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Sample records for amaranto amaranthus hypochondriacus

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO AGRÍCOLA DO AMARANTO (Amaranthus hypochondriacus

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    Djeson Mateus Alves da Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva descrever um relato histórico sobre a produção, o uso e a condução de pesquisas com o amaranto como fonte alternativa de alimentos, em todo o mundo, desde os áureos tempos da civilização asteca até os dias atuais. Tem por finalidade, também, relatar as características agronômicas exigidas durante o plantio, o desenvolvimento e a colheita dessa cultura e avaliar sua importância e adaptabilidade de cultivo no semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, durante o período de estiagem. É propósito, ainda, mostrar e expor, qualitativa e quantitativamente, a grande potencialidade nutricional e medicinal que os grãos e folhas do amaranto, quando utilizados na alimentação humana e animal, representam como fonte de energia e medicamento, respectivamente. Os dados informativos foram obtidos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. Palavras-chave: Amaranto, dieta, nutricional, medicinal e alimento.

  2. Prueba de dosificación de la sembradora V-20 con semilla de amaranto (amaranthus hypochondriacus l.

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    Pedro Mayans Céspedes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados de la prueba de dosificación realizada a la sembradora V-20 con semilla de amaranto. Para la prueba se contó con un banco construido en las instalaciones del Centro Nacional de Estandarización de Maquinaria Agrícola (CENEMA, utilizándose la Norma Mexicana: "Método de evaluación de sembradoras y/o fertilizadoras de tracción mecánica con dosificador de disco" y la Norma Cubana 34-50 "Sembradora de granos, metodología para la realización de las pruebas". Se determinaron las propiedades físico mecánicas, las características dimensionales de la semilla relacionadas con el proceso de siembra y los índices de calidad de trabajo de la sembradora. Los valores medios de la longitud, ancho y espesor de las semillas fueron de 1 448; 1 263 y 822 m, respectivamente, mientras que la masa volumétrica fue de 802 kg·m-3, la humedad del 7,4% y el peso de 1 000 semillas de 0,93 g. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas entre las medias de la cantidad de semillas dosificadas en cada salida debido a la velocidad de avance y número de cuerpos.

  3. Estudio entomofaunístico del cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. en Puebla México Entomofaunistic study in of the cultivation of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. in Puebla Mexico

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    Betzabeth Cecilia Pérez Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El amaranto es un cultivo de gran importancia para la asociación de productores agrícolas de los alrededores del Popocatépetl, Puebla; por su alto contenido de nutrientes y por la elaboración de diferentes productos que enriquecen su alimentación; pero las pérdidas por daños que ocasionan los insectos plaga, hacen que los rendimientos no sean satisfactorios para los agricultores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar taxonómicamente a los insectos asociados al cultivo de amaranto y describir el rol de cada una de las especies en el agrosistema. Para la captura de insectos, durante el ciclo agrícola 2008 se realizaron muestreos en tres parcelas donde se efectuaron colectas con aspirador, red y de forma manual, revisando tallos, nudos, entre nudos, hojas (haz y envés, panoja y raíz. Los organismos colectados en etapa larval fueron conservados en alcohol al 70%, mientras que los adultos fueron montados en alfileres entomológicos; todo el material fue identificado y depositado en la colección entomológica del Instituto de Ciencias de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP. Se obtuvo un total de 1 883 morfoespecies de las cuales se identificaron 20 géneros y 18 especies que fueron las más abundantes durante el ciclo agrícola; ocho especies fueron las causantes de los daños que presenta el cultivo: Sphenarium purpurascens, Epicauta cinerea, Spodoptera exigua, Pholisora catullus, Ligys lineolaris, Herpetogramma bipunctalis, Amauromyza abnormalis y Phyllophaga ilhuicaminai.Amaranth is a very important crop for the agricultural producers association around the Popocatepetl, Puebla, for its high nutrients content and for the preparation of various enriched food products. But losses from damage caused by insect pests, make not satisfactory yields for farmers. The aim of this study was to taxonomically determinate the amaranth cultivation related insects and to describe each species role in the agrosystem. To catch

  4. [Antioxidant capacity of byproducts from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds].

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    López-Mejía, Ofelia Araceli; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity (CA) of byproducts from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds from two harvest parcels as a function of three extraction methods and two solvents was evaluated. On a first stage the effect of extraction method (homogenization, low frequency ultrasound, or the combination homogenization-ultrasound) and extraction solvent (methanol or ethanol, 100%) were evaluated; on a second stage, the effect of extraction solvent concentration (100%, 70%, or 50%) was evaluated. CA was determined by DPPH• inhibition, which was expressed as mg Equivalents of Trolox (ET)/g dry matter (DM). Total Phenolic compounds (FT) were determined by means of the FolinCiocalteu assay and expressed as Equivalents of Gallic Acid (EGA)/g DM. Antioxidant compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For CA, there was not significant difference (p>0,05) among extraction methods, but there was significant difference (p0,05) between solvents when they were diluted, but a significant difference (pextracts exhibited the presence of squalene and 2,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol as the major compounds with antioxidant capacity.

  5. STUDIES ON GENETIC PARAMETERS IN GRAIN AMARANTHUS (AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS L. AS INFLUENCED BY PLANT DENSITIES

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    Ramesh K. Selvan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of genotypes with adequate combination of traits with high yield at the appropriate density level increased the productivity in amaranth. The study was therefore undertaken to estimate genetic attributes of different amaranth genotypes and to identify and select genotypes with adequate trait combination for improvement in yield. In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. ten genotypes were evaluated  for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high (D1, high (D2, normal (D3 and low plant density (D4 to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. Leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates are recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean in all the four plant density levels.

  6. Influences of calcium silicate on chemical forms and subcellular distribution of cadmium in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.

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    Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Wu, Jingtao; Shen, Yong; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Tang, Yetao; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (CS) on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in grain amaranths (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cv. ‘K112’) grown in a Cd contaminated soil. Results showed that the dry weight and the photosynthetic pigments contents in grain amaranths increased significantly with the increasing doses of CS treatments, with the highest value found for the treatment of CS3 (1.65 g/kg). Compared with the control, application of CS4 (3.31 g/kg) significantly reduced Cd concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves of grain amaranths by 68%, 87% and 89%, respectively. At subcellular level, CS treatment resulted in redistribution of Cd, higher percentages of Cd in the chloroplast and soluble fractions in leaves of grain amaranths were found, while lower proportions of Cd were located at the cell wall of the leaves. The application of CS enhanced the proportions of pectate and protein integrated forms of Cd and decreased the percentages of water soluble Cd potentially associated with toxicity in grain amaranths. Changes of free Cd ions into inactive forms sequestered in subcellular compartments may indicate an important mechanism of CS for alleviating Cd toxicity and accumulation in plants.

  7. Disease-tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Ah-AMP gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ah-AMP, was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis results revealed that this gene is 261 bp in length encoding a precursor polypeptide of 87 amino acid residues. Ah-AMP gene was inserted in the binary vector pBin438 to construct a plant expression vector pBinAH916. Leave explants of Nicotiana tabacum var. SR1 were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the above expression vector. Results from PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that the Ah-AMP gene had been integrated into the tobacco genome and was transcribed at mRNA level. Two bacterial-resistant transgenic plants were selected by inoculating the plants with Pseudomonas solanacearum and statistic analysis of two T1 lines showed that the resistance increased by 2.24 and 1.62 grade and the disease index decreased by 49.6% and 37.3% respectively when compared with the non-transformed control plants SR1. The results from challenging the plants with inoculums of Phytophthora parasitica showed that the symptom development was delayed and disease index was significantly reduced. These results suggest that Ah-AMP gene may be a potentially valuable gene for genetic engineering of plant for disease-resistance.

  8. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

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    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization.

  9. Expression and characterization of a His-tagged 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus in Escherichia coli.

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    Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Nielsen, Niels C; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2004-01-01

    DNA encoding a His-tagged 11S globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (amarantin) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strains BL21 (DE3) and Origami (DE3). The two strains produced different accumulation patterns. Whereas most of the proamarantin expressed in BL21 (DE3) was localized in inclusion bodies, that produced in Origami (DE3) was soluble (76 mg/L). Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation analysis of the expressed soluble proamarantin revealed that the protein was assembled into trimers. Treatment of proamarantin trimers in vitro using purified asparaginyl endopeptidase resulted in the appearance of peptides of the sizes expected for acidic and basic chains. Because the proamarantin assembles into trimers with the expected sedimentation characteristics and is cleaved into acidic and basic chains rather than being degraded, the results suggest that the protein folding occurring in E. coli is similar to that taking place in seeds. The His-tagged proamarantin was purified in a single step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography with a final yield of 48 mg/L. The overexpression of proamarantin in E. coli, together with the one-step purification will facilitate further investigation of this storage protein through site-directed mutagenesis.

  10. Crescimento e desenvolvimento do amaranto (amaranthus spp. sob estresse salino e cobertura morta Growth and development of amaranth (amaranthus ssp under saline stress and mulch

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    Djeson Mateus Alves da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigar cultivares tolerantes à salinidade da água de irrigação e do solo é uma necessidade nas áreas agrícolas abastecidas por água de qualidade insatisfatória. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação e da cobertura morta do solo no desenvolvimento vegetativo do amaranto (Amaranthus spp. cultivado em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi realizado entre março e maio de 2006, utilizando-se colunas de PVC com 30 kg de um solo de textura franco-siltosa. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo testado o uso ou não de cobertura morta e quatro níveis de salinidade na água de irrigação (0,147; 1,5; 3,0; e 4,5 dS m-1, a 25 °C. A cobertura morta antecipou o início da floração e aumentou a área foliar, a altura de planta, o diâmetro de caule e a produção de biomassa. O aumento na concentração salina não ocasionou redução nos teores de Ca e Mg, no tecido foliar. O aumento na concentração de sais na água de irrigação retardou a floração do amaranto, porém a espécie apresentou tolerância até o limite de 4,5 dS m-1, pois a produção de biomassa seca não foi afetada por esse aumento de salinidade.In agricultural areas irrigated with water of unsatisfactory quality, plants that are tolerant to the salinity in water and soil are needed. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the salinity of irrigation water and soil mulch on the vegetative development of amaranth (Amaranthus spp in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out from March to May 2006 in PVC columns with 30 kg of soil with silt loam texture. The non-use of mulch and four salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.147; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5 dS m-1, to 25 °C was evaluated in a completely randomized design with eight treatments and four replications. Mulch reduced the beginning of flowering and increased the leaf area, plant

  11. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Roots

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    Wei Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La nor cadmium chloride (Cd induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  12. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots.

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    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-04-30

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  13. The novel and taxonomically restricted Ah24 gene from grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus has a dual role in development and defense

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    Julio Armando Massange-Sanchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (abiotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed Arabidopsis showed enhanced vegetative growth and increased leaf number with no penalty in one fitness component, such as seed yield, in experimental conditions. Transgenic tobacco plants, which grew and reproduced normally, had increased insect herbivory resistance. Modified vegetative growth in transgenic Arabidopsis coincided with significant changes in the expression of genes controlling phytohormone synthesis or signaling, whereas increased resistance to insect herbivory in transgenic tobacco coincided with higher jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitor activity levels, plus the accumulation of nicotine and several other putative defense-related metabolites. It is proposed that the primary role of the Ah24 gene in A. hypochondriacus is to contribute to a rapid recovery post-wounding or defoliation, although its participation in defense against insect herbivory is also plausible.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress

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    Vargas-Ortiz Erandi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. These possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. Although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains limited, particularly regarding tissue-specific and biotic stress-related genes. Thus, a large scale transcriptome analysis was performed to generate stem- and (abiotic stress-responsive gene expression profiles in grain amaranth. Results A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs. The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing

  15. La rentabilidad del cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus spp. en la región centro de México

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    Alma Velia Ayala Garay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estima la rentabilidad de la producción de amaranto para grano en Morelos, Puebla y Tlaxcala. Se aplicó una encuesta a 193 productores de noviembre de 2011 a marzo de 2012. Los resultados encontrados indican que Puebla tiene mayor rentabilidad por tonelada ($5 895.6 t ha-1, a pesar de que no existe una gran variación de los costos respecto a Morelos ($4 764.4 t ha-1, consecuencia del mayor rendimiento (1.52 t ha-1 en Puebla y 1.4 t ha-1 en Morelos, y la de menor fue en Tlaxcala ($330.8, el costo y el rendimiento fueron menores (1.02 t ha-1. El cultivo es rentable y es una opción para zonas de temporal, pues se adapta a condiciones ambientales adversas.

  16. Burkholderia ambifaria and B. caribensis promote growth and increase yield in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus) by improving plant nitrogen uptake.

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    Parra-Cota, Fannie I; Peña-Cabriales, Juan J; de Los Santos-Villalobos, Sergio; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Délano-Frier, John P

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. However, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. In this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in Amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. Nutrisol and A. cruentus cv. Candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. The plants were grown in a rich substrate, high in organic matter, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) and under greenhouse conditions. Burkholderia ambifaria Mex-5 and B. caribensis XV proved to be the most efficient strains and significantly promoted growth in both grain amaranth species tested. Increased grain yield and harvest index occurred in combination with chemical fertilization when tested in A. cruentus. Growth-promotion and improved yields correlated with increased N content in all tissues examined. Positive effects on growth also occurred in A. cruentus plants grown in a poor soil, even after N and P fertilization. No correlation between non-structural carbohydrate levels in roots of inoculated plants and growth promotion was observed. Conversely, gene expression assays performed at 3-, 5- and 7-weeks after seed inoculation in plants inoculated with B. caribensis XV identified a tissue-specific induction of several genes involved in photosynthesis, sugar- and N- metabolism and transport. It is concluded that strains of Burkholderia effectively promote growth and increase seed yields in grain amaranth. Growth promotion was particularly noticeable in plants grown in an infertile soil but also occurred in a well fertilized rich substrate. The positive effects observed may be attributed to a bio-fertilization effect that led to increased N levels in roots and shoots. The latter effect correlated with the differential induction of several genes involved in carbon and N metabolism

  17. Determinación de microorganismos fúngicos en semillas de Amaranto (Amaranthus spp. mediante diferentes métodos de análisis

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    Maria C. Noelting

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La ausencia de una metodología destinada al análisis de la micoflora en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus spp. ha motivado la realización del presente trabajo. A tal efecto, fueron sembradas semillas de dos cultivares (con y sin tratamiento de desinfección en forma previa a la siembra en papel «Blotter test» y en cinco medios agarizados: Agar Papa Glucosado al 2% (APG, Agar Extracto de Glucosa Cloramfenicol (CYG, Agar Czapek (CZ, Agar para conteo en placa (PCA y Agar Sabouraud (SAB. Los cajas fueron incubadas a 26 °C± 2 y 16 hs luz/8hs oscuridad de fotoperíodo durante siete días, a partir del cual se procedió a registrar el número máximo de géneros fúngicos desarrollados y el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas. Un total de catorce géneros fúngicos procedentes del campo y del almacenamiento fueron registrados, destacándose Alternaria por su mayor frecuencia de aislamiento. Al evaluar el número máximo de géneros fúngicos, se detectaron diferencias significativas entre los medios (p>0,001 resultando los medios APG, CZ y PCA los mas efectivos. Por otro lado, la desinfección aplicada a las semillas redujo en términos generales el desarrollo de hongos de crecimiento expansivo. El análisis de los datos correspondientes al porcentaje de germinación reveló la presencia de interacciones entre los cultivares y los niveles de desinfección significativas (p>0,001 en cuatro de los medios analizados; mientras que en el resto se registraron interacciones no significativas.

  18. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da aceitação de cereais matinais e barras de cereais à base de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus L.)

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    Karina Dantas Coelho

    2006-01-01

    O amaranto é um pseudocereal de grande valor nutricional que apresenta quantidade de fibras e proteína superior aos cereais usualmente consumidos. Características como o aproveitamento integral da planta e a sua capacidade de adaptação ao solo despertaram o interesse dos pesquisadores em cultivá-lo no Brasil. Objetivo: Desenvolver um processo para obtenção de cereais matinais e barras de cereal à base de amaranto visando a máxima aceitação e mínima perda de nutrientes. Metodologia: O cereal m...

  19. Caracterización proteica de las semillas de once especies de amaranto

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    Vioque, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The protein profile and the amino acid composition of eleven amaranth species have been studied. The following species were taken into account: A. viridis, A. powellii, A.muricatus, A. deflexus, A. graecizans, A. blitoides, A. retroflexus, A. blitum, A. albus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus. Seed samples were obtained from wild populations located in the southwest of Spain. The protein profile was studied by gel filtration chromatography and denaturing electrophoresis. Profiles were similar in all taxa, with small variations in the molecular weights and amounts of the main seed proteins. Thus, after gel filtration chromatography six main fractions of around 300 kDa, 180 kDa, 120 kDa, between 40 and 50 kDa, 20 and 30 kDa and below 10 kDa were observed. On the other hand, the electrophoretic analysis showed peptides grouped into three main fractions, between 50 and 64 kDa, 33 and 37 kDa and 18 and 25 kda. The most balanced amino acid compositions were observed in the wild taxa A. muricatus, A. blitum and A. powellii showed the most equilibrated amino acid composition. A. hypochondriacus and A. graecizans showed the most deficient amino acid composition with limitations in five essential amino acids. These results show the potential of wild amaranthus taxa for their introduction as crops or their use in the improvement by hybridization mechanisms of other crops such as A. hypochondriacus.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición aminoacídica y el perfil proteico de las semillas de once especies de amaranto. Las especies estudiadas fueron A. viridis, A. powellii, A. muricatus, A. deflexus, A. graecizans, A. blitoides, A. retroflexus, A. blitum, A. albus, A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus. Se estudiaron poblaciones silvestres de estos taxones localizadas en el suroeste de España. El perfil proteico se estudió mediante cromatografía de filtración en gel y electroforesis desnaturalizante. Este perfil fue similar en todas las

  20. Deveria o Brasil investir em novos grãos para a sua alimentação? A proposta do amaranto (Amaranthus SP).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O gênero Amaranthus compreende várias espécies de plantas dicotiledôneas cujas folhas e sementes são regularmente consumidas como alimento em diversos países, entre os quais não se inclui o  Brasil. As espécies graníferas se destacam pela vantagem da rapidez de crescimento e produção, possibilitando o cultivo em condições de escassez de umidade na fase reprodutiva. Dadas suas nobres características nutricionais, este grão se apresenta como um alimento naturalmente balanceado, com propriedades...

  1. Caracterização agronômica de amaranto para cultivo na entressafra no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Danielly Leite

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar 48 acessos de três espécies de amaranto (Amaranthus caudatus L., A. cruentus L.,e A. hypochondriacus L. para cultivo na entressafra no Cerrado. Realizou-se seleção preliminar para sete descritores, em casa de vegetação, e os acessos com genótipos promissores foram selecionados para serem testados no campo. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. O material utilizado foi o que apresentou características agronômicas desejáveis, tais como ausência de espinhos, hábito ereto e presença de inflorescência. Os ensaios foram realizados em Planaltina, DF, na entressafra, com irrigação, por dois anos. Em geral, os acessos floresceram 45 dias após a emergência e as plantas foram colhidas entre 90 e 100 dias. Pela análise de componentes principais, verificou-se que os dois primeiros componentes representam 92,18% da variação. Foram estabelecidos três grupos de similaridade, pelo método dos vizinhos mais próximos, que explicaram 86% da variação total. O amaranto se adapta às condições climáticas e edafológicas do Brasil Central, apresenta características agronômicas desejáveis e tem potencial para se tornar uma opção de cultivo na entressafra.

  2. Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes of Amaranthus hypochondriacus Under Cadmium Stress by DDRT-PCR%DDRT-PCR技术分析籽粒苋镉胁迫下相关基因的差异表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋海军; 胡洪利; 陈惠; 张世熔; 吴琦; 孙蓉; 唐自钟

    2015-01-01

    以镉污染修复植物籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus)的根、叶、果为实验材料,利用DDRT-PCR技术分析籽粒苋Cd胁迫下基因表达水平的变化。结果表明:回收差异片段获得镉处理诱导的4个差异表达序列(EST-1、EST-2、EST-3和EST-4),经Blastn比对,EST-1与土人参26S核糖体RNA基因部分序列(GB|HQ843466.1)一致性为99%,EST-2与虎耳草26S核糖体RNA大亚基基因部分序列(GB|AF036498.1)一致性为93%,EST-3与大肠杆菌菌株TW 14359 DNA聚合酶Ⅲα亚基基因(ECs0186)完整CDS(GB|EU906049.1)一致性为97%,EST-4与米曲霉RIB40β-葡萄糖苷酶基因(XM 001816779.2)一致性为99%;经Blastx比对, EST-1与假定蛋白MTR 5g051030[苜蓿](XP 003614386.1)氨基酸序列相似性为26%,EST-2与假定衰老相关蛋白[柏杉](GB|ACA30301.1)氨基酸序列一致性为98%,EST-3与DNA聚合酶Ⅲα亚基[大肠杆菌OP50](ZP 06935700.1)氨基酸序列一致性为100%,EST-4与β-葡萄糖苷酶[黄曲霉NRRL3357](XP 002383240.1)氨基酸序列一致性为99%;4个差异表达基因通过调控蛋白质代谢、DNA复制和糖代谢等途径来应答镉胁迫。%Amaranthus hypochondriacus has great potential for phytoremediation of cadmium(Cd)polluted soils. In this study, differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(DDRT- PCR) was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the roots , leaves and fruits of A . hypochondriacus under Cd stress. The novel bands were recovered and four differentially expressed cDNA fragments [EST (Expressed sequence tags)-1, EST-2, EST-3 and EST-4] were obtained. All ESTs had homology with known cDNA clones in the Genbank databases. The EST-1 was similar to partial sequences of Talinum paniculatum 26S ribosomal RNA gene(GB|HQ843466.1)with an identity of 99%, while the EST-2 showed similarity to partial sequences of Saxifraga mertensiana large subunit 26S

  3. 镉对籽粒苋耐性生理及营养元素吸收积累的影响%Effect of cadmium on tolerance physiology and nutrient accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹颖; 苏彦华

    2012-01-01

    初步阐明了镉对籽粒苋耐性生理及营养元素吸收积累的影响,为进一步揭示籽粒苋的镉耐性与镉富集机理奠定了基础.通过对生物量的监测,对叶绿素、蛋白质、游离氨基酸、大量元素及微量元素等的含量的测定,阐明镉胁迫对籽粒苋生长生理、抗胁迫耐性、营养元素吸收分配的影响.研究结果显示,镉胁迫对籽粒苋的生长抑制作用不明显,植株生物量随着镉浓度的提高而轻微降低.随着镉处理浓度的提高,叶绿素含量下降幅度显著;蛋白质和游离氨基酸含量变化幅度不明显;钾含量无大幅变化;镉、磷、钙、镁、锌、铁、锰、铜含量变化幅度较显著.镉、钾、磷、锰的迁移系数随着镉处理浓度的提高无显著变化;钙的迁移系数呈上升趋势;镁、锌、铁、铜的迁移系数均呈下降趋势.这些结果表明:镉胁迫降低籽粒苋叶绿素含量,抑制植株光合作用,继而抑制了植株的生长,但其程度不明显;镉胁迫条件启动活性氧防御机制;引起植株体内部分养分代谢紊乱.结论:低浓度镉处理条件下,籽粒苋受镉离子影响,抗氧化能力下降.在高浓度镉处理条件下,籽粒苋调节了营养元素的吸收和分配,启动了一系列活性氧防御机制,提高了抗胁迫能力.%This paper illustrated the tolerance physiology of cadmium and the impact of cadmium on nutrient uptake and accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Through monitoring the biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content, free amino acids content, macro-elements content and micro-elements content, the paper can determined the effect of cadmium stress on amaranth. The results were: cadmium stress inhibited growth of amaranth slightly. As the cadmium concentration increased, there was a significant decrease in chlorophyll content. Change in protein content and free amino acids content is not obvious as the cadmium concentration elevated

  4. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  5. granos de Amaranto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Muñoz Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las actividades del diseño, fabricación y montaje de una máquina reventadora de amaranto que incorpora lo más reciente de los desarrollos tecnológicos que se han llevado a cabo en este tipo de máquinas en el Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica Agrícola (DIMA de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (UACh. El proyecto que fue contratado por la empresa «Comercializadora Agroindustrial Tlaxcala S. de R.L. M.I.» se desarrolló en el DIMA, en coordinación con la Unidad de Gestión y Servicios Tecnológicos de la Universidad (UGST, donde se caracterizaron las propiedades físicas del amaranto que son de interés para obtener los parámetros de diseño que se utilizaron para la selección y fabricación de los diferentes elementos de la máquina. Producto de los resultados se propuso un tipo de máquina que funciona con un intercambiador de calor y con aplicación directa del quemador a la entrada del ventilador, se diseñó la máquina y se fabricó utilizando los procesos de manufactura de corte, doblez, soldadura y ensamble de los diferentes materiales que constituyen la máquina. Se realizaron las pruebas preoperacionales de la máquina en vacío y con carga. Se llevó a cabo la instalación electromecánica de la máquina y las demás partes descritas en el estado de Tlaxcala

  6. Fractionation by milling of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) : compositional characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Marcílio; Jaime Amaya-Farfan; Ciacco,César F.; CARLOS R. SPEHAR

    2003-01-01

    O grão de amaranto é geralmente consumido na sua forma integral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da moagem do grão de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus) brasileiro na composição química, nutricional, a estabilidade à oxidação e cor da farinha. Os grãos foram pré-condicionados para umidades entre 9,2 e 13,7% e fracionados em moinho para cereais. O aumento da umidade de 9,2 para 13,7% resultou na diminuição progressiva do rendimento da farinha, de 39 para 14%. A farinha refinada (qu...

  7. Estudio de las propiedades funcionales, tecnológicas y fisiológicas de las proteínas de amaranto

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés por el cultivo del amaranto debido a: su contenido proteico y ventajas agronómicas (rendimiento y resistencia a la sequía). En esta tesis se obtubieron concentrados proteicos de Amaranthus mantegazzianus, en planta piloto por precipitación isoeléctrica tradicional y métodos alternativos de extracción ácida inicial combinada con precipitación isoeléctrica y ultrafiltración. Además se obtuvieron dos hidrolizados. Las muestras se caracterizaron e...

  8. Distribución geográfica de las especies cultivadas de Amaranthus y de sus parientes silvestres en México Geographical distribution of cultivated species of Amaranthus and their wild relatives in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia-Rangel

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener los patrones de distribución de Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus y sus parientes silvestres, mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, además de realizar un patrón de variación geográfica de las zonas donde se localizan. El género Amaranthus está distribuido a lo largo de México. A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus se distribuyen en la parte centro sur del país, mientras que A. powellii está distribuido del centro al norte de México. Por otro lado, A. hybridus se puede cultivar prácticamente en todo México, por lo que fue la especie que presentó la mayor adaptación en comparación a las otras tres especies que mostraron una distribución más limitada. De acuerdo con la hipótesis que A. hybridus puede ser el ancestro más probable de A. cruentus y según los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, esta hipótesis podría ser cierta debido que en toda la distribución de A. cruentus está presente A. hybridus. Cabe mencionar, sobre la hipótesis que A. hypochondriacus puede ser un híbrido entre A. cruentus y A. powellii, se puede concluir que es cierta ya que A. hypochondriacus presentó un patrón de variación latitudinal parecido a A. powellii y un patrón de variación altitudinal similar a A. cruentus; además que todas ellas convergen en el Valle de México.The aim of this work was to obtain the distribution patterns of Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and its wild relatives using Gorgraphic Information Systems, as well as creating a geographic variation pattern of the areas in which they are found. The genus Amaranthus is distributed throughout Mexico. A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are distributed in the south-central area of the country, whereas A. powellii is found in the center and north of Mexico. On the other hand, A. hybridus can be cultivated in practically any part of the country, making it the species with the

  9. Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum and Different Amaranth Species (Amaranthus spp. Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pospišil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigations carried out on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was to compare green mass and dry matter yields of forage sorghum and amaranth, and the nutritional value of these two crops at several development stages. Investigations included two amaranth cultivars: ‘1008’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and ‘Koniz’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. x Amaranthus hybridus L., and forage sorghum, hybrid Grazer N (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense. In all three trial years, forage sorghum gave the highest green mass and dry matter yield at the tasselling stage. In 2003, also amaranth, cultivar 1008, gave a high green mass yield at the flowering, which was in the same rank as forage sorghum. Decline of biomass quality was observed at later development stages due to a decrease in the concentration of crude and digestible proteins and an increase in NDF (neutral detergent fibre and ADF (acid detergent fibre concentrations. High quality of amaranth biomass was determined. Higher concentrations of crude and digestible proteins were found in amaranth aboveground biomass compared to forage sorghum while sorghum had a higher NDF concentration.

  10. A rapid and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker for the identification of Amaranthus cruentus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jun; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Matsushima, Kenichi; Minami, Mineo; Nemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker was developed to identify the Amaranthus cruentus species by comparing sequences of the starch branching enzyme (SBE) locus among the three cultivated grain amaranths. We determined the partial SBE genomic sequence in 72 accessions collected from diverse locations around the world by direct sequence analysis. Then, we aligned the gene sequences and searched for restriction enzyme cleavage sites specific to each species for use in the PCR-RFLP analysis. The result indicated that MseI would recognize the sequence 5'-T/TAA-3' in intron 11 from A. cruentus SBE. A restriction analysis of the amplified 278-bp portion of the SBE gene using the MseI restriction enzyme resulted in species-specific RFLP patterns among A. cruentus, Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Two different bands, 174-bp and 104-bp, were generated in A. cruentus, while A. caudatus and A. hypochondriacus remained undigested (278-bp). Thus, we propose that the PCR-RFLP analysis of the amaranth SBE gene provides a sensitive, rapid, simple and useful technique for identifying the A. cruentus species among the cultivated grain amaranths.

