta (A. St. Hil) Radlk - SAPINDACEAE] IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS AND PACKAGINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Sena, Lúcia Helena de Moura; Matos, Valderez Pontes; Medeiros, Jamile Érica de; Santos, Helder Henrique Duarte; Rocha, Ana Patrícia; Ferreira, Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of packaging, environments, and storage periods on physiological quality of Talisia esculenta (A. St. Hil.) Radlk seeds. Seeds were conditioned in PET transparent bottle, Kraft paper bag, and transparent polyethylene bag; they were stored in chamber (18 °C; 50% RH), in freezer (-21 ± 2 °C; 95% RH), and under laboratory natural environment (28 ± 5 °C; 65% RH). They were evaluated at the 0, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 100th storage day for moisture con...

  2. A microsatellite-based method for genotyping diploid and triploid water frogs of the Rana esculenta hybrid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager

    2005-01-01

    Rana esculenta is a hybrid between Rana lessonae (LL) and Rana ridibunda (RR), and hybrids may be diploid (LR) or triploid (LLR or LRR). Genotypes can be roughly determined from erythrocyte size and morphometry in adult frogs, but accurate genotyping requires more labourious methods. Here I...

  3. Cancer induction in mice by feeding the raw false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Patil, K; Pyysalo, H; Stessman, C; Gannett, P

    1992-04-15

    One of the false morel mushrooms, Gyromitra esculenta, was administered p.o. to Swiss mice that were 6 weeks old at the beginning of the experiment. The mushrooms were fed to the mice for 3 days and were followed by a semisynthetic diet for 4 days each week for life. The treatment induced tumors in the lungs, nasal cavity, blood vessels, forestomach, glandular stomach, cecum, and liver in the following incidences: 80, 10, 50, 16, 4, 28, and 6% in females, and 70, 12, 32, 18, 20, 22, and 12% in males. In the untreated controls, the corresponding tumor incidences were 28, 0, 14, 0, 0, 8, and 0% in females and 38, 0, 6, 0, 0, 8, and 2% in males. The light microscopic examination revealed the typical appearance of adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of nasal cavities, hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas of blood vessels, squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the glandular stomach, polypoid adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the cecum, and hepatomas. The work demonstrates the carcinogenic action of the raw G. esculenta mushroom.

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year. Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta. This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  5. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively).

  6. Optimization of Fe2+Removal from Coal Mine Wastewater using Activated Biochar ofColocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; LaminKa-Ot, Augustine; Joshi, S R; Mandal, Tamal; Halder, Gopinath

    2017-09-01

      The present study investigates the sorptive removal of Fe2+ from simulated coal mine waste water using steam activated biochar (SABC) developed from the roots of Colocasia esculenta. The process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) under the influence of pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage and contact time at a constant shaking speed of 180 rpm with an initial concentration of 3 mg/L. The uptake performance of the biosorbent was assessed following a 24 full factorial experimental matrix developed by central composite design approach. Adsorbent was characterised by SEM, EDAX, XRD and B.E.T surface area analyzer. Maximum removal of 72.96% of Fe2+ was observed at pH 7.75, temperature 37.5 °C, adsorbent dosage 1.5 g/L for a time period of 180 mins. The study suggested that SABC prepared from roots of Colocasia esculenta could be used as an efficient and cost effective sorbent for removal of Fe2+ from coal mine wastewater.

  7. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  8. Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel powder prepared from Colocasia esculenta leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkeeran, E; Saranya, N; Giri Nandagopal, M S; Santhiagu, A; Selvaraju, N

    2016-08-02

    In this study, batch removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by powdered Colocasia esculenta leaves was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of adsorption of Cr(VI) at different pH values, initial concentrations, agitation speeds, temperatures, and contact times. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis. The biosorptive capacity of the adsorbent was dependent on the pH of the chromium solution in which maximum removal was observed at pH 2. The adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated for various adsorption isotherm models, kinetic models, and thermodynamics. The equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey models. The adsorption capacity calculated was 47.62 mg/g at pH 2. The adsorption kinetic data were best described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, Colocasia esculenta leaves can be considered as one of the efficient and cheap biosorbents for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

  9. Characterization of a saccharide-binding protein from Talisia esculenta seeds with trypsin inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria das Graças M; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Oliveira, Marcos Vinïcius; Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário de Souza; Macedo, Maria Lïgia R

    2009-01-01

    Some proteins exhibit characteristics that suggest they have a primary, if not an exclusive role in nutrient reserve storage. The best studied examples are the storage proteins that accumulate specifically in developing seeds. Some of these protein demonstrate biological activities that could contribute to resistance to pest, pathogens or abiotic stresses. In this study we present the biochemical characterization and cloning of the major protein from seeds of T. esculenta (Talisin), a member of the Sapindaceae family. The N-terminal sequence of the protein isolated was used to produce a degenerated primer. This primer allowed the amplification of the Talisin cDNA by RTPCR from mRNA of the T. esculenta seeds protein. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, demonstrated a 756 bp sequence encoding a peptide of 198 amino acids. The deduced peptide presented high similarity to a typical VSP, the 22-kDa protein in lychee (73 %) and 50.0 % identity to Theobroma bicolor reserve protein. Identities of 52.0 % and 44.0 % to trypsin inhibitors from Treobroma mammosum and Populus tremula respectively. In conclusion, we may suggest that Talisin could be a seed storage protein with affinity properties, i.e. interacts with carbohydrates and trypsin enzyme.

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Handayani, Noer Abyor; Kusumayanti, Heny

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta). This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption) were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content) of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  11. Leaf water18O and2H maps show directional enrichment discrepancy in Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlein-Safdi, Cynthia; Gauthier, Paul P G; Sinkler, Craig James; Caylor, Kelly Krispin

    2017-10-01

    Spatial patterns of leaf water isotopes are challenging to predict because of the intricate link between vein and lamina water. Many models have attempted to predict these patterns, but to date, most have focused on monocots with parallel veins. These provide a simple system to study, but do not represent the majority of plant species. Here, a new protocol is developed using a Picarro induction module coupled to a cavity ringdown spectrometer to obtain maps of the leaf water isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H). The technique is applied to Colocasia esculenta leaves. The results are compared with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In C. esculenta, a large enrichment in the radial direction is observed, but not in the longitudinal direction. The string-of-lakes model fails to predict the observed patterns, while the Farquhar-Gan model is more successful, especially when enrichment is accounted for along the radial direction. Our results show that reticulate-veined leaves experience a larger enrichment along the axis of the secondary veins than along the midrib. We hypothesize that this is due to the lower major/minor vein ratio that leads to longer pathways between major veins and sites of evaporation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE BISCOITO RICO EM FIBRAS ELABORADO POR SUBSTITUIÇÃO PARCIAL DA FARINHA DE TRIGO POR FARINHA DA CASCA DO MARACUJÁ AMARELO (PASSIFLORA EDULIS FLAVICARPA E FÉCULA DE MANDIOCA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho de SANTANA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos e de consumo têm mostrado signifi cativas mudanças nos hábitos alimentares dos brasileiros, ou seja, cada vez mais alimentos in natura ou ricos em fi bras são substituídos por alimentos calóricos e não nutritivos. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo desenvolver biscoito enriquecido com fi bras, de fácil inserção na dieta dos brasileiros. Os biscoitos foram desenvolvidos otimizando-se níveis de adição de fécula de mandioca, farinha da casca do maracujá e açúcar, utilizando-se Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta associada a um planejamento fatorial 23 . Como variável resposta, foi coletada através de testes sensoriais afetivos, a aceitação dos consumidores quanto os parâmetros aparência, aroma, textura, sabor, impressão global e intenção de compra. Os resultados indicaram que a variável independente concentração de açúcar infl uenciou de maneira expressiva a aceitação em relação ao sabor, à aceitação global e à intenção de compra dos consumidores. Desta forma, a formulação otimizada foi considerada a com substituição de 35% da farinha de trigo da formulação padrão por 17,5% de fécula de mandioca e 17,5% de farinha de casca de maracujá e acréscimo de 15% de açúcar sobre a quantidade padrão. Esta formulação continha 4,27g fi bra/100g de biscoito, permitindo que o mesmo fosse considerado fonte de fi bra pela legislação brasileira.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA Y FRITURA EN DOS VARIEDADES DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE CHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORA VILLADA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la deshidratación osmótica (DO y de la fritura en dos variedades de yuca en la producción de chips. Se analizaron los contenidos de humedad y de grasa en 10, 20 y 30 minutos de DO, 120, 140 y 160ºC y 60, 90 y 120 segundos de fritura. Constantes: relación producto-solución (1:2, concentración de la solución (5% p/v y espesor del chips (15 milímetros. Se evaluó sensorialmente el grado de aceptación con una escala hedónica de cinco puntos. Se utilizó un diseño factorial de parcelas divididas con bloques al azar y a=5%. La variedad Armenia fue excelente a 20 minutos de DO, 160ºC y 120 segundos de fritura. Sensorialmente fue aceptado con 4.65% de humedad, 1.77% de grasa. Excelente masticabilidad, crujencia, sabor y color.Resultados que pueden ser de interés agroindustrial en la producción de chips de yuca.

  14. Análisis de adnc-aflp para la expresión diferencial de genes en la interacción manihot esculenta grantz (yuca) xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

    OpenAIRE

    Santaella, M.; Suárez, E.; González, C.; López, C.; Restrepo, S.; Badillo, A.; Verdier, V.

    2011-01-01

    Desarrollar patrones ADNc - AFLP, para identificar fragmentos expresados diferencialmente entre dos variedades de yuca, una resistente y una susceptible a la bacteriosis. Aislar, secuenciar y analizar los fragmentos seleccionados. Corroborar la expresión diferencial de estos fragmentos mediante "northern blots".