  11. Efectos del consumo de panes integrales elaborados con harina de Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. y harina de trigo en ratas con sídrome metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Quiroga, Keyla Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El género Amaranthus se caracteriza por su alto contenido de nutrientes comparables a los alimentos de origen animal. Sin embargo, la especie Amaranthus dubius, la cual está diseminada en Venezuela, se considera un arvense de cultivos de subsistencia, como el maíz, sorgo y leguminosas; esto impulso la investigación sobre la posible aplicación del amaranto venezolano para la alimentación humana. El estudio se inició con la evaluación de la composición proximal, el contenid...

  12. Field evaluation of Amaranthus species for seed and biomass yields in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Pizza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a crop with a potentially increasing cultivation area. Little information is available on amaranth cultivation in Mediterranean environments and in southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic traits and assess the grain and biomass yield responses of 11 genotypes belonging to 5 Amaranthus species, provided from the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System. There was wide diversity in agronomic traits among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. The accessions belonging to A. cruentus had the shortest growing cycle followed by A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and, finally, A. hybrid that had the longest growing season. The A. cruentus accessions reached maturity more quickly than the other species. The total above-ground dry matter ranged from 15 to 23 t ha-1 with A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, and A. hybridus being the most productive. The stem plus branches dry matter was well correlated to the plant height (r2 = 0.75**. The tested amaranth genotypes showed appreciable biomass production that can thus be regarded as an interesting secondary product after seed harvesting. Grain yield and components varied among species and accessions. A. hypochondriacus showed the highest yield per plant (55.4 g followed by five accessions belonging to A. cruentus and A. hybridus (26.4 g on average. Considering together their shorter growing season and their higher grain production, the five accessions belonging to A. cruentus species appear to be better adapted to Mediterranean environments and southern Italy as compared to the other species.

  13. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillón-Arbeláez Paula; Martínez-Gallardo Norma; Arnaut Hamlet; Tiessen Axel; Délano-Frier John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. Recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. A multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements...

  14. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  15. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food insec

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS LARVAS DE DOS ESPECIES DE Paranomala Y UNA ESPECIE DE Strigoderma (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE: RUTELINAE DE PUEBLA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR ALFONSO CUATE MOZO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las descripciones de la larva de tercer estadio de Paranomala flavilla (Bates, P. hoepfneri (Bates y Strigoderma costulipennis Bates, recolectadas en el estado de Puebla, México, en suelos con cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.. Se incluyen ilustraciones distintivas y comentarios sobre las diferencias con las larvas de otras especies de los géneros estudiados en México.

  17. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: La incorporación de ingredientes funcionales como el amaranto (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) en la elaboración de pan es una estrategia para aumentar el consumo de fibra, el cual está relacionado con efectos beneficiosos para la salud, mejorando la respuesta glicémica y el perfil lipídico. Materiales y métodos: Treinta ratas machos Sprague dawley se distribuyeron al azar en tres grupos: dieta de pan con 0% de amaranto (PA0, control), dieta de pan con 10% de amaranto (PA10) y dieta de pan con 20% de amaranto (PA20) para determinar el consumo de alimento, ganancia en peso, triglicéridos, colesterol total, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, proteínas y la respuesta glicémica postpandrial. Los datos fueron analizados a través de un análisis completamente aleatorizado con 10 repeticiones, utilizando la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para los parámetros bioquímicos. La respuesta glicémica postprandial fue analizada por el método de medidas repetidas en el tiempo. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta diaria y la ganancia de peso no se afecto (p>0,05) en los grupos con PA10 y PA20. La concentración de glucosa, triglicéridos y proteína presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) por la diferencia de contenido de amaranto de las dietas. Los valores de colesterol total, LDL-C, factor de riesgo e índice aterogénico presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) resultando el grupo de menor valor el formado por PA10 y PA20. En los grupos PA10 y PA20 el pico de hiperglucemia y la fase de hiperglucemia total fue más bajo, mostrando una mejor respuesta glicémica. Conclusión: el amaranto podría ser utilizado como ingrediente funcional en la elaboraciones de panes ya que permitió mejorar el perfil lipídico así como la respuesta glicémica postpandrial.

  18. Actividad antitrombótica de proteínas de amaranto

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbione, Ana Clara

    2015-01-01

    Con el fin de obtener conocimientos que sirvan de aporte para futuros desarrollos de alimentos funcionales que contengan a las proteínas de amaranto como uno de sus ingredientes, en este trabajo nos hemos propuesto estudiar los aspectos básicos de la actividad antitrombótica de las proteínas de amaranto. Se estudiaron diversos protocolos de hidrólisis sobre los aislados proteicos de amaranto como una herramienta que nos permitiese generar distintos polipéptidos y péptidos activos. E...

  19. Amaranto como ingrediente funcional: propiedades antioxidantes de proteínas y péptidos

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini Delgado, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo general: Analizar distintas condiciones de simulación de la digestión gastrointestinal in vitro de proteínas de amaranto y caracterizar las muestras obtenidas. Objetivos específicos: » Evaluar diferentes condiciones de digestión gastrointestinal simulada sobre un aislado proteico de amaranto, variando relaciones enzimas/sustrato y tiempos de reacción. » Analizar, junto con el grado de hidrólisis, la potencial actividad antioxidante de los dige...

  20. Amaranto BRS Alegria: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção Amaranth BRS Alegria: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do sistema produtivo depende de espécies com rápido crescimento, tolerância ao déficit hídrico, produção de biomassa, ciclagem de nutrientes e utilização humana e animal. As espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus apresentam essas características e sementes claras, sem dormência. Distinguem-se das invasoras A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum e A. viridis, com sementes escuras e dormentes. Os grãos, com excelente qualidade protéica, atendem à demanda por dietas especiais, livres de glúten e podem ser usados na alimentação animal. O A. cruentus BRS Alegria, primeira recomendação ao cultivo granífero no Brasil, originou-se da variedade AM 5189, dos Estados Unidos, na qual realizou-se seleção massal. Em sucessão à soja, apresentou produção média de 2.359 kg ha-1 de grãos e 5.650 kg ha-1 de biomassa total em apenas 90 dias de ciclo.Diversification of production systems depends on rapid growth, tolerance to hydric stress, biomass production, nutrient cycling and human and animal utilization. The grain amaranth species Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, with light seed colour and no dormancy, present these characteristics. They are distinguishable from the weeds A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum and A. viridis, with dark and dormant seeds. Their grains, with excellent protein quality, can be used in gluten-free special diets and livestock feed. The A. cruentus BRS Alegria, the first recommendation for grain production systems in Brazil, originated from mass selection in the variety AM 5189 of the United States. In double-cropping, after soybeans, it showed average yield of 2,359 kg ha-1 for grain and of 5,650 kg ha-1 for total biomass, in 90 days from emergence to maturity.

  1. Neutral Pectin side chains of Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) contain long, partially branched Arabinans and short galactans, both with terminal arabinopyranoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-01-21

    Amaranth is a pseudocereal of high nutritional value, including a high dietary fiber content. Amaranth dietary fiber was suggested to contain large amounts of neutral rhamnogalacturonan I side chains. In this study, endo-arabinanase and endo-galactanase were used to liberate arabinan and galactan oligosaccharides from amaranth fiber. The liberated oligosaccharides were identified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and HPLC-MS(n) using standard compounds, which were isolated from amaranth, sugar beet, potato, and red clover sprouts and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that insoluble amaranth arabinans have linear and branched areas, with the O-3 position being the dominant branching point. Minor amounts of branches at position O-2 and double substitution were also found. Amaranth arabinans were also demonstrated to contain terminal α-(1→5)-linked l-arabinopyranose units. In addition, it was evidenced that galactans from amaranth seeds are composed of β-(1→4)-linked d-galactopyranose units, which can also be terminated with l-arabinopyranose units. In direct comparison to structural elucidation of amaranth fiber by using methylation analysis, the advantage of the enzymatic approach over methylation analysis was demonstrated.

  2. Seguridad alimentaria, autosuficiencia y disponibilidad del amaranto en México

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Martínez Salvador

    2016-01-01

    En México la obesidad y la desnutrición son un grave problema de salud pública por lo que el rescate de cultivos nutritivos y superavitarios, como los es el del amaranto, surge como una alternativa para contribuir a mejorar la dieta alimenticia y favorecer la disminución de los problemas de malnutrición en el país. El amaranto, considerado como un cultivo con amplio potencial nutricional, tiene una baja importancia estadística como alimento, por lo que representa un claro ejemplo del potencia...

  3. Digestibility, chemical compound and protein quality of amaranthus forage at two harvested cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooria ehsani

    2016-04-01

    technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops (32. In a completely randomized experiment with factorial arrangement (2×2 the digestibility, chemical compound and protein quality of two varieties of amaranthus including: Kharkof (K, A. Spp.(S. which were planted as forage crops and harvested at two cuts, were studied. Data were subjected to analysis using the GLM procedure of SAS (26, using the statistical model: Yijk = µ + Vi + Dj + Vi Dj + eijk Results and Discussion Results of in vitro two stage digestibility (IVD for DM, OM and DOMD were 60.19, 58.16 and 49.09, respectively which were significantly (p>0.05 affected by cultivars and interaction between cultivars and cuts. Results indicated that the means of CP, ASH, NDF, ADF,ADL, NDIN, ADIN, Ca, P, Mg, and K were 14.72, 15.44, 40.85, 27.90,5.07,21.76,6.60, 1.55, 0.25, 0.28, 1.48, percent; respectively. Plant maturity was found to affect neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, CP and nitrate content of amaranth forage. Amaranth contains a high ash content due to its C4 metabolism and a very high carbon uptake per unit area (29. This high ash is in agreement with other researchers (1, 21 .Our amaranth accession had higher NDF (27 and lower ADF (22, 23 in comparison to A. Hypochondriacus reported by other researchers. Lignin content in amaranth is less than that reported by other researchers (27. With increased plant maturity, fraction B1 decreased, probably due to an increase in cell wall bound N (16. Researchers observed that Similar results in CP fraction of amaranthus hypochoderyacus (21(. We observed that a negative relationship between NDF and fraction B1. There was a tendency for fraction B2 to increase with advancing maturity, similar to other researchers (21. At the second harvest, fraction B3 was higher than that at first harvest, similar to reserchers with amaranthus hypochondriacus (1. Different changes in NDF concentration of plant parts with maturity may explain the

  4. Fracionamento do grão de Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro por moagem e suas características composicionais Fractionation by milling of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus. Compositional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marcílio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O grão de amaranto é geralmente consumido na sua forma integral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da moagem do grão de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro na composição química, nutricional, a estabilidade à oxidação e cor da farinha. Os grãos foram pré-condicionados para umidades entre 9,2 e 13,7% e fracionados em moinho para cereais. O aumento da umidade de 9,2 para 13,7% resultou na diminuição progressiva do rendimento da farinha, de 39 para 14%. A farinha refinada (quebra + redução, com 9,2% de umidade, mostrou teores de proteína total de 13,9%, contra 16,2% da farinha integral. O teor de lipídeos totais no amaranto integral (9,2% de umidade variou de 6,78, para 6,11% na farinha refinada e o teor de fibra nos farelos diminuiu de 3,6 para 3,1%, ao passo que a cor da farinha se tornou mais atraente. Conclui-se que o fracionamento da farinha do grão de amaranto, apesar de produzir uma farinha com melhor aparência e alto teor protéico, apresenta rendimento baixo e não mostra diminuição substancial no teor de óleo da farinha refinada como para garantir uma maior estabilidade à autooxidação.Grain amaranth is normally consumed whole. The effect of milling on the chemical and nutritional composition, stability to oxidation and color of the flours of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus has been assessed. Grains of the cv Japônica were pre-conditioned to moistures from 9.2 to 13.7% and fractionated in a cereal mill. Increasing the moisture resulted in a pronounced decrease of flour yield from 39 to 14%. The refined flour (break and reduction fractions combined of the 9.2% moisture grain showed a total protein content of 13.9%, against the 16.2% of the whole flour, whereas the total lipid content fell from 6.78 to 6.11% with no detectable change in oxidative stability after refining. The fiber content was reduced slightly, from 4.6 to 3.8% for the highest and the lowest moisture contents

  5. The complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Lindsay; Mangelson, Ryan; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The amaranth genus contains many important grain and weedy species. We further our understanding of the genus through the development of a complete reference chloroplast genome. Methods and Results: A high-quality Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Amaranthaceae) chloroplast genome assembly was developed using long-read technology. This reference genome was used to reconstruct the chloroplast genomes for two closely related grain species (A. cruentus and A. caudatus) and their putative progenitor (A. hybridus). The reference genome was 150,518 bp and possesses a circular structure of two inverted repeats (24,352 bp) separated by small (17,941 bp) and large (83,873 bp) single-copy regions; it encodes 111 genes, 72 for proteins. Relative to the reference chloroplast genome, an average of 210 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 122 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) were identified across the analyzed genomes. Conclusions: This reference chloroplast genome, along with the reported simple sequence repeats, SNPs, and indels, is an invaluable genetic resource for studying the phylogeny and genetic diversity within the amaranth genus. PMID:27672525

  6. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  7. Polifenoles de amaranto: efecto de la digestión gastrointestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    La semilla de amaranto presenta una alta calidad nutricional y es además fuente de compuestos bioactivos, entre los cuales están los polifenoles dada su capacidad antioxidante y otros efectos benéficos. Estos compuestos pueden encontrarse libres, formando uniones glicosídicas o unidos a proteínas (insolubles). Los fenoles unidos pueden ser liberados por tratamiento alcalino, ácido o enzimático.

  8. Seguridad alimentaria, autosuficiencia y disponibilidad del amaranto en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En México la obesidad y la desnutrición son un grave problema de salud pública por lo que el rescate de cultivos nutritivos y superavitarios, como los es el del amaranto, surge como una alternativa para contribuir a mejorar la dieta alimenticia y favorecer la disminución de los problemas de malnutrición en el país. El amaranto, considerado como un cultivo con amplio potencial nutricional, tiene una baja importancia estadística como alimento, por lo que representa un claro ejemplo del potencial y la diversidad agrícola desaprovechada por las estrategias alimenticias. Es importante rescatar la producción local de amaranto, procurando que los actores de la dinámica agrícola de este cultivo posean las capacidades para impulsar su producción y consumo en aras de atender el problema de malnutrición (obesidad o desnutrición y de seguridad alimentaria.

  9. Entre conejos y alegrías: Proceso productivo y valoración del amaranto en Tochimilco, Puebla.

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Llerandi, Alejandra Carolina

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo dar a conocer cuál es el manejo, el uso y la valoración del amaranto en la región de Tochimilco, Puebla y proponer una estrategia de desarrollo rural. Para lograr este fin se trabajó con: la historia oral, encuestas, observación participante, entrevistas guiadas que permitieron la elaboración de una etnografía; así como un análisis FODA para generar una estrategia que permita darle mayor uso y valor al amaranto para su consumo en la región y valor...

  10. Optimization of Detecting Conditions of Cd Element in Root of A maranthus hypochondriacus using Flame Atomic Absorption Based on Response Surface Methodology%火焰原子吸收法检测籽粒苋根中镉含量影响因素的响应面优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋海军; 徐铭键; 陈惠; 张世熔; 布同良; 唐自钟; 孙蓉; 刘默洋

    2015-01-01

    To optimize the detecting conditions of Cd element in root of A maranthus hypochondriacus using flame atomic absorption based on response surface methodology. On the basis of single factor experiment, effects of lamp current, slit width, acetylene/air flow ratio and burner height were investigated based on the Box-Behnken design of Design Expert V 8.0.5b on the absorbance value of Cd element in root of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The optimal detecting conditions were as follows:lamp current 5.67 mA, slit width 0.62 nm, acetylene/air flow ratio 0.17;burner height 5.14 mm, and the theoretical prediction of the absorbance was 0.209 4. The experimental results showed that the theoretical value of absorbance was close to that of the real detection, and the relative standard deviation was 0.94%, and the recovery rates ranged from 96.3%to 103.7%. This showed that the method had a good reproducibility, and the data was accurate and reliable. This experiment will provide technical data for accurate detection of cadmium content of different parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) and screening of new varieties of cadmium resistance in A maranthus hypochondriacus.%采用响应面法优化籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus)根中镉元素的火焰原子吸收检测条件。在单因素试验的基础上,本研究利用Design Expert V 8.0.5b软件中的Box-Benhnken试验设计,研究灯电流、狭缝宽度、乙炔/空气流量比和燃烧器高度4个因素对籽粒苋根系中镉吸光度值的影响。用响应面分析法得出最优的测定条件为:灯电流5.67 mA;狭缝宽度0.62 nm;乙炔/空气流量比0.17(1/6);燃烧器高度5.14 mm,此时的理论预测吸光度值为0.2094。通过验证实验证实:吸光度的理论预测值与真实测定值接近,样品检测中的相对标准偏差0.94%,加标回收率在96.3%~103.7%之间,说明该检测方法重现性好,数据准确可靠。本实验将为下一步准确检测籽粒苋不同部

  11. Evaluación del amaranto y la quinua como fuentes reemplazantes a la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Ricardo; Molina, César

    2004-01-01

    Evaluación del amaranto y la quinua como Fuentes reemplazantes a la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei Se realizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio para conocer el efecto de reemplazar la proteína de la harina de pescado por la del amaranto y la quinua sobre el crecimiento de camarones juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade tecnológica de snacks obtidos por extrusão de grão integral de amaranto ou de farinha de amaranto desengordurada e suas misturas com fubá de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Capriles,Vanessa Dias; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Apesar dos benefícios nutricionais e de seu potencial como alimento funcional, o amaranto ainda é um alimento pouco difundido no Brasil. Para o aumento do consumo desta matéria-prima, preconiza-se a sua incorporação na formulação de produtos convencionais, como os snacks extrudados que vêm sendo elaborados com a farinha de amaranto desengordurada. Pouco tem sido pesquisado sobre a extrusão direta do grão integral de amaranto, o que permitiria eliminar as etapas de moagem e de desengordurament...

  13. Umidade e congelamento de grãos de amaranto e sua capacidade de expansão térmica Moisture and freezing of amaranth grains and their thermal expansion capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças de Assis Bianchini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do teor de umidade, da temperatura de armazenamento e do momento da hidratação de grãos de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus L. sobre sua capacidade de expansão térmica, bem como comparar as composições químicas de grãos crus e pipocados. Os atributos diâmetro médio ponderado, volume de expansão, densidade, rendimento, quantidade descartada e tempo de residência de grãos da variedade BRS Alegria foram avaliados de acordo com três teores de umidade (9,5, 11,5 e 13,5%, duas formas de armazenamento, temperatura ambiente de ±28ºC e congelado a -18ºC, e dois momentos de hidratação, antes e após congelamento. Utilizou-se chapa metálica aquecida a 215ºC para pipocar os grãos. Grãos congelados com umidade de 13,5% tiveram maior diâmetro médio ponderado e volume de expansão, e menor densidade e tempo de residência. A umidade de 13,5% proporcionou os maiores rendimentos e expansão dos grãos. O armazenamento a -18ºC produziu pipocas maiores e mais leves do que em condições ambientais. As pipocas apresentaram redução nos teores de proteínas e fibras insolúveis e aumento nos de lipídeos e fibras solúveis, em relação ao grão cru. O congelamento dos grãos a -18ºC e sua hidratação a 13,5% de umidade favorecem o pipocamento de grãos de amaranto, com produção de pipocas de melhor qualidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of moisture content, storage temperature, and moment of hydration of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L. grains on their expansion capacity, as well tocomparethe chemical compositions ofraw and poppedgrain.Theattributes mean weightdiameter,volume of expansion, density, yield, amount of non popped grains and residence time of BRS Alegria grains were evaluated according to three grain moisture contents (9.5, 11.5 and 13.5%, two forms of storage, environment temperature (±28ºC and freezing (-18ºC, and two different stages of

  14. Nutritional study of raw and popped seed proteins of Amaranthus caudatus L and Amaranthus cruentus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Alink, G.M.; Mossallem, A.S.; Shekib, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw and popped (similar to popcorn preparation) seed proteins of two amaranth species, Amaranthus caudatus L and A cruentus L, was investigated. After popping, the true protein content in A caudatus and A cruentus decreased by 9 and 13% respectively. Among the amino acids, t

  15. Análisis del sistema productivo de amaranto en Temoac, Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Velia Ayala Garay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una caracterización delproceso productivo de amaranto de Temoac,Morelos, para conocer por qué la superficiese está reduciendo. Se utilizó una encuestadirigida a 64 productores (mayo-septiembrede 2013. En promedio siembran 2.7 ha, sonminifundistas y 92% cultivan en ejidos. Nocuentan con crédito y seguro agrícola. Su producciónes de temporal, con 1.5 toneladas porhectárea; 47% de los productores disminuyeronla superficie sembrada en los últimos años.Existe un desarrollo de economías familiares,con uso de mano de obra familiar. Los costospor hectárea tienen como rubro importante losgastos de labores manuales (49%, sólo 15%de los productores tiene tractor. La baja productividady mecanización son los principalesproblemas que influyen para que se abandonela producción.

  16. Photocontrol of germination in Amaranthus caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R E; Frankland, B

    1969-12-01

    Germination of Amaranthus caudatus is inhibited by light, far-red being the most effective part of the spectrum. At temperatures of 25° and below there is a low final germination percentage under continuous far-red whereas above 25° there is only a delaying effect. In the presence of a saturating concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 25° seeds germinate under continuous far-red although they are delayed. At 25° seeds exposed to 48 hr far-red fail to germinate when transferred to darkness. This induced dormancy can be broken by a single short exposure to red light given at any time after the far-red illumination. This effect of short red can be reversed by a subsequent short period of far-red indicating that the seeds are phytochrome controlled. Although most seeds have escaped from the reversing effect of short far-red after an intervening dark period of 5 hours, germination is greatly reduced by continuous far-red at this time. Results of exposing seeds to varying periods of far-red before and after dark imbibition are interpreted in terms of a continual production of phytochrome in its active P fr form and a requirement for P fr action over a long period of time. Effects of intermittent and continuous low intensity far-red on the inhibition of germination provides further evidence for a low energy photoreaction involving phytochrome. Effects on Germination Index of continuous illumination with various light sources maintaining different P fr /P total ratios have been investigated. The results suggest that the proportion of phytochrome in the P fr form is the most important factor in the regulation of germination. A scheme for the phytochrome control of germination in Amaranthus caudatus is presented and possible explanations for the dependence on P fr /P total ratio are discussed.

  17. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo; ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve tendência de A. hybridus (tipo verde dominar tanto A. hybridus (tipo roxo como A. viridis, e de A. hybridus (tipo roxo dominar A. viridis. Em cultivo misto, houve casos em que as espécies estavam competindo pelos mesmos recursos, ou explorando recursos diferentes do ambiente, ou mesmo com antagonismo mútuo.The objective of this paper was to study the interspecific interference between two Amaranthus species -- A. viridis and A. hybridus --, the latter with two distinct biotypes (green and purple; both species ocurred in two localities. In the populations of each of the locations, some independent substitution trials were made in pots, and it could be concluded that the populations that germinate more readily are those which are superior in competition i.e., those that establish themselves and produce the largest number of seeds. There was a tendency for A. hybridus (green biotype to dominate both A. hybridus (purple biotype and A. viridis, and for A. hybridus (purple biotype to dominate A. viridis. In mixed stands, there were cases where the species were competing for the same resources, cases where they were exploiting different environmental resources, and even cases of mutual antagonism.

  18. Caracterización de suelos cultivados con amaranto y algunos aspectos agronómicos de la planta

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ramírez Téllez; Elizabeth Hernández Acosta; Elizabeth García Gallegos

    2014-01-01

    En el estado de Tlaxcala se produce y consume amaranto, por lo que es importante estudiar sus aspectos agronómicos y las propiedades del suelo donde crece. Para cumplir con este objetivo, en este trabajo, se seleccionaron tres sitios pertenecientes al municipio de Nativitas, Tlaxcala, en el ciclo 2009-2010, donde antes de la siembra se aplica estiércol de bovino. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y químicas de los suelos y su contenido nutrimental. En planta, se determinó la biomasa aérea,...

  19. Spinach Effects (Amaranthus hybridus on Spatial Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Leonita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial memory reduction in elderly is predicted to increase up to twice every 20 years. Spinach (Amaranthus hybridus is widely consumed by Indonesian people and is believed to prevent declined spatial memory function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spinach on spatial memory in wistar rat induced by diazepam Methods: An experimental study was conducted during the period of October to November 2012 in Pharmacology and Therapy Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty five wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; two groups as controls, and 3 groups were given 100, 200, and 400mg/kg BW ethanolic extract of spinach (EESL, respectively. On day 7, group 3, 4, and 5 were given 1 mg/kg BW diazepam injection. Morris water maze tests and calculations of escape latency time (ELT were performed on day 7 and 8. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD test. Results: On day 7, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 4 and group 5. On day 8, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 3 and group 4. There was no significant increase in spatial memory in group 5 (EESL 400mg/kg BW that due to the use of higher dosage does not always show better results. Conclusions: EESL can prevent impairment of spatial memory with an effective dose of 200 mg/kg BW.

  20. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

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    Castrillón-Arbeláez Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. Recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. A multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements. Results Defoliation by insect herbivory (HD or mechanical damage (MD led to a rapid and transient reduction of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC in all tissues examined. This correlated with a short-term induction of foliar sucrolytic activity, differential gene expression of a vacuolar invertase and its inhibitor, and induction of a sucrose transporter gene. Leaf starch in defoliated plants correlated negatively with amylolytic activity and expression of a β-amylase-1 gene and positively with a soluble starch synthase gene. Fatty-acid accumulation in roots coincided with a high expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate transporter gene. In all tissues there was a long-term replenishment of most metabolite pools, which allowed damaged plants to maintain unaltered growth and grain yield. Promoter analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and vacuolar invertase genes indicated the presence of cis-regulatory elements that supported their responsiveness to defoliation. HD and MD had differential effects on transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolites. However, the correlation between transcript abundance and enzymatic activities was very limited. A better correlation was found between enzymes, metabolite levels and growth and reproductive parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that a rapid reduction of NSC reserves in leaves, stems and roots followed by their long-term recovery underlies tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. This requires the

  1. EPSPS amplification in glyphosate-resistant spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus): a case of gene transfer via interspecific hybridization from glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranthus spinosus, a common weed of pastures, is a close relative of Amaranthus palmeri, a problematic agricultural weed with widespread glyphosate resistance. These two species have been known to hybridize, allowing for transfer of glyphosate resistance. Glyphosate-resistant A. spinosus was rec...

  2. Modificação da composição química de farinhas integrais de grãos de amaranto após a aplicação de diferentes tratamentos térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças de Assis Bianchini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego do calor é uma alternativa utilizada com a finalidade de garantir a inocuidade, melhorar características sensoriais e aumentar a digestibilidade dos vegetais, tornando-os aptos ao consumo de crianças. No entanto, condições severas de calor podem alterar a sua composição nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do calor seco ou úmido, antes da moagem, na composição química de farinhas integrais de grãos de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus. As farinhas foram produzidas de grãos integrais in natura (FIAI, tostados (FIAT, cozidos e secos (FIAC e pipocados (FIAP. Os tratamentos térmicos aplicados aos grãos não afetaram os teores de minerais das farinhas, com exceção do Ca e Cu, mas elevaram os teores de lipídios (12 a 19% e de fibra solúvel (18 a 35% e reduziram de fibra insolúvel (5,8 a 8,5% em comparação com à in natura. Os aminoácidos sulfurados foram os primeiros limitantes na FIAI, para idades de 1 a 10 anos e o pipocamento reduziu a qualidade aminoacídica do grão, que passou a ser limitante, também, em lisina para todas as idades. A tostagem e a cocção melhoraram o balanço aminoacídico das farinhas e os aminoácidos sulfurados deixaram de ser limitantes para maiores de três anos.

  3. Avaliação da qualidade tecnológica de snacks obtidos por extrusão de grão integral de amaranto ou de farinha de amaranto desengordurada e suas misturas com fubá de milho Quality assessment of snacks obtained by extrusion of whole amaranth grains or defatted amaranth flour and their mixtures with corn grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dias Capriles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos benefícios nutricionais e de seu potencial como alimento funcional, o amaranto ainda é um alimento pouco difundido no Brasil. Para o aumento do consumo desta matéria-prima, preconiza-se a sua incorporação na formulação de produtos convencionais, como os snacks extrudados que vêm sendo elaborados com a farinha de amaranto desengordurada. Pouco tem sido pesquisado sobre a extrusão direta do grão integral de amaranto, o que permitiria eliminar as etapas de moagem e de desengorduramento. Assim, a pesquisa avaliou e comparou a qualidade tecnológica de snacks obtidos por extrusão de grão integral de amaranto e de farinha de amaranto desengordurada, e suas misturas com 25 e 50% de fubá de milho. Verificou-se que o teor de lipídeos presentes no grão de amaranto (8% prejudicou a expansão e a textura dos extrudados. Mesmo com a adição de fubá de milho, os snacks extrudados à base de grão integral de amaranto foram rejeitados sensorialmente (aceitação global entre 3 e 4, numa escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, pois apresentaram baixa expansão, textura dura, cor escura e forte sabor residual. Já os snacks extrudados obtidos com farinha de amaranto desengordurada isoladamente e em combinação com fubá de milho apresentaram maior expansão, textura crocante e cor mais clara, e, por isso, maior aceitabilidade (aceitação global > 5. Conclui-se, nas condições do experimento, que não foi possível obter snacks extrudados à base de grãos de amaranto de boa aceitação e que a produção de snacks extrudados à base de farinha de amaranto desengordurada proporciona produtos com melhor aceitação por parte do consumidor.Despite its nutritional benefits and potential as a functional food, amaranth is still little known in Brazil. In order to increase its consumption, the inclusion of amaranth in the formulation of conventional products has been recommended, such as in extruded snacks, which are being prepared

  4. Interspecific hybridization transfers a previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism in Amaranthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Todd A; Ward, Sarah M; Bukun, Bekir; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E; Westra, Philip

    2012-01-01

    A previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, was recently reported in Amaranthus palmeri. This evolved mechanism could introgress to other weedy Amaranthus species through interspecific hybridization, representing an avenue for acquisition of a novel adaptive trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for this glyphosate resistance trait to transfer via pollen from A. palmeri to five other weedy Amaranthus species (Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus powellii, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, and Amaranthus tuberculatus). Field and greenhouse crosses were conducted using glyphosate-resistant male A. palmeri as pollen donors and the other Amaranthus species as pollen recipients. Hybridization between A. palmeri and A. spinosus occurred with frequencies in the field studies ranging from <0.01% to 0.4%, and 1.4% in greenhouse crosses. A majority of the A. spinosus × A. palmeri hybrids grown to flowering were monoecious and produced viable seed. Hybridization occurred in the field study between A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus (<0.2%), and between A. palmeri and A. hybridus (<0.01%). This is the first documentation of hybridization between A. palmeri and both A. spinosus and A. hybridus.