  15. Análisis de ADNC-AFLP para la expresión diferencial de genes en la interacción Manihot esculenta Grantz (Yuca Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santaella

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Desarrollar patrones ADNc - AFLP, para identificar fragmentos expresados diferencialmente entre dos variedades de yuca, una resistente y una susceptible a la bacteriosis. Aislar, secuenciar y analizar los fragmentos seleccionados. Corroborar la expresión diferencial de estos fragmentos mediante "northern blots".

  16. Análisis de ADNC-AFLP para la expresión diferencial de genes en la interacción Manihot esculenta Grantz (Yuca) Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier V.; Badillo A.; López C.; González C.; Suárez E.; Santaella M.; Restrepo S.

    2001-01-01

    Desarrollar patrones ADNc - AFLP, para identificar fragmentos expresados diferencialmente entre dos variedades de yuca, una resistente y una susceptible a la bacteriosis. Aislar, secuenciar y analizar los fragmentos seleccionados. Corroborar la expresión diferencial de estos fragmentos mediante "northern blots".

  17. Respuesta de dos cultivares de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz (CM 3306-4 y MCOL 2215 a la aplicación de riego en condiciones hídricas diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Esteban Pastrana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el rendimiento productivo de los cultivares de yuca CM 3306-4 y MCOL 2215, cultivados en un suelo arcillo-limoso, bajo diferentes condiciones hídricas: (1 H1 = en secano desde la siembra hasta la cosecha (9 meses con una precipitación de 841 mm; (2 H2 = riego complementario desde la siembra hasta la cosecha y una precipitación de 1247 mm; y (3 H3 = riego a partir del cuarto mes y una precipitación de 998 mm. El diseño utilizado fue parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. En el tratamiento H2 el contenido de almidón en campo (27.45%, el rendimiento de almidón (8.23 t/ha, la altura de planta (249 cm y el rendimiento de yuca fresca (30 t/ha fueron más altos que en los tratamientos H1 y H3. El cultivar CM 3306-4 presentó los mayores incrementos promedio en rendimiento (26.4 t/ha, altura (249 cm y contenido de almidón (26.64% en los diferentes tratamientos (P < 0.05 en relación con el cultivar MCOL 2215. El riego incrementó el rendimiento del cultivo de yuca, presentando diferencia significativa entre la condición hídrica y los parámetros evaluados; igualmente se encontraron diferencias en contenido de almidón entre variedades.

  18. Produção de xaropes de glicose e de fructose a partir de amido de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz)usando enzimas produzidas por microorganismos isolados do solo de Cerrado Brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino, Fábio Pereira; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Asquieri, Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  19. Caracterización de la respuesta morfológica de variedades susceptibles y resistentes de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz a la bacteriosis vascular causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sandino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis es una de las principales limitaciones del cultivo de yuca. En esta investigación, mediante microscopía óptica, se realizó un análisis comparativo de los cambios morfológicos e histoquímicos en tallos de una variedad de yuca susceptible (TMS60444 y una resistente (CM6438-14, 7 y 14 días después de ser inoculadas con la cepa patogénica CIO151. Se pudo detectar que la variedad resistente genera barreras de calosa en las paredes celulares del parénquima cortical y del floema, manteniendo funcional este tejido. En tanto que los tejidos vasculares de la variedad susceptible colapsan, el floema por obstrucción total con tapones de calosa y por formación de compuestos fenólicos, y el xilema por formación de tílides y/o acumulación de compuestos fenólicos, sin poder frenar el avance sistémico de la enfermedad.

  20. Viabilidade de obtenção de alimento funcional a base de farinha de mesocarpo de babaçu (Orbignya sp.) e folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta) mediante fermentação por Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Eduardo Marin [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho avaliou o potencial de misturas, pasteurizadas ou não, contendo farinha de mesocarpo de babaçu (FMB) e farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM) como substrato de fermentação para o Rhizopus oligosporus. As amostras foram umedecidas a 57%, inoculadas com o fungo e incubadas a 30±2°C até a colonização completa manifestada pela visualização evidente dos micélios. Foram quantificados proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, cinzas e umidade das amostras com variadas concentrações ...

  1. Efek ekstrak daun singkong (Manihot utilissima terhadap ekspresi COX-2 pada monosit yang dipapar LPS E.coli (The effect of Manihot utilissima extracts on COX-2 expression of monocytes induced by LPS E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Meilawaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a common and widespread disease in the community. Gram negative bacteria have a role inperiodontitis. These bacteria secrete a variety of products such as endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which causes the occurrenceof inflammation or infection. The body defense responses are neutrophils and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages. Inresponse to defense mechanism, the body will be expressed enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX which functions convert arachidonic acidto prostaglandins. Cassava leaf cells known to play a role in reducing inflammation, but the mechanism for inhibiting COX-2, is notknown. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of cassava leaf extract (Manihot utilissima on expression of enzyme COX-2 in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli. Methods: This study was in vitro experimental studies with the design of posttestonly control group design. The sample was the cassava leaves extract (Manihot utilissima at concentration of 12.5 % and 25 %. Theexpression of COX-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Isolated monocytes were incubated in cassava leaf extract, andthen exposed to LPS, after washing imunostaning procedure was performed using a monoclonal antibody (MAb anti-human COX-2.The research data was the number of monocytes that express COX-2. Results: Expression of COX-2 in the group cassava leaf extractwas higher than the group that induced by LPS E. coli only. Conclusion: Cassava leaf extract did not inhibit the expression of COX-2in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit umum dan tersebar luas di masyarakat. Bakteri yang banyak berperanpada periodontitis adalah Gram negatif. Bakteri ini mengeluarkan berbagai produk antara lain endotoksin lipopolisakarida (LPS yangmenyebabkan inflamasi atau infeksi. Respon pertahanan tubuh pertama adalah netrofil dan sel mononuklear (monosit dan makrofag.Pada respon

  2. Farelo de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants em substituição ao milho (Zea mays L. em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228 Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Manihot esculenta crants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição do milho pelo farelo de mandioca em rações para alevinos de Carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de Carpa-capim, com peso vivo inicial de 2,51+ 0,05 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, cada bloco correspondendo a uma caixa de fibrocimento com 1.000 L de capacidade, com seis tanques-rede (120 L em seu interior. Cada tanque-rede com cinco alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiam em rações (32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível com diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de mandioca (0.00; 5.99; 11.98; 17.97; 23.95; 29.94, correspondendo a substituição de 0.0%; 20.0%; 40.0%; 60.0%; 80.0% e 100.0% do milho na ração. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de inclusão do farelo de mandioca sobre o peso final, comprimento final, conversão alimentar, fator de condição e sobrevivência dos alevinos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos médios da água foram 22,92oC, 24,54oC, 6,38 mg/L, 7,47; 0,16 mS/cm, respectivamente para temperatura matutina, temperatura vespertina, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade. Conclui-se que e farelo de varredura de mandioca pode substituir o milho em até 100% nas rações para alevinos de carpa-capimThe experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate different substitution levels of corn by cassava meal in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets. It was used 120 fingerlings with initial live weigh of 2.51+0.05 g, distributed in 24 net ponds at a randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications, each block corresponding to a fiber-ciment 1000 L tank with six net ponds (120 L inside. Each net ponds with five fingerlings was considered an experimental unit. The treatments consisted in rations (32% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg digestible energy with different cassava meal inclusion levels of (0.00, 5.99, 11.98, 17.97, 23.95, 29.94 corresponding a 00.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, 80.0 e 100.0% of replacement of corn. Effect were not observed of cassava-by-product meal inclusion levels on the final weight, final length, feed: gain, condition index and survival rate of grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings. The water physical-chemical parameters were 22.92oC, 24.54oC 6.38 mg/L, 7.47 e 0.16 ms/cm, respectively to morning temperature, afternoon temperature, dissolved oxygen, ph and electric conduct. It may be concluded that the cassava meal can substitute the corn in even 100% in grass carp fingerlings diets

  3. REKAYASA PROSES HIDROLISIS PATI DAN SERAT UBI KAYU (Manihot utilissima UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL Hydrolysis Process Design of Starch and Cassava (Manihot utilissima Fibers for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Susmiati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from cassava (Manihot utilissima usually uses enzymatic process for starch hydrolysis. Enzymatichydrolysis by α-amylase and amyloglucosidase enzymes are not able to convert cassava fibers into sugars. Dilute acid hydrolysis is applied to convert both starch and fibers, which will increase the yield of simple sugars as fermentable sugars and resulting in high ethanol production. In this research there are two steps of dilute acid hydrolysis, first for starch hydrolysis at H SO concentration of 0.1-0.5 M, 5-15 minutes and second for fiber hydrolysis at 0.5-1.0 2 4M H SO , 10-20 minutes, at the same temperature of 121-127 oC and pressure of 1.0-1.5 atm. The disadvantage of acid hydrolysis is the formation of toxic compounds such as hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF which is inhibited yeast fermentation. Therefore, acid hydrolyzates were detoxified with NH OH before use as fermentation substrate. The best starch hydrolysis condition was obtained at 0.4 M H SO  for 10 minutes which gave 257.37 g/l of total sugars, 2 4229.38 g/l of reducing sugars, 89.59 of dextrose equivalent (DE and 0.57 g/l of HMF. While the best fiber hydrolysis performed at 1.0 M H SO  solution for 20 minutes which gave 79.74 g/l of total sugars, 70.88 g/l of reducing sugars, 2 488.99 of DE and 0.0142 g/l of HMF. Single direct acid hydrolysis was the most suitable substrate for yeast fermentationwith the ethanol concentration of 5.7 % (w/v and 30.5 % (w/w of ethanol yield. This result is comparable with enzymatic hydrolysis which gave ethanol yield of 30 % (w/w. ABSTRAK Produksi etanol dari ubi kayu biasanya menggunakan enzim untuk menghidrolisis pati. Hidrolisis secara enzimatismenggunakan enzim α-amilase dan amiloglukosidase tidak mampu mengkonversi serat menjadi gula. Hidrolisis asam  berkonsentrasi  rendah  dilakukan  untuk  mengkonversi  pati  dan  serat,  sehingga  gula-gula  sederhana  yang dapat difermentasi meningkat dan menghasilkan

  4. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R

    2016-02-03

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant.