  5. Descriptions of the Larvae of Two Species of Paranomala and One Species of Strigoderma (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae from Puebla, Mexico

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    Víctor Alfonso Cuate Mozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The third instar larvae of Paranomala flavilla  (Bates, P. hoepfneri  (Bates and Strigoderma costulipennis  Bates, collected in Puebla, Mexico, in soils cultivated with amaranth are described. Illustrations of the diagnostic structures and comments on the differences with other larvae of the genera studied in Mexico are included.CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS LARVAS DE DOS ESPECIES DE Paranomala Y UNA ESPECIE DE Strigoderma (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE: RUTELINAE DE PUEBLA, MÉXICO.Se presentan las descripciones de la larva de tercer estadio de Paranomala flavilla (Bates, P. hoepfneri (Bates y Strigoderma costulipennis Bates, recolectadas en el estado de Puebla, México, en suelos con cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.. Se incluyen ilustraciones distintivas y comentarios sobre las diferencias con las larvas de otras especies de los géneros estudiados en México.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor and their effects on gene expression of RAGE during oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornrit, W; Santiyanont, R

    2016-04-26

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used as food sources worldwide. Amaranthus leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, which act as free radical scavengers. Oxidative stress caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an important mechanism for neuronal dysfunction and cell loss in different neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective effects of antioxidant-containing plants have been extensively demonstrated in different models of neurotoxicity. However, few studies have investigated the antioxidant properties of Amaranthus extracts and their effect on the nervous system. In the present study, the leaves of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor were extracted using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and methanol. Results indicated that antioxidant activities were the highest in methanol extracts from both kinds of Amaranthus leaves. In addition, oxidative stress was induced in human neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) by using H2O2. Intracellular oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and gene expression of RAGE were then determined. In vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts can significantly decrease cell toxicity and intracellular ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, the extracts also significantly downregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes such as HMOX-1, RAGE, and RelA/ NF-κB. Our results suggested that Amaranthus leaves may be useful for reducing oxidative stress and may be beneficial for age-related diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Will the Amaranthus tuberculatus Resistance Mechanism to PPO-Inhibiting Herbicides Evolve in Other Amaranthus Species?

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    Chance W. Riggins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO has been slow to evolve and, to date, is confirmed for only four weed species. Two of these species are members of the genus Amaranthus L. Previous research has demonstrated that PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus (Moq. Sauer, the first weed to have evolved this type of resistance, involves a unique codon deletion in the PPX2 gene. Our hypothesis is that A. tuberculatus may have been predisposed to evolving this resistance mechanism due to the presence of a repetitive motif at the mutation site and that lack of this motif in other amaranth species is why PPO-inhibitor resistance has not become more common despite strong herbicide selection pressure. Here we investigate inter- and intraspecific variability of the PPX2 gene—specifically exon 9, which includes the mutation site—in ten amaranth species via sequencing and a PCR-RFLP assay. Few polymorphisms were observed in this region of the gene, and intraspecific variation was observed only in A. quitensis. However, sequencing revealed two distinct repeat patterns encompassing the mutation site. Most notably, A. palmeri S. Watson possesses the same repetitive motif found in A. tuberculatus. We thus predict that A. palmeri will evolve resistance to PPO inhibitors via the same PPX2 codon deletion that evolved in A. tuberculatus.

  8. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

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    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  9. Biological screening of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae Abordagem biológica de Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae

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    Jamileh Salar Amoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays are required for the determination of the total toxicity of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae or "redroot pigweed". Therefore, the plant extract has been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina and cytotoxicity against bovine kidney cells. The LD50 values for Artemia salina were measured at 1700 ppm. The bovine kidney cells were exposed to various concentrations of the plant extracts (100 ppm-0.1 ppm. After treating with 100 and 0.1 ppm for 24 h, the cells viability were reduced by about 49% and 35% respectively in MTT viability assay. The study confirmed that Amaranthus retroflexus has a cytotoxic effect and more specific to renal cells.Ensaios biológicos foram realizados para determinação da toxidade de Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae conhecido popularmente como "redroot pigweed". Extratos desta espécie foram testados para avaliar sua bioatividade em Artemia salina e citoxidade em células bovinas de rim. Os valores de DL50 para Artemia salina foram medidos a 1700 ppm. As células de rim bovinas foram expostas a várias concentrações dos extratos de plantas (100-0,1 ppm. Após tratamento com 100 e 0,1 ppm por 24 h, a viabilidade celular foi reduzida a cerca de 49% e 35%, respectivamente, no ensaio de MTT. O estudo confirma que Amaranthus retroflexus apresenta um efeito citotóxico e, mais especificamente, para células renais.

  10. NFLUENCIA DE LAS VARIABLES DE SECADO EN LA CALIDAD ORGANOLÉPTICA DE BOCADITOS SALADOS A BASE DE AMARANTO

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    Teresa A. Batlle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de disminuir el endurecimiento del producto se estudió la influencia de la temperatura y tiempo de l proceso de secado en las propiedades organolépticas de bocaditos salados, nutricionalmente e quilibrados, a base de amaranto popeado, expuestos a 100 ºC - 14 minutos , hume dad 14,7% base seca y actividad acuosa 0,593 . De las curvas experimentales de secado s e seleccionaron nuevas condi ciones operativas, a humedad constante , resultando : 70 ºC - 17 minutos y 80 ºC - 16 minutos. La influencia de estas variables en el producto s e evaluó organoléptic amente por una p rue ba de diferencia con un control midiendo el descriptor dureza como parámetro de calidad, contrastándolo por método instrumental con un texturómetro. N o se evidenció diferencia significativa entre las muestras de 100ºC - 14 minutos y 80 ºC - 16 minutos, pero si para la muestra 70 ºC - 17 minutos. Se concluye que en las condiciones estudiadas las variables temperatura y tiempo influyen en las características organolépticas de lo s bocaditos.

  11. DETERMINACION DEL COEFICIENTE DE DIFUSIÓN DEL AGUA EN SEMILLAS DE AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS REHUMECTADAS

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    María L. Balmaceda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estima experimentalmente los coeficientes de difusión efectivos de agua en semillas de amaranto rehumectadas para posteriores estudios del rendimiento y calidad del popeado o reventado del grano. Las semillas se rehumectaron por inmersión en agua a temperaturas de 11, 35 y 50 °C durante intervalos de tiempo de 0.5, 1, 2 y 4 h, determinándose gravimétricamente la humedad adquirida en cada condición estudiada. Para estimar el coeficiente de difusión se empleó el modelo difusional basado en la solución analítica de la segunda ley de Fick, considerando a la semilla de amaranto como una esfera de radio 0.6 mm. Se midieron las humedades de equilibrio en las condiciones estudiadas luego de un tiempo de 24 h de rehumectación. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los encontrados por otros autores para semillas de quinua y otras variedades de amaranto, con características semejantes. Los valores de los coeficientes de difusión efectivos aumentaron con el incremento de la temperatura.

  12. Plasticidade fenotípica em Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae Phenotypic plasticity in Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae

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    Angela Maria Maluf

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um ensaio em casa de vegetação, no inverno, com seis populações de Amaranthus hybridus (cinco de biótipo verde e uma de biótipo roxo com o objetivo de estudar a influência da qualidade e da quantidade de luz no desenvolvimento das plantas. As plantas que receberam insolação direta no período da manhã, comparadas com as que receberam insolação direta no período da tarde, tiveram um aumento do ciclo de vida e redução na altura (cerca de 50%, número de folhas (cerca de 25%, quantidade de biomassa vegetativa-K (67 a 90%, biomassa reprodutiva-r (42 a 82% e produção total (51 a 83%. No entanto, a redução da relação r/K foi de no máximo 50%, sendo que em algumas populações não houve redução e sim acréscimo desta relação, indicando que plantas estrategistas-r, como o caso de Amaranthus hybridus que é uma invasora de culturas e possui uma grande plasticidade fenotípica, em condições de estresse sacrifica muito mais a produção de estruturas vegetativas que a produção de estruturas reprodutivas.During winter, a greenhouse trial was made in order to study the influence of light quality and quantity in the development of six Amaranthus hybridus populations (five green and one purple biotypes. Comparing plants that received direct insolation in the morning with those that were exposed to direct insolation in the afternoon, an increasing in the life cycle and a reduction in the height of the plants (around 50%, in leaf number (around 25%, in vegetative-K (67 to 90% and reproductive biomassr (42 to 82 and in total production (51 to 83% were observed in the first group of plants. However, reduction of the r/K relation reached the maximum of 50%, althougt some populations did not show this reduction but an increasing in this relation. Amaranthus hybridus, as a weed r-strategist plant, showed a high phenotypic plasticity and under stress conditions the plant metabolism seems to be deviated towards reproductive

  13. Genotypic Variations in Potassium Absorption and Utilization by Amaranthus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of K+ absorption and the utilization of both applied K and K in a calcareous alluvisol with low available K by different genotypes of grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), an ancient pseudo-cereal that produces a large biomass and a rich source of healthy nutrients and mineral elements, were studied by means of ion depletion technique and pot experiments. Grain amaranth had a high affinity for K+ uptake in comparison with corn and cotton. However, there were differences among Amaranthus spp. in K absorption and utilization. Some cultivars such as R104, CX-4, Du001, Hy015 and Hr029 which had a higher rate of K absorption and stronger affinity for K+ were typical varieties with high K-use efficiency (KUE). The results showed that high KUE cultivars grew quickly, possessed stronger ability to take up soil slowly available K and mineral K, and did not respond to K fertilization in the soil with low available K. Correspondingly, grain amaranth cultivars CX-77, Cr024, Vd001, Re003 and Sn003 were relatively low in KUE. Compared with high KUE cultivars, they took up more soil available K and both of their dry matter accumulation and K uptake responded to K applied significantly.

  14. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

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    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for Amaranthus brownii from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Amaranthus brownii known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands occur...

  16. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs.

  17. VALOR BIOLÓGICO DO GRÃO DE AMARANTO EXTRUSADO, CRU E TORRADO PROTEIN BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF EXTRUDED, RAW AND TOASTED AMARANTH GRAIN

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    Tânia Aparecida Pinto de Castro Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O amaranto é um falso cereal da classe das dicotiledôneas, pertencente à família Amaranthacea. Apresenta grande potencial de aumento de produção e consumo no mundo, em especial nas regiões tropicais, onde pode ser cultivado em rotação com a cultura da soja. Esse potencial é devido à sua excelente qualidade nutricional quando processado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar biologicamente a qualidade da proteína do amaranto cru, torrado e extrusado. A extrusão foi realizada em máquina extrusora de laboratório, de parafuso único, com velocidade de rotação do parafuso fixada em 200 rpm, razão de compressão 3,55:1 e L/D de 20:1. A operação foi conduzida a 150°C, nos seguintes teores de umidade da farinha desengordurada de amaranto: 11%, 13%, 15% e 24%. Um ensaio biológico foi conduzido com oitenta ratos Wistar recém-esmamados, em conformidade com a metodologia da AOAC (1995. O grupo que ingeriu amaranto extrusado a 24% de umidade obteve o melhor resultado de qualidade protéica, em termos de razão de eficácia protéica (REP, razão de eficácia protéica corrigida e ganho de peso. Os grupos que ingeriram dietas a base de amaranto extrusado obtiveram maiores índices de REP em relação ao grupo controle de caseína e ao grupo experimental que ingeriu amaranto torrado e cru. Isso pode ser explicado pela destruição de fatores antinutricionais, pelo aumento da palatabilidade e da disponibilidade de carboidratos durante o processo de extrusão; também pela alta qualidade protéica do amaranto submetido a alguns tipos de processamento térmico e não pelo aumento da digestibilidade da proteína. Os resultados mostram que o amaranto extrusado pode ser considerado um produto de alto valor biológico.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Extrusão; tostagem; valor biológico.

    Amaranth is a false cereal that belongs to the

  18. Herbicide resistances in Amaranthus tuberculatus: a call for new options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Patrick J; Riggins, Chance W; Bell, Michael S; Hager, Aaron G

    2011-06-08

    Amaranthus tuberculatus is a major weed of crop fields in the midwestern United States. Making this weed particularly problematic to manage is its demonstrated ability to evolve resistance to herbicides. Herbicides to which A. tuberculatus has evolved resistance are photosystem II inhibitors, acetolactate synthase inhibitors, protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors, and glyphosate. Many populations of A. tuberculatus contain more than one of these resistances, severely limiting the options for effective herbicide control. A survey of multiple-herbicide resistance in A. tuberculatus revealed that all populations resistant to glyphosate contained resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitors, and 40% contained resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. The occurrences of multiple-herbicide resistances in A. tuberculatus illustrate the need for continued herbicide discovery efforts and/or the development of new strategies for weed management.

  19. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, Lothar; Gaines, Todd A; Nissen, Scott J; Westra, Philip; Strek, Harry J; Dehne, Heinz W; Ruiz-Santaella, Juan Pedro; Beffa, Roland

    2014-08-13

    The evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds has recently increased dramatically. Six suspected glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus populations were studied to confirm resistance and determine the resistance mechanism. Resistance was confirmed in greenhouse for all six populations with glyphosate resistance factors (R/S) between 5.2 and 7.5. No difference in glyphosate absorption or translocation was observed between resistant and susceptible individuals. No mutation at amino acid positions G101, T102, or P106 was detected in the EPSPS gene coding sequence, the target enzyme of glyphosate. Analysis of EPSPS gene copy number revealed that all glyphosate-resistant populations possessed increased EPSPS gene copy number, and this correlated with increased expression at both RNA and protein levels. EPSPS Vmax and Kcat values were more than doubled in resistant plants, indicating higher levels of catalytically active expressed EPSPS protein. EPSPS gene amplification is the main mechanism contributing to glyphosate resistance in the A. tuberculatus populations analyzed.

  20. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massange-Sánchez, Julio A.; Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A.; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A.; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA)-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI) provided salt-stress (SS) tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms. PMID:27749893

  1. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Fernand W; Hilou, Adama; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2012-06-15

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight) in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method) and iron reducing power (FRAP method) ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  2. Comparación de la citotoxicidad del amaranto en dos líneas celulares de mamífero utilizando bioensayos colorimétricos rápidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El amaranto es un colorante de color rojo ampliamente utilizado en alimentación y cosmética. En la bibliografía consultada no se han encontrado referencias sobre la citotoxicidad de este colorante por lo que se ha creído oportuno abordar su estudio. Este estudio se ha llevado a cabo en dos líneas celulares de naturaleza fibroblástica: línea celular 3T3 (fibroblastos de origen embrionario de ratón y línea celular FP (fibroblastos de origen embrionario humano. La citotoxicidad fue evaluada mediante dos bioensayos: a ensayo de rojo neutro (RN; b ensayo de proteína total (PT. Se han calculado las IC50 del amaranto en ambas líneas celulares, observándose mayor sensibilidad al colorante con las células 3T3 que con los fibroblastos humanos.

  3. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  5. Antioxidant and antipyretic properties of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosusleaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN; Devangam Sheshadri Shekar; Avalakondarayappa Arun Kumar; Bachappa Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Methanolic extract ofAmaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus) leaves was screened for antioxidant and antipyretic activities.Methods:Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile(DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging,2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging assays and total phenolic content was also determined. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract ofA. spinosus was measured by yeast induced pyrexia method at concentration of200 and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: Methanolic extract ofA. spinosusshowed potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value was(87.50 ±3.52) μg/mL, (98.80±1.40) μg/mL,(106.25±0.20)μg/mL,(88.70±0.62) μg/mL and(147.50±2.61) μg/mL forDPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide andABTSradical scavenging activities. Methanolic extract ofA. spinosus showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity.

  6. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  7. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE AMARANTO NA COMPOSIÇÃO E NA ACEITABILIDADE DO BISCOITO TIPO COOKIE E DO PÃO DE FORMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. CAPRILES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O amaranto é um pseudocereal de origem andina, de elevado valor nutritivo, pouco difundido no Brasil. Seu uso em produtos convencionais é desejável para o aumento da oferta de nutrientes de importância para a população. O presente trabalho avaliou o impacto da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo pelas farinhas de amaranto integral (FAI e desengordurada (FAD sobre o valor nutritivo e a aceitabilidade sensorial do biscoito tipo cookie e do pão de forma. A substituição de 30% nos cookies e 26% nos pães resultou em aumento do valor nutricional, gerando produtos fonte de fibra alimentar e com expressivo aumento dos teores de cálcio e ferro. Os novos produtos apresentaram elevada aceitabilidade sensorial e não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre a aceitabilidade dos cookies ou dos pães obtidos com FAI e FAD. Concluise que a incorporação das farinhas de amaranto na formulação de pães de forma e biscoitos tipo cookie é interessante comercialmente e promove o incremento dos teores de fibra, cálcio e ferro gerando produtos de elevada aceitabilidade sensorial. Estes resultados mostram a possibilidade do uso desta matéria prima na elaboração de produtos convencionais contribuindo para a difusão do amaranto no país.

    .

  8. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO. The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius. The morphology of the synthesized graphene was examined by SEM analysis.

  9. Calcium bioavailability of raw and extruded amaranth grains Biodisponibilidade do cálcio do grão de amaranto antes e após extrusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Aparecida Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium bioavailability of raw and extruded amaranth grains was assessed in a biological assay in rats. Rats were fed for 28 days on diets in which raw or extruded amaranth was the only calcium source, compared to a control diet with calcium carbonate. Calcium and phosphorous levels were determined in the rats' serum during the experimental period and in the bones at the end of the experiment. Amaranth extrusion increased its calcium bioavailability, assessed by tibia and femur weights and calcium and phosphorous content of the bones. Apparent calcium absorption index, the force needed to break the bones and bone densitometry of both extruded and raw amaranth were the same, though different from the control group. The results show that amaranth can be a complementary source of dietary calcium the bioavailability of which is favorably modified by the extrusion process.A biodisponibilidade do cálcio de amaranto antes e após extrusão foi avaliada em ensaio biológico. Ratos, alimentados por 28 dias com dietas em que amaranto, antes ou após extrusão, era a única fonte de cálcio da dieta, foram comparados com animais em dieta controle com teor próximo de cálcio, oferecido na forma de carbonato de cálcio. Cálcio e fósforo foram determinados no soro dos animais durante o período experimental e nos ossos, ao final do experimento. A extrusão do amaranto aumentou a biodisponibilidade do seu cálcio, quando avaliado pelo conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo da tíbia e fêmur dos animais, bem como pelo peso desses ossos. O índice aparente de absorção de cálcio, força para romper os ossos e densidade óssea foram iguais antes e após a extrusão do amaranto e diferentes do grupo controle. Os resultados mostram que o amaranto pode ser uma fonte complementar de cálcio e que sua biodisponibilidade aumenta com o processo de extrusão.

  10. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses...

  11. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  12. Effect of Amaranthus quitensis on parsley for dehydration yield Efecto de Amaranthus quitensis sobre el rendimiento de perejil para deshidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puricelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are a severe problem in many horticultural crops but information about weed competition on parsley (Petroselinum crispus (Mill. Nym yield is lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine the critical period for Amaranthus quitensis Kunth control in parsley and to quantify the influence of A. quitensis density on parsley yield. The critical period was variable between years and weed densities and ranged between 3 and 44 days in duration. In both years, A. quitensis densities of more than 30 plants/m² can account for up to 70 % of yield loss. The results indicate that A. quitensis can significantly reduce parsley yields even at low densities if the weed is not controlled in the appropriate period.Las malezas son un problema en la producción de perejil (Petroselinum crispus (Mill. Nym para deshidratado, y existe poca información acerca del efecto de las malezas sobre el rendimiento de este cultivo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar el período crítico para el control de Amaranhus quitensis Kunth en perejil y cuantificar la influencia de la densidad de A. quitensis sobre el rendimiento del perejil. El período crítico fue variable entre años y densidad de la maleza y tuvo una duración de entre 3 y 44 días. En 2006 y 2007 una densidad de A. quitensis de más de 30 plantas/m² determina un 70 % de la reducción de rendimiento. Los resultados sugieren que bajas densidades de A. quitensis pueden reducir el rendimiento de perejil si no son controladas en el período adecuado.

  13. Infuence of nitrogen fertilization on yield of amaranth / Efeito da adubação nitrogenada na produção de amaranto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérsio Sandir D´Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization on grain amaranth yield, in Maringá, north of Paraná state. It was done in feld conditions, using a complete randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. Seeds were sowed in lines, spaced each 0.5 m. Fertilization was done with NPK 10-10-10 (350 kg/ha. Fifteen days after germination there was left a population of 20 plants m-1. Thirty days after germination felds received nitrogen fertilizer (urea, 45% N, and doses were 0; 50; 100; 200 kg N ha-1. Plants were cut 114 days after germination, to measure the following parameters: plant height; stem diameter; fresh and dry biomass yield of stems and leaves; and seed yield. Plant height and grain production showed quadratic response. Stem diameter showed no differences. Biomass production (fresh and dry showed linear response. Yield of amaranth grains answered positively to nitrogen fertilization.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, na produção de amaranto em Maringá, norte do Paraná. Foi realizado em condições de campo, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e três repetições por tratamento. As sementes foram semeadas em linhas espaçadas a cada 0,5 m. A adubação de plantio foi feita com NPK 10-10-10 (350 kg ha-1. Aos 15 dias após a emergência, foi feito o desbaste para deixar uma população de 20 plantas m-1. Aos 30 dias após a emergência, foi aplicada adubação nitrogenada de cobertura (uréia, 45% N, nas doses 0; 50; 100; 200 kg N há 1. Aos 114 dias após a emergência, foram medidos os parâmetros: altura da planta; diâmetro do colmo; produção de biomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea; e produção de grãos. A altura da planta e a produção de grãos apresentaram uma resposta quadrática. Não houve diferenças signifcativas para o diâmetro do colmo. A biomassa da parte aérea (fresca e seca teve uma

  14. The unique genomic landscape surrounding the EPSPS gene in glyphosate resistant Amaranthus palmeri: A repetitive path to resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expanding number and global distributions of herbicide resistant weedy species threaten food, feed, fiber and bioproduct sustainability and agroecosystem longevity. Amongst the most competitive weeds, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats has rapidly evolved increased resistance to glyphosate primarily th...

  15. Anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of three species ofAmaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girija K; Lakshman K; Udaya Chandrika; Sabhya Sachi Ghosh; Divya T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods:In this study, the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of all three plants was evaluated by using normal andSTZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of200 mg/kg and400 mg/kg p.o.daily for21days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed.Results:It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity (P<0.01), while at200 mg/kg dose less significant anti-diabetic activity (P<0.05) was observed.Conclusions:Methanol extracts ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity, which provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  16. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 {mu}g/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 {+-} 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  17. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzym...

  18. Identification of a catalase-phenol oxidase in betalain biosynthesis in red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Lu eTeng; Ning eChen; Xing-Guo eXiao

    2016-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzym...

  19. PHYTO-REMEDIATION OF LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS

    OpenAIRE

    Opeolu, B.O.; Bamgbose, O; Arowolo, T.A.; Kadiri, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some vegetables have the ability to absorb metals from soil. Since they are early maturity species, they possess the potential to be used as phytoremediating agents. Also, synthetic chelates have been found to induce lead desorption from soil matrix, thereby enhancing uptake into plant tissues. Therefore, a study was carried out to determine the potential of Amaranthus cruentus as a soil lead remediating plant. The experiment was carried out using a randomized...

  20. Inhibition of In Vivo Growth of Plasmodium berghei by Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunnisola, Olubukola S.; Adegbola, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis used by people of Western Africa in the treatment of malaria and related symptoms were assessed for their antiplasmodial value against the chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei. Crude extracts (200 mg/kg) and chloroquine (5 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of Swiss mice. The percentage of parasitemia, survival time, and haematological parameters were determined. Both extracts significantly (p phytochemical investigations in the search for new and locally affordable antimalarial agents. PMID:28050307

  1. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, B; Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A; Biroonara, A

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Amaranthus are known to reduce crop yields and interference with harvest throughout the Iran. In the past few years, the occurrence of some Amaranthus species including of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) increased throughout the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, supplanting all the other Amaranthus species in large areas of the region and causing concern among farmers and researchers. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the tropical pulse crops, that C4 weeds such as redroot pigweed can cause yield loss in this crop production. In order to determine the critical period of redroot pigweed control in green bean, two experiments were conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, at 2004 and 2005. The experimental designs in both year was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treatments were weed-infested and weed-free in the same periods. Both year, in weed-infested experiment, redroot pigweed was seeded immediately after green bean planting and removed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks after green bean emergence (WAE). In weed-free experiment, redroot pigweed seeds were transplanted to green bean plots at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 WAE. Data were analyzed using the MSTATC software and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Ranges Test. Regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between green bean yield and duration of redroot pigweed interference using the REG PROCEDURE of SAS. Results indicated that the difference between years with a view to influence on all traits except stem height at the harvesting stage and pod yield at the first and second harvesting time were significant. Also, differences between treatments with a view to influence on all traits were significant. Contemporary growing of pigweed and green bean for early first month and weed interference 10 WAE had not significant effect on green bean above ground biomass. In both years, the highest green bean yield

  2. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  3. Transfer and expression of ALS inhibitor resistance from Amaranthus palmeri to an A. spinosus X A. palmeri hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transfer of herbicide resistance among closely related weed species is a topic of growing concern. An Amaranthus palmeri X A. spinosus hybrid was confirmed resistant to several ALS inhibitors including imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, pyrithiobac and trifloxysulfuron. Enzyme assays indicated that the AL...

  4. Distinguishing between weedy Amaranthus species based on intron one sequences from the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization between Amaranthus species and the potential for herbicide resistance to be transferred by hybridization are of growing concern in the weed science community. It is important to confirm suspect hybrid populations early to develop an effective control strategy. With this in mind, a PC...

  5. Differences among five amaranth varieties (Amaranthus spp.) regarding secondary metabolites and foliar herbivory by chewing insects in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niveyro, Selene L.; Mortensen, Anne G.; Fomsgaard, Inge S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of secondary metabolites present in leaves of five varieties of Amaranthus, described the community of chewing insects observed in the foliage and also quantified damage by folivore insects in the field. Three flavonoid glucosides (rutin, nicotiflorin an...

  6. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

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    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  7. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Macelroy, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to analyze the effects of increasing salinity stress on growth, photosynthesis, and carbon allocation in the crop plant Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0 percent. The limits of total salinity in the plant growth medium are investigated. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2 percent. Inhibition of these phases increased from o.2 to 0.4 percent salinity and was total above 0.5 percent with 1 percent salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5 percent and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising frm changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  8. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

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    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  9. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

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    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  10. Biochemical characterization of a trypanosomatid isolated from the plant Amaranthus retroflexus

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    Clotilde Marín

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A protozoan flagelate has recently been isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus. This plant grows near economically important crops in southeastern Spain, which are known to be parasitized by Phytomonas spp. The present study focuses on the characterization of the energy metabolism of this new isolate. These flagellates utilize glucose efficiently as their primary energy source, although they are unable to completely degrade it. They excrete ethanol, acetate, glycine, and succinate in lower amount, as well as ammonium. The presence of glycosomes was indicated by the early enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, one enzyme of the glycerol pathway (glycerol kinase, and malate dehydrogenase. No evidence of a fully functional citric-acid cycle was found. In the absence of catalase activity, these flagellates showed significant superoxide dismutase activity located in the glycosomal and cytosolic fractions. These trypanosomes, despite being morphologically and metabolically similar to other Phytomonas isolated from the same area, showed significant differences, suggesting that they are phylogenetically different species.

  11. Evaluation of herbicide combinations for livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) control in tuberous begonia (Begonia x tuberhybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, M; van Labeke, M C

    2004-01-01

    In the past years livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) is observed increasingly in begonia production fields. Control of weeds in begonia is generally done by a combined application of the soil herbicides isoxaben + simazin followed 10 days later by application of the contact herbicide bentazone. This treatment usually controls the weed population sufficiently with exception of amaranth. In 2003 a field trial was conducted to evaluate control of livid amaranth in tuberous begonia with isoxaben, simazin. S-metolachloor, phenmedipham + desmedipham and bentazone. These herbicides were used as combinations of soil treatment and contact herbicides. The results suggest that a soil treatment of isoxaben + S-metolachloor significantly reduces livid amaranth compared to isoxaben + simazin, without a pronounced negative effect on tuber yield. Application of phenmedipham + desmedipham however did not improve control of livid amaranth compared to bentazone.

  12. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  13. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  14. Characterization of the Amaranthus palmeri Physiological Response to Glyphosate in Susceptible and Resistant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Escalada, Manuel; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Zabalza, Ana; Royuela, Mercedes

    2016-01-13

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the aromatic amino acid (AAA) biosynthetic pathway. The physiologies of an Amaranthus palmeri population exhibiting resistance to glyphosate by EPSPS gene amplification (NC-R) and a susceptible population (NC-S) were compared. The EPSPS copy number of NC-R plants was 47.5-fold the copy number of NC-S plants. Although the amounts of EPSPS protein and activity were higher in NC-R plants than in NC-S plants, the AAA concentrations were similar. The increases in total free amino acid and in AAA contents induced by glyphosate were more evident in NC-S plants. In both populations, the EPSPS protein increased after glyphosate exposure, suggesting regulation of gene expression. EPSPS activity seems tightly controlled in vivo. Carbohydrate accumulation and a slight induction of ethanol fermentation were detected in both populations.

  15. Influence of the addition of Amaranthus mantegazzianus flour on the nutritional and health properties of pasta

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    C.S. Martinez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the nutritional and functional properties of pasta, bread wheat flour was substituted with wholemeal flour from Amaranthus mantegazzianus (WMAF at 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w. Proteins, dietary fibre, glycemic index (GI and carbohydrate and protein digestibility were determined in the resulting pasta. Squalene content was also measured, in view of the beneficial health properties of this compound. With the addition of 30% of WMAF, where the technological quality of pasta remained acceptable, protein and fibre contents resulted in 23 and 50% higher than control pasta. Pasta presented a significant enrichment of squalene content at all levels of substitution with WMAF. In addition, all samples remained in the range of low GI foods, and protein digestibility values were even higher than control pasta.

  16. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  17. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffo Kamela, Arnaud Landry; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Ashish, Rawson; Maffo Tazoho, Ghislain; Glory Moh, Lamye; Pamo Tedonkeng, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked), milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet), DI (egg white as reference protein), DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus), DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus), DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus), and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus). The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter) while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes. PMID:28078277

  18. Transmission of herbicide resistance from a monoecious to a dioecious weedy Amaranthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, J.; Wassom, J.; Jeschke, R.; Rayburn, L.

    2002-10-01

    The genus Amaranthus includes several important monoecious and dioecious weed species, and several populations of these species have developed resistance to herbicides. These species are closely related and two or more species often coexist in agricultural settings. Collectively, these attributes raise the concern that herbicide resistance might transfer from one weedy Amaranthus species to another. We performed research to determine if a dominant allele encoding a herbicide-insensitive form of acetolactate synthase (ALS) could be transferred from a monoecious species, A. hybridus, to a dioecious species, A. rudis. Numerous F(1) hybrids were obtained from controlled crosses in a greenhouse between A. rudis and herbicide-resistant A. hybridus, and most (85%) of these hybrids were herbicide-resistant. Molecular analysis of the ALS gene was used to verify that herbicide-resistant hybrids contained both an A. rudis and an A. hybridus ALS allele. Although hybrids had greatly reduced fertility, 42 BC(1) plants were obtained by backcrossing 33 hybrids with male A. rudis. Fertility was greatly restored in BC(1) progeny, and numerous BC(2) progeny were obtained from a second backcross to A. rudis. The herbicide-resistance allele from A. hybridus was transmitted to 50% of the BC(1) progeny. The resistance allele was subsequently transmitted to and conferred herbicide resistance in 39 of 110 plants analyzed from four BC(2) families. Parental species, hybrids, and BC(2) progeny were compared for 2C nuclear DNA contents. The mean hybrid 2C nuclear DNA content, 1.27 pg, was equal to the average between A. rudis and A. hybridus, which had 2C DNA contents of 1.42 and 1.12 pg, respectively. The mean 2C DNA content of BC(2) plants, 1.40 pg, was significantly (alpha herbicide resistance can be acquired by A. rudis through a hybridization event with A. hybridus.

  19. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  20. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  1. Intoxicação natural por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae em ovinos no Sudeste do Brasil Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae poisoning in sheep in southern Brazil

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    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Estado do Rio de Janeiro descreve-se um surto de intoxicação aguda por Amaranthus spinosus em 12 ovelhas, caracterizado clinicamente por hálito urêmico, ausência de movimentos ruminais, dispnéia e aborto. Os animais foram colocados em um pasto adubado e severamente invadido pela planta. A necropsia realizada em seis ovinos revelou rins pálidos, em geral, com estriações esbranquiçadas desde o córtex até a medula; em um animal verificaram-se diversos infartos sob forma de figuras geométricas no córtex. O fígado apresentava-se mais claro, por vezes com lobulação evidente. Em um animal verificaram-se áreas pálidas no miocárdio. Os pulmões congestos, algo mais pesados e consistentes, por vezes evidenciavam áreas de hepatização vermelha e cinzenta na porção cranial. Petéquias, equimoses e sufusões foram observadas em serosas, na mucosa do tubo digestório e em outros órgãos. Ao exame histológico verificaram-se acentuada nefrose tubular tóxica, focos aleatórios de necrose coagulativa no fígado, áreas de necrose coagulativa no miocárdio e pneumonia intersticial aguda incipiente acompanhada por áreas de broncopneumonia. Na literatura não foram encontradas referências à intoxicação natural por A. spinosus em ovinos. Tentativas de reprodução da intoxicação com a planta em ovinos, não foram bem sucedidas, provavelmente porque, nos experimentos, não se utilizou A. spinosus proveniente de áreas adubadas. A necrose do miocárdio encontrada, ao exame microscópico do coração de diversos animais foi atribuída a hipercalemia secundária à insuficiência renal, ao passo que a gênese dos infartos renais verificados em um ovino permanece obscura.An outbreak of acute poisoning caused by Amaranthus spinosus is described in ewes of southern Brazil. The clinical signs were characterized by uremic halitosis, loss of ruminal motility, dispnoea and abortion. Grossly in the kidneys there were pale red spots, white

  2. Effects of diets with Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. on performance and digestibility of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects on performance and digestibility in growing rabbits were studied by comparing 3 diets containing increasing inclusion rates of amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.: 0 (A0, 160 (A16 and 320 g/kg (A32 diet. Diets were formulated isoproteic and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. One hundred and thirteen weaned New Zealand White rabbits (mean±standard deviation weight: 760±102 g, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of the 3  experimental diets. Rabbits were fed ad libitum from 35 to 87 d of age, and health status and performance traits were  onitored. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of the diets were measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 12 rabbits per treatment. Amaranthus dubius contained 209 g/kg dry matter (DM of crude protein and 398 g/kg DM of neutral detergent fibre. There were no significant differences between treatments in weight gain (mean 21.6 g/d and live weight at the end of the fattening period (mean 1883 g. Daily feed intake was higher (P<0.05 in A0 than in A16 and A32 diets (85.4 vs. 73.7 and 69.9 g/d, respectively, and feed conversion rate improved with increased inclusion of A. dubius in the diet (from 3.84 to 3.28 for A0 and A32 diets, respectively; P<0.05. Health status was not affected by the amaranth inclusion rate. Total tract apparent digestibility showed high values, with no differences among diets except for ether extract. Thus, A. dubius could be considered as an alternative source of protein and fibre for rabbit feeding in tropical and subtropical regions.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by γ-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  4. Effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on lipid metabolism of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Chávez-Jáuregui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on plasma lipids in moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Twenty-two subjects [30-65 years old, 11 males, with total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg.dL-1, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c 160-190 mg.dL-1 and plasma triglycerides (TG < 400 mg.dL-1] were randomized in a double blind clinical trial to receive an amaranth snack (50 g/day or equivalent corn snack (placebo for 2 months. There were no differences between amaranth and placebo on TC and LDL-c, and TG respectively: -8.4 and -5.7% (p = 0.17; -12.3 and -9.7% (p = 0.41 and -0.6 and -7.3% (p = 0.47. However, amaranth snacks significantly reduced high-density cholesterol (HDL-c: -15.2 vs. -4% (p = 0.03. In conclusion, the intake of 50 g of extruded amaranth daily during 60 days did not significantly reduce LDL-c in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects; furthermore there was a significant reduction in HDL-c. Studies with greater number of subjects and greater quantity of this food are necessary to test the effects of amaranth on lipid metabolism in humans.

  5. Cloning and Expression of Ama r 1, as a Novel Allergen of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen

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    Payam Morakabati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to Amaranthus retroflexus pollen is very common in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study we aimed to produce a recombinant allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this weed. To predict cross-reactivity of this allergen (Ama r 1 with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Ama r 1 was investigated. The expression of Ama r 1 in Escherichia coli was performed by using a pET-21b(+ vector. The IgE-binding potential of recombinant Ama r 1 (rAma r 1 was evaluated by immunodetection and inhibition assays using 26 patients’ sera sensitised to A. retroflexus pollen. The coding sequence of the Ama r 1 cDNA indicated an open reading frame of 507 bp encoding for 168 amino acid residues which belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family. Of the 26 serum samples, 10 (38.46% had significant specific IgE levels for rAma r 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays revealed that the purified rAma r 1 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Ama r 1, the second allergen from the A. retroflexus pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein.

  6. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of extract of Amaranthus spinosus L. in Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the apoptosis inducing effects of Amaranthus spinosus L. aqueous extract in Allium cepa root meristematic cells and human erythrocytes. Cytogenetic assay revealed many apoptosis inducing cytogenetic aberrations viz., cytoplasmic breakage, cytoplasmic disintegration, cytoplasmic shrinkage, receding of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolation, enucleated cell, ghost cell, nuclear vacuolation, nuclear fragmentation and nuclear disintegration. A remarkable modification of red blood cell surface morphology was observed in the result of RBC assay. The treated RBCs show membrane blebbing and shrinkage, features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. Significant induction of cell death was observed in treated Allium root tip cells after Evans blue staining, disclosing the membrane damage potential of the plant extract. TTC assay results in reduced mitochondrial/metabolic activity in Allium root tip cells after treatment, designating the adverse effect of plant extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results confirm the apoptosis inducing potential of A. spinosus extract. Confirming the present results by further in vitro studies, it can be effectively targeted against cell proliferation during cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis. Thus from the present investigation it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of A. spinosus exhibited apoptosis induction and cytotoxic activities.

  7. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, U.; Islam, Md T.; Rabbani, Md G.; Oba, S.

    2015-07-01

    Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014) for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively). Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27) showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss. (Author)

  8. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  9. Identification of a catalase-phenol oxidase in betalain biosynthesis in red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu eTeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO, was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  10. Wild Amaranthus caudatus seed oil, a nutraceutical resource from Ecuadorian flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, R; Medici, A; Guerrini, A; Scalia, S; Poli, F; Muzzoli, M; Sacchetti, G

    2001-11-01

    Seed oil of wild Amaranthus caudatus from Ecuador was analyzed for determining the tocopherol, fatty acid, and sterol contents. The data obtained were compared with the analogous chemical profile of seed oil of Italian A. caudatus with the objective of evaluating the nutraceutical and alimentary potential of the Ecuadorian matrix. Supercritical fluid and ultrasound-enhanced extractions were performed on both matrices. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of tocopherols were performed by HPLC, whereas GC and GC-MS were used to determine the fatty acid composition and sterols, respectively. Supercritical fluid extraction at 400 atm was the most efficient extraction method in terms of both total yield extract and tocopherol yield. Seeds of Ecuadorian of A. caudatus contained higher levels of tocopherols than Italian samples, whereas the fatty acid composition and sterol content were similar. From the obtained results it can be suggested that seed oil of wild Ecuadorian A. caudatus can prove to be an effective nutraceutical and alimentary resource and a valid alternative to the European varieties.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

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    Sava Vrbničanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2 were collected from arable land of the Institute of Maize Research at Zemun Polje in 2006. Sampling was performed at the stage of full vegetative growth of plants.Permanent microscoping preparations were made to measure and analyze elements of the anatomy of stems (stem epidermis, cortex, collenchyma, central cylinder and diameter and leaves (leaf epidermis upper surface and underside, mesophyll, leaf thickness and bundle sheath thickness.Both analysed populations of A. retroflexus, morphologically characterized by different density of stem hairiness, were found to have a typical structure of herbaceous dicots. The stem had three distinctive zones: epidermis, cortex and central cylinder. Amaranth leaves have dorsoventral structure, i.e. their upper surface and underside can be differentiated. The results indicated high and very high significance of differences found in stem anatomy between the two analysed populations, while leaf anatomy was not found to display significant differences other than in mesophyll thickness.

  12. [Cereal bars with peanut and puffed amaranthus: chemical composition and stability in accelerated storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Yañez, E

    1994-03-01

    Three different cereal bars, CM3A-CM3B and CM3C were prepared following the flow sheat of Escobar et al: different amount of oat, wheat germ, and puffed amaranthus were used: to stick them together, natural sweeteners and fats were added. Proximate analysis, were run on raw materials and snack bars. They were evaluated organoleptically to know their quality and acceptability. Bars were kept in accelerated storage at 37 degrees C during 15 days to know their stability. Every 5 days were measured the water activity (Aw), moisture, and peroxides development; also appearance of organoleptic randicity. Acceptability of bar CM3B was 91.67% with 0.0% of rejection; CM3A and CM3C got the same acceptability (66.67%) and 8.33% of rejection. In accelerate storage, Aw and moisture content decreased until reaching a value of 0.48 and 5.9 in the CM3B bar, respectively. Peroxide content of CM3B and CM3C increased gradually up to 12 and 17 meq/kg respectively at 15 days. Rancyd aroma appearance was not the same in the bars, CM3A and CM3B had a decreasing at 15 days, while CM3C showed an increasing at the same time. In brief, CM3B showed the best sensory quality, the higher acceptability and the greater stability in accelerated storage.

  13. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, M.Z.I. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: makhan.inst@gmail.com; Khan, Ruhul A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2009-01-15

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by {gamma}-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 3} orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  15. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC, and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect.

  16. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolorL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Sarker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014 for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively. Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27 showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss.

  17. Characteristic of fermented spinach (Amaranthus spp.) polyphenol by kombucha culture for antioxidant compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Iskandar, Jeti M.; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation on spinach (Amaranthus sp.) vegetable by kombucha culture as an effort to get poliphenol as antioxidant compound had been done. Purification of fermented spinach extract suspension was carried out through microfiltration (MF) membrane (pore size 0.15 µm) fitted in dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at fixed condition (stirrer rotation 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Result of the experimental activity showed that long fermentation time increased total acids, total polyphenol and Total Plate Count (TPC), and decreased total solids and reducing sugar in biomass. The optimal fermentation time was reached for 2 weeks with total polyphenol recovery increasing of 92.76 % from before and after fermentation. On this optimal fermentation time, biomass had identified galic acid with relative intensity of 8 %, while as polyphenol monomer was resulted 5 kinds of polyphenol compounds with total intensity 27.97 % and molecular weight (MW) 191.1736, 193.1871 and 194.2170 at T2.5, T2.86 and T3.86. Long fermentation time increased functional properties of polyphenol as antioxidant.

  18. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

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    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  19. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela N; Pan, Zhiqiang; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K; Baldwin, Brian S; Shaw, David R; Dayan, Franck E

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses contain higher 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene copy numbers than the S population. EPSPS expression, EPSPS enzyme activity, EPSPS protein quantity, and level of resistance to glyphosate correlated positively with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Transfer of resistance was more influenced by the female than the male parent in spite of the fact that the multiple copies of EPSPS are amplified in the nuclear genome. This led us to hypothesize that this perplexing pattern of inheritance may result from apomictic seed production in A. palmeri. We confirmed that reproductively isolated R and S female plants produced seeds, indicating that A. palmeri can produce seeds both sexually and apomictically (facultative apomixis). This apomictic trait accounts for the low copy number inheritance in the Female-S × Male-R offsprings. Apomixis may also enhance the stability of the glyphosate resistance trait in the R populations in the absence of reproductive partners.

  20. No fitness cost of glyphosate resistance endowed by massive EPSPS gene amplification in Amaranthus palmeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Goh, Sou S; Gaines, Todd A; Han, Heping; Busi, Roberto; Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    Amplification of the EPSPS gene has been previously identified as the glyphosate resistance mechanism in many populations of Amaranthus palmeri, a major weed pest in US agriculture. Here, we evaluate the effects of EPSPS gene amplification on both the level of glyphosate resistance and fitness cost of resistance. A. palmeri individuals resistant to glyphosate by expressing a wide range of EPSPS gene copy numbers were evaluated under competitive conditions in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Survival rates to glyphosate and fitness traits of plants under intra-specific competition were assessed. Plants with higher amplification of the EPSPS gene (53-fold) showed high levels of glyphosate resistance, whereas less amplification of the EPSPS gene (21-fold) endowed a lower level of glyphosate resistance. Without glyphosate but under competitive conditions, plants exhibiting up to 76-fold EPSPS gene amplification exhibited similar height, and biomass allocation to vegetative and reproductive organs, compared to glyphosate susceptible A. palmeri plants with no amplification of the EPSPS gene. Both the additive effects of EPSPS gene amplification on the level of glyphosate resistance and the lack of associated fitness costs are key factors contributing to EPSPS gene amplification as a widespread and important glyphosate resistance mechanism likely to become much more evident in weed plant species.

  1. FITOEXTRACCIÓN DE PLOMO Y CADMIO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS USANDO QUELITE (Amaranthus hybridus L.) Y MICORRIZAS

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Ortiz-Cano; R. Trejo-Calzada; R. D. Valdez-Cepeda; J. G. Arreola-Ávila; A. Flores-Hernández; B. López-Ariza

    2009-01-01

    Las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas practicadas en la Comarca Lagunera, México han contaminado el suelo, el aire y el agua. El uso de plantas es una de las estrategias para la remediación de suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre remediación con plantas de zonas áridas y su asociación con micorrizas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la capacidad extractora de Plomo (Pb) y Cadmio (Cd) del quelite (Amaranthus hybridus L.) al adicionar una me...

  2. O-Glycosylation of NnTreg Lymphocytes Recognized by the Amaranthus leucocarpus Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Jiménez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O-glycosidically-linked glycans have been involved in development, maturation, homing, and immune regulation in T cells. Previous reports indicate that Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL, specific for glycans containing galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, recognizes human naïve CD27+CD25+CD4+ T cells. Our aim was to evaluate the phenotype of CD4+ T cells recognized by ALL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy volunteers. CD4+ T cells were isolated by negative selection using magnetic beads-labeled monoclonal antibodies; the expression of T regulatory cell phenotypic markers was assessed on ALL-recognized cells. In addition, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β intracellular production in ALL+ cells was also evaluated. The analyses of phenotypic markers and intracellular cytokines were performed through flow cytometry. ALL-recognized CD4+ T cells were mainly CD45RA+, CCR7+ cells. Although 52±10% CD25+Foxp3+ cells were positive to ALL, only 34±4% of ALL+ cells corresponded to CD25+Foxp3− cells. Intracellular cytokines in freshly obtained ALL+CD4+ T cells exhibited 8% of IL-4, 15% of IL-10, 2% of IFN-γ, and 15% of TGF-β, whereas ALL−CD4+ T cells depicted 1% of IL-4, 2% of IL-10, <1% of IFN-γ, and 6% of TGF-β. Our results show that galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-galactosamine-bearing CD4+ T cells expressed phenotypic markers of NnTreg cells.

  3. High residue cover crops alone or with strategic tillage to manage glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth (amaranthus palmeri) in Southeastern cotton (gossypium hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats) is redefining row crop weed management in the Southeast due to its widespread distribution, high competitive ability, copious seed production, and resilience to standard weed management programs. Herbicides alone are failing to p...

  4. Glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S Wats.): hyperspectral reflectance properties of plants and potential for classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a troublesome agronomic weed in the southern United States, and several populations have evolved resistance to glyphosate. This paper reports spectral signatures of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) plants, and explor...

  5. Metabolic profiling and enzyme analyses indicate a potential role of antioxidant systems in complementing glyphosate resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri biotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted metabolomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify metabolite-level perturbations induced by glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. Plants were treated with 0.4 kg ae ha-1 glyphosate and tissues were harvested at 8 and 72 hours af...

  6. Viscosidade extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto e caseinato de sódio Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Gozzo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as viscosidades extensional e em cisalhamento de suspensões acidificadas de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio. Sistemas mistos de amido de amaranto-caseinato de sódio acidificados com glucona-delta-lactona (GDL foram estudados por ensaios reológicos em compressão biaxial e cisalhamento. Os efeitos da velocidade de acidificação (lenta e rápida e pH final (neutro e no ponto isoelétrico da caseína foram avaliados considerando as interações entre os biopolímeros e sua consequente influência nos parâmetros reológicos. Todas as amostras apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, no entanto, a adição de caseinato de sódio nas suspensões de amido, em pH neutro, promoveu um efeito negativo sobre a viscosidade aparente. Amostras acidificadas apresentaram um aumento na complexidade do sistema devido à formação da rede de amido e caseína, observando que a força necessária para o escoamento foi sempre maior para as amostras contendo concentrações maiores de caseinato. Isso mostra que a agregação e gelificação da proteína promovidas pela acidificação, impediram a microsseparação de fases. Esta rede foi mais forte em sistemas gelificados lentamente, devido à formação de uma rede de proteína mais organizada. Apesar da técnica de compressão biaxial imperfeita ser limitada para avaliação de determinados sistemas, neste estudo, mostrou ser um modo prático e eficiente de se mensurar o comportamento reológico.Extensional and shear viscosity of acidified amaranth starch-sodium caseinate suspensions were evaluated. Mixed systems of amaranth starch-sodium caseinate acidified with glucone-delta-lactone (GDL were studied using rheological measurements under biaxial compression and shear. The effects of the acidification rate (slow and fast and final pH (neutral and isoelectric point of casein were evaluated considering the interactions between biopolymers and their influence on the rheological parameters

  7. Análisis del Efecto de Variables de Diseño en el Comportamiento de una Secadora de Granos de Amaranto Analysis of the Effect of Design Variables on the Performance of an Amaranth Grain Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lema

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la incidencia de tres variables fundamentales en el desempeño de una secadora rotativa para amaranto: el tiempo de residencia del grano dentro del equipo, la temperatura, y el caudal de aire utilizados. Estas variables inciden directamente sobre el tiempo de secado y la humedad final del producto. Para determinar el desempeño de la secadora se utilizó como parámetro la velocidad de evaporación del agua. Se realizó primeramente un diseño estadístico de las experiencias, las que luego se implementaron en una secadora rotativa experimental construida en el Instituto de Física de Rosario. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados utilizando técnicas de análisis de varianza. El estudio reflejó que tanto el tiempo de residencia como la temperatura del aire tienen gran incidencia en el funcionamiento de la secadora rotativa. Así, un diseño de alta eficiencia puede conseguirse optimizando estos dos parámetros.This work studies the effects of three fundamental variables related to the performance of a rotary amaranth dryer, including the residence time of the grain in the dryer, the temperature, and the flow rate of air used. These variables directly affect the drying time and moisture content of the final product. The evaporation rate of water from the grain was used to estimate the performance of the dryer. First, a statistical design of the experiments was prepared, with the experiments then carried out using an experimental rotary dryer built at the Rosario Physics Institute. The data obtained were statistically evaluated using analysis of variance. The study showed that both the residence time and the air temperature had a strong influence on the performance of the rotary dryer. A high efficiency design for this process can thus be obtained by optimizing these two parameters.

  8. Effect of incorporation of amaranth on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread Efeito da incorporação de amaranto nas propriedades físicas e no valor nutritivo do pão de queijo

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    Andréa dos Reis Lemos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present celiac disease has no known cure, and its only treatment is a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Cheese bread is a traditional Brazilian product and a safe option for celiacs. However, like other gluten-free breads, it has inherent low levels of fibers and minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of whole amaranth flour on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread. Amaranth flour was incorporated at 10, 15, and 20% proportions in different formulations. The increasing amaranth levels darkened the product, reduced specific volume, and increased compression force. Ten percent amaranth-content cheese breads exhibited slight differences in physical properties compared with the controls. These results demonstrated the possibility of incorporating 10% of whole amaranth flour in the formulation of cheese bread resulting in a product with higher dietary fiber and iron contents and the same level of acceptance as that of the conventional formulation. The aim of this approach is to increase the availability of gluten-free bakery products with added nutritional value contributing to increase the variety of the diet of celiac patients.A doença celíaca não tem cura e apresenta como único tratamento a dieta isenta de glúten. O pão de queijo, produto tradicional brasileiro, é uma opção para pessoas com doença celíaca. Entretanto, assim como os demais pães sem glúten, possui baixos teores de fibras e minerais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de farinha de amaranto integral nas propriedades físicas e no valor nutritivo do pão de queijo. A farinha de amaranto foi incorporada em 10, 15 e 20% das formulações. O aumento dos níveis de amaranto ocasionou: escurecimento do produto, redução do volume específico e aumento da força de compressão. Pães contendo 10% de amaranto apresentaram ligeiras diferenças nas propriedades f

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Amaranthus tricolor L%红苋菜提取物抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴明艳

    2016-01-01

    研究红苋菜不同部位提取物的抗氧化活性。用75%的乙醇溶液,分别对红苋菜的根、茎、叶3个部位进行超声浸提,进一步评价各提取物清除超氧自由基、清除DPPH自由基、清除羟自由基、总抗氧化力与还原力。结果发现,叶部位提取物对超氧自由基清除、DPPH自由基清除和总抗氧化力最强;而茎部提取物清除羟自由基能力最强。红苋菜具有较好的抗氧化活性,其中活性较强的部位为叶。%Antioxidant activity of extracts from different parts of Amaranthus tricolor L. was studied. Using 75%ethanol solution, roots, stems and leaves of Amaranthus tricolor L. were conducted to ultrasonic extraction, re-spectively. Furthermore, the effects of Amaranthus tricolor L. extracts on scavenging superoxide free radical, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power were evaluated. The results found that leaf extracts from Amaranthus tricolor L. showed the strongest effects on scavenging superoxide radi-cal and DPPH free radical, and had the biggest total antioxidant capacity, while the stem extract had the strongest effects on scavenging hydroxyl free radical. Different parts of Amaranthus tricolor L. especially leaves have a good antioxidant activity.

  10. Effects of Copper on the Photosynthesis and Oxidative Metabolism of Amaranthus tricolor Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Shi-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to gain better insight into the physiological mechanisms on the effects of copper (Cu) on photosynthesis and active oxygen metabolism in three-colored amaranth plant (Amaranthus tricolor). Three-colored amaranth seedlings were subjected to different Cu levels in soils during the entire experimental period. The parameters of growth, photosynthesis, mineral elements contents, and active oxygen metabolism were investigated using plant physiological methods. The results showed that 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 treatments decreased the whole plant biomass to 91 and 73% of the control, respectively. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the stomatal conductance (gs) were similarly reduced in the third leaves of three-colored amaranth seedlings treated with 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 soil,respectively. None of the investigated Cu levels decreased the internal CO2 concentration (Ci). The effect of Cu on the potential efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (Fv/Fm) was negligible, whereas the effect of Cu on the PS Ⅱ quantum efficiency (φPS Ⅱ) after plant adaptation in actinic irradiation was more noticeable. On the other hand, decreases in water percentage, contents of photosynthetic pigments and mineral elements including Fe, K, and Mg, and significant increase in the Cu content were observed in the third leaves of Cu-treated plants. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD)activities as well as the proline (Pro) content significantly increased in the third leaves of the three-colored amaranth seedlings treated with 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 soil, while catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities as well as the contents of carotenoid (Car), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid (AsA) decreased, and accompanied by the increases in the contents of hydrogen preoxide(H2O2),superoxide anion(O-·2),and malondialdehyde(MDA),and electrolyte leakage. As a result of the imbalance of active oxygen metabolism, Pn and φPSⅡ decreased, and

  11. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  12. First case report of anaphylaxis caused by Rajgira seed flour (Amaranthus paniculatus) from India: a clinico-immunologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Niphadkar, P V; Saran, Aditya; Mathur, Chandni; Singh, A B

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is reported to be 3-4% in adults and about 6% in children. However food allergy across different countries accounts for 35-50 % all cases of anaphylaxis to foods. In the present study, we have reported a case of anaphylaxis to Amaranth grain (Amaranthus paniculatus) commonly known as Rajgira (Ramdana) in India. A 60 year old female suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Rajgira seed flour generally consumed during fasting. Food allergy to Amaranth seeds is not reported so far. The patient reported to hospital with complaints of itching in mouth, choking throat, redness and swelling of face and burning abdomen within 5 min of consuming Rajgira flour. Clinical and immunological investigations revealed SPT and oral challenge positivity beside high allergen specific IgE in the serum of the patient. Three IgE binding protein fractions were detected in roasted Rajgira seed flour extract which could be considered to be allergenically important for triggering anaphylaxis.

  13. Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline→betaine aldehyde→glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. And Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. Tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42℃), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4℃), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.

  14. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L. : clinical communication

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    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle.

  15. Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae

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    George A. Koffuor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria. Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001 and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001 and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01. The extract (80-800 mg kg-1 was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function. Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 517-527

  16. Estimación de la estabilidad de un sazonador a base de amaranto reventado y maní tostado, a partir del índice de peróxidos

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    María Augusta Rosero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la estabilidad, durante el almacenamiento, de un sazonador nutritivo elaborado con amaranto reventado y maní tostado, empleando el índice de peróxidos como un indicador del deterioro del producto. Para lo cual se almacenó el sazonador, empacado en fundas de polipropileno y aluminizadas, a condiciones ambientales (17°C, 50%HR y aceleradas (35°C, 90%HR durante 30 días; se analizó el índice de peróxidos cada 5 días. Se consideró que el índice de peróxidos, sigue una cinética de orden cero durante el tiempo de almacenamiento. Considerando que las grasas y aceites comestibles, pueden alcanzar un valor máximo de índice de peróxidos de 20 mEq/kg, se determinó que el sazonador nutritivo empacado en funda de polipropileno, y almacenado a condiciones ambientales (17°C y 50%HR se mantuvo estable durante 81 días; mientras que el almacenado a condiciones aceleradas (35°C, 90%HR alcanzó los 68 días. Asimismo el sazonador empaquetado en funda aluminizada, y almacenado aAbstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability during storage of a nutritious seasoning made from popped amaranth and roasted peanuts, using peroxide index as an indicator of deterioration. The seasoning was stored in polypropylene and aluminized bags at room temperature (17 °C, 50% RH or accelerated conditions (35 °C, 90% RH during 30 days. The peroxide index was analyzed every five days. It was considered that the peroxide index followed a zero-order kinetic during the storage time. Assuming that oils and fats can reach a maximum level of the peroxide of 20 mEq/kg, it was observed that the nutritional seasonings packaged in the polypropylene bag stored at room temperature or accelerated conditions remained stable for 81 days 68 days, respectively. In the same way, the samples packaged in the aluminized bags and stored at room temperature remained stable for 101 days whereas the samples in the accelerated

  17. An ABAGE-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 Inhibited the Growth of Hypocotyls and Roots of Amaranthus retroflexus Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; DONG Jin-gao; SHANG Hong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite, which had an inhibitory effect on plant growth, was isolated from cultural filtrate of Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4 by column chromatography on silica gel and preparative HPLC. Its structure was determined from HPLC-ESI MS, GC,IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data, as well as chemical hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar to abscisic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(ABAGE) in structure. The inhibitory effect of the ABAGE-like metabolite on plant growth was investigated using a weed Amaranthus retroflexus L. as a bioassay material. The results showed that it inhibited hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seedlings when its concentration was over 0.5 μM. The concentrations for 50% inhibition of hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus seedlings were 2.8 and 1.4 μM, respectively.