  5. 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Tonsing, Ngaihlun; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Manjunath, Javagal R.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a fumigant, resistance problems with phosphine and other fumigants in stored product beetles, and serious concern with human health and environmental safety have triggered the search for alternative biofumigants of plant origin. Despite the identification of a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity, and the diversity of natural products with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer biofumigants of plant origin have eluded discovery. Using a bioassay driven protocol, we have now isolated a bioactive molecule from the root stock of Colocasia esculenta (L.) and characterized it as 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione) based on various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass). The molecule proved to be an efficient biofumigant which is highly toxic to insect pests for stored grains even at very low concentration, but has no adverse effect on seed germination. We finally address the potential for this molecule to become a, effective biofumigant. PMID:26837840

  6. False morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta toxin: N-methyl-N-formylhdrazine carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Patil, K; Erickson, J; Kupper, R

    1979-09-17

    N-Methyl-N-formylhydrazine was administered in drinking water as a 0.0039% solution to randomly bred Swiss albino mice for life starting from 6 weeks of age. The compound induced tumors of lungs, livers, blood vessels, gall bladder and bile ducts. The tumor incidences in these five tissues were 77, 46, 21, 10 and 7% while in the untreated controls they were 18, 1, 6, 0 and 0% respectively. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, benign hepatomas and liver cell carcinomas, angiomas and angiosarcomas of blood vessels, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of gall bladder and cholangiomas. The macroscopic and light microscopic involvement of the tissues with the tumors are described and some of them are illustrated. N-Methyl-N-formylhydrazine is an ingredient of the edible mushroom, the false morel Gyromitra esculenta. The findings are discussed from the viewpoint of a potential human health hazard.

  7. Poisoning due to raw Gyromitra esculenta (false morels) west of the Rockies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathem, Anne M; Dorran, Thomas J

    2007-03-01

    Vomiting with abdominal pain is a common presentation in the emergency department (ED). Without a careful history, unusual causes, such as toxic ingestion, may evade diagnosis. We report a case of an Asian couple who presented to the ED with vomiting and epigastric distress. They were discharged with no definite diagnosis, but on a return ED visit the following day were diagnosed with toxic ingestion of Gyromitra esculenta, commonly known as the western false morel. The patients were admitted and treated with intravenous hydration and pyridoxine. Both patients developed mild hepatotoxicity but went on to fully recover. This case demonstrates that the western false morel may cause significant toxicity and it highlights the importance of obtaining a complete history in patients who present with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. Tumors induced in mice by N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine of the false morel Gyromitra esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Nagel, D

    1978-01-01

    Continuous administration of 0.0078% N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine (MFH) in drinking water to 6-week-old outbred Swiss mice for life produced tumors of the liver, lung, gallbladder, and bile duct. The incidences of tumors in these four tissues were 33, 50, 9, and 7%, whereas in the untreated controls they were 1, 18, 0, and 0%, respectively. The higher dose (0.0156% MFH) given under identical conditions had no tumorigenic effect, since it proved too toxic for the animals. Histopathologically, the lesions were classified as benign hepatomas, liver cell carcinomas, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs, adenomas of the gallbladder, cholangiomas, and cholangiocarcinomas. Since the edible false morel Gyromitra esculenta contains a high amount of MFH, the human population should be dissuaded from consumption of this dangerous mushroom.

  9. Tumorigenicity of minute dose levels of N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine of Gyromitra esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Patil, K

    1982-04-23

    Separate administrations of 0.0005 to 0.00025% N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine in drinking water to 6-week-old randomly bred Swiss mice for the remainder of their lifetime induced lung neoplasms. At the high dose level, 64% of the females and 48% of the males developed lung tumors, while the corresponding tumor incidences at the lower dose level were 62% in the females and 54% in the males. In untreated controls, the lung tumor incidences were 29% in the females and 19% in the males. Histopathologically, the lesions were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs. N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine is a stable constituent of the edible false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta. The environmental significance is discussed, in view of the carcinogenicity of minute doses of this chemical.

  10. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Emma S; Godwin, Ian D

    2002-10-01

    Microsatellite-containing sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott). The sequencing of 269 clones yielded 77 inserts containing repeat motifs. The majority of these (81.7%) were dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats. The GT/CA repeat motif was the most common, accounting for 42% of all repeat types. From a total of 43 primer pairs designed, 41 produced markers within the expected size range. Sixteen (39%) were polymorphic when screened against a restricted set of taro genotypes from Southeast Asia and Oceania, with an average of 3.2 alleles detected on each locus. These markers represent a useful resource for taro germplasm management, genome mapping, and marker-assisted selection.

  12. Inhibition of human lanosterol synthase by the constituents of Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Yuichi; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanaka, Rie; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Goda, Yukihiro; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol extracts of lyophilized vegetables were tested for inhibition of human lanosterol synthase (hOSC) in order to find the compounds to suppress cholesterol biosynthesis. Of 130 samples tested, twelve samples showed significant inhibition. Among them, Colocasia esculenta (taro) showed the highest inhibition (55% inhibition at 300 microg/ml). Examination of activity variation among eight taro cultivars indicated that "Aichi-wase" and "Yatsugashira" had the most potent activity for hOSC inhibition. In order to identify the active constituent of taro, ethanol extracts of "Aichi-wase" were partitioned with hexane and aqueous methanol, and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. Inhibitory activity was concentrated in two major active fractions. Further purification of these fractions by preparative HPLC gave three monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and five digalactosyldiacylglycerols as active compounds that showed 28 to 67% inhibitory activities at the concentration 300 microg/ml.

  13. Identification and some properties of anthocyanin isolated from Zuiki, stalk of Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naoko; Saotome, Ayako; Tachimura, Yuki; Mochizuki, Ayumi; Ono, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murata, Masatsune

    2007-05-16

    Zuiki, a stalk of taro (Colocasia esculenta), is a traditional vegetable in Japan. Raw zuiki is often boiled and vinegared to eat. The surface color of zuiki is reddish. Here, we isolated a red pigment from zuiki and identified it as cyanidin 3-rutinoside using instrumental analyses. The color of zuiki disappeared by boiling, but the zuiki turned red again in an acetic acid solution. It seems that the cyanidin 3-rutinoside that exists on the surface of zuiki elutes in boiling water and then, the pigment that seeps out from the inside of the zuiki is exposed to an acid solution, and its surface turns red again. The radical scavenging activity of purified zuiki anthocyanin was 114 mg equivalent to BHT/g. About half of the anthocyanin in fresh zuiki was washed out by boiling, and the radical scavenging activity of zuiki was definitely reduced.

  14. Biometry, storage of seeds, and seedling emergence of Talisia esculenta Radlk. (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Fábio de Almeida; Gusmão, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Estudos de biometria de frutos e sementes são importantes para o entendimento da variabilidade existente nas espécies nativas. Apesar da importância ecológica e econômica de Talisia esculenta, não se conhecem as características biométricas dos frutos e não há informações sobre a emergência das plântulas. Objetivou-se caracterizar fisicamente frutos e sementes e estudar os efeitos do armazenamento sobre a emergência das plântulas. Analisou-se a biometria de 260 frutos e sementes. A emergência ...

  15. Talisia esculenta lectin and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Ligia R; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; Novello, José Camillo; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2002-06-06

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the Mexican bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects, particularly the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Talisia esculenta lectin (TEL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus larvae. TEL produced ca. 90% mortality to these bruchids when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 2% (w/w). The LD(50) and ED(50) for TEL was ca. 1% (w/w) for both insects. TEL was not digested by midgut preparations of C. maculatus and Z. subfasciatus. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops.

  16. Vestibular afferents to the motoneurons of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in the frog, Rana esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Adám; Bácskai, Tímea; Veress, Gábor; Matesz, Clara

    2009-08-25

    The aim of this work was to study whether the vestibular afferent fibers establish direct connections with the motoneurons of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves of the frog, Rana esculenta. In anaesthetized animals the vestibulocochlear nerve and the common root of glossopharyngeal-vagus and accessory (IX-X-XI) nerves were simultaneously labeled with fluorescein dextran amine (vestibulocochlear nerve) and tetramethylrhodamine dextran amine (IX-X-XI). With a confocal laser scanning microscope we could detect close appositions between the vestibular afferent fibers and somatodendritic components of the general and special visceral motoneurons of the ambiguus nucleus of IX-X nerves. The direct impulse transmission may provide a quick and immediate response of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system upon body displacement.

  17. Antifungal and marker effects of Talisia esculenta lectin on Microsporum canis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A Q; Melo, D F; Macedo, L M; Freire, M G M; Rocha, M F G; Sidrim, J J C; Brilhante, R S N; Teixeira, E H; Campello, C C; Pinheiro, D C S N; Lima, M G S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of lectin obtained from Talisia esculenta (TEL) seeds as a tool to recognize and study Microsporum canis. For this purpose, we investigated the antifungal and marker action of this lectin and the relationship of these effects with the presence of carbohydrates on the structure of this fungus. The in vitro antifungal activity of TEL was analysed by broth microdilution assay. In addition, TEL was assessed against the arthroconidia present on hairs obtained from infected dogs and cats. The affinity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled TEL for macroconidia and arthroconidia of M. canis was also tested. The effects of TEL on the growth of the M. canis strains began with 0.125 mg ml(-1), and 100% inhibition was obtained with a concentration of 2 mg ml(-1). The addition of carbohydrates, especially N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-mannose, inhibited these antifungal effects. TEL was able to inhibit the growth of arthroconidial chitin-rich forms of M. canis obtained from hairs of infected animals and strains cultured in Sabouraud agar. FITC-labelled TEL efficiently marked macroconidial and arthroconidial forms of M. canis, as shown by fluorescent microscopy. These results show that the inhibitory effects of TEL on M. canis growth may be related to the interaction of lectin with the carbohydrates present at the micro-organism's surface, mainly D-mannose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. Talisia esculenta can be used as an important tool in the biochemical study of M. canis or as a molecule to recognize this dermatophyte in infected tissue.