  18. Distinción, homogeneidad y estabilidad mediante caracterización morfológica en variedades de amaranto Distinctness, uniformity and stability by morphological characterization in amarath varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Elena Ramírez

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de valorar procedimientos para la evaluación de distinción, homogeneidad y estabilidad en variedades vegetales con fines de protección a derechos del obtentor, el presente estudio se realizó en los ciclos agrícolas primavera-verano 2006 y 2007, en lotes experimentales del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas; se utilizaron 10 variedades de amaranto, cinco provenientes de Hungría y tres de México, todas con protección a derechos de obtentor, una variedad de Brasil y otra de México para evaluar la distinción, consideradas como candidatas. La caracterización morfológica se realizó de acuerdo a la guía TG/247/1 para la descripción varietal en amaranto, que consta de 40 caracteres. Para el examen de distinción, homogeneidad y estabilidad, se utilizó el sistema de agrupamiento del Servicio Nacional de Inspección y Certificación de Semillas. en el agrupamiento de variedades, resultó que ocho de diez variedades cumplen con la distinción, pero dos (Roza y BRS-Alegría no cumplen porque resultan morfológicamente parecidas. Las variedades Maros y Eniko resultaron iguales; no obstante, ambas muestran rasgos que las distinguen, la variedad Maros expresa pigmentación en el utrículo en la fase de llenado de grano; además 10% de las inflorescencias muestran manchas irregulares de color rojo conocida como variegación. Por otra parte, del 25 al 40% de las plantas presentan pigmentación en la base del tallo; con respecto a la homogeneidad, las variedades expresaron en cada ambiente los caracteres que las definen; sin embargo, aquellos que son cuantitativos con tipo de observación de medición de varias plantas o partes de plantas individuales, no cumplen con la estabilidad. Se evaluaron seis caracteres a través del análisis combinado interanual de distinción, destacando que la calificación que se otorga a los caracteres tomados en campo, no corresponden a la diferenciación de una variedad.This study was

  19. Áreas prioritarias para colectar germoplasma de Amaranthus en México con base en la diversidad y riqueza de especies Priority areas to collect Amaranthus germplasm in Mexico based on diversity and species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia Rangel

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo utilizar el Sistema de Información Geográfico, para crear mapas de índices de diversidad y riqueza de especies del género Amaranthus en México, para proyectar las mejores áreas de colecta de germoplasma. La máxima riqueza de especies se encontró en el centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal y la costa del Pacífico, entre Jalisco y Colima, así como en Sinaloa. El índice de biodiversidad de Brillouin mostró alta diversidad en la costa del Pacífico, Sinaloa, entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, además el centro occidente de Nuevo León, la región de la Huasteca del sureste de Tamaulipas y noreste de Veracruz, así como la zona noroeste de la Península de Yucatán. Las áreas prioritarias que se proponen son: la costa central de Sinaloa, sur de la región biogeográfica de Sonora, parte centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal, región biogeográfica del Eje Volcánico Transmexicano y la costa del pacífico centro entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, finalmente en la región biogeográfica de la costa pacífica mexicana.This investigation had as objective to use the Geographical Information System, to create maps of indexes of diversity and wealth of species of genus Amaranthus in Mexico, to plan the best areas of germplasm collection. The maximum wealth of species was in west center of State of Mexico including Distrito Federal and the Pacific coast, between Jalisco and Colima, as well as in Sinaloa. The Brillouin index of biodiversity showed high diversity in the Pacific coast, Sinaloa, between the states of Jalisco and Colima, also the west center of Nuevo León, the region of Huasteca of southeast of Tamaulipas and northeast of Veracruz, as well as the northwest area of Yucatán Peninsula. The priority areas proposed are: the central coast of Sinaloa, south of biogeographic region of Sonora, west center section of State of Mexico

  20. Management Options and Factors Affecting Control of a Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Biotype Resistant to Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B. Harder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use of protox-inhibiting herbicides has resulted in a common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer biotype that survived lactofen applied up to 10 times the labeled rate. Field and greenhouse research evaluated control options for this biotype of common waterhemp. In the field, PRE applications of flumioxazin at 72 g ai ha−1, sulfentrazone at 240 g ai ha−1, and isoxaflutole at 70 g ai ha−1 controlled common waterhemp >90% up to 6 weeks after treatment. POST applications of fomesafen at 330 g ai ha−1, lactofen at 220 g ai ha−1, and acifluorfen at 420 g ai ha−1 resulted in <60% visual control of common waterhemp, but differences were detected among herbicides. In the greenhouse, glyphosate was the only herbicide that controlled protox resistant waterhemp. The majority of herbicide activity from POST flumioxazin, fomesafen, acifluorfen, and lactofen was from foliar placement, but control was less than 40% regardless of placement. Control of common waterhemp seeded at weekly intervals after herbicide treatment with flumioxazin, fomesafen, sulfentrazone, atrazine, and isoxaflutole exceeded 85% at 0 weeks after herbicide application (WAHA, while control with isoxaflutole was greater than 60% 6 WAHA. PRE and POST options for protox-resistant common waterhemp are available to manage herbicide resistance.

  1. Effects of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing ACA Gene from Amaranthus caudatus on the Population Development of Myzus persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOHong-Nian; JIAYan-Tao; ZHOUYong-Gang; ZHANGZhen-Shan; OUYANGQing; JIANGYing; TIANYing-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible function of the agglutinin from Amaranthus caudatus L. (ACA) in plant defending against insect pests, ACA cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and the 5' and 3' sequences were confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The phloem-specific expression vector of ACA gene, pBCACAc, was constructed based on the plant binary vector pBC438 and transfered into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Results from PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that AOA gene was integrated into the genomes of transformed plants and the transgene integration varied from one to four estimated copies per genome. Western blotting analysis indicated that ACA gene was transcribed and translated in the transgenic plants. The bioassay of Myzus persicae Sulzer on detached leaves demonstrated that the 78% transgenic tobacco plants displayed an average aphid-resistant rate of more than 75%. Some apterous progeny of M. persicae were found dead on the resistant plants. These results indicate that ACA gene should be an effective aphid-resistant gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for aphid resistance.

  2. Assessing the Economic Impact of Inversion Tillage, Cover Crops, and Herbicide Regimes in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Infested Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Duzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. producers in Alabama are faced with a rapidly expanding problem that decreases yields and increases production costs: herbicide-resistant weeds. Producers increasingly rely on integrated weed management strategies that raise production costs. This analysis evaluated how tillage, cover crops, and herbicide regime affected net returns above variable treatment costs (net returns for cotton production in Alabama from 2009 to 2011 under pressure from Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.. Annual net returns were compared for two tillage treatments (inversion and noninversion tillage, three cover crops (crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.], cereal rye [Secale cereal L.], and winter fallow, and three herbicide regimes (PRE, POST, and PRE+POST. Results indicate that under heavy Palmer amaranth population densities one year of inversion tillage followed by two years of noninversion tillage, along with a POST or PRE+POST herbicide application had the highest net returns in the first year; however, the economic benefit of inversion tillage, across all herbicide treatments, was nonexistent in 2010 and 2011. Cotton producers with Palmer amaranth infestations would likely benefit from cultural controls, in conjunction with herbicide applications, as part of their weed management system to increase net returns.

  3. Use of low-calcium cultivars to reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bao-Yan; Yu, Dan-Ping; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jia-Li; Xia, Yan; Li, Qu-Sheng; Wang, Li-Li; Ling, Ling; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops using edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) as a model. Fifteen amaranth cultivars were grown in long-term contaminated soil, and the differences in soil Cd mobilization, root uptake, and root-shoot translocation between low- and high-Cd accumulating cultivars were examined. The transport pathways of Cd across the root were further identified in Hoagland nutrient solution using the Ca channel blocker La(3+), the ATP inhibitor 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and a nutrition-deficient culture. Cd concentrations in amaranth cultivars varied about six-fold and showed an elevated trend as the concentration of Ca and Zn increased (p low-Cd cultivars were significantly lower than those of high-Cd cultivars, and decreased with decreasing levels of soluble rhizosphere exudates. These findings indicated that low co-mobilization of Cd with essential metals mediated by root-induced exudates of low-Cd cultivars contributed to its low accumulation in amaranth. Uptake of Cd was inhibited along with Ca by La(3+) and DNP, but was promoted by Ca or Fe deficiency treatment. Therefore, the Ca pathway is likely the mode of Cd entry into amaranth roots, although Zn and Fe transporters may also be involved. Low-Ca cultivars exhibited lower Cd uptake capability than high-Ca cultivars. The low translocation efficiency of Cd from root to shoot also contributed to its low content accumulation in edible parts of amaranth.

  4. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON GERMINATION, LEAF NITROGEN, NITRATE ACCUMULATION AND YIELD OF VEGETABLE AMARANTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, Olaf van

    2012-01-01

    The influence of manure and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mineral fertilizer on germination, leaf nitrogen content, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was investigated. Field trials were set up at the University of Nairobi Field Station at the Upper Kabete

  5. Influence of organic and mineral fertilization on germination, leaf nitrogen, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, Cecilia M.; Kooten, Olaf van

    2012-01-01

    The influence of manure and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mineral fertilizer on germination, leaf nitrogen content, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was investigated. Field trials were set up at the University of Nairobi Field Station at the Upper Kabete

  6. Predacion de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. en un cultivo de soja: influencia del sistema de siembra Predation of Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. seeds in soybean crops: influence of the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nisensohn

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar las pérdidas del banco superficial de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. (yuyo colorado debidas a la predación por insectos en un cultivo de soja y en el barbecho posterior, en dos sistemas de laboreo. Los experimentos se realizaron durante las campañas 94/95 y 95/96. Para calcular la tasa de predación se emplearon bandejas cubiertas con tejido para evitar el ingreso de roedores y con tela de tul en los tratamientos testigos; en cada una se sembraron 100 semillas de la maleza y cada 15 días se registró el número de semillas remanentes. Para determinar los insectos presentes y su abundancia se emplearon trampas "pitfall". Entre los insectos capturados se encontró el carábido Notiobia cupripennis, su mayor abundancia se registró en marzo (4,5 y 5,8 insectos/trampa en convencional y 2,7 y 3,3 insectos/trampa en siembra directa, coincidiendo con las tasas de predación más altas (5,6% y 8% en convencional y 2,7% y 3,8% en siembra directa; tanto en abundancia como en predación se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambos sistemas. A partir de este mes, las diferencias no fueron significativas, el número de insectos y la tasa de predación disminuyeron. En ambos años existió una correlación positiva entre estas variables.The objective was to evaluate the losses of the superficial bank of Amaranthus quitensis seeds, due to insect predation, in a soybean crop and in the subsequent fallow, in two tillage systems. Experiments were conducted during 1994/95 and 1995/96. To estimate predation rates, trays covered with wire meshes to prevent rodent predation, and with fine sheer net (tulle in the control treatment were used; 100 weed seeds were sown in each tray, and the number of remaining seeds was registered every 15 days. Pitfall traps were used to identify insects species occurring in the field and to estimate their abundance. The carabid Notiobia cupripennis was captured in pitfall traps, the higher

  7. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain,Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electroph...

  8. Ensayo del efecto diurético de los extractos acuosos de Amaranthus muricatus (Moquin) Gill. Ex Hicken, Bauhinia candicans Benth. y Smilax campestris Griseb.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Los extractos acuosos de Amaranthus muricatus (Amarantaceae), Smilax campestris (Liliaceae) y Bauhinia candicans (Leguminosae) fueron ensayados con relación a su actividad diurética en ratas. La evaluación farmacológica revela que la administración oral de los extractos de las especies citadas a dosis de 250,500 y 1000 mg/kg de peso no producen un aumento significativo en el volumen de orina excretado, por lo que el uso tradicional como diurético de las tres especies estudiadas no pudo ser de...

  9. Translocation and accumulation of Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Ni by Amaranthus dubius (Amaranthaceae) from contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, John J; Baijnath, Himansu; Odhav, Bharti

    2009-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology where specially selected and engineered metal-accumulating plants are used for bioremediation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Amaranthus dubius for phytoremediation of chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Locally gathered soil and plants of A. dubius were investigated for the metals from a regularly cultivated area, a landfill site and a waste water treatment site. Metals were extracted from the samples using microwave-digestion and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy. The mode of phytoremediation, effect of the metals on the plants, ability of the plant to extract metals from soil (Bioconcentration Factor) and the ability of the plants to move the metals to the aerial parts of the plants (Translocation Factor) were evaluated. The survey of the three sites showed that soils were heavily contaminated with Cr, Hg, Cu and Ni. These levels were far above acceptable standards set for soils and above the standards set for the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Specimens of A. dubius from the three sites showed that they could tolerate Hg, sequester it from the soil, and translocate it to the shoots. Cr could only be removed from the soil and stored in the roots, with limited amounts translocated to the aerial parts. Pb, As, Ni, and Cu have some degree of transportability from the soil to the roots but not to aerial parts. The ability of A. dubius to be considered for phytoremediation has to be viewed with caution because translocation of the metals to the aerial parts of the plant is limited.

  10. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  11. Modeling Light Interception and Distribution in Mixed Canopy of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus in Competition with Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid VAZIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To model light interception and distribution in the mixed canopy of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus rertoflexus with corn, an experiment was carried out in randomized complete blocks design with factorial arrangement in Gonabad during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 growing seasons. The factors used in this experiment was consisted of three corn densities (7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 plants per meter of row and three densities of redroot pigweed (zero, 2, 4, 6 and 8 plants per meter of row. INTERCOM model was used through replacing parabolic function with triangular function of leaf area density. Vertical distribution of the species� leaf area showed that corn had concentrated the most leaf area in layer of 50 to 150 cm, while redroot pigweed has concentrated in 40-60 cm of canopy height. Model sensitivity analysis showed that leaf area index, species� height, height where maximum leaf area is seen (hm, and extinction coefficient had influenced on light interception rate of any species. In both species, the distribution density of leaf area at the canopy length fit a triangular function, and the height in which maximum leaf area was observed change by increasing the density. There was a correlation between percentage of the radiation absorbed by the weed and percentage of corn seed yield loss (r2 = 0.89. Ideal type of corn was determined until the stage of tasseling in competition with weed. This determination indicates that the corn needs more height and leaf area, as well as less extinction coefficient to successfully fight against the weed.

  12. A Novel Tetraenoic Fatty Acid Isolated from Amaranthus spinosus Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arijit; Guria, Tanmoy; Maity, Tapan Kumar; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) has been shown to be useful in preventing and mitigating adverse pathophysiological conditions and complex diseases. However, only limited information is available on the anticancer potential of this plant. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus—(14E,18E,22E,26E)-methyl nonacosa-14,18,22,26 tetraenoate—against HepG2 human liver cancer cells. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine cell viability, flow cytometry assay for cell cycle analysis, and Western blot analysis to measure protein expression of Cdc2), cyclin B1, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The MTT assay showed that the fatty acid markedly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosage-dependent fashion, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 25.52 µmol/L. This antiproliferative result was superior to that of another known fatty acid, linoleic acid (IC50 38.65 µmol/L), but comparable to that of standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50 24.68 µmol/L). The novel fatty acid also induced apoptosis mediated by downregulation of cyclin B1, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2, resulting in the G2/M transition arrest. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus exhibits significant antiproliferative activity mediated through the induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These encouraging results may facilitate the development of A. spinosus fatty acid for the prevention and intervention of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27669220

  13. Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amaranthus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, M F; Osborn, R W; Goderis, I J; Noe, L; Acland, D; Hart, C A; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Broekaert, W F

    1996-08-01

    The cDNAs encoding the seed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from Mirabilis jalapa (Mj-AMP2) and Amaranthus caudatus (Ac-AMP2) have previously been characterized and it was found that Mj-AMP2 and Ac-AMP2 are processed from a precursor preprotein and preproprotein, respectively [De Bolle et al., Plant Mol Biol 28:713-721 (1995) and 22:1187-1190 (1993), respectively]. In order to study the processing, sorting and biological activity of these antimicrobial peptides in transgenic tobacco, four different gene constructs were made: a Mj-AMP2 wild-type gene construct, a Mj-AMP2 mutant gene construct which was extended by a sequence encoding the barley lectin carboxyl-terminal propeptide, a known vacuolar targeting signal [Bednarek and Raikhel, Plant Cell 3: 1195-1206 (1991)]; an Ac-AMP2 wild-type gene construct; and finally, an Ac-AMP2 mutant gene construct which was truncated in order to delete the sequence encoding the genuine carboxyl-terminal propeptide. Processing and localization analysis indicated that an isoform of Ac-AMP2 with a cleaved-off carboxyl-terminal arginine was localized in the intercellular fluid fraction of plants expressing either wild-type or mutant gene constructs. Mj-AMP2 was recovered extracellularly in plants transformed with Mj-AMP2 wild-type gene construct, whereas an Mj-AMP2 isoform with a cleaved-off carboxyl-terminal arginine accumulated intracellularly in plants expressing the mutant precursor protein with the barley lectin propeptide. The in vitro antifungal activity of the AMPs purified from transgenic tobacco expressing any of the four different precursor proteins was similar to that of the authentic proteins. However, none of the transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance against infection with either Botrytis cinerea or Alternaria longipes.

  14. A Novel Tetraenoic Fatty Acid Isolated from Amaranthus spinosus Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arijit; Guria, Tanmoy; Maity, Tapan Kumar; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-09-22

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) has been shown to be useful in preventing and mitigating adverse pathophysiological conditions and complex diseases. However, only limited information is available on the anticancer potential of this plant. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus-(14E,18E,22E,26E)-methyl nonacosa-14,18,22,26 tetraenoate-against HepG2 human liver cancer cells. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine cell viability, flow cytometry assay for cell cycle analysis, and Western blot analysis to measure protein expression of Cdc2), cyclin B1, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The MTT assay showed that the fatty acid markedly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosage-dependent fashion, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 25.52 µmol/L. This antiproliferative result was superior to that of another known fatty acid, linoleic acid (IC50 38.65 µmol/L), but comparable to that of standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50 24.68 µmol/L). The novel fatty acid also induced apoptosis mediated by downregulation of cyclin B1, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2, resulting in the G₂/M transition arrest. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus exhibits significant antiproliferative activity mediated through the induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These encouraging results may facilitate the development of A. spinosus fatty acid for the prevention and intervention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Effect of Amaranthus on Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warisa Amornrit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used extensively as a vegetable and are known to possess medicinal properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs cause cell toxicity in the human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, through an increase in oxidative stress, as shown by reducing cell viability and increasing cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. We found that preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells with either petroleum ether, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of A. lividus and A. tricolor dose-dependently attenuated the neuron toxicity caused by AGEs treatment. Moreover, the results showed that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts significantly downregulated the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 genes in AGEs-induced cells. We concluded that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts not only have a neuroprotective effect against AGEs toxicity, but also have anti-inflammatory activity by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. This suggests that Amaranthus may be useful for treating chronic inflammation associated with neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Changes in soil diversity and global activities following invasions of the exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis L., decrease the growth of native sahelian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Arsene; Béguiristain, Thierry; Cébron, Aurelie; Berthelin, Jacques; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Leyval, Corinne; Sylla, Samba; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the invasive plant Amaranthus viridis influenced soil microbial and chemical properties and to assess the consequences of these modifications on native plant growth. The experiment was conducted in Senegal at two sites: one invaded by A. viridis and the other covered by other plant species. Soil nutrient contents as well as microbial community density, diversity and functions were measured. Additionally, five sahelian Acacia species were grown in (1) soil disinfected or not collected from both sites, (2) uninvaded soil exposed to an A. viridis plant aqueous extract and (3) soil collected from invaded and uninvaded sites and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that the invasion of A. viridis increased soil nutrient availability, bacterial abundance and microbial activities. In contrast, AM fungi and rhizobial development and the growth of Acacia species were severely reduced in A. viridis-invaded soil. Amaranthus viridis aqueous extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on rhizobial growth, indicating an antibacterial activity of this plant extract. However, the inoculation of G. intraradices was highly beneficial to the growth and nodulation of Acacia species. These results highlight the role of AM symbiosis in the processes involved in plant coexistence and in ecosystem management programs that target preservation of native plant diversity.

  17. Herbicides synthesis and biological tests to determine its activity on the weeds; Sintesis de herbicidas y pruebas biologicas para determinar su actividad sobre la maleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero M, Artemisa [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); James M, Guillermo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Miramontes F, Benjamin [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Haro C, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    Four derivatives of Dicamba (2-methoxy-3, 6-dichlorobenzoic acid) were obtained: 2-methoxy-3, 6-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, 2-methoxy-3, 6-dichlorobenzaldehyde, 2-methoxy-3, 6-dichlorobenzaldoxime, tested on weed, and 2-methoxy-3, 6-dichlorobenzylamine. The weeds were Taraxacum officinale Weber, Amaranthus silvester and Sonchus oleraceus L. The oxime did not show activity on Amaranthus silvester, all the substances were active on the other two weeds. [Spanish] Se sintetizaron cuatro derivados del herbicida Dicamba (acido 2-metoxi-3, 6-diclorobenzoico), y se hicieron pruebas de la actividad de tres de ellos sobre maleza de Xochimilco. Se probaron el alcohol 2-metoxi-3, 6-diclorobencilico, 2-metoxi-3, 6-diclorobenzaldehido, 2-metoxi-3, 6-diclorobenzaldoxima. La maleza fue Taraxacum officinale Weber (Diente de leon), Amaranthus silvester (Amaranto silvestre) y Sonchus oleraceus L. (Sonchus). En amaranto, la oxima fue el unico que no presento actividad. En diente de leon y Sonchus, todas las sustancias probadas presentaron actividad.

  18. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil A.Nirmal; Jayashri M.Ingale; Shashikant R.Pattan; Sanjay B.Bhawar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski.(Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice.METHODS:Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n =6).Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg,intraperitoneally).Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and piperine (5 mg/kg,per oral).Ulcer index,colitis severity,myeloperoxidase (MPO),malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue.Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).RESULTS:Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration,hemorrhage,necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation.Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg,respectively.The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg,respectively (P < 0.05).Similarly,this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue.Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS.CONCLUSION:The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl,eugenol and benzene,and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic,anti-inflammatory,and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A.roxburghianus root.

  19. Teores de água no solo e eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de Amaranthus hybridus Soil water contents and fomesafen efficacy in controlling Amaranthus hybridus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Zanatta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de plantas de Amaranthus hybridus se desenvolvendo em solo com diferentes teores de água e determinar qual o menor teor de água do solo que não prejudica a ação desse herbicida no controle dessa espécie, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, envolvendo cinco intervalos entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas e cinco doses de fomesafen (0,0, 62,5, 125,0, 250,0 e 375,0 g ha-1. Quando as plantas atingiram estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram aplicados 10 mm de chuva simulada, conforme tratamento previsto. Ao término do período de simulação de chuva, aplicou-se o herbicida utilizando pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, com volume de calda de 120 L ha-1. Aos 5, 22, 29 e 43 dias após a aplicação (DAA do herbicida, foi avaliado o controle (por escala visual de A. hybridus e, aos 43 DAA, foram avaliadas também a massa seca das raízes e a da parte aérea. A aplicação de 375,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen proporcionou controle satisfatório de A. hybridus, independentemente do intervalo entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida ou do teor de umidade do solo, dentro da faixa avaliada. Pulverizações de 250,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 24 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,12 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus. Aplicações de 125,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 12 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,15 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fomesafen in controlling Amaranthus hybridus grown under different soil humidity levels

  20. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations.

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for controlling Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alebrahim, M. T.; Majd, R.; Rashed Mohassel, M. H.;

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post......-emergence (POST) at seven rates. The experiments showed that trifluralin applied PRE, rimsulfuron applied PRE or POST and oxadiargyl applied POST provided the best control of A. retroflexus. Rimsulfuron and oxadiargyl applied POST and pendimethalin applied PRE were the best control options for C. album. Except...... for trifluralin and pendimethalin the susceptibility of the two weed species to the herbicides was similar. Trifluralin was more effective against A. retroflexus than C. album while the opposite was true for pendimethalin. Applied POST oxadiargyl was more effective than applied PRE. In contrast no differences...

  2. Response of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., to method and rate of cattle kraal manure application at Kadawa and Samaru in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Ahmed Manga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted between June and October 2010 wet season at two different locations. The first was at the Horticultural Research Garden of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR, Samaru in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone and the second experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Irrigation Research Sub-Station (IRS, Kadawa in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone also of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria to evaluate the response of grain amaranth growth and green edible vegetable yield components to three methods of cattle kraal manure application (broadcasting, side banding and spot placement incorporated and five rates of cattle kraal manure application (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1, using the variety ‘Pure branch’. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD and replicated three times. Cattle kraal manure application rates significantly (p > 0.05 increased growth of green edible vegetable yield characters of grain amaranth except stem girth at Samaru. Growth and green edible vegetable yield characters were generally not influenced by methods of cattle kraal manure application except for plant height, number of leaves per plant at 12 WAT at Samaru, and plant fresh weight at 12 WAT at Kadawa and dry weight at 4 and 12 WAT at Samaru and 12 WAT at Kadawa. Application of cattle kraal manure of 10 t ha-1 to Amaranthus cruenthus gave the highest mean values which were comparable to those of 15 and 20 t ha-1 rates for all the characters measured such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights. Thus, the finding suggests that 10 t ha-1 should be recommended to farmers growing Amaranthus in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savanna of Nigerian agro-ecologies.

  3. Assessment of the irrigation feasibility of low-cost filtered municipal wastewater for red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Chandra Biswas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the scarcity of clean water, treated wastewater potentially provides an alternative source for irrigation. In the present experiment, the feasibility of using low-cost filtered municipal wastewater in the irrigation of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma cultivation was assessed. The collected municipal wastewater from fish markets, hospitals, clinics, sewage, and kitchens of households in Sylhet City, Bangladesh were mixed and filtered with nylon mesh. Six filtration methods were applied using the following materials: sand (T1; sand and wood charcoal consecutively (T2; sand, wood charcoal and rice husks consecutively (T3; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks and sawdust consecutively (T4; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust and brick chips consecutively (T5; and sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust, brick chips and gravel consecutively (T6. The water from ponds and rivers was considered as the control treatment (To. The chemical properties and heavy metals content of the water were determined before and after the low cost filtering, and the effects of the wastewater on seed germination, plant growth and the accumulation rate of heavy metals by plants were assessed. After filtration, the pH, EC and TDS ranged from 5.87 to 9.17, 292 to 691 µS cm−1 and 267 to 729 mg L−1, respectively. The EC and TDS were in an acceptable level for use in irrigation, satisfying the recommendations of the FAO. However, select pH values were unsuitable for irrigation. The metal concentrations decreased after applying each treatment. The reduction of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, As and Zn were 73.23%, 92.69%, 45.51%, 69.57%, 75.47% and 95.06%, respectively. When we considered the individual filtering material, the maximum amount of As and Pb was absorbed by sawdust; Cu and Zn by wood charcoal; Mn and Cu by sand and Fe by gravel. Among the six filtration treatments, T5 showed the highest seed germination (67.14%, similar to the control T0 (77

  4. 苋属4种外来有害杂草在中国的适生区预测%Prediction of potential distribution of four alien invasive Amaranthus weeds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卉; 何兴金

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Potential distribution of Amaranthus retrofiexus, A. lividus, A. spinosus and A. viridis in China were evaluated to provide the basis for working out the quarantine and control measures. [Method] Two ecological niche models, GARP and Maxent, were used to predict the four Amaranthus weeds' potential distribution areas in China. [Result] It showed that wet days, elevation, minimum temperature, water vapour pressure and slope are key environmental factors affecting their distribution. The model evaluation showed that both models made good prediction results, and Maxent performed better. Based on both models, we predicted that the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. were eastern China, part of northern China, small parts of northwestern and northeastern China, southwestern China except Tibet and west of Sichuan Province, and most area of southern China. [Conclusion] It is suggested that prediction and control measures for the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. should be taken.%[目的]明确反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)、凹苋(A.lividus)、刺苋(A.spinosus),皱果苋(A.viridis)4种有害杂草在中国的适生区,为有效制定检疫措施和防治决策提供依据.[方法]基于4种苋属杂草已有的分布点数据,使用GARP和Maxent两个生态位模型对其在中国的适生区进行预测.[结果]对4种苋属植物适生区影响最大的环境因子主要为雨日频率、海拔、极端低温、水汽压、坡度.模型评价表明,Maxent和GARP两模型对4种杂草的分布均能较好地进行预测,Maxent的结果稍好于GARP.以Maxent为主,GARP作参考,得出苋属4个种在中国的适生区主要集中在华东地区、华北的部分地区、西北和东北的少数地区、除西藏和四川西部以外的西南地区以及中南的大部分地区.[结论]建议相关部门对4种杂草适生区域及其周边做好相应的预警和治理工作.

  5. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

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    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  6. Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) leaf extract attenuates streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes and oxidative stress in albino rats:A histopathological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanti Bhushan Mishra; Amita Verma; Alok Mukerjee; Madhavan Vijayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antidiabetic effects of Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract (ASEt) against streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes &oxidative stress in albino rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal way after the administration of nicotinamide (120mg/kg). The oxidative stress was measured by reduced glutathione (GSH) content and by enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver and kidney. Biochemical observations were further substantiated with histological examination of pancreas, kidney and liver. Results: The increase in blood glucose with the decrease in GSH content and in enzymatic activities were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. Administration of ASEt (250 & 500 mg/kg bw/day, i.p) for 21 days caused a significant reduction in blood glucose in STZ-nicotinamide treated rats when compared with diabetic rats. Furthermore, diabetic rats treated with ASEt leaf extract showed a significant increase in the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants when compared to those of diabetic rats. Degenerative changes of pancreatic cells in STZ treated rats were minimized to near normal morphology by administration of ASEt leaf extract as evidenced by histopathological examination.Conclusion: Results clearly indicate that Amaranthusspinosus treatment attenuate hyperglycemia by decreasing oxidative stress and pancreatic cells damage which may be attributed to its antioxidative potential.