  18. ISOLASI GLUKOMANAN DARI DUA JENIS ARACEAE: TALAS {Colocasia Esculenta (L.) Schott} DAN Iles-iles (Amorphophallus Campanulatus Blumei) [Isolation of Glucomannan From Two Species of Araceae: Talas {Colocasia Esculenta (L.) Schott} and Iles-iles {Amorphophallu

    OpenAIRE

    Chairul, Chairul; Chairul, Sofnie M

    2006-01-01

    Talas {Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott} and Iles-iles (Amorphophalus campanulatus Blumei) have been used as source of carbohydrate especially in tropical regions, mainly in East Indonesia. Talas and iles-iles, that contains carbohydrate and several substances for instance glucomannan would form viscous liquid and were used as emulgator, capsule cosmetics and dietary.The research was conducted to separate glucomannan from starch of talas and iles-iles fresh and dry (powder).The methods base on...

  19. Repertório botânico da "Pitombeira" (Talisia esculenta (A. ST.-HIL.) Radlk. - Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GUARIM NETO,Germano; SANTANA,Santina Rodrigues; SILVA,Josefa Valdete Bezerra

    2003-01-01

    Os autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com o estudo de Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), denominada principalmente de "pitomba" ou "pitombeira", envolvendo aspectos botânicos referentes à morfologia, taxonomia, distribuição geográfica e respectivos usos. A espécie é bastante difundida no Brasil, sendo que nas regiões norte e nordeste o seu uso é intenso.

  20. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Amendments on Growth and Uptake of Cd and Zn by Wetland Plants, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta from Contaminated Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-01-01

    A pot study was conducted to compare the effects of amendments (CaHPO4 and cow manure) on growth and uptake of Cd and Zn from contaminated sediments by two wetland plant species, Typha angustifolia and Colocasia esculenta. Contaminated sediments (Cd 33.2 mg kg(-1) and Zn 363 mg kg(-1)) were collected from Mae Tao basin, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments: control (uncontaminated sediment), Cd/Zn, Cd/Zn + 5% CaHPO4, and Cd/Zn + 10% cow manure. Plants were grown for 3 months in the greenhouse. The addition of CaHPO4 resulted in the highest relative growth rate (RGR) and highest Cd accumulation in both T. angustifolia and C. esculenta while the lowest RGR was found in C. esculenta grown in the cow manure treatment. Both plant species had higher concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn) in their belowground parts. None of the amendments affected Zn accumulation. C. esculenta exhibited the highest uptake of both Cd and Zn. The results clearly demonstrated the phytoremediation potential of C. esculenta and the enhancement of this potential by CaHPO4 amendment.

  2. Effect of accessions of Colocasia esculenta-based diets on the hepatic and renal functional indices of weanling Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Musa T; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-10-01

    The liver and kidney functional indices of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphological characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days were investigated. All the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets did not significantly (P > .05) alter the serum levels of albumin, globulin, inorganic phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and uric acid of the animals.The total protein and total bilirubin levels decreased only in the UFCe3- and UFCe4-fed animals, respectively. Whereas UFCe1 and UFCe2 significantly decreased the conjugated bilirubin levels, UFCe3 and UFCe6 increased it. While all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diet decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase activity, γ-glutamyl transferase activity was increased. UFCe1 and UFCe5 increased the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, whereas UFCe4 decreased the activity of the enzyme. Again, UFCe3 and UFCe1 increased the serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase activity of the animals. Furthermore, the computed blood urea nitrogen:creatinine ratio was higher in animals maintained on UFCe1-, UFCe3-, UFCe4-, and UFCe5-based diets. Whereas UFCe6 and UFCe7 increased the level of sodium in the serum of the animals, UFCe4 and UFCe5 decreased the chloride level. The serum urea level was decreased by UFCe1, UFCe3, UFCe4, and UFCe5, whereas the potassium level increased in the UFCe4-, UFCe6-, and UFCe7-fed animals. Overall, the results revealed that all the accessions of C. esculenta produced selective effects on the hepatic and renal functional indices of the weanling rats. The highest alterations were produced by UFCe4, whereas the least was from UFCe2. These alterations may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. UFCe2 exhibited the least toxicity risk among the

  3. Modeling Foliar Uptake in Colocasia Esculenta Using High Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkler, C. J.; Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide by vegetation is a major sink of CO2 and a factor that will determine future climate. Some studies predict a decrease in CO2 uptake from vegetation because of a general drying of the Amazon Basin. Because of the tight linkage between water availability and plant carbon uptake, a comprehensive model of plant water use at the individual scale is necessary to build a complete carbon budget at the global scale. Foliar uptake of non-meteoric water is a common process used by plants to alleviate water stress. However the occurrence of this process in tropical ecosystems, as well as its interaction with other physiological parameters, is not well understood. We present a model of leaf water balance that includes foliar uptake. The isotopic composition of the different sources as well as the leaf water are also included. The model is tested against a series of experiments on Colocasia esculenta, under two different water availability conditions: drought and artificial dew. The artificial dew is spiked with stable isotopes of water (δ18O = 8.56 permil, δ2H = 709.7 permil) that allow us to trace the partition of dew uptake within a leaf. We create high-resolution maps of the distribution of isotopes in one half of each leaf using a Picarro IM-CRDS. The maps show a clear enrichment due to foliar uptake for the artificial dew treatment. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and IRMS for quality control of the IM-CRDS data. Soil water is collected for isotope analysis and water content measurement. Finally, stomatal conductance data collected every two days shows no significant decrease due to either treatment over the course of the experiment. We conclude that foliar uptake of dew water is an important water acquisition mechanism for C. esculenta, even under high soil water content conditions, and we propose guidelines for further improvement of models of leaf-scale water

  4. Aspectos agronômicos da cultura da mandioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl

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    Edgard S. Normanha

    1950-07-01

    ímetros apresentaram maior número de falhas e menores produções. O aconselhável é o emprego de manivas com 20 a 25 centímetros, por oferecerem maiores garantias para a brotação e por produzirem mais. A distância entre linhas e plantas de mandioca que, em média, é de 1,20 x 0,60 m, nas culturas do Estado, foi constatada como um pouco grande, pois uma variação de 0,80 x 0,40 m a 1,00 x 0,60 m, de acôrdo com a fertilidade do solo, traz maiores vantagens. A profundidade dos sulcos para o plantio das ramas foi estudada com as variações de 5, 10 e 15 centímetros, tendo sido verificado que o plantio a 15 centímetros é desfavorável à produção e à colheita, e que o plantio superficial a 5 centímetros, apesar de bom para as épocas de chuvas, não é aconselhável, por facilitar o arrancamento das manivas pelas águas das chuvas. Recomenda-se, pois, o plantio a 10 centímetros. As pesquisas sôbre a resistência à Bacteriose mostraram que diversas variedades comuns, e outros clones derivados de sementes, possuem resistência bem maior do que a variedade mais difundida. Diversas dessas variedades já têm sido multiplicadas em fazendas particulares, interessadas na industrialização da mandioca. O "Superbrotamento", que impossibilita o cultivo da variedade "Vassourinha" e outras, nas zonas infetadas, foi estudado do ponto de vista da resistência de numerosas variedades, tendo-se encontrado, pelo menos, dois tipos resistentes e um altamente resistente.The cassava plant (Manihot utilissima Pohl is native in Brazil and was already used by the indians as a main source of food before the arrival of the Europeans. Wild species of Manihot are found in several parts of Brazil and in other South American countries. Cassava roots are one of the chief sources of carbohydrates for a large part of the Brazilian population. It is also widely used to feed animals. In parts of Brazil they are used as raw material for the starch industry. In 1946 there were about 900 000 hectares of

  5. Carcinogenesis study in mice by 3-methylbutanal methylformylhydrazone of Gyromitra esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B; Gannett, P

    1990-01-01

    3-Methylbutanal methylformylhydrazone (3-MBMFH) was given to Swiss mice by intragastric instillations at weekly intervals 53 or 2 times at 50 micrograms/g body weight. The treatments induced tumors of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, preputial glands and thyroid. The tumor incidences in the group treated 53 times were 84, 32, 10, 0 and 0% in females, and 76, 38, 6, 48 and 0% in the males, respectively. In the group treated twice the incidences were 38, 0, 4, 0 and 10% in females, and 30, 0, 2, 0 and 6% in males, respectively. The corresponding tumor incidences in the untreated controls were 26, 0, 0, 0 and 0% in females, and 26, 0, 0, 0 and 0% in males, respectively. The light microscopic examination of these neoplasms showed adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, hepatomas and liver cell carcinomas, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of gallbladder, squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas of preputial glands; and, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of thyroid. Gyromitra esculenta mushroom contains 3-MBMFH along with the other hydrazine derivatives. Because at least five ingredients of this fungus exhibit carcinogenic properties, the health hazard implications should be considered.

  6. In vitro establishment of axillary buds of Colocasia esculenta Schott clone `INIVIT MC-2001'

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    Diosdada Gálvez Guerra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The new Colocacia esculenta Schott clone `INIVIT MC-2001', obtained by the INIVIT breeding program, presented high percentages of losses in the in vitro establishment phase, mainly by microbial contamination. The aim of this study was to establish axillary buds of taro clone `INIVIT MC-2001' with low percentages of microbial contamination and explants mortality. For disinfection, six treatments were studied using different concentrations and times of immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO and ozonized water. Furthermore, the influence of the concentration of 6-BAP (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg l-1 of 6-BAP in the culture medium was determined. With the use of 3.0% sodium hypochlorite for the disinfection of taro corms for 25 minutes we were able to reduce the percentage of microbial contamination and gain efficiency in the establishment of the apices of axillary buds of 85.38%. By employing the culture medium consisting of MS salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg l-1 6-BAP at 29 days of culture, the explants were achieved the morphology characteristics for transferring to the multiplication phase. Keywords: axillary buds, Colocasia, ozone.

  7. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4+, TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4+-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs>1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators.

  8. Zn tolerance of novel Colocasia esculenta metallothionein and its domains in Escherichia coli and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Ok; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Patel, Darshan H; Kim, Ho Myeong; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to extensive researches on the roles of metallothioneins (MTs) in metal tolerance of animals, the roles of plant MTs in metal tolerance are largely under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the functional role of type 2 MT from Colocasia esculenta (CeMT2b) in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells. Under Zn-stress conditions, transgenic tobacco overexpressing CeMT2b displayed much better seedling growth, a significant decrease in the levels of H(2)O(2) and an increase in Zn accumulation compared with the wild type. Overexpression of CeMT2b in E. coli greatly enhanced Zn tolerance and Zn accumulation under Zn stresses compared with control cells. CeMT2b bound 5.38 ± 0.29 atoms of Zn per protein. To identify a structural domain of CeMT2b for Zn binding, we investigated the growth of E. coli expressing each of the N-terminal, C-terminal, and central linker domains or a CNC motif deletion from the C-terminus of full-length CeMT2b. The results showed that the CNC motif is required for Zn tolerance, and the N-terminal domain is more effective in Zn tolerance than the C-terminal domain. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for functional contributions of CeMT2b in Zn tolerance of tobacco and E. coli cells.

  9. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Entomotoxic Effect of Colocasia esculenta Tuber Agglutinin against Dysdercus cingulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Roy #

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA, a mannose binding lectin, exhibits insecticidal efficacy against different hemipteran pests. Dysdercus cingulatus, red cotton bug (RCB, has also shown significant susceptibility to CEA intoxication. However, the molecular basis behind such entomotoxicity of CEA has not been addressed adequately. The present study elucidates the mechanism of insecticidal efficacy of CEA against RCB. Confocal and scanning electron microscopic analyses documented CEA binding to insect midgut tissue, resulting in an alteration of perimicrovillar membrane (PMM morphology. Internalization of CEA into insect haemolymph and ovary was documented by western blotting analyses. Ligand blot followed by mass spectrometric identification revealed the cognate binding partners of CEA as actin, ATPase and cytochrome P450. Deglycosylation and mannose inhibition assays indicated the interaction to probably be mannose mediated. Bioinformatic identification of putative glycosylation or mannosylation sites in the binding partners further supports the sugar mediated interaction. Correlating entomotoxicity of CEA with immune histological and binding assays to the insect gut contributes to a better understanding of the insecticidal potential of CEA and endorses its future biotechnological application.

  10. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  11. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  12. COLOCASIA ESCULENTA CORMS MUCILAGE-ALGINATE MICROSPHERES OF OXCARBAZEPINE: DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, Shazia Akram; Bashir, Sajid; Ahmad, Jamshed; Hameed, Huma; Khan, Ikram Ullah

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of formulating sustained release microspheres of oxcarbazepine (OXC), an anti-epileptic drug, to overcome poor patient compliance and exposure to high doses associated with currently marketed OXC dosage forms. Ionic gelation technique was used to prepare OXC microspheres by using sodium alginate along with rate controlling polymer Colocasia esculenta mucilage (CEM) matrix as well coated form. The microspheres have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for understanding thermal stability and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the chemical interaction as well as to assess the structure of drug-loaded formulation. Surface morphology of the microspheres was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The size distribution of OXC microspheres as studied by optical microscopy was in the range of 394-575 pm. The microspheres exhibited encapsulating efficiency from 75 to 92%. The release of drug from the microspheres at pH 1.2 is negligible. Under neutral conditions, the microspheres were swell and release was attributed mainly to polymer relaxation. The release pattern from microspheres followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model and the value of n > 1 showed that drug released by anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion. The data obtained thus suggest that a microparticulate system can be successfully designed by using CEM with alginate for sustained delivery of OXC.

  13. Thermo-acid-stable phytase-mediated enhancement of bioethanol production using Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makolomakwa, Melvin; Puri, Adarsh Kumar; Permaul, Kugen; Singh, Suren

    2017-07-01

    Phytase production by the thermophilic mould Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP was enhanced 8.56-fold in submerged fermentation, which was further improved in fed-batch cultivations. The protein was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, Resource Q anion exchange and Superdex gel-filtration chromatography, with an overall purification of 24.7-fold and a yield of 5.16%. The purified 49kDa protein was optimally active at 55°C and pH 5.0, and was stable between 50 and 90°C from pH 3.0-6.0, with a half-life of 138.6min at 70°C. It was moderately stimulated by Ba +2 and Mg +2 . The enzyme reduced phytate content in Colocasia esculenta starch (from 1.43mg/g to 0.05mg/g) that resulted in an improvement in the availability of fermentable sugars with a concomitant reduction in viscosity and 1.59-fold improvement in ethanol production. Thermo-acid-stable phytase from T. lanuginosus SSBP could be of major biotechnological interest, especially due to its robustness and wide applicability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Entomotoxic Effect of Colocasia esculenta Tuber Agglutinin against Dysdercus cingulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Das, Sampa

    2015-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a mannose binding lectin, exhibits insecticidal efficacy against different hemipteran pests. Dysdercus cingulatus, red cotton bug (RCB), has also shown significant susceptibility to CEA intoxication. However, the molecular basis behind such entomotoxicity of CEA has not been addressed adequately. The present study elucidates the mechanism of insecticidal efficacy of CEA against RCB. Confocal and scanning electron microscopic analyses documented CEA binding to insect midgut tissue, resulting in an alteration of perimicrovillar membrane (PMM) morphology. Internalization of CEA into insect haemolymph and ovary was documented by western blotting analyses. Ligand blot followed by mass spectrometric identification revealed the cognate binding partners of CEA as actin, ATPase and cytochrome P450. Deglycosylation and mannose inhibition assays indicated the interaction to probably be mannose mediated. Bioinformatic identification of putative glycosylation or mannosylation sites in the binding partners further supports the sugar mediated interaction. Correlating entomotoxicity of CEA with immune histological and binding assays to the insect gut contributes to a better understanding of the insecticidal potential of CEA and endorses its future biotechnological application.

  15. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  16. Structural analysis of β-prism lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) S chott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajravijayan, S; Pletnev, S; Pletnev, V Z; Nandhagopal, N; Gunasekaran, K

    2016-10-01

    The Mannose-binding β-Prism Colocasia esculenta lectin (β-PCL) was purified from tubers using ion exchange chromatography. The purified β-PCL appeared as a single band of ∼12kDa on SDS-PAGE. β-PCL crystallizes in trigonal space group P3121 and diffracted to a resolution of 2.1Å. The structure was solved using Molecular replacement using Crocus vernus lectin (PDB: 3MEZ) as a model. From the final refined model to an R-factor of 16.5% and an Rfree of 20.4%, it has been observed that the biological unit consists of two β-Prism domains augmented through C-terminals swap over to form one of faces for each domain. Cα superposition of individual domains of β-PCL with individual domains of other related structures and superposition of whole protein structures were carried out. The higher RMS deviation for the superposition of whole structures suggest that β-prism domains assume different orientation in each structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the use of Colocasia esculenta (taro cocoyam) in the diets of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwunobi, L N; Angwukam, P O; Cora, O O; Isika, M A

    2002-05-01

    Sixty weanling Large White x Duroc pigs were allocated to five groups of 12 pigs per group and fed on one of five diets. The five diets comprised 0, 50% and 100% unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels (Colocasia esculenta) and 50% and 100% boiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels as replacements for maize. The levels of some antinutritional factors were also determined in both boiled and unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam. Boiling reduced (p 0.05) in feed intake, weight gain or feed efficiency between the diets containing boiled taro cocoyam cormels. However, for unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain and feed efficiency, these being depressed at more than 50% replacement of maize. This may be due to the relatively high amounts of antinutritional factors in the unboiled, sun-dried taro cormels. Boiled taro cocoyam cormels were comparable to maize as an energy source in the diets of weanling pigs.

  18. Recovery of energy from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, T; Ramasamy, E V

    2008-01-01

    We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance. Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25% of the total volume, was separated from the upper by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cow dung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the digester led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The bioleachate, rich in the VFAs, passed through the perforated PVC disk and was collected in the lower compartment of the digester. The other type of digesters, referred to as anaerobic multi-phase high-solids digesters (AMHDs), had the same type of compartmentalized digester unit as the first type and an additional methaniser unit. Up-flow anaerobic filters (UAFs) were used as methaniser units, which converted the bioleachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 60% methane. All SOFADs developed a consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 20 weeks from the start. Among the two types of digesters studied, the AMHDs were found to perform better with a twofold increase in biogas yield compared to the first type of digesters.

  19. Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

    2011-09-14

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence.