  7. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Reveals the Role of Anabolic and Catabolic Processes in Glyphosate-Induced Amino Acid Accumulation in Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith; Nandula, Vijay; Duke, Stephen; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2016-09-21

    Biotic and abiotic stressors often result in the buildup of amino acid pools in plants, which serve as potential stress mitigators. However, the role of anabolic (de novo amino acid synthesis) versus catabolic (proteolytic) processes in contributing to free amino acid pools is less understood. Using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM), we measured the de novo amino acid synthesis in glyphosate susceptible (S-) and resistant (R-) Amaranthus palmeri biotypes. In the S-biotype, glyphosate treatment at 0.4 kg ae/ha resulted in an increase in total amino acids, a proportional increase in both (14)N and (15)N amino acids, and a decrease in soluble proteins. This indicates a potential increase in de novo amino acid synthesis, coupled with a lower protein synthesis and a higher protein catabolism following glyphosate treatment in the S-biotype. Furthermore, the ratio of glutamine/glutamic acid (Gln/Glu) in the glyphosate-treated S- and R-biotypes indicated that the initial assimilation of inorganic nitrogen to organic forms is less affected by glyphosate. However, amino acid biosynthesis downstream of glutamine is disproportionately disrupted in the glyphosate treated S-biotype. It is thus concluded that the herbicide-induced amino acid abundance in the S-biotype is contributed by both protein catabolism and de novo synthesis of amino acids such as glutamine and asparagine.

  8. Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Analysis

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    Pamela E. Akin-Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Amaranthus species are distributed worldwide with an interesting diversity of landraces and cultivars whose leaves and seeds are consumed. Despite their potential to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, grain amaranth breeding to improve nutritional quality and adoption by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. This study assessed the variation among 29 grain amaranth accessions using 27 phenotypic (10 morphological and 17 nutritional characters and 16 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers. Multivariate analysis of phenotypic characters showed the first four principal components contributing 57.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded five groups at 87.5% similarity coefficient. RAPD primers generated a total of 193 amplicons with an average of 12.06 amplicons per primer, 81% of which were polymorphic. Genetic similarities based on Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.61 to 0.88. The RAPD-based unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram grouped the accessions into nine clusters, with the same species clustering together. RAPD primers distinguished the accessions more effectively than phenotypic markers. Accessions in the different clusters as obtained can be exploited for heterotic gain in desired nutritional traits.

  9. Physical Mapping of Amplified Copies of the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene in Glyphosate-Resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Andrew; Varanasi, Vijay K.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nakka, Sridevi; Peterson, Dallas E.; Friebe, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A. tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-P synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A. tuberculatus using fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis mapped the EPSPS gene to pericentromeric regions of two homologous chromosomes in glyphosate sensitive A. tuberculatus. In glyphosate-resistant plants, a cluster of EPSPS genes on the pericentromeric region on one pair of homologous chromosomes was detected. Intriguingly, two highly glyphosate-resistant plants harbored an additional chromosome with several EPSPS copies besides the native chromosome pair with EPSPS copies. These results suggest that the initial event of EPSPS gene duplication may have occurred because of unequal recombination mediated by repetitive DNA. Subsequently, gene amplification may have resulted via several other mechanisms, such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletion/insertion, transposon-mediated dispersion, or possibly by interspecific hybridization. This report illustrates the physical mapping of amplified EPSPS copies in A. tuberculatus. PMID:27956489

  10. Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula

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    Susilowati Agustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purifying and drying both fermented biomasses of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture has been conducted to recover concentrate and powder of folic acid. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of particles characteristics and compositions of concentrate and powder from both mentioned folic acid source through Micro Filtration (MF membrane and without MF membrane. The best folic acid produced by MF membrane process (room temperature, stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, pressure 40 psia and 30 minutes and drying (30 °C, 22 cm Hg and 24 hours were resulted in biomass of the concentrate and powder with compositions of total solids 6.29 % and 96.91 %, total polyphenol 0.25 % and 0.06 %, folic acid 58.8 μg/mL and 54.33 μg/mL, reducing sugar 105.34 mg/mL and 441.39 mg/mL, and total acids 0.57 % and 2.33 %, respectively. In optimum condition, fermented spinach concentrate contributed to particles distribution with diameter size (Ø between 0,4 and 100 μm (75.45 %, and with Ø between 100 and 1000 μm (26.3 %, otherwise, the process without MF membrane was resulted the particles distribution respectively 74.1 % and 25.9% by each interval of Ø.

  11. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electrophoresis and far-Western blotting, ALL recognized two prominent proteins associated to the lipid raft microdomains in CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells. By mass spectrometry, the peptide fragments from ALL-recognized proteins showed sequences with 33% homology to matricin (gi|347839 NCBInr) and 41% identity to an unnamed protein related to moesin (gi|74186081 NCBInr). Confocal microscopy analysis of CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells confirmed that staining by ALL colocalized with anti-moesin FERM domain antibody along the plasma membrane and in the intercellular contact sites. Our findings suggest that a moesin-like O-glycoprotein is the ALL-recognized molecule in lipid rats, which induces costimulatory signals on CD4+ T cells. PMID:26417436

  12. Metabolic Profiling and Enzyme Analyses Indicate a Potential Role of Antioxidant Systems in Complementing Glyphosate Resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2015-10-21

    Metabolomics and biochemical assays were employed to identify physiological perturbations induced by a commercial formulation of glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. At 8 h after treatment (HAT), compared to the respective water-treated control, cellular metabolism of both biotypes were similarly perturbed by glyphosate, resulting in abundance of most metabolites including shikimic acid, amino acids, organic acids and sugars. However, by 80 HAT the metabolite pool of glyphosate-treated R-biotype was similar to that of the control S- and R-biotypes, indicating a potential physiological recovery. Furthermore, the glyphosate-treated R-biotype had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, higher ROS scavenging activity, and higher levels of potential antioxidant compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Thus, metabolomics, in conjunction with biochemical assays, indicate that glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations are not limited to the shikimate pathway, and the oxidant quenching efficiency could potentially complement the glyphosate resistance in this R-biotype.

  13. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Amaranthus tricolor L.under high temperature stress%高温胁迫下苋菜的叶绿素荧光特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 唐运来

    2013-01-01

    为了探明高温胁迫对苋菜(Amaranthus tricolor L.)光合过程的影响,用不同温度(25、30、35、40、45℃)处理苋菜植株1h后,随即测定了其叶绿素荧光动力学参数和快速光响应曲线特征参数的变化.结果表明:40℃以上高温胁迫下,苋菜叶片的光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)潜在光化学效率(Fv/Fo)、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)下降;最大荧光(Fm)、光合电子传递速率(ETR)、PSⅡ实际光化学效率(Yield)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)也均有所下降;而初始荧光(F.)和非光化学淬灭系数(NPQ)在40℃以上高温胁迫下显著上升.叶绿素荧光快速光响应曲线测定结果表明,初始斜率α、最大相对电子传递速率ETRmax和半饱和光强Ik在40℃以上高温胁迫下有所下降.研究表明,40℃以上高温胁迫对苋菜的光能的吸收、转换、光合电子传递和强光耐受能力等均有一定的影响.%Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) plants were exposed to several temperature levels (25,30,35,40,and 45 ℃) for 1 h,and then,the characteristic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence and the rapid light response curves of photosynthesis were measured,aimed to understand the effects of high temperature stress on the photosynthesis process of amaranth.High temperature stress (>40 ℃) decreased the maximum fluorescence (Fm),potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo),and maximum photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm).Simultaneously,the electron transport rate (ETR),actual photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Yield),and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) also had some decrease.In contrast,the initial fluorescence (Fo) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were increased significantly.The initial slope rate (a),maximum apparent electron transport rates (ETRmax),and half-saturation light intensity (Ik) under high temperature stress also had some decline.These results indicated that the photosynthesis of A.tricolor plants was very sensitive to high

  14. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  15. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  16. Assessment of Above- and Below-ground Competition between Sesame (Sesamume indicum L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus and Its Effects on Sesame Yield and Yield Components

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    A.J Yanegh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out in a factorial layout on completely randomaized block design with three replications, to evaluate the above- and below- ground competition between sesame (Sesamum indicum and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and their impacts on sesame yield and yield component. The experimental treatments were all combination of crop-weed competition (shoot competition, root competition and root-shoot competition and sesame plant densitys (1, 2 and 4 plant per pot. Plants were sown in plastic pots (24 cm diameter and 28 cm height in year 2010, at feild of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. For study the shoot competition of sesame-pigweed, the roots were separated by plastic when the pots were filled with soil before sowing the seeds. Three weeks after emerging, shoots of plants were separated vertical barrier (30 x 70 cm for studing root competition. Results showed that competition treatments had a significant effect on seed weight per plant and yield components except 1000 seed weight. Among competition produced higher yield and yield components compared to othere treatments. However, sesame and pigweed biological weight in root-shoot competition was 2.6 and 13.7 respectively, that was higher than other competition treatments and was significant. Capsule number in main and sub branches, capsule number in plant, seed number in capsule and seed number in plant in complete competition treatment was 15, 2.58, 17.5, 43.7 and 693.89 respectively, that was higher than other treatments and differences among them was significant. Sesame density also had a significant effect on seed weight per plant and yield components. When low density were used (one plant, yield and yield components was more, therefore in one plant per pot density biological weight of sesame was 3.82 gr, and in higher densities the mentioned traits decreased significantly.

  17. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

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    Ayoka Oladele Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity.

  18. Immunochemical Characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen Extract: Extensive Cross-reactive Allergenic Components among the Four Species of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae

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    Mohsen Tehrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen in causing respiratory allergy has been well ascertained in many countries including Iran with a high positive rate (69% among Iranian allergic patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the allergenic properties of A. retroflexus pollen. Sixteen patients with allergy to A. retroflexus pollen were selected for the study. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of the A. retroflexus pollen extract as well as pollen extracts from other species of the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family, including Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, and Salsola kali, were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunoblot inhibition assays. The resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE ranged from 10-85 kDa. Several allergenic components (MW 85, 45, 39, 18, 15, and 10 kDa of the A. retroflexus pollen extract were recognized by using patients' sera by specific antibody of IgE class using ELISA and immunoblot assays. The IgE reactivity of the A. retroflexus pollen extract was partially inhibited by all three pollen extracts tested. the inhibition by the S. kali pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters by the A. retroflexus pollen extract were highly correlated with those by C. album, K. scoparia and S. kali pollen extracts. In conclusion, three proteins with apparent MWs of 39, 45, and 66 kDa are suggested as the common allergenic components among the four pollens from the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. It appears that there are some common (similar epitopes among the four common allergenic pollens.

  19. Efecto de la profundidad de siembra, cobertura de rastrojo y ambiente térmico sobre la germinación y emergencia de Amaranthus quitensis K. Effect of seed burial, different residue levels and thermal enviroment on germination and emergence of Amaranthus quitensis K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Faccini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La germinación y la emergencia son los estadios más importantes en el proceso de invasión de malezas anuales. El objetivo fue relacionar la germinación y emergencia de Amaranthus quitensis con la profundidad de siembra, cobertura de rastrojo y diferencias del ambiente térmico de las semillas en el suelo. Durante 2000 y 2001 se sembraron semillas en bolsas a dos profundidades (0,5 y 4 cm, con dos niveles de rastrojo (0 y 6000 kg/ha determinándose periódicamente la geminación in situ. La emergencia se evaluó en macetas con los mismos tratamientos de profundidad y cobertura. Se registró la amplitud térmica diaria del suelo. La germinación y la emergencia se relacionaron linealmente con la amplitud térmica, siendo máximas a 0,5 cm y sin cobertura de rastrojo. A 4 cm y con rastrojo el retraso en la emergencia y en la tasa de incremento fueron mayores que en los otros tratamientos. La cobertura en superficie y la profundidad de siembra de las semillas afectaron los niveles de amplitud térmica. Esos niveles a su vez condicionaron la pérdida total de la dormición de manera que la germinación y la emergencia fueron menores cuando las semillas estuvieron enterradas y/o con altos niveles de cobertura.Germination and emergence are the most important stages in the invasion process of annual weeds. The objective was to relate germination and emergence of Amaranthus quitensis with seed sowing depth, crop residue and different thermal environment of seeds in the soil. During 2000 y 2001 seeds were buried in bags at two depths (0.5 and 4 cm, with two residue levels (0 and 6.000 kg/ha. In situ germination was periodically recorded. Emergence was evaluated in pots with the same seed sowing depths and residue levels treatments. In all cases, the soil daily thermal amplitude was recorded. Germination and emergence were linearly related with the thermal amplitude and were highest at 0.5 cm and without residue. At 4 cm and with residue the delay in

  20. 优化大孔树脂提取分离苋菜红色素的工艺%Optimization of Extraction and Separation of Red Pigment from Amaranthus Paniculatus with Macroporous Adsorption Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海珠; 张云玲; 胥秀英; 郑一敏; 乔源; 傅善权

    2013-01-01

    AB-8 resin was selected out to purify the red pigment of Amaranthus paniculatus by orthogonal design. The best conditions for isolation of the red pigment of Amaranthus paniculatus were determined as follows: pH 3, adsorption velocity 1.2 mL/min, solution adsorbent 15% ethanol and elution velocity 0.9 mL/min. After AB-8 macroporous resin purification, greatly enhance the pigment quality.%采用正交设计实验筛选AB-8大孔树脂纯化苋菜红色素的最佳工艺条件.其最佳工艺为:上样pH值为3、吸附流速1.2mL/min、洗脱剂浓度为15%乙醇溶液、洗脱流速0.9 mL/min.经过AB-8大孔树脂提纯后,提高了苋菜红色素的品质.

  1. Cloning a cDNA Encoding Ribosomal Protein S25 from Amaranthus cruentus L.%籽粒苋(Amaranthus cruentus L.)核糖体蛋白S25基因(cDNA)的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳秀; 江树业; 等

    2001-01-01

    @@ Ribosomes, the agents of protein synthesis, consist of roughly equal amounts of RNA (rRNA) and protein (r-protein). Knowledge of the ribosome and its function mainly comes from the extensive work on 70S bacterial ribosomes. There are 21 proteins in the small (30S) subunit and 30 in the large (50S) subunit in E. coil ri bosomes. The 80S eukaryotic ribosomes are more com plex than the bacterial ones and contain at least 30 pro teins in the small (40S) subunit and 40 in the large (60 S) subunit. These r-proteins are named S1 to S30 and L1 to L40 according to whether they arise from the small or large subunit, and to their mobility in gels. In plants, several ribosomal protein genes and/or cDNAs have been isolated, such as the small subunit proteins S 11, S13, S14, S16, and S19 and the large subunit proteins L2, L7, L17, and L27. Here we report the r-protein S25 cDNA, Arps25, from Amaranthus cruentus L.

  2. Interspecific Association of Dominant Species of Amaranthus retroflexus L.Community%反枝苋群落优势种的种间关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彩莉; 张峰; 庞春花; 王慧敏; 范晓

    2013-01-01

    根据野外95个样方的调查数据,运用2×2列联表的x2检验、Jaccard关联指数、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数对山西省中南部地区反枝苋群落的25个优势种,共300个种对的种间关联性和相关性进行分析.研究结果表明:1)群落总体呈负相关趋势,优势种的分布相对独立,群落结构较为松散,显著和极显著关联的种对较少;2)x2检验与关联度指数有机结合才能更为准确的反映种间关系;3)Spearman秩相关系数灵敏度高,分析结果较x2检验与Pearson相关系数更为合理准确;4)根据25个优势种对环境的适应方式和主导生态因素结合PCA排序,将它们划分为4个生态种组,各生态种组内的种对具有相同的资源利用方式和生态要求.%Based on the data of 95 plots obtained from investigation,by using x2-test for 2 × 2 contingency table,Pearson coefficient and Spearman rank coefficient,the interspecific association and correlation among 300 species-pairs of 25 dominant plant species of Amaranthus retroflexus L.community in Shanxi were analyzed.The results indicated that:1)The plant community was negative association,the structure of the community was scattered,few species pairs showed significant or highly significant association.2)Only combine x2-test with correlation index can reflect the interspecific relationship more accurately.3)Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more sensitive.Compared with x2-test and Pearson correlation coefficient,the result of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more reasonable.4)According to the adaptability to the environment and the relationships between plants and environment,25 species were divided into four ecological species groups,with the same resource utilization ways and ecological requirements of the species in each group.

  3. Effect of agro-industrial waste amendment on Cd uptake in Amaranthus caudatus grown under contaminated soil: an oxidative biomarker response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-02-01

    In the present study phytoavailability of Cd, growth yield, cellular Cd accumulation and oxidative stress responses were studied in leafy vegetable Amaranthus caudatus under soil amendments. The test plant was cultivated in Cd contaminated soil (6 µgCdg(-1) soil) amended with different doses: 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 percent of rice husk (RH), saw dust (SD), farmyard manure (FYM), farmyard in combination with nitrogen, and phosphorus and potassium (FYM+NPK). Phytoavailability of Cd in amended soil and cellular Cd accumulation in edible parts (shoot) of A. caudatus declined maximally with 5 percent dose of each amendment, and decrease in Cd content in tissues was 36, 45, 23 and 14 percent under FYM, FYM+NPK, RH and SD amendments, respectively, over the value recorded in plants grown in Cd contaminated non-amended soil (Cd(+)NA soil). The shoot yield in control plant cultivated in the absence of Cd without amendment (Cd(-)NA soil) was 18.1 ± 0.98 gfwplant(-1) and it was declined up to 50 percent (9.2 ± 0.80 gfwplant(-1)) when plants were grown in Cd(+)NA soil. Amendments with 5 percent doses of FYM+NPK and FYM enhanced the yield up to 26.5 ± 0.57 and 20.5 ± 1.00 gfwplant(-1), respectively, which may be correlated with better mineral nutrients and organic carbon content in amended soil. RH and SD amendments with similar doses improved in yield up to 16.9 ± 0.43 and 15.2 ± 0.45 gfwplant(-1), respectively, however, it was still less than that of control. Further, correlation analysis of growth yield, Cd concentration and oxidative stress under these conditions suggest that with the decrease in cellular Cd concentration following amendment the level of oxidative markers (oxidants: O2(-) and H2O2 and lipid peroxidation: malondialdehyde; MDA) declined as a result of significant enhancement in the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, dyhydroascorbe reductase and catalase). Thus, the present technique can efficiently

  4. Effects of Moisture and Additives on Amaranthus retroflexus Silage%晾晒与添加剂对反枝苋青贮饲料品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超; 吴兆海; 许庆方; 玉柱; 白春生; 石永红; 刘建宁; 乔羽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of moisture and formic acid or sucrose on Amaranthus retroflexus silage were studied. Fresh or wilted A. Retro flexus at flowering stages were packed and ensilaged for 360 d with sucrose (2%) or formic acid (6 mL ? Kg"1). Results showed that the pH and lactic acid content of wilted A. Retro flexus silage were similar to that of fresh A. Retro flexus silage, whereas acetic acid content was increased (P<0. 01) and ammonia nitrogen content was reduced (P<0. 05). Nitrate content was reduced significantly by ensiling. The quality of Amaranthus retro flexus silage was not improved significantly compared to control. The silage fermentation quality was improved by formic acid or sucrose which reduced the pH and ammonia nitrogen content significantly (PAmaranthus retro flexus)青贮饲料品质的影响,以开花期的反枝苋为原料,在鲜贮和晾晒2种条件下分别设置甲酸(6 mL· kg-1)和蔗糖(2%)处理,以不使用任何添加剂为对照,袋装青贮360 d.结果表明:晾晒处理与鲜贮的反枝苋青贮饲料pH值和乳酸含量均无显著差异,而乙酸含量极显著增加(P<0.01),氨态氮含量显著降低(P<0.05),通过青贮硝酸盐含量显著降低,青贮饲料品质无显著差异.添加甲酸和蔗糖能够改善反枝苋青贮饲料的发酵品质,极显著降低反枝苋青贮饲料的pH值和氨态氮含量并提高乳酸生成量(P<0.01).

  5. Transcriptome analysis by Illumina high-throughout paired-end sequencing reveals the complexity of differential gene expression during in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Amaranthus tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcai Liu

    Full Text Available Amaranthus tricolor L. is a C4 plant, which is consumed as a major leafy vegetable in some tropical countries. Under conditions of high temperature and short daylight, Am. tricolor readily bolts and blooms, degrading leaf quality. A preliminary in vitro flowering study demonstrated that the flowering control pathway in Am. tricolor may differ from that of Arabidopsis. Nevertheless, no transcriptome analysis of the flowering process in Amaranthus has been conducted. To study Am. tricolor floral regulatory mechanisms, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome analysis--based on Illumina HiSeq sequencing of cDNA libraries generated from Am. tricolor at young seedling (YSS, adult seedling (ASS, flower bud (FBS, and flowering (FS stages. A total of 99,312 unigenes were obtained. Using BLASTX, 43,088 unigenes (43.39% were found to have significant similarity with accessions in Nr, Nt, and Swiss-Prot databases. Of these unigenes, 11,291 were mapped to 266 KEGG pathways. Further analysis of the four digital transcriptomes revealed that 735, 17,184, 274, and 206 unigenes were specifically expressed during YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS, respectively, with 59,517 unigenes expressed throughout the four stages. These unigenes were involved in many metabolic pathways related to in vitro flowering. Among these pathways, 259 unigenes were associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, indicating its importance for in vitro flowering in Am. tricolor. Other pathways, such as circadian rhythm and cell cycle, also had important roles. Finally, 26 unigenes were validated by qRT-PCR in samples from Am. tricolor at YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS; their differential expressions at the various stages indicate their possible roles in Am. tricolor growth and development, but the results were somewhat similar to Arabidopsis. Because unigenes involved in many metabolic pathways or of unknown function were revealed to regulate in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Am. tricolor, the

  6. 硫酸铜对苋菜生长及食用安全性的影响%Growth and safety of Amaranthus mangostanus in response to bluestone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚莉; 杜建梅; 杨颜颜; 孙林华; 葛峰; 陆长梅

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of copper agents on the yield and quality of vegetables, Amaranthus mangostanus was selected as materials to analyze the changes of seed germination, seedling growth, and quality with bluestone ( CuSO4 ) treatment. 0. 05-1. 50 mmol/L CuSO4 had no significant effect on the seed germination rate, but inhibited the radicle and hypocotyl elongations of A. mangostanus germinating seeds, and the seed vigor index dropped sharply. Seedlings under 1. 00-15. 00 mmol/L CuSO4 treatment showed no obvious toxic symptoms, but their heights, leaf areas, biomass, root ac-tivities, photosynthetic pigment contents, maximal fluorescence, maximal fluorescence efficiencies and PSⅡ potential ac-tivities decreased with the increase of CuSO4 concentration, and copper contents in different organs and malondialdehyde contents, electrical conductivities, O2·- contents, H2 O2 contents, nitrate contents and nitrate reductase activities in leaves increased with the increase of CuSO4 concentration.%为了研究铜制剂是否会对蔬菜产量和品质产生影响,本研究以苋菜为材料,分析硫酸铜处理下苋菜种子萌发及幼苗生长和品质的变化。结果显示,硫酸铜的大量使用导致基质铜积累大幅提高。0.05~1.50 mmol/L硫酸铜处理对苋菜种子发芽率无显著影响,但其胚根和下胚轴的伸长受到了抑制,种子活力指数急剧下降。1.00~15.00 mmol/L硫酸铜处理下,苋菜幼苗没有表现出明显的毒性症状,但幼苗株高、叶面积、生物量、根系活力、光合色素含量、最大荧光、最大光化学效率和PSⅡ潜在活性均随着处理浓度的增加而降低;幼苗各器官铜含量及叶片丙二醛含量、电导率、O2·-含量、H2 O2含量、硝态氮含量和硝酸还原酶活性则是随着硫酸铜处理浓度的升高而升高。

  7. CHANGES IN AMARANTH POLYPHENOL CONTENT DURING THE DIFFERENT VEGETATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Vollmannová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Total content of polyphenols was investigated in different anatomical parts of amaranth during different growth periods. Five amaranth cultivars were included in the experiment (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: cultivars Annapurna and Koniz, Amaranthus caudatus L.: cultivar Oscar Blanco, Amaranthus cruentus L.: cultivars Golden Giant and Rawa. Analysis were done in 4 growth phases: phase I. – intensive stem growth, phase II. – formation of the flowers and pollination, phase III. – milky ripeness, phase IV. – full ripeness. Based on the determined total polyphenol content in amaranth it is possible to create this anatomical part order: leaves > flowers > seeds > stems. No statistically significant differences were confirmed between phases I., III. and IV. On the other hand the total polyphenol content in amaranth determined in growth phase II. was significantly different in comparison to other growth phases. Statistically significant differences in polyphenolic content were confirmed between all investigated anatomical parts of amaranth.

  8. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-10-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 μL L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  9. A comparison of the ecophysiological responses of Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus to the exclusion of ultraviolet-A and UV-B radiation in the field and the glasshouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cann, J.C.; Miller, S.D.; Vogelmann, T.C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well two naturalized C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} weedy species, Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus, would respond to ultraviolet exclusion under field and glasshouse conditions. These plants were grown in: (1) a high elevation (2188m) field plot in Laramie, WY USA, during the summer of 1994 and (2) a glasshouse during the spring of 1995. Three types of plastic were used to exclude either UV-A, UV-B, or both UV-A and UV-B. During the summer of 1994, photosynthetically active radiation and UV-B fluence rates were measured daily. A total of seven biochemical and physiological parameters, such as chlorophyll, flavonoids, biomass, growth rate, stomatal density, and stomatal conductance were measured at bimonthly intervals. The results of the field experiment show almost no effects of excluding UV-A, UV-B, or both upon plant growth, pigment content, or photosynthetic response. Our results suggest that these plants, unlike some crop plants, may be physiologically pre-adapted to tolerate high ambient levels of ultraviolet radiation.

  10. MAR序列介导野苋菜凝集素基因在白菜中的表达%Expression of Amaranthus viridis L. Agglutinin Mediated by Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) Sequence in Transgenic Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓智年; 魏源文; 吕维莉; 李杨瑞

    2007-01-01

    以'丰顺'白菜带柄子叶为转化受体,用带有MAR(Matrix Attachment Region)和不带MAR的两种植物表达载体进行农杆菌介导转化野苋菜凝集素基因(Amaranthus viridis L. agglutinin,AVA)获得转基因的抗蚜小白菜.分析MAR序列介导对转基因表达的影响.表明利用MAR序列介导AVA基因表达,获得转基因植株的数量比对照提高29.63%;转AVA基因白菜对桃蚜(Myzus persicae)的群体发展有一定的抑制作用,平均抑制率为55.8%;MAR序列介导AVA基因表达的转基因植株中,该基因的表达水平比对照高,并且不同转基因单株间AVA基因表达差异比对照小.

  11. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment.

  12. 野苋菜凝集素基因的克隆及抗蚜性%Cloning of AVA Gene from Amaranthus viridis and Effect of Aphid Resistance on Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓智年; 李楠; 魏源文; 吕维莉; 李杨瑞

    2007-01-01

    通过PCR从苋科植物野苋菜Amaranthus viridis L.基因组DNA中扩增出野苋菜凝集素的核基因片段AVA.序列分析结果表明该基因为1 831 bp,含有一个922 bp的内含子和两个分别为212 bp和697 bp的外显子.采用反向PCR技术获得了该基因的编码区克隆.分别构建含有内含子和不含内含子的AVA基因植物表达载体pBI121AVA-GUS和pBI121AVAc-GUS,通过根癌农杆菌介导法转化烟草.PCR、GUS检测结果均表明AVA基因不仅已整合到烟草基因组DNA中,而且初步表明转基因烟草有AVA蛋白表达.抗蚜实验表明含内含子和无内含子的AVA基因在转基因烟草中的抗蚜能力不同,转AVA和AVAc烟草对蚜虫的抑制率分别为60.81%和50.63%,有的植株高达97%.实验结果表明所克隆的AVA基因是具有抗蚜能力的苋菜凝集素基因家族中的新成员.