  20. Mechanisms of the insecticidal action of TEL (Talisia esculenta lectin) against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; de Castro, Márcia Mota; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado

    2004-06-01

    Plant lectins have insecticidal activity that is probably mediated through their ability to bind carbohydrates. To examine the influence of sugars on the insecticidal activity of a lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL), the lectin was mixed with mannose, glucose, or mannose plus glucose. Mannose abolished the insecticidal activity. Affinity chromatography showed that TEL bound to midgut proteins of the insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Immunoblotting showed that TEL recognized some proteins, probably glycoproteins, present in the midgut membrane of this insect. The principal proteases responsible for digestive proteolysis in fourth instar larvae of C. maculatus were purified by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose. These purified proteases were unable to digest TEL after a 15-h incubation. These results suggest that the insecticidal activity of TEL involves a specific carbohydrate-lectin interaction with glycoconjugates on the surface of digestive tract epithelial cells, as well as binding to assimilatory glycoproteins present in midgut extracts and resistance to enzymatic digestion by cysteine proteinases. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Inflammatory responses induced in mice by lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M G M; Desouza, I A; Silva, A C M; Macedo, M L R; Lima, M S; Tamashiro, W M S C; Antunes, E; Marangoni, S

    2003-09-01

    A novel lectin from Talisia esculenta seeds (TEL) has recently been purified and characterized. In this study we investigated the proinflammatory activity of TEL in mice using both the air-pouch and peritoneal cavity as well as paw oedema models. TEL (10-40 microg) induced significant neutrophil and mononuclear cell recruitment when injected into either mouse air-pouch or peritoneal cavity. The neutrophil accumulation into the air-pouch was dose- and time-dependent with a maximal response at 16 h, returning to control levels at 72 h whereas maximal mononuclear cell accumulation was observed at 24 h after TEL injection. The same profile of neutrophil accumulation was observed when this lectin was injected into mouse peritoneal cavity, although the maximal mononuclear cell recruitment was observed 48 h after TEL injection. Additionally, TEL (12.5-200 microg/paw) caused a dose-dependent mice paw, as evaluated at 4 h after the lectin injection. D-mannose, better than D-glucose, significantly inhibited TEL-induced neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity or air-pouch. D-galactose had no effect on TEL-induced neutrophil migration in either cavity studied. On the other hand, D-mannose slightly inhibited the TEL-induced paw oedema, whereas neither D-glucose nor D-galactose affected this phenomenon. In conclusion, our data show that TEL induces neutrophil and mononuclear cell accumulation by a mechanism related to their specific sugar-binding properties.

  2. Neuronal intermediate filaments in the developing tongue of the frog Rana esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zuwala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of several neuronal intermediate filament (NIF proteins was investigated in the tongue of metamorphosing tadpoles (stage 38-45 of Gosner and in adult individuals of the frog, Rana esculenta by means of immunohistochemistry. Results showed that nerve fibres at early stages of tongue development expressed peripherin (a NIF protein usually found in differentiating neurones as well as the light- and medium molecular weight NIF polypeptide subunits (NF-L and NF-M, respectively; in the adult frog, peripherin was still found in nerve fibres reaching the fungiform papilla together with NF-M, but NF-L immunoreactivity was absent therein. Clusters of epithelial cells expressing peripherin were found in the early developing tongue before differentiation of taste organs, and NF-L and NF-H immunoreactivities were present in basal (Merkel cells of the adult frog taste disc. Results indicate that neurones innervating the adult frog’s taste disc maintain a certain plasticity in their cytoskeleton and that neuronal-like cells are present in the undifferentiated and differentiated tongue epithelium possibly playing a role in the developing and mature taste organ.

  3. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  4. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties in Fruits of Myrica esculenta: A Popular Wild Edible Species in Indian Himalayan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun; Giri, Lalit; Bhatt, Indra D.; Rawal, Ranbeer S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude extract of Myrica esculenta fruits, a wild edible species of Indian Himalayan Region, was evaluated for phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Results revealed significant variation in total phenolic and flavonoid contents across populations. Among populations, total phenolic content varied between 1.78 and 2.51 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight (fw) of fruits and total flavonoids ranged between 1.31 and 1.59 mg quercetin equivalent/g fw. Antioxidant activity determined b...

  5. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan SAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth toes, with phalanges (bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

  6. Desarrollo y productividad de ñame (Dioscorea trifida y Dioscorea esculenta en diferentes condiciones hídricas

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    Alba Nelly Acevedo Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la región Montes de María (9° 24' 56,33" N y 75° 23' 04,19" O, departamento de Sucre, Colombia, en zonas de clima cálido (26 °C y 30 °C y de clima medio (20 °C y 24 °C, humedad relativa entre 75 y 85% y precipitación de 750 mm durante el ensayo se estudió el efecto del riego en el desarrollo y productividad de dos especies de ñame en peligro de extinción (Dioscorea trifida y Dioscorea esculenta en un diseño experimental de parcelas subdivididas, donde las variables fueron tres condiciones hídricas: riego de 888 mm durante la etapa crítica del cultivo, riego de 944 mm durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, y ausencia de riego con una oferta de agua de 750 mm provenientes de precipitación. La densidad de siembra fue de 10,000 plantas/ha, labranza tradicional con arado de discos y cosecha 8 meses después de la siembra. Como variables se midieron rendimiento de ñame, contenido de almidón, longitud y diámetro de tubérculos y biomasa aérea. Dioscorea trifida presentó un rendimiento promedio de 30.6 t/ha y D. esculenta de 27 t/ha, con contenidos de almidón de 21.3 y 21.6% en base húmeda, respectivamente; la longitud promedio de tubérculos para D. trifida fue de 17.4 cm y para D. esculenta de 11.4 cm; los diámetros promedio fueron 14.4 cm y 10.5 cm y la biomasa aérea 1.1 kg/planta y 0.67 kg/planta, respectivamente. La aplicación de riego al cultivo produjo un incremento en la producción con respecto al cultivo sin riego, para Dioscorea trifida este incremento fue de 78.9% y para Dioscorea esculenta de 92.9%.

  7. Effect of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Talisia esculenta and Sapindus saponaria on fall armyworm

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    Wander Laizo dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extracts of Talisia esculenta (T.E. and Sapindus saponaria (S.S., were evaluated on the development and mortality of 8-14th day-life Spodoptera frugiperda, an important pest of maize. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extracts (1% w/v and offered as food to the caterpillars. The treated corn leaves with the extracts caused larval mortality (26.71%/T.E.; 63.3%/S.S. and also showed effect on the larval weight (237.50 mg/T.E.; 86.65 mg/S.S. when compared with the control (11.3% and 293.45 mg, mortality and larval weight, respectively. The electrophoresis with gelatin (0.1% showed two very clear white areas (trypsin activity in the caterpillars midgut of all the treatments. Only the caterpillar treated with S. saponaria presented significant differences, showing trypsin activity (10.59%. Sapindus saponaria appeared better than Talisia esculenta and showed good potential to be used as control agent for S. frugiperda.Este estudo procurou avaliar o potencial inseticida dos extratos aquosos de sementes de Talisia esculenta (St. Hil. Radlk (Pitombal e Sapindus saponaria L. (Saboneteira, ambas da família Sapindaceae, sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, importante praga da lavoura de milho. As folhas de milho foram imersas nos tratamentos com extratos aquosos (1% p/v e oferecidas como alimento para as lagartas. Os resultados do período larval tais como mortalidade e peso médio foram respectivamente: para S. saponaria 63,15%, 86,65 mg; para T. esculenta 26,71%, 237,50 mg e para o controle 11,3%, 293,45 mg. A eletroforese com gelatina 0,1% mostrou duas regiões brancas muito nítidas (atividade tríptica no intestino médio das lagartas de todos os tratamentos. Somente as lagartas do tratamento S. saponaria, apresentaram diferenças significativas, com uma atividade tríptica 10,59% menor.

  8. Effect of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Talisia esculenta and Sapindus saponaria on fall armyworm

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Wander Laizo dos; Freire, Maria das Graças M.; Bogorni, Paulo Cesar; Vendramim, José Djair; Macedo, Maria Lígia R.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Talisia esculenta (T.E.) and Sapindus saponaria (S.S.), were evaluated on the development and mortality of 8-14th day-life Spodoptera frugiperda, an important pest of maize. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extracts (1% w/v) and offered as food to the caterpillars. The treated corn leaves with the extracts caused larval mortality (26.71%/T.E.; 63.3%/S.S.) and also showed effect on the larval weight (237.50 mg/T.E.; 86.65 mg/S.S.) when compared with the ...

  9. Extraction of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic by Modified Supercritical CO2 Extraction and Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activity

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    Jingjing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has been used for many years in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, supercritical CO2 plus a modifier was utilized to extract flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic. The effects of temperature (40 °C–60 °C, pressure (10–30 MPa and different concentrations of ethanol as modifier (60%–90%, ethanol:water, v/v on major flavonol content and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken design. The flavonol content was calculated as the sum of the concentrations of seven major flavonoids, namely rutin, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3′-O-glucoside and quercetin, which were simultaneously determined by a HPLC method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The results showed that three factors and their interactions could be well fitted to second-order polynomial models (p < 0.05. At the optimal extraction conditions for flavonol content (20 MPa, 52 °C, and 85% ethanol content, the yield of flavonoids was 41.96 mg/g and the IC50 value was 0.288 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting the extract has high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic activity of the extract on the 3T3-L1 cell line was investigated. The results indicated that it can downregulate PPARγ and C/EBPα expression at mRNA. In summary, in this study, we have established a cost-effective method for the extraction of flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic using supercritical fluid extraction and the extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  10. Biochemical basis of the use of cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta L. in the dietary management of diabetes and its complications in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

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    Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the biochemical basis of the anti-diabetic action of cocoyam [Colocassia esculenta (C. esculenta] in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Methods: Blood glucose of the rats was measured with a glucometer. The relative heart weight, relative pancreatic weight, serum proteins, urea, creatinine, albumin, amylase, lipase, serum and hepatic aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results: The diabetic rats fed with cocoyam had significant elevation (P0.05 in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three groups. The test feed contained considerable amounts of phenolics, crude fiber, Ca, Fe, K, Na but low amounts of oxalate and phytate. Conclusions: C. esculenta may exert its anti-diabetic action by delaying/regulating the rate at which dietary starch is hydrolyzed to glucose or possibly through inhibition of acute pancreatitis. Finally, the study also shows the potentials of C. esculenta in the dietary management of obesity.

  11. On the occurrence and identity of triploids of Rana kl. esculenta Linnaeus and R. lessonae Camerano in The Netherlands (Anura: Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, Rose M.A.

    1990-01-01

    According to electrophoresis and erythrocyte size the genotypes of 756 waterfrogs, collected during 1986—1988 in 54 localities in The Netherlands, were classified as belonging to 5 different genotypes: 331 diploid R. lessonae (LL), 5 triploid R. lessonae (LLL), 250 diploid R. kl. esculenta (LR), 133

  12. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

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    Alexandre Geoffroy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq. is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+ of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network. PMID:28804479

  14. Toxicological studies of the false morel (Gyromitra esculenta): embryotoxicity of monomethylhydrazine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, P; Cekan, E; Halen, B; Bergman, K; Samuelsson, R

    1993-01-01

    The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of monomethylhydrazine (MMH), a toxic component of the widely consumed false morel (Gyromitra esculenta), was studied in rat. Groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received MMH as a constant i.v. infusion via implanted osmotic minipumps (1.2, 3.0, 4.2, 6.0, 9.0 or 13.2 mg MMH/kg bw/day) on days 6-13 of pregnancy, or as a single intragastric bolus (1 mg MMH/kg/bw or 5 mg MMH/kg/bw) on day 6 of pregnancy. Controls received corresponding amounts of saline. The average maternal serum concentrations, measured during the infusion treatment with a sensitive HPLC method, ranged from 0.072 micrograms MMH/ml (lowest dose) to 0.60 microgram MMH/ml (highest dose). The average serum levels measured 45 min after the intragastric application (peak levels) were 0.28 microgram MMH/ml and 1.6 microgram MMH/ml, respectively. Serum concentrations of MMH corresponding to those measured in the lower dose groups in this study were seen in pilot studies after a single mushroom meal in human volunteers. A dose-dependent, statistically significant increase in the number of resorptions was seen in all but the lowest dose group after the infusion of MMH. In addition, except for the two lowest doses, there was a dramatic, dose-dependent decrease in the pregnancy rate as compared to controls, with no pregnancies occurring at the two highest dose level groups. The decreased pregnancy rate was probably due to preimplantation loss which was shown to occur after a single intragastric bolus dose of MMH (5 mg/kg bw).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Changes in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase under anaerobiosis in cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibueze, Nwose

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in the cormels of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum) immediately after harvest and in storage under anaerobiosis for one and three weeks, respectively. During stress condition in plants, hydrogen peroxide is released and mechanisms to detoxify it must be maintained. The cocoyam tubers that were neither damaged nor affected by disease were harvested from a local farm in Ugbogui, Ovia North Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. The selected cocoyam tubers were peeled manually, washed with ice cold water and cut into pieces. The root tissues (50 g) were homogenised with 100 mL of ice cold 0.05 M phosphate buffer. The extract obtained was clarified by centrifugation for 15 min at 8000 g at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate-peroxidising activity was assayed using the initial rate of decrease in ascorbate concentration as measured by its absorbance at 290 nm using Milton Roy Spectron 21D. Results showed the weight of the cormels decreased all through during storage. Immediately after harvest the activity of ascorbate peroxidase was 15.49 unit mL(-1) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) after one week to 73.05 U mL(-1). Thereafter there was a significant decrease in activity of the enzyme after three weeks of storage to 33.33 U mL(-1). This increase in activity of ascorbate peroxidase after three weeks of storage may be related to increase in response to various biotic stresses. Therefore, manipulation of the capacity of cocoyam to tolerate anaerobiosis is a function of its ability to modulate the antioxidant enzymes' armory in case of need.

  16. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  17. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4˚C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector‑to‑target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I.

  18. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreike, C M; Van Eck, H J; Lebot, V

    2004-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were grouped according to their country of origin, to their ploidy level (diploid or triploid) and to their habitat--cultivated or wild. Gene diversity within these groups and the genetic distance between these groups were computed. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis. In each country, the gene diversity within the groups of wild genotypes was the highest compared to the diploid and triploid cultivars groups. The highest gene diversity was observed for the wild group from Thailand (0.19), the lowest for the diploid cultivars group from Thailand(0.007). In Malaysia there was hardly any difference between the gene diversity of the cultivars and wild groups, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively. The genetic distances between the diploid cultivars groups ranges from 0.02 to 0.10, with the distance between the diploid accessions from Thailand and Malaysia being the highest. The genetic distances between the wild groups range from 0.05 to 0.07. First, a dendrogram was constructed with only the diploids cultivars from all countries. The accessions formed clusters largely according to the country from which they originated. Two major groups of clusters were revealed, one group assembling accessions from Asian countries and the other assembling accessions from the Pacific. Surprisingly, the group of diploid cultivars from Thailand clustered among the Pacific countries. Secondly,a dendrogram was constructed with diploid cultivated,triploid cultivated and wild accessions. Again the division of the accessions into an Asian and a Pacific gene pool is obvious. The presence of two gene pools for cultivated diploid taro has major implications for the breeding and conservation of

  19. Photosynthetic costs and benefits of abaxial versus adaxial anthocyanins in Colocasia esculenta 'Mojito'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nicole M; Carpenter, Kaylyn L; Keidel, Timothy S; Miller, Charlene N; Waters, Matthew N; Smith, William K

    2014-11-01

    Anthocyanins in upper (adaxial) leaf tissues provide greater photoprotection than in lower (abaxial) tissues, but also predispose tissues to increased shade acclimation and, consequently, reduced photosynthetic capacity. Abaxial anthocyanins may be a compromise between these costs/benefits. Plants adapted to shaded understory environments often exhibit red/purple anthocyanin pigmentation in lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces, but rarely in upper (adaxial) surfaces. The functional significance of this color pattern in leaves is poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that abaxial anthocyanins protect leaves of understory plants from photo-oxidative stress via light attenuation during periodic exposure to high incident sunlight in the forest understory, without interfering with sunlight capture and photosynthesis during shade conditions. We utilize a cultivar of Colocasia esculenta exhibiting adaxial and abaxial anthocyanin variegation within individual leaves to compare tissues with the following color patterns: green adaxial, green abaxial (GG), green adaxial, red abaxial (GR), red adaxial, green abaxial (RG), and red adaxial, red abaxial (RR). Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanins, tissues exhibited symptoms of increasing photoinhibition in the order (from least to greatest): RR, RG, GR, GG. Anthocyanic tissues also showed symptoms of shade acclimation (higher total chl, lower chl a/b) in the same relative order. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, we did not observe any differences in photosynthetic CO2 uptake under shade conditions between the tissue types. However, GG and GR had significantly (39 %) higher photosynthesis at saturating irradiance (A sat) than RG and RR. Because tissue types did not differ in nitrogen content, these patterns likely reflect differences in resource allocation at the tissue level, with greater nitrogen allocated toward energy processing in GG and GR, and energy capture in RG and RR (consistent with relative

  20. Pre-exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaf volatiles enhance the reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinlong; Bai, Jiaxiu; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Daogen; Lin, Huiyue

    2017-05-01

    Plant volatiles serve as sensory cues for insects to find food and habitats. They are also reported to affect many insect behaviors. In the current study, we determined how exposures to taro (Colocasia esculenta) for 24h affect reproductive behaviors in Spodoptera litura. Further, we investigated the mechanisms that regulate taro volatiles-induced reproductive behavior in S. litura by recording peripheral, behavioral, and neuronal responses of male moths to sex pheromone components (Z9,E11-14:OAc and Z9,E12-14:OAc) and their mixtures in different ratios, as well as gene expression levels of sex pheromone receptors. The results showed that the exposure to taro volatiles significantly enhanced male mating rate, mating duration, and egg hatching rates, but not mating times and the number of oviposition per female. Consistently, the peripheral and behavioral responses of pre-exposed males to sex pheromone components and their mixtures wherein Z9,E11-14:OAc owned higher proportions, as well as neuronal responses to those at low dosages were significantly increased compared to non-exposed males. The expression levels of sex pheromone receptor genes were also significantly increased in pre-exposed males compared to non-exposed ones. These results suggest that taro volatile pre-exposures could promote the reproductive performance of S. litura by enhancing the competitiveness of male mating and communications between male and females. These findings provide new insights for the management of this insect pest as well as other moths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  2. Saccharomonospora colocasiae sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere of Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanasuepsin, Watsapon; Intra, Bungonsiri; Také, Akira; Inahashi, Yuki; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Ōmura, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2017-11-01

    A non-Streptomyces actinomycete, designated as strain S265 T , was isolated from rhizosphere collected under an elephant ear plant (Colocasia esculenta) in Bangkok, Thailand. The taxonomic position of this strain was determined by a polyphasic approach. Strain S265 T formed single globose spores on long, branching, aerial hyphae. It produced abundant aerial mycelium with green colour. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and diagnostic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. Phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected predominantly as polar lipids, whereas mycolic acids were not found. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4), and principal cellular fatty acids were C15 : 1 B, iso-C16 : 1 H, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 0 2-OH. The DNA G+C content was 69 mol%. According to phylogenetic analysis, strain S265 T was clustered with Saccharomonospora glauca K62 T (98.1 %) and Saccharomonosporaviridis DSM 43017 T (97.1 %) despite its 16S rRNA gene sequence showing the highest similarity value to that of Saccharomonosporaazurea NA-128 T (98.6 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain S265 T and the closely related strains were in the range of 7-50 %, thus strengthening the evidence derived from the polyphasic study that strain S265 T represents a novel species within the genus Saccharomonospora, for which the name Saccharomonosporacolocasiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S265 T (=TBRC 7235 T =NBRC 112945 T ).