  13. Troponina C na detecção imuno-histoquímica de alterações regressivas precoces no miocárdio de ovinos naturalmente intoxicados por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samay Z.R. Costa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Amaranthus spp. são plantas nefrotóxicas popularmente conhecidas como "caruru". Em casos de intoxicação por estas plantas, a principal alteração histopatológica está presente no rim, sob forma de nefrose tubular tóxica, porém em alguns casos pode haver alterações cardíacas. Alterações no eletrocardiograma, compatíveis com quadros de hipercalemia, foram descritas em suínos intoxicados por Amaranthus retroflexus e lesões como degeneração e necrose de miócitos cardíacos descritas em suínos intoxicados por A. caudatus e ovinos intoxicados por A. spinosus. Há dúvidas com relação às alterações cardíacas, que, na maioria dos casos, são incipientes, o que pode levar a erros de interpretação. Para a realização do trabalho foram utilizados blocos parafinados oriundos de um surto natural de intoxicação por A. spinosus no sudeste do Brasil. Esse estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de alterações regressivas incipientes no miocárdio de ovinos intoxicados por A. spinosus, através da utilização imuno-histoquímica do anticorpo anti-troponina C. Foram utilizados fragmentos de coração de 8 ovinos adultos e 2 fetos, intoxicados naturalmente por A. spinosus. Estes fragmentos foram submetidos à técnica de imuno-histoquímica com a utilização do anticorpo anti-troponina C. Pela avaliação imuno-histoquímica do coração dos oito ovinos adultos observaram-se diversos grupos de miócitos com diminuição significativa ou ausência de imunorreatividade para o anticorpo anti-troponina C; essas áreas correspondiam, em grande parte, aos mesmos grupos de miócitos que apresentavam, pela coloração de Hematoxilina e Eosina (H.E. alterações que variavam de leve tumefação celular a aumento da eosinofilia, perda de estriação, lise celular e cariólise, ou mais raramente, acompanhadas de infiltrado inflamatório. Em quatro casos foi possível notar que diversos pequenos grupos de miócitos que tinham

  14. 不同镉浓度下绿穗苋根际环境特征与镉形态分布%Characteristics and Cd fractions of rhizospheric soil of Amaranthus hybridus L. under different cadmium concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉兰; 徐小逊; 张世熔; 蒲玉琳; 张驰强; 霍庆霖; 董袁媛

    2016-01-01

    为了解镉(Cd)富集植物根际环境对镉的活化和耐受作用,通过土壤盆栽试验,研究了Cd胁迫下绿穗苋根际环境特征变化和镉形态分布。研究表明:绿穗苋根际pH低于非根际,并随Cd浓度升高总体呈下降趋势;根际DOC含量高于非根际,且随着Cd浓度的增加呈逐渐上升趋势。随着Cd浓度的升高,绿穗苋根际土壤交换态Cd所占比例上升,铁锰氧化物结合态Cd所占比例先升高后降低,碳酸盐结合态Cd、有机结合态Cd和残渣态Cd所占比例均逐渐降低。各处理根际土壤过氧化氢酶、脲酶和磷酸酶活性均高于非根际,根际土壤脲酶和磷酸酶活性均随处理浓度升高呈先升高后降低的趋势,过氧化氢酶活性随处理浓度升高持续下降。结果表明,Cd胁迫下绿穗苋根际pH和DOC的变化对Cd活化具有重要作用,根际土壤酶活性特征表明其对Cd毒性有一定的缓解作用。%Amaranthus hybridus L. is Cd-tolerant plant. Here a pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of cadmium(Cd) stresses on the characteristics and Cd fractions of A . hybridus rhizospheric soil. Results showed that pH in the rhizospheric soil was lower than that in non-rhizospheric soil, while dissolved organic carbon(DOC)concentrations and catalase, urease and phosphatase activities were just opposite. Increasing Cd concentrations reduced pH and catalase activity, but increased DOC concentrations. With Cd concentra-tions increasing, exchangeable Cd fraction was increased, while iron and manganese oxides bound Cd fraction was decreased initially but in-creased later. Carbonates bound, organic matter bound and residual Cd fractions were all decreased. These results suggest that pH and DOC in rhizospheric soil of A . hybridus could be an important factor influencing the distribution of Cd fractions, and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheric soil could play a role in mitigating Cd toxicity.

  15. EDTA和柠檬酸对反枝苋(Amaranthusretroflexus L.)Cu迁移富集影响研究%Effects of EDTA and Critic Acid (CA) on the Translocation and Accumulation of Copper inAmaranthusRetroflexus L. System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婕; 朱宇恩; 刘娜; 王翠红; 吴山

    2015-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) on copper accumulation and translocation inAmaranthus retroflexusL., with exogenous copper concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg·kg-1. The concentrations of Cu with different speciations in both rhizosphere and bulk soil, and its enrichment characteristics in plant tissue were determined after adding 2.5 mmol·kg-1 CA or EDTA to different copper treatment. Results showed that the ability of copper accumulation in different plant tissues followed the sequence of roots > leaves> stems when copper contents were less than 400 mg·kg-1, while roots > stems > leaves when copper contents were 400 mg·kg-1. BCFs and TFs ofA. retroflexuswere both less than 1, which indicated thatA. retroflexuswas not a copper hyperaccumulation plant under the present experiment condition. Both EDTA and CA can effectively improve enrichment ability of the plant for copper and enhance the transportation of copper from roots to shoots; EDTA was more effective, causing 3512.71 mg·kg-1 of shoots uptake under the 800 mg·kg-1 copper content condition. The contents of total copper and exchangeable speciation inrhizosphere soil were increased for the EDTA amendment, while the content of Fe-Mn oxidizable speciation of copper decreased. The addition of CA promoted the chemical conversion of copper from Fe-Mn oxidizable speciation to carbonate speciation in rhizoshpere soil. It concluded that EDTA significantly improved the copper uptake ofA. retroflexus and increased the content of total copper in rhizosphere soil, which resulted from the joint effects of the increasing migration activity of Cu-EDTA and the copper exclusion mechanisms ofA. retroflexus.%为明确反枝苋(Amaranthusretroflexus L.)对Cu的富集能力及EDTA与柠檬酸(CA)对Cu迁移的影响,采用盆栽试验,在0、100、200、400、800 mg·kg-1 Cu处理质量分数及2.5 mmol·kg-1 EDTA和柠檬酸施加

  16. 瑞香狼毒化感作用研究%Study on Allelopathy of Stellera chamaejasme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国君; 夏继桥

    2012-01-01

    The extracting solution from Stellera chamaejasme L. Was used to study its effects on seed germination and seedling growth of five plants, Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L., Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. And Celosia cristata L.. The results revealed the existance of allelopathy of 5. Chamaejasme L., which had different levels of affection on seed germination when using distinctive extracting solvents such as distilled water, ethanol and acetone. All the three kinds of extracting solution from S. Chamaejasme L. Had significant inhibition effect on the seedling growth of L. Heterophyllus Sweet. There was obvious inhibitive influence on the fresh weight of shoot roots, plumules and seedlings of Chenopodium album L., L. Heterophyllus Sweet and Celosia cristata L., except the slight increase on the radicle growth of Portulaca oleracea L. And seedling growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. By the extracting solvent of distilled water.%研究了瑞香狼毒(Stellera chamaejasme L.)提取液对藜(Chenopodium album L.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、益母草(Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet.)、籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.)、鸡冠花(Celosia cristata L.)等5种植物种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,瑞香狼毒化感作用是存在的,并且瑞香狼毒的水、乙醇、丙酮提取液对种子萌发的影响不同.3种瑞香狼毒提取液对益母草幼苗生长的影响强度一直最大,除瑞香狼毒水提取液对马齿苋幼根生长和籽粒苋幼苗生长略有促进外,其他溶剂提取液对其他几种植物苗根、幼芽和幼苗鲜重均有明显抑制作用.

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Novel α-Amylase Inhibitor from Wild Amaranth(Amaranthus paniculatus)Weeds%野生苋属植物籽实中新型α淀粉酶抑制剂的分离纯化及其性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 周铁杨; 唐兴; 王贤纯; 梁宋平

    2004-01-01

    A novel proteinaceous inhibitor of α-amylase was purified from the wild amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus ) seeds. The inhibitor, named WAI-1, has a molecular weight of 986.5 determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It is the smallest proteinaceous inhibitor of α-amylase found so far. Preliminary compositional and structural analysis indicated that WAI-1 is a nonapeptide with N-terminal pyroglutamate.Purified directly by reversed-phase HPLC, WAI-1 potently inhibited the α-amylase activity of the insect ( Periplaneta Americana) digestive duct in a noncompetitive manner and did not inhibit the human salivary α-amylase. WAI-1 inhibited α-amylase activity of Periplaneta Americana digestive duct evidently under mild acid conditions, with optimal inhibitory pH 6.0. WAI-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory activity after preincubation with the enzyme at 37 ℃ for about 30 min. When a fixed amount of α-amylase used, along with the increase of the inhibitory/enzyme ratio the inhibition percentages of the α-amylase activity were linearly increased up to about 50 %, and then increased slowly up to a maximum of about 65 %.%从野生苋属植物(Amaranthus paniculatus)籽实中分离纯化出α淀粉酶的一种新型蛋白质类抑制剂.该抑制剂被命名为WAI-1.MALDI-TOF质谱测得其分子量为986.5,是目前报道的α-淀粉酶的蛋白质类抑制剂中分子量最小的.初步的组成和结构分析结果表明,WAI-1由9个氨基酸残基组成,其N端为焦谷氨酸.直接用RP-HPLC纯化后,WAI-1能在弱酸性条件下,以非竞争性抑制作用方式有效抑制美洲蜚蠊消化道α淀粉酶的活性,最适抑制pH 6.0,但对人唾液淀粉酶活性无影响.WAI-1在37℃下与酶预温浴约30 min后显示最大抑制活性.当α淀粉酶用量一定时,α淀粉酶活性的抑制率在约50%的范围内随抑制剂/酶比例的增大而呈线性增加,超过50%后,抑制率随抑制剂/酶比例的增大而缓慢上升,最终达到最大值(约65%).

  18. Efeitos da densidade e proporção de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. e caruru (Amaranhus retroflexus L. em competição Density and porportion effects among corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti

    1996-01-01

    plants in a mixture of species, nor the importance of intra and inter-specific competition and niche diferentiation. Therefore, this research was developed aiming to describe the competitive interaction and competitive indexes between corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. plants. The methodology was a replacement series experiment with a total density of 400 plants/m2 and 5 proportions, besides the monoculture that varied from 50 to 800 plants/m2, conducted in a randomized completely block desing, four replications. The results were analyzed through conventional replacement series analysis, using reciprocal total and per plant yield. Corn was the superior competitor and the intra-specific competition was more important than the inter-specific for this species. The reverse was true for pigweed. Both species were competing for the same natural resources since the niche diferentiation index was lower than 1,0. The influence of density and proportion of species in a competition study is very important in the understanding of competitive interactions.

  19. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  20. Cross and Multiple Herbicide Resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance of Palmer amaranth (PA) to ALS inhibitor herbicides was discovered in Georgia in 2000 and resistance to glyphosate was in 2005. A study was conducted to evaluate two different families of ALS herbicides, imazapic (imidazolinone) and diclosulam (sulfonanilides) for absorption and mobility ...

  1. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in cloned Amaranthus palmeri plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (GA) possesses multiple copies of the target site, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) of this herbicide. Cloned plants of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi (MS) were compared with GA populations using le...

  2. Herbicide tolerance and seed survival of grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Taberner, Andreu; de Troiani, Rosa M.;

    2012-01-01

    Amaranth is receiving increasing attention as an alternative crop to small grain cereals. From a weed control point of view cultivation of amaranth poses two problems. Firstly, amaranth grows slowly after emergence and hence is very susceptible to competition by weeds and secondly, seed losses...... at harvest are significant due to an uneven maturing and volunteer amaranth plants could potentially become a weed problem in following crops. Nonetheless, no studies are available on the tolerance of amaranth to herbicides or the survival of seeds in the soil. In this study we examined 1) the tolerance...... of amaranth to a range of herbicides in a series of outdoor pot experiments and in one field experiment and 2) the survival of amaranth seeds buried at 4 depths (2.5, 5, 10 and 25 cm) in 3 countries. The results showed that amaranth is very susceptible to broadleaved weed herbicides. Of the broadleaved...

  3. Ciclagem de nutrientes por plantas de cobertura na entressafra em um solo de cerrado Nutrient cycling in off-season cover crops on a Brazilian savanna soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Adriano Boer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo e a liberação de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura na entressafra, em condições de Cerrado. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico com textura argilosa. As plantas de cobertura avaliadas foram: amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. e capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Na fase de florescimento das espécies, foi avaliada a produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes. A fim de avaliar a liberação de nutrientes dos resíduos culturais, o material vegetal de cada espécie foi acondicionado em sacolas de náilon, as quais foram dispostas sobre o solo e seu conteúdo analisado em intervalos de 30 dias, até 240 dias após sua instalação. As maiores quantidades de nutrientes acumulados na fitomassa das plantas de cobertura foram observadas no milheto e no capim-pé-de-galinha. O potássio foi o nutriente acumulado em maior quantidade, chegando a atingir 416,9 kg ha-1 no milheto. As maiores taxas de liberação de nutrientes foram observadas nos resíduos culturais do amaranto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the accumulation and the liberation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S of cultural residues by three species of cover crops, in off-season. Tested cover crops were amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.. The experiment was carried out in a Typic Haplorthox clay texture soil. A randomized block desing in a split-plot array in time, with four replications, was used. At the flowering of the species, the production of dry matter and the accumulation of nutrients were evaluated. Proportional samples of dry matter of each cover crop species were placed in

  4. Inclusion of ancient Latin-American crops in bread formulation improves intestinal iron absorption and modulates inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2016-02-01

    This study compares iron (Fe) absorption in Fe-deficient animals from bread formulations prepared by substitution of white wheat flour (WB) by whole wheat flour (WWB), amaranth flour (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, 25%) (AB) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa, 25%) (QB), or chia flour (Salvia hispanica L, 5%) (ChB). Hematological parameters of Fe homeostasis, plasmatic active hepcidin peptide production (LC coupled to Ms/Ms), and liver TfR-2 and IL-6 expression (RT-qPCR) were determined. The different bread formulations increased Fe content between 14% and 83% relative to white bread. Only animals fed with WWB, AB and ChB increased haemoglobin concentrations significantly. Feeding the different bread formulations did not increase hepcidin levels, but down-regulated transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) (apart from WWB) and IL-6 (apart from QB) expression levels. Only AB and ChB had a significant influence on Fe bioavailability at the investigated level of substitution. The potential contribution of these flours would not differ considerably from that of WWB.

  5. Impacto da mistura de amaranto adicionada de arroz na proporção de 30/70% sobre a defesa antioxidante de ratos desnutridos

    OpenAIRE

    MENEZES, Maria Auxiliadora de

    2010-01-01

    A desnutrição, altamente prevalente em países em desenvolvimento, é um mau antigo que aflige a humanidade. Apresenta-se como um estado de deficiência alimentar, com déficit global de proteínas e calorias, provocando menor aporte de nutrientes às células. Alguns estudos têm mostrado evidências de interação entre desnutrição e estresse oxidativo, ocasionado pelo acúmulo de espécies reativas de oxigênio que causam danos à estrutura das biomoléculas em decorrência da desregulação entre a produção...

  6. Resistencia de Amaranthus quitensis a imazetapir y clorimurón-etil Resistance of Amaranthus quitensis to imazethapyr and clhorimuron-ethyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tuesca

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la existencia de biotipos de A. quitensis H.B.K. resistentes a imazetapir y clorimurón-etil. Se utilizaron semillas recolectadas en las localidades de Zavalla, General Baldissera, Marcos Juárez y Las Rosas. Las dosis de herbicidas utilizadas fueron 1/8x, 1/4x, 1/2x, 1x, 5x, 10x y 20x de la dosis de uso recomendada. Se determinó la mortalidad y biomasa de las plantas tratadas. Se calcularon las dosis de herbicidas requeridas para reducir en un 50% la biomasa de las plantas de la maleza (GR50 y se estimó la relación entre GR50 del biotipo resistente y GR50 del susceptible (factor de resistencia. El biotipo Zavalla resultó muy susceptible; con la mitad de la dosis de uso de ambos herbicidas la mortalidad fue 95%. El biotipo General Baldissera presentó resistencia cruzada; con dosis 20 veces superiores a las recomendadas, la mortalidad fue 57,5% y 20% para imazetapir y clorimurón-etil, respectivamente. El factor de resistencia de este biotipo respecto a Zavalla fue 165 y 246 para imazetapir y clorimurón-etil, respectivamente. Los biotipos Las Rosas y Marcos Juárez fueron resistentes a imazetapir y sin embargo resultaron muy susceptibles a clorimurón-etil. Las diferencias en los patrones de resistencia estarían asociadas con distintos niveles de presión de selección en las poblaciones analizadas.The objective was to determine the magnitude of resistance of A. quitensis H.B.K. biotypes to imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl. Weed biotypes were collected at Zavalla, General Baldissera, Marcos Juárez y Las Rosas. The herbicides were applied at 1/8x, 1/4x, 1/2x, 1x, 5x, 10x and 20x the suggested rate. Weed mortality and reduction of biomass related with untreated plants were evaluated. Herbicides concentrations required to reduce growth by 50% (GR50 were determined. Resistance ratio (GR50 resistant/GR50 susceptible was calculated to indicate the degree of resistance. Zavalla showed high susceptibility, with 1/2 of the suggested rate of both herbicides mortality reached 95%. General Baldissera was cross-resistant; with rates 20 times superior to the recommended field use rate mortality was 57.5% and 20% for imazethapyr and clhorimuron-ethyl, respectively. Resistance ratios of this biotype compared with Zavalla were 165 and 246 for imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl, respectively. Las Rosas y Marcos Juárez were resistant to imazethapyr but showed high susceptibility to chlorimuron-ethyl. The resistance patterns showed by the biotypes could be associated with differences in the selection pressure at each location.

  7. Iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/Zea mays blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa; Armada, Margarita; José, Rolando González

    2013-06-01

    Amaranth is a Native American grain appreciated for its high nutritional properties including high mineral content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of Fe, Zn and Ca from extruded products made with two varieties of amaranth and their mixtures with maize at two levels of replacement. Mineral availability was estimated using dialyzability method. The contents of Fe (64.0-84.0 mg/kg), Ca (1977.5-2348.8 mg/kg) and Zn (30.0-32.1 mg/kg) were higher in amaranth than in maize products (6.2, 19.1, 9.7 mg/kg, respectively). Mineral availability was in the range of (2.0-3.6%), (3.3-11.1%) and (1.6-11.4%) for Fe, Ca and Zn, respectively. Extruded amaranth and amaranth/maize products provide higher amount of Fe and Ca than extruded maize. Extruded amaranth products and amaranth addition to maize could be an interesting way to increase nutritional value of extruded products.

  8. The effect of different levels and stages of low irrigation on some morphological traits of amaranth cv. Koniz (Amaranthus hypochindriacus L.× Amaranthus hybridus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Farajzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factors that strongly influence the growth and yield of crops. However, the plant’s response to this stress differs depending on the stage of its growth. The present study set out to investigate the effect of different levels of low irrigation regimes (irrigation after 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan A in different growth stages (plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling. The results of the study showed that irrigation after 170 mm evaporation of pan following the plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling, caused biomass reduction by 8%, 27%, 43% and 53%, respectively. Irrigation levels after 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan led to the reduction of yield by 12%, 22%, 33% and 45% compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from the pan. In case of stress per delay time of irrigation based on evaporation from the evaporation pan, the grain yield decreased by 3.03 units. Results showed that applying low levels of irrigation before pollination leads to further reduction of the yield; so that the stress in the stages of plant establishment, branching, and flowering reduced the yield by 34, 27 and 22% compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from pan.

  9. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology, growth, and seed production in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has become the most economically detrimental weed of cotton in the Southeast US. With the continual marginalization of potential herbicide tools, research has expanded to include alternative means of affecting future Palmer amaranth populations by altering safe s...

  10. Factors affecting potential for Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) suppression by winter rye in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has rapidly become a dominant weed management issue in agronomic crops of the Southeast U. S. The small size of Palmer amaranth seeds, relative to other common weeds, provides an opportunity to use physical weed control through high-biomass, rolled cover crop mul...

  11. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) damage niche in Illinois soybean is seed-limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth, a dioecious summer annual forb originating in Sonoran desert washes, compromises crop yields in much of the southern U.S., and is expanding its range northward. Appropriate tactics for proactively managing this weed in the upper Midwest will depend on characterizing its damage niche...

  12. Glysphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology,growth, and seed production in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has become the most economically detrimental weed of cotton in the Southeast US. With the continual marginalization of potential herbicide tools, research has expanded to include alternative means of affecting future Palmer amaranth populations by altering safe s...

  13. Do common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) seedling emergence patterns meet criteria for herbicide resistance simulation modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to quantify the magnitude of, and sources of variation in, common waterhemp temporal patterns of emergence over 1 yr. In 2008 and 2010, emergence patterns in the absence of soil disturbance were determined for replicated samples of maternal families (progeny from one individua...

  14. Distribution of Glyphosate- and Thifensulfuron-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Poirier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth was first confirmed in North Carolina in 2005. A survey that year indicated 17 and 18% of 290 populations sampled were resistant to glyphosate and thifensulfuron, respectively. During the fall of 2010, 274 predetermined sites in North Carolina were surveyed to determine distribution of Palmer amaranth and to determine if and where resistance to fomesafen, glufosinate, glyphosate, and thifensulfuron occurred. Palmer amaranth was present at 134 sites. When mortality for each biotype was compared to a known susceptible biotype for each herbicide within a rate, 93 and 36% of biotypes were controlled less by glyphosate (840 g ae ha−1 and thifensulfuron (70 g ai ha−1, respectively. This approach may have underestimated resistance for segregating populations due to lack of homogeneity of the herbicide resistance trait and its contribution to error variance. When mortality and visible control were combined, 98% and 97% of the populations were resistant to glyphosate and the ALS inhibitor thifensulfuron, respectively, and 95% of the populations expressed multiple resistance to both herbicides. This study confirms that Palmer amaranth is commonly found across the major row crop production regions of North Carolina and that resistance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides is nearly universal. No resistance to fomesafen or glufosinate was observed.

  15. Acetolactate synthase mutation conferring imidazolinone-specific herbicide resistance in Amaranthus hybridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Federico; Hager, Aaron G; Tranel, Patrick J

    2006-03-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in plants and is the target of several herbicides. ALS inhibitors have enjoyed popularity as herbicides due to numerous attributes, although their current adequacy in weed control programs is hampered by herbicide resistance. Most cases of ALS-inhibitor resistance have resulted from selection of an altered target site. The study herein reports on an alanine by threonine amino acid substitution at position 122 of ALS as the basis for imidazolinone-specific resistance in an A. hybridus population from Illinois. In vitro inhibition of enzymatic activity (I(50)) required 1000-fold greater concentration of imazethapyr in the resistant population compared with a susceptible control. This mutation represents the second ALS alteration associated with herbicide resistance in a natural A. hybridus population.

  16. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  17. Synthesis and Quantitation of Six Phenolic Amides in Amaranthus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans A; Steffensen, Stine Krogh; Christophersen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamoylphenethylamines are phenolic amides in which cinnamic acid provides the acid moiety and phenethylamine the amine moiety. Single ion monitoring (SIM) in LC-MS was performed on amaranth leaf extracts. Masses corresponding to sets of regioisomers, including previously reported compounds, we...

  18. Variability and factor analysis of morphological and productive characteristics of species of the genus Amaranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genotypes of amaranth were being studied for three years. Morphological and productive characteristics - plant height, foliage per plant, average foliage length, average foliage width, mass per plant, and seed mass per plant were the subject of this research. Variability of these traits was analyzed and classification of the genotypes by the method of major components was conducted. Variability within a specific trait was significant. In case of the plant height it ranged between 93.18 cm (genotype 9 - A. cruentus and 160.78 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; foliage per plant raged between 12.89 (genotype 10 - A cruentus and 23.46 (genotype I - A mantegazzianus; average foliage length varied from 14.77 cm (genotype 9 - A cruentus to 26.72 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; average foliage width ranged between 6.30 cm (genotype 9 - A cruentus and 14.46 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; foliage mass per plant ranged between 94.05 g (genotype 3 - A molleros and 246.81 g (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus. Seed mass per plant varied from 45.56 g (genotype 3 - A molleros to 67.55 g (genotype I - A mantegazzianus. The major components method, i.e. factor analysis indicated that the characteristics such as: plant height, average foliage length and average foliage width, had a significant factor loading with the first factor. These traits are of a crucial importance for genotype variability. Foliage number and foliage mass were significantly correlated with the second factor, meaning that they were of a minor importance for the genotype variability. Such results offer guidance with respect to the plant modeling, i.e. indicate how to proceed with the breeding program of this species.

  19. Mechanism of resistance of evolved glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Todd A; Shaner, Dale L; Ward, Sarah M; Leach, Jan E; Preston, Christopher; Westra, Philip

    2011-06-01

    Evolved glyphosate resistance in weedy species represents a challenge for the continued success and utility of glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate functions by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The resistance mechanism was determined in a population of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (U.S.). Within this population, glyphosate resistance correlates with increases in (a) genomic copy number of EPSPS, (b) expression of the EPSPS transcript, (c) EPSPS protein level, and (d) EPSPS enzymatic activity. Dose response results from the resistant and an F(2) population suggest that between 30 and 50 EPSPS genomic copies are necessary to survive glyphosate rates between 0.5 and 1.0 kg ha(-1). These results further confirm the role of EPSPS gene amplification in conferring glyphosate resistance in this population of Palmer amaranth. Questions remain related to how the EPSPS amplification initially occurred and the occurrence of this mechanism in other Palmer amaranth populations and other glyphosate-resistant species.

  20. Mechanism Of Resistance Of Evolved Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolved glyphosate resistance in weedy species represents a challenge for the continued success and utility of glyphosate-resistant crops. The first case of evolved glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth was a population from the U.S. state of Georgia, which was previously reported to have amplif...

  1. Response of Herbicide-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Accessions to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth is a very problematic weed in several crops in the southern USA due to its competitive ability and resistance to herbicides representing different mechanisms of action. Variation in growth and subsequent interference of North Carolina Palmer amaranth accessions has not been examined. A greenhouse experiment determined response of 15 North Carolina Palmer amaranth accessions to drought stress beginning 15 days after seedling emergence (DAE for a duration of 3, 5, 7, and 9 days. Following exposure to drought, plants were grown under optimal moisture conditions until harvest at 30 DAE. Five accessions each of glyphosate-resistant (GR, acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant (ALSR, and acetolactate synthase inhibitor-susceptible and glyphosate-susceptible (ALSS/GS were compared. Variation in response to drought stress, based on height and dry weight reduction relative to nonstressed controls, was noted among accessions. Stress for 3 or more days affected height and dry weight. Height and dry weight of GR and ALSR accession groups were reduced less by drought than the ALSS/GS accession group. Results suggest a possible relationship between herbicide resistance and ability of Palmer amaranth to withstand drought stress and thus a possible competitive advantage for resistant accessions under limited moisture availability.

  2. Effect of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae Isolates, a Potential Bioherbicide for Amaranthus hybridus L. in Maize Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of phytopathogenic fungi in biological control of weeds may represent a promising alternative to the use of chemicals and may lead to the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. In the current study, strain C1136 was developed into various formulations and their activities were compared with a chemical herbicides using glyphosate in a screen house, applying standard procedure. All the bioherbicide treatments gave significantly higher yield component on the following parameters: tasselling, number of cobs, day of silking, number of ears, number of grain/cob, weight of 100 grains, number of cob, weight of cob, and length of cob from maize when compared to the chemical-treated herbicides and weedy cheek. Moreover, the bioherbicidal formulation coded BH4 (32 g of semolina + 6 g kaolin + 20 mL of glycerol + mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae + glucose+ sucrose + fructose + dextrose + lactose sugar + peptone showed the highest activities when compared to other formulations. Conclusively, this study revealed that Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 strain has bioherbicidal activity and could therefore be exploited for large scale production of bioherbicides for weed control in conventional farming, to improve yield and enhance food security.

  3. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences between dose responses for reciprocal F1 families suggested that genetic control of glyphosate resistance was governed by nuclear genome. Analysis of F1 backcross (BC1F1 families showed that 10 and 8 BC1F1 families out of 15 fitted monogenic inheritance at 2000 and 3000 g ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. These results indicate that inheritance of glyphosate resistance in this biotype is incompletely dominant, nuclear inherited, and might not be consistent with a single gene mechanism of inheritance. Relative 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS copy number varied from 22 to 63 across 10 individuals from resistant biotype. This suggested that variable EPSPS copy number in the parents might be influential in determining if inheritance of glyphosate resistance is monogenic or polygenic in this biotype.

  4. Vegetable species for phytoextraction of boron, copper, lead, manganese and zinc from contaminated soil Espécies vegetais na fitoextração de boro, cobre, chumbo, manganês e zinco de solo contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive option to remove metal from contaminated soil since it is a simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly procedure. To better examine the phytoremediation potential of kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mustard (Brassica juncea, turnip (Raphunus sativus and amaranth (Amaranthus crentus plants, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which these species were grown on a soil contaminated with Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb and B. The translocation, the bioconcentration and the removal index, the transference factor and the time to reach 50% of element removal from soil, among other indicators, were used in order to identify a hyperaccumulator. Kenaf plants were more tolerant to the conditions tested, with the highest dry matter production and no visual toxicity symptoms. Amaranth would be the species chosen to remediate the soil under field conditions as it presented the higher indexes for decontamination of Zn and Mn and was also able to remove B. Turnip showed the best results for Pb removal. All species tested were able to remove B from soil. In spite, none of the plant species tested could be characterized as a hyperaccumulator.A fitorremediação é uma opção atraente na remoção de solos contaminados com metais por ser uma técnica simples, de baixo custo e ambientalmente aceitável. O potencial de fitorremediação da kenaf (Hybiscus canabinnus, mostarda (Brassica juncea, rabanete (Raphunus sativus and amaranto (Amaranthus crentus foram examinadas num experimento usando solo contaminado por Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos, cultivando as quatro espécies até o florescimento. Os índices de translocação, bioconcentração e remoção, o fator de transferência e o tempo necessário para atingir a remoção de 50% do elemento do solo, entre outros indicadores, foram empregados na tentativa de identificar uma espécie hiperacumuladora. A kenaf foi a espécie mais tolerante nas condições empregadas

  5. Adaptación y rendimiento de plantas autóctonas de Guatemala en un sistema acuapónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Valdez-Sandoval

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la adaptación y rendimiento de ocho variedades de plantas autóctonas de Guatemala en un sistema acuapónico. Se utilizaron siete módulos acuapónicos, con capacidad de 80 plantas y 25 organismos de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus. Se incluyeron en el estudio, plantas de apazote (Dysphania ambrosioides, makuy (Solanum nigrescens, amarantos (Amaranthus sp., bledo (A. cruentus, chipilín (Crotalaria longirostrata, chipilín montés (C. vitellina ayote (Cucurbita argyrosperma y güicoy (C. pepo. El periodo de evaluación fue de 60 días. Se registró la supervivencia (S, tamaño (T, peso (P y biomasa o rendimiento (B de las plantas y los peces al inicio y al final del periodo experimental. Se observó adaptación de siete de las ocho especies de plantas autóctonas, a los módulos acuapónicos experimentales. La variedad de planta con mayor crecimiento fue el ayote, seguida del makuy y el güicoy. Se observaron diferencias en la altura (p=0.00001 y el rendimiento (p=0.00001 de las variedades de las plantas. La biomasa de tilapia por tanque fue _ = 730 ± 75.2 g. En tal sentido, es posible cultivar plantas autóctonas de Guatemala en un sistema acuapónico.

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Sucrose Synthase Gene (SuSy) from Fagopyrum tataricum%苦荞蔗糖合酶基因克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕雪芬; 李玉萍; 张海纳; 陈鹏

    2015-01-01

    以苦荞基因组DNA为模板,根据已构建的苦荞cDNA文库中蔗糖合酶(Sucrose synthase,SuSy)的部分cDNA序列设计引物,PCR扩增SuSy基因的核心片段,结合Genomic walking技术获得SuSy基因的完整序列.生物信息学分析表明,该基因序列全长4 428 bp,含有12个外显子和11个内含子,剪接位点均符合经典GU-AG法则,ORF长度为2 412 bp,共编码803个氨基酸.其氨基酸序列与籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus)、甜菜(Beta vulgaris)、红叶藜(Chenopodium rubrumL)和大豆(Gl ycine max)的相似性分别为86%、86%、85%和83%.保守结构域分析表明,SuSy含有1个GT1糖基化酶功能结构域(275~760)和4个ADP结合位点,能够催化果糖-6-磷酸和尿苷5'-二磷酸葡萄糖形成蔗糖-6-磷酸.

  7. Analysis and experimental study of rotatory Amaranth dryer prototype based on solar thermal energy; Analisis y estudio experimental de una secadora rotativa para granos de amaranto con aprovechamiento termico de la energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lema, A. I.; Adoro, J. A.; Fasulo, A. J.; Lara, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The performance of a rotary Amaranth dryer prototype based on solar thermal energy is analysed in this work. Many experiments were made on this prototype in order to analyse the Amaranth seed behaviour under different drying conditions. By means of mass and energy balances, models were developed, which allow to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the rotary dryer. The thermal energy used in the drying process is provided by an air solar collector made of polyethylene and wood. The solar collector design is optimised in order to satisfy the heating requirements of the dryer, running simulations with a computational model previously developed. (Author)

  8. A phase III trial of efficacy of the FML-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of Brazil (São Gonçalo do Amaranto, RN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, V O; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Correia Pontes, N N; de Souza, E P; Luz, K G; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2000-12-08

    Protection against canine kala-azar was investigated in naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area, vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmania donovani. A total of 97% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and 100% showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 7 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls (ANOVA, P<0.0001). After 2 years, 92% (chi(2)=6.996; P<0.0025) protection was achieved: only 8% of vaccinees showed mild signs of kala-azar with no deaths while 33% of controls developed clinical or fatal disease. The FML-vaccine induced a significant, long-lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field.

  9. Otimização de propriedades nutricionais e sensoriais de produtos à base de amaranto enriquecidos com frutanos, para intervenção em celíacos

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Dias Capriles

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: A doença celíaca não tem cura e apresenta como único tratamento a dieta isenta de glúten. Frequentemente observa-se a má absorção de cálcio em celíacos, consequência dos menores níveis de transportadores de cálcio no enterócito desses indivíduos. Os celíacos têm dificuldade em dar sequência ao tratamento dietético devido à escassez de produtos isentos de glúten, tornando fundamental o desenvolvimento de produtos para esta população. Isso pode ser feito por meio do uso de matérias ...

  10. Bagaço e fécula de mandioca na elaboração de farinhas cruas e pré-gelatinizadas, snacks e macarrões instantâneos com amaranto

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorda, Fernanda Assumpção

    2011-01-01

    A mandioca é uma tuberosa amilácea de grande potencial energético, podendo ser utilizada tanto para o consumo in natura como para industrialização, gerando quantidades significativas de bagaço, que apresenta potencialidade de uso como fonte de fibra alimentar. A tecnologia de extrusão vem sendo explorada nos últimos anos para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos alimentícios como massas alimentícias que estão incorporadas à cozinha brasileira, servindo como prato principal ou complemento, em m...

  11. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%.

  12. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea and sunflower (Helianthus annuus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motior M Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil contamination by copper (Cu and lead (Pb is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF, translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹ in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54% and Cu (34-38% followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3-4.3 and 1.8-3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. CONCLUSIONS: Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  13. Assessing the Economic Impact of inversion tillage, cover crops, and herbicide regimes in palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) infested cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers in Alabama and across the Cotton Belt are faced with a rapidly expanding problem that decreases yields and increases production costs: herbicide-resistant weeds. Producers are increasingly relying on production methods that raise production costs, such as add...

  14. Influence of Priming Duration on the Performance of Amaranths (Amaranthus cruentus L. in Sokoto Semiarid Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Musa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Fruits and Vegetable Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (located on latitude 14∘N-15∘N and longitude 4∘-5∘, to evaluate the effect of priming duration on the growth and yield of amaranth. Treatments consisted of four priming durations (2, 4, 6, and 8 hours and control (where no priming was applied. The treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated three times for the germination test and randomized complete block design (RCBD for the field trial. Data were collected on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, days to 50% emergence, and percentage emergence. Results revealed significant effect of priming duration on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, and days to 50% emergence. Soaking seeds for 2 hours reduced the number of days to 50% germination and emergence and also recorded higher germination. Thus, from the findings of this study, it could be concluded that priming amaranth seeds for 2 hours could be applied to enhance amaranth production.

  15. Physiology of Glyphosate-Resistant and Glyphosate-Susceptible Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes Collected from North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Whitaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate-resistant (GR biotypes of Palmer amaranth are now commonly found across the southern United States. Experiments were conducted to characterize physiological differences between a GR biotype and a glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotype from North Carolina. The GR biotype had an 18-fold level of resistance based upon rates necessary to reduce shoot fresh weight 50%. Shikimate accumulated in both biotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plants. Absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate were studied in both biotypes with and without an overspray with commercial glyphosate potassium salt (840 g ae ha−1 immediately prior to 14C-glyphosate application. Greater absorption was noted 6 h after treatment (HAT in GS compared with GR plants, but no differences were observed at 12 to 72 HAT. Oversprayed plants absorbed 33 and 61% more 14C by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively, than plants not oversprayed. 14C distribution (above treated leaf, below treated leaf, roots was similar in both biotypes. Together, these results suggest that resistance in this biotype is not due to an altered target enzyme or translocation but may be in part due to the rate of glyphosate absorption. These results also are consistent with resistance being due to increased gene copy number for the target enzyme.

  16. Efficacy of amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) on anaemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macharia-Mutie, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    Adding iron rich foods such as amaranth grain flour or micronutrient powders (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron (e.g. NaFeEDTA) could be options to control iron deficiency (ID) in pre-school children. However, data evaluating the impact of such food-to-food or in

  17. Sodium chloride salinity reduces Cd uptake by edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) via competition for Ca channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, XiuQin; Li, SongSong; Li, QuSheng; Yang, YuFeng; Luo, Xuan; He, BaoYan; Li, Hui; Xu, ZhiMin

    2014-07-01

    Soil salinity is known to enhance cadmium (Cd) accumulation in crops. However, the mechanism by which this occurs independent of the surrounding soil remains unclear. In this study, root adsorption and uptake of salt cations and Cd by edible amaranth under NaCl salinity stress were investigated in hydroponic cultures with 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160mM of NaCl and 27nM Cd. The dominant Cd species in the nutrient solution changed from free Cd(2+) to Cd chlorocomplexes as NaCl salinity increased. High salinity significantly reduced K, Ca, and Cd root adsorption and K, Ca, Mg, and Cd uptake. High salinity decreased root adsorption of Cd by 43 and 58 percent and Cd uptake by 32 and 36 percent in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars, respectively. Transformation of Cd from free ion to chlorocomplexes is unlikely to have significantly affected Cd uptake by the plant because of the very low Cd concentrations involved. Application of Ca ion channel blocker significantly reduced Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Cd uptake by the roots, while blocking K ion channels significantly reduced Na and K uptake but not Ca, Mg, and Cd uptake. These results suggest that Na was absorbed by the roots through both Ca and K ion channels, while Cd was absorbed by the roots mainly through Ca ion channels and not K ion channels. Salinity caused a greater degree of reduction in Cd adsorption and uptake in the salt-sensitive cultivar than in the salt-tolerant cultivar. Thus, competition between Na and Cd for Ca ion channels can reduce Cd uptake at very low Cd concentrations in the nutrient solution.

  18. Variation of Polyphenols and Betaines in Aerial Parts of Young, Field-Grown Amaranthus Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine Krogh; Pedersen, Hans Albert; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    -trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl-4-O-methyldopamine), and betaines (glycinebetaine, trigonelline) were determined. The variation in phytochemical content due to species and cultivation site was analyzed utilizing the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and graphical model (GM...... primarily by a higher content of trigonelline and the two hydroxycinnamyl amides in A. mantegazzianus. The GM showed that the quantities of the different analytes within each compound group were intercorrelated except in the case of the betaines. The betaines carried no information on each other...

  19. Multiple resistance to glyphosate and pyrithiobac in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) from Mississippi and response to flumiclorac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify glyphosate resistance, to investigate interactions between flumiclorac and glyphosate mixtures on weed control, to determine patterns of absorption and translocation of glyphosate applied alone and in combination with flumiclor...

  20. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish with artificial feeds of improved composition. This will allow reducing the cost of artificial feeds, obtaining higher growth rate, and improving physiological parameters of cultured carp.

  1. FITORREMEDIACIÓN DE SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON PLOMO UTILIZANDO AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS – AMARANTHACEAE EN CUSCO DEL 2012

    OpenAIRE

    PAIVA PRADO, GRETA MARGOT

    2016-01-01

    TOXICIDAD DEL PLOMO CONTAMINACIÓN DE SUELOS ACUMULACION DE METALES PESADOS EN EL SUELO REACCIONES DEL SUELO ANTE LA CONTAMINACIÓN EL SUELO COMO REGULADOR DE LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE LOS METALES PESADOS METALES PESADOS CONTAMINACIÓN POR METALES PESADOS METALES PESADOS EN EL AMBIENTE BIODISPONIBILIDAD DE LOS METALES PESADOS TIPOS DE PLOMO USOS DEL PLOMO METALES PESADOS EN LA SALUD PLOMO EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS PLOMO EN EL MEDIO AMBIENTE

  2. Solution structure of the main alpha-amylase inhibitor from amaranth seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J C; Enassar, M; Willem, R; Wieruzeski, J M; Lippens, G; Wodak, S J

    2001-04-01

    The most abundant alpha-amylase inhibitor (AAI) present in the seeds of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a variety of the Mexican crop plant amaranth, is the smallest polypeptide (32 residues) known to inhibit alpha-amylase activity of insect larvae while leaving that of mammals unaffected. In solution, 1H NMR reveals that AAI isolated from amaranth seeds adopts a major trans (70%) and minor cis (30%) conformation, resulting from slow cis-trans isomerization of the Val15-Pro16 peptide bond. Both solution structures have been determined using 2D 1H-NMR spectroscopy and XPLOR followed by restrained energy refinement in the consistent-valence force field. For the major isomer, a total of 563 distance restraints, including 55 medium-range and 173 long-range ones, were available from the NOESY spectra. This rather large number of constraints from a protein of such a small size results from a compact fold, imposed through three disulfide bridges arranged in a cysteine-knot motif. The structure of the minor cis isomer has also been determined using a smaller constraint set. It reveals a different backbone conformation in the Pro10-Pro20 segment, while preserving the overall global fold. The energy-refined ensemble of the major isomer, consisting of 20 low-energy conformers with an average backbone rmsd of 0.29 +/- 0.19 A and no violations larger than 0.4 A, represents a considerable improvement in precision over a previously reported and independently performed calculation on AAI obtained through solid-phase synthesis, which was determined with only half the number of medium-range and long-range restraints reported here, and featured the trans isomer only. The resulting differences in ensemble precision have been quantified locally and globally, indicating that, for regions of the backbone and a good fraction of the side chains, the conformation is better defined in the new solution structure. Structural comparison of the solution structure with the X-ray structure of the

  3. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  4. Biomassa, decomposição e cobertura do solo ocasionada por resíduos culturais de três espécies vegetais na região centro-oeste do Brasil Biomass, decomposition and soil cover by residues of three plant species in central- western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Adriano Boer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a crescente adoção da semeadura direta na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, faz-se necessário maior conhecimento sobre as plantas de cobertura para produção de palha. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de biomassa verde e seca, a percentagem de cobertura do solo, bem como a dinâmica da decomposição da palhada de três espécies de plantas de cobertura em safrinha: amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus L. BRS Alegria, milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. var. ADR500 e capim-pé-de-galinha [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.]. O trabalho foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico textura argilosa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocadas as espécies, subdivididas em nove épocas de avaliação (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 e 240 dias após dessecação química das espécies em estudo. Amostras proporcionais da biomassa seca de cada espécie foram acondicionadas em bolsas de decomposição, que foram dispostas sobre o solo, sendo coletadas a cada 30 dias e pesadas até 240 dias após a instalação, para avaliar a dinâmica de decomposição, após o manejo das plantas de cobertura. O milheto ADR500 e o capim-pé-de-galinha proporcionaram maior produção de biomassa verde e seca, maior cobertura do solo e menores taxas de decomposição da palhada, não diferindo entre si. O milheto ADR500 apresentou maior relação C/N, seguido pelo capim-pé-de-galinha e amaranto. Ajustaram-se, para a percentagem de cobertura do solo e a decomposição de palhadas com o tempo, os modelos sigmoidal e exponencial decrescente, respectivamente. O milheto ADR500 e o capim-pé-de-galinha apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes, não diferindo na comparação dos modelos de cobertura do solo e decomposição de palhadas.With the prevalence of no-till systems in Central-Western Brazil, a more in-depth knowledge

  5. Spectral discrimination of two pigweeds from cotton with different leaf colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To implement strategies to control Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) infestations in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, managers need effective techniques to identify the weeds. Leaf light reflectance measurements have shown...

  6. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters.

  7. Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus) a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2014-04-01

    Morogo (vegetables in Tswana) is a green leafy vegetable from the Amaranthaceae family that can be harvested from wild growing or cultivated. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value, the total antioxidant capacity and selected bioactive compounds present in morogo leaves, and evaluate the effect of drying and cooking. Results showed that morogo contained a significant amount of protein (3.6 ± 0.1 g/100 g FW) and minerals which the level exceed 1% of fresh weight. The total antioxidant capacity (μmole TE/ 100 g FW) determined by DPPH and FRAP assays were 118.3 ± 15.3 and 128.4 ± 11.9 respectively. Total polyphenols (109.4 ± 7.5 mg GAE/100 g FW), vitamin C (36.6 ± 1.0 mg /100 g FW) and carotenoids represented by β carotene (25.3 ± 1.3 mg /100 g FW) and xanthophylls (7.48 ± 0.31 mg /100 g FW) formed a significant part of bioactive compounds content of morogo leaves. Since the boiling can cause significant losses of compounds in the boiling water, it can be recommended to avoid cooking methods that can include a boiling step with discard of boiling water.

  8. Effects of planting pattern and density on growth indices, yield and yield component of corn (Zea mays in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelexus(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza barkhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in 2002-2003 using split-split plot arrangement based on Rondomised Compelete Block Design with three replications at Feiz Abad Agricultural Research Station of Qazvin, in order to study of planting patterns and corn densitis effect in competition with redroot pigweed. Main plots inclouded two planting pattern of corn (P1: single row and P2: double row, sub plots inclouded two corn densities (D1:7 and D2:10 plant/m2 and sub sub plots inclouded 4 weed densities (C1:0, C2:2, C3:6, C4:12 plant/m2. Sampling conducted in 2-weekly intervals and growth indices evaluated. Results indicated that with increasing of weed density CGR, TDW, LAI, number of seeds in row, grain and ear yield decreased but plant height increased. Also LAI, CGR, TDW, number of weed seed and seed,s weight of weed increased. By increasing in corn density LAI, CGR, TDW, ear and grain yield increased, but length and diameter of ear and number of seeds in row decreased. Also LAI and CGR of weed increased, but TDW was decreased. In double row planting pattern just CGR, LAI, TDW of corn were higher significantly than single row planting pattern. But single row planting of weed caused higher LAI, NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW of weed in comparison with double row planting pattern. In 2-way interaction, double row planting pattern and zero densities and 2 weeds/m2 had highest grain yield respectively. There were no significant differences for 3-way interactions but double row planting pattern 10 plant density of corn/m2 zero weed/ m2 had highest grain yield.

  9. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  10. 籽粒苋copia类反转录转座子的初步研究%Preliminary analysis on copia-like retrotransposons in Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江树业; 孙梅; 何予卿; 陈洪; 陈启锋

    2002-01-01

    本研究首次报道了籽粒苋中也存在copia类反转录转座子,进一步验证了copia类反转录转座子广泛存在于高等植物中.采用PCR方法分离鉴定了来自4个种27个基因型中的53个RT酶区序列.序列分析表明,籽粒苋中的copia类反转录转座子不但具有长度多样性、种间多样性、种内多样性,而且来自相同基因型的反转录转座子之间也存在高度异质性.Southern杂交分析表明,籽粒苋中的copia类反转录转座子以多拷贝形式存在.Northern杂交分析表明,籽粒苋中的copia类反转录转座子可能失去了转座活性.本研究还对采用PCR技术分离全长的copia类反转录转座子进行了初步探讨,认为该方法可行,具有快速、经济等优点,可望在短期内分离出全长的反转录转座子.

  11. Copia 类型反转录转座子在籽粒苋中的表现%Copia-like Retrotransposon in Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何予卿; 孙梅; 朱英国; 张利达

    2002-01-01

    利用籽粒苋为材料,通过PCR扩增、克隆研究了copia类型反转录转座子的反转录酶序列在籽粒苋中的表现,结果表明:(1) 反转录转座子在苋属的30个品系中同时检测到,说明反转录转座子在籽粒苋的不同种中普遍存在;(2) 对野生苋(A.quitensis)中克隆、序列分析28个反转录转座子的反转录酶序列,碱基分析表明,它们存在高度异质性,不同的反转录酶序列均存在不同程度的碱基缺失突变和终止密码子的突变;(3) 对28个序列与已发表的一些不同物种(如水稻、矮牵牛和果蝇等)的同一类型序列聚类分析表明,存在于野生苋中的反转录转座子与来源于双子叶或单子叶植物的反转录转座子关系密切,它们与果蝇的copia因子和1731因子可能具有相同的起源.

  12. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  13. Pollen-mediated gene flow from glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer): consequences for the dispersal of resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Debalin; Tyre, Andrew J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Gaines, Todd A.; Irmak, Suat; Knezevic, Stevan Z.; Lindquist, John L.; Jhala, Amit J.

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow is an important component in evolutionary biology; however, the role of gene flow in dispersal of herbicide-resistant alleles among weed populations is poorly understood. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to -susceptible (GS) common waterhemp using a concentric donor-receptor design. More than 130,000 common waterhemp plants were screened and 26,199 plants were confirmed resistant to glyphosate. Frequency of gene flow from all distances, directions, and years was estimated with a double exponential decay model using Generalized Nonlinear Model (package gnm) in R. PMGF declined by 50% at pollen source, whereas 90% reduction was found at 88 m (maximum) depending on the direction of the pollen-receptor blocks. Amplification of the target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), was identified as the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in parent biotype. The EPSPS gene amplification was heritable in common waterhemp and can be transferred via PMGF, and also correlated with glyphosate resistance in pseudo-F2 progeny. This is the first report of PMGF in GR common waterhemp and the results are critical in explaining the rapid dispersal of GR common waterhemp in Midwestern United States. PMID:28327669

  14. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants.

  15. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  16. Study and Determination of As, Cr, and Pb in Amaranth Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Graciela Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of As, Cr, and Pb toxic elements was determined in three species of amaranth seeds: A. hypochondriacus, A. cruentus, and A. dubius. The determinations were carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical atomic spectroscopy (ICP-OES. The result shows that Cr and As were found in minor concentrations than allowed by the World Health Organization (WHO; 120 and 4 mg kg−1 resp.; As (mg kg−1: A. dubius (0.76 A. cruentus (<0.50 and A. hypochondriacus (<0.50; Cr (mg kg−1: A. dubius (8.19 A. cruentus (1.15 and A. hypochondriacus (1.20. However, the concentration of Pb was high: A. dubius (19.04 A. cruentus (30.20 and A. hypochondriacus (35.56 more than the maximum of WHO (10 mg kg−1. To avoid systematic error, recovery and validation studies were performed: recovery test: 102.3%; validation (by standard addition: 96.0–103.1%. Due to the fact that amaranth had been proposed as new food due to its nutraceutical properties, the high concentration of Pb found in this study indicates that Pb should be evaluated in these amaranth species to avoid the intake of toxic element by human beings.

  17. AcEST: BP918225 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GSL 163 >tr|Q95B09|Q95B09_AMAPO Photosystem Q(B) protein (Fragment) OS=Amaranthus powellii GN=psbA PE=3 SV=1...(Fragment) OS=Amaranthus powellii GN=psbA PE=3 SV=1 Length = 348 Score = 283 bits...HPFHMLGVAGVFGGSLFSAMHGSL 218 >tr|Q8WKP5|Q8WKP5_AMAPO Photosystem Q(B) protein (Fragment) OS=Amaranthus powell

  18. 不同发育期反枝苋对黄瓜根缘细胞的化感作用%The allelopathy of different development stages of Amaranthus retroflexus L.on root border cells of cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 马丹炜

    2009-01-01

    以黄瓜为实验材料,采用悬空气培养法研究了不同发育期反枝苋水浸提液对根缘细胞的化感效应.结果表明:在反枝苋水浸提液作用下,黄瓜根果胶甲基酯酶(PME)活性升高,但随着水浸提液浓度的升高,这种促进效应逐渐降低;而黄瓜根缘细胞存活率随着水浸提液浓度的升高而下降.相同发育期反枝苋不同部位的化感作用差异不显著,不同发育时期反枝苋化感作用差异较为明显,其化感作用以幼苗期最强,现蕾期次之,成熟期最弱.推测化感作用是反枝苋发育初期取得竞争优势,迅速占领生态位的原因之一.

  19. The Effects of Veterinary Drug Roxarsone on the Growth, Nutrition and Edible Safety of Amaranthus mangostanus%洛克沙胂对苋菜生长、营养成分及食用安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张源; 杨颜颜; 杜建梅; 王瑞聪; 葛峰; 陆长梅

    2015-01-01

    为了研究含洛克沙胂(ROX)禽畜排泄物的大量施用对叶菜安全生产带来的影响,本文以苋菜种子和幼苗为材料,分析了ROX处理下种子萌发、幼苗生长、营养以及抗营养成分含量的变化.结果显示:ROX处理抑制了苋菜种子胚根和幼苗根系伸长,导致株高、叶面积和生物量降低;损伤了苋菜叶片PSII的结构和功能,导致植株光合能力降低;ROX处理对苋菜有机营养含量影响相对较小,但促进了砷和硝酸盐在苋菜体内积累,苋菜可食部分砷含量超出WHO、FAO以及我国规定的食品和蔬菜砷含量限量标准,硝酸盐含量达到中度和重度污染水平.可见,土壤中的兽药ROX残留不仅会抑制种子萌发和幼苗生长,降低叶菜产量,同时还可能通过砷化物和硝酸盐的累积,降低叶菜品质,增大人类的患癌风险.因此,从叶菜安全角度考虑需要限制ROX的施用.

  20. 籽粒苋类II型金属硫蛋白基因的分离及其表达分析%Isolation and RNA Expression Pattem of a Type 2 Metallothionein-like Gene in Amaranthus cruentus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small,Cys-rich, metal-binding proteins. Plant MTs are divided into two types based predominantly upon the arrangement of Cys residues: those only containing the Cys-Xaa-Cys (Xaa is an amino acid other than Cys)metal-binding motif (type 1) and those containing a combination of the Cys-Cys,Cys-Xaa-Cys and Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys motifs (type 2).Both type 1 and type 2 contain two Cys-rich MT-like amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains separated by a central region of about 40 residues which is devoid of Cys (Robinson et al.,1993).Here we report a type 2 MT from amaranth.

  1. Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) ethanolic extract as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradana, Dimas Adhi; Pondawinata, Marizki; Widyarini, Sitarina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential activity of standardized ethanolic extract of red spinach as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. A total of 42 animals was divided into 6 groups: normal control group, negative control group, positive control group (0.9 mg/kgBW of simvastatin), first intervention group (200 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), second intervention group (400 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), and third intervention group (800 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract). From the first day up to the 66th day, all the groups, except the normal control group and negative control group, were administered simvastatin (positive control) and extract of amaranth (intervention). Then, from the eighth day until Day 66, induction of high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was given in two hours after the simvastatin and red spinach extract administration. The determination of LDL parameters was conducted on Day 0, Day 35, and Day 67. On the 67th day, the animals were dissected to examine the aortic histopathological parameters. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of red spinach with a dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW statistically demonstrated a significant difference (patherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and the histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  2. Random forest and leaf multispectral reflectance data to differentiate three soybean varieties from two pigweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate weed identification is a prerequisite for implementing site-specific weed management in crop production. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) are two common pigweeds that reduce soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yields in the southeas...

  3. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5

  4. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition and properties of two amaranth species: starch and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallem, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of two Amaranth species were studied. The starch contents were 543 and 623 g kg-1 while crude protein contents were 154 and 169 g kg-1 for Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds, respectively. The effect of several treatments, including cooking, popping and germination and flour

  5. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  6. Integrated Resource Recovery at East Calcutta Wetland: How Safe is These?

    OpenAIRE

    Shaon Raychaudhuri; Sayali Salodkar; Sudarshan, M; Ashoke R. Thakur

    2007-01-01

    East Calcutta Wetland (ECW) is an example of wise use of cities solid and liquid waste through integrated resource recovery, mainly for pisciculture, vegetable as well as paddy cultivation and manure production. Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus blithum and Spinacia oleracea grown at ECW were analyzed for their accumulation of elements using Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and compared to those grown in south eastern parts of West Bengal (Midnapur). The obj...

  7. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  8. Integrated Resource Recovery at East Calcutta Wetland: How Safe is These?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaon Raychaudhuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available East Calcutta Wetland (ECW is an example of wise use of cities solid and liquid waste through integrated resource recovery, mainly for pisciculture, vegetable as well as paddy cultivation and manure production. Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus blithum and Spinacia oleracea grown at ECW were analyzed for their accumulation of elements using Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and compared to those grown in south eastern parts of West Bengal (Midnapur. The objective was to analyze the health hazard, if any, underlying the use of wastewater and solid waste for cultivation of green leafy vegetables at ECW. The following results were obtained upon comparing the data collected from the two different sites: (a higher accumulation in ECW grown plants of elements like Ca, Cu and Pb in Amaranthus caudatus; of Ca in Amaranthus blithum; of Cl and Cu in Spinacia oleracea, (b for the same species grown in non-ECW site, higher concentration of elements like Mn and Fe in Amaranthus caudatus; of Cl, Mn and Br in Amaranthus blithum; of Ca, Mn, Fe and Br in Spinacia oleracea. The net consumption of the aforementioned elements per person per day was calculated and found to be much below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA levels in all cases. Thus the vegetables grown out of integrated resource recovery mechanism at East Calcutta Wetland appear to be safe for human consumption. This further corroborated by the healthy appearance of these vegetables. This result has profound implications of far reaching significance for environmental management and health economics.

  9. La Remolacha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Paredes Antonio

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available La remolacha es una planta exótica, herbácea y bisanual del género BETA, familia de las QUENOPO HEACEAS. Se cultiva la remolacha por sus usos en la economía doméstica y sobre todo su importancia en la industria azucarera. Se conocen cuatro variedades de remolacha: blanca, roja, amarilla y vetada, todas tienen el mismo sabor azucarado, pero para comer se prefiere la roja por su bello color de amaranto que se lo comunica a los líquidos en que se prepara.

  10. Evaluación de mezclas de harina de malanga y maíz para elaborar tortillas.

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez López, Leticia del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Las tortillas son el principal producto alimenticio en México y forma parte de la dieta de todos los estratos sociales.Actualmente se puede elaborar tortillas a base de mezclas con otros alimentos; como por ejemplo: tortillas con frijol, amaranto, nopal o tritical. En algunos casos se usan otros ingredientes para agregarle valor, ya sea como alimento funcional o introducción de sabores. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar las características físicas, químicas y sensoriales de torti...

  11. Diseño de una máquina trilladora de quinua

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La quinua es un cultivo de elevadas cualidades nutricionales que, al igual que el maíz, el amaranto, el fríjol, la papa y muchos otros cultivos nativos, constituye históricamente uno de los alimentos principales del hombre andino. Tiene la capacidad de adaptarse a diversas condiciones climáticas, presenta alta resistencia a factores abióticos y diversidad genética; la quinua producida de manera orgánica es muy apetecida en los mercados internacionales. En la actualidad se culti...

  12. Nomenclatural notes about the names in Amaranthaceae published by Roberto de Visiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamonico Duilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The names in Amaranthaceae published by R. de Visiani are investigated. Amaranthus gangeticus var. cuspidatus is a nomen nudum and thus invalid according to Art. 38.1a of the ICN. Amaranthus hierichuntinus, Atriplex patula var. hastifolia, and Chenopodium album var. oblongum are lectotypified, respectively, on a specimen preserved at PAD, and illustrations by Scopoli and Vahl. We here propose to synonymyze the three names (new synonymies respectively with Amaranthus graecizans subsp. graecizans, Atriplex patula subsp. patula, and the type subspecies of C. album. For nomenclatural purposes, also the name C. lanceolatum Willd. (heterotypic synonym of C. album subsp. album is investigated and lectotypified, on a specimen preserved at B.

  13. Effect of heat treatment and milling on the seed, flour, rheology and baking quality of some amaranth ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Maya, S; Domingo, M V

    1985-12-01

    Forty-five harvests corresponding to the two predominating domestic species of amaranth in Mexico were studied. The proximate analysis revealed some statistically significant differences throughout three years of observation. The Ca, P and Fe content did not vary greatly in 15 samples. No chemical differences were either manifested in the Mercado and Aztec types of A. hypochondriacus, nor in the Mexican type of A. cruentus. The latter exhibits a higher grain yield and a shorter life cycle; however, its