  3. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties in Fruits of Myrica esculenta: A Popular Wild Edible Species in Indian Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rawat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of Myrica esculenta fruits, a wild edible species of Indian Himalayan Region, was evaluated for phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Results revealed significant variation in total phenolic and flavonoid contents across populations. Among populations, total phenolic content varied between 1.78 and 2.51 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight (fw of fruits and total flavonoids ranged between 1.31 and 1.59 mg quercetin equivalent/g fw. Antioxidant activity determined by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP exhibited considerable antioxidant potential and showed significant positive correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoids content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed significant variation (P <  .01 in phenolic compounds (i.e., gallic acid, catechin, hydroxybenzioc acid and ρ-coumaric acid across populations. This study provides evidences to establish that consumption of M. esculenta fruits while providing relished taste would also help in reduction of free radicals. Therefore, this wild edible species deserves promotion in the region through horticulture and forestry interventions.

  4. Wasswa 235-241.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    CBSV), is an economically important disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in East Africa. The objective of this study was to optimise in vitrotechniques for CBSV elimination from infected Ugandan cassava cultivars. Using semi-solid ...

  5. Transport costs component of retail prices of foodstuffs in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Kumasi markets have been studied. The commodities were transported from the hinterlands over distances ranging between 120 km (for plantain and cassava) to 220 km (for ...

  6. Changes in scopoletin concentration in cassava chips from four varieties during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbenou, Joachim D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of the root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is constrained by its rapid deterioration after harvesting. Chemical and spectroscopic examination earlier revealed the accumulation of the four hydroxycoumarins esculetin, esculin, scopolin and scopoletin derived from the phenylpropanoid...

  7. study on agroforestry practices in abak local government area, akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Manihot esculenta. Gambeya albida. Eucalyptus sp Newbouldia laevis. Spondias mombin. Gliricidia sepium. Telfaria occidentalis. Calliandra calothyrsus. Carica papaya Albizzia sp. Gmelina arborea. Bambusa vulgaris. Leucaena leucocephala. Discorea spp. Sesbania grandiflora. Ananas comosus. Masanga cecropoides.

  8. Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais minéraux sur la croissance, le développement et le rendement du manioc ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) en zone forestière du Cameroun.

  9. TECNOLOGIA ALTERNATIVA PARA A QUEBRA DE DORMÊNCIA DE SEMENTES DE MANIÇOBA (Manihot glaziovii, Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodolfo Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii owns good qualities as forage for the herds. The goal of this work was to evaluate forms for superation of numbness in maniçoba seeds. The research was developed in the Labotatório de Sementes-CCA/UFPB. It was used delineation entirely casualised, with four repetitions of 25 seeds. The treatments were: witness (without treatment - escarification mechanical (SANDPAPER - T2; escarification mechanical + immersion in water for 24 hours (SANDPAPER+24h - T3; escarification mechanical + immersion in water for 48 hours (SANDPAPER+48h - T4; immersion in hot water to 80ºC for 2' (80th+2min- T5; immersion in hot water to 90ºC for 2' (90th+2min - T6; immersion in hot water to 100ºC for 2' (100th+2min - T7. The seeds, after treated, were sown in plastic arts trays contend sand and done daily countings for IVE's Determination, emergency first counting and percentage. The comparison of the averages was by Tukey's Test to 5% of probability. That the treatments T2 was observed and T3 were the ones that obtained best results of Emergency Velocity Indice (IVE, not differentiating to each other, however, in the treatments T5, T6 and T7 the emergency was null. For the first-rate results counting the treatment T3 was what it obtained better answer. Already for the results of emergency percentage T2 was what it introduced better result, ending up introducing 70% of emergency, followed by the treatments T3, T4, T1 respectively.

  10. Allocative Efficiency Analysys Production Function Of Cassava Farming (Manihot, Sp.) In Tenayan Raya Sub-District Of Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Rini; Nurwati, Niken; Amalia

    2017-12-01

    Cassava (Manihot sp) has long been known and cultivated by Indonesian farmers. The economic and social potential of cassava aside from foodstuffs can also be used as raw materials for industrial use and animal feed. In Riau Province, Cassva has the potential to be developed considering Cassva is a plant that can easily grow on low altitude to high altitude lands. Cassava does not need a complex maintenance. Conventionally, this plant can be planted and left alone by itself. Cassava roots can be developed to be a processed products that society needs as main foodstuffs ingredients. This research is done in three months and the purpose is to know the influence of input use (pesticide, seeds, fertilizers and labor) on cassava farming to cassava farming by the model of cobb-douglas. Other than that is also the effect on economical efficiency. The method used in this research is a quantitative research by using Cobb-Douglas Function Model. This research was done in the Tenayan Raya sub-district with 55 farmer samples. This research shows Cobb-Douglas Production Function can be used as the predictor for Cassava production function in Tenayan Raya Sub-district of Pekanbaru City. Altogether the production factor used by farmers influence production. Partially only usage of organic fertilizer that does not affect production, while other production factor such as, seeds, pesticides, an-organic fertilizer (urea) and labor affect production by quite a bit. Usage of production factor seeds, urea and pesticides is not yet efficient while usage of organic fertilizer is not efficient and usage of labor on cassava agriculture by respondent farmers is relatively efficient

  11. TiO2 Immobilized on Manihot Carbon: Optimal Preparation and Evaluation of Its Activity in the Decomposition of Indigo Carmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M. Antonio-Cisneros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture.

  12. TiO2 immobilized on Manihot carbon: optimal preparation and evaluation of its activity in the decomposition of indigo carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

    2015-01-12

    Applications of carbon-TiO2 materials have attracted attention in nanotechnology due to their synergic effects. We report the immobilization of TiO2 on carbon prepared from residues of the plant Manihot, commercial TiO2 and glycerol. The objective was to obtain a moderate loading of the anatase phase by preserving the carbonaceous external surface and micropores of the composite. Two preparation methods were compared, including mixing dry precursors and immobilization using a glycerol slurry. The evaluation of the micropore blocking was performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that it was possible to use Manihot residues and glycerol to prepare an anatase-containing material with a basic surface and a significant SBET value. The activities of the prepared materials were tested in a decomposition assay of indigo carmine. The TiO2/carbon eliminated nearly 100% of the dye under UV irradiation using the optimal conditions found by a Taguchi L4 orthogonal array considering the specific surface, temperature and initial concentration. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS, enabling the identification of some intermediates. No isatin-5-sulfonic acid was detected after a 60 min photocatalytic reaction, and three sulfonated aromatic amines, including 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2-(2-amino-5-sulfophenyl)-2-oxoacetic acid and 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid, were present in the reaction mixture.

  13. On-farm testing of selected cassava clones | Saleh | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers prefered clones ZNZ/98/036, ZNZ/98/034 and ZNZ/98/084 due to sweetness, disease resistance, root yields and dry matter content. Key Words: Diseases, Manihot esculenta, pests. RÉSUMÉ Plusieurs variétés locales de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plantées au Zanzibar sont sucrées et acceptables pour les ...

  14. optimisation of a somatic embryogenesis and transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    plateforme pour la production de matériels de culture propres, mais aussi servira d'outil dans les programmes d'amélioration génétique visant la lutte contre les maladies virales. Mots Clés: Cytokinine, Manihot esculenta, protocole de génération. INTRODUCTION. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a woody perennial ...

  15. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Shoot Multiplication and Root Induction of Cassava Varieties Culture in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SUKMADJAJA, DEDEN; WIDHIASTUTI, HERNI

    2011-01-01

    A study on propagation of three superior cassava Manihot esculenta( Crant) varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on Manihot esculenta propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i) shoot multiplicat...

  16. Biometria, armazenamento de sementes e emergência de plântulas de Talisia esculenta Radlk. (Sapindaceae Biometry, storage of seeds, and seedling emergence of Talisia esculenta Radlk. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de biometria de frutos e sementes são importantes para o entendimento da variabilidade existente nas espécies nativas. Apesar da importância ecológica e econômica de Talisia esculenta, não se conhecem as características biométricas dos frutos e não há informações sobre a emergência das plântulas. Objetivou-se caracterizar fisicamente frutos e sementes e estudar os efeitos do armazenamento sobre a emergência das plântulas. Analisou-se a biometria de 260 frutos e sementes. A emergência de plântulas foi avaliada a partir de sementes recém-coletadas e armazenadas por 15, 30 e 60 dias. As médias de massa de matéria fresca, comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos foram, respectivamente, 15,02 g, 32,59 mm e 26,33 mm e para as sementes 4,49 g, 25,08 mm e 13,62 mm. A massa de matéria fresca do fruto foi proporcional à quantidade de polpa (rS = 0,826; P Studies of biometrical characteristics of fruits and seeds are important to understand the variability of native species. In spite of the ecological and economical importance of Talisia esculenta, the biometrical characteristics of fruits and information about seedling emergence are unknown. The aim of this paper was to characterize fruits and seeds biometrically and to determine the effects of storage on seedling emergence. The biometry of 260 fruits and seeds was analyzed. The seedling emergence of newly-collected seeds and after 15, 30, and 60 days of storage was evaluated. The means for the fruits fresh mass, length, and diameter were, respectively, 15.02 g, 32.59 mm, and 26.33 mm and for the seeds 4.49 g, 25.08 mm, and 13.62 mm. The fresh mass of the fruit was proportional to the pulp amount (rS = 0.826; P < 0.05. These values indicated the potential for the selection and genetic improvement of the species. The seedling emergence of newly-collected seeds was 88%. The seeds of Talisia esculenta have a short viability period, with absence of germination at 30 and 60 days of

  17. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 μm×12.2 μm. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 μm2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 μm×12.1 μm. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 μm×5.5 μm. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among

  18. Jordi Galceran: la carcajada amarga en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Algaba Granero, Aroa

    2016-01-01

    Jordi Galceran, dramaturgo actual, destaca tanto por su éxito en taquilla como por su calidad literaria. En este artículo se parte del análisis de tres de sus obras (Burundanga, El crédito y El método Grönholm) fijándonos en la sátira social, las estrategias del humor y la deconstrucción de los sistemas de poder a través de la inversión del rol de los personajes manipuladores. Con ello, se pretende ahondar en su perspectiva de la realidad del siglo XXI y diferenciar los límites entre un teatr...

  19. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers.

  20. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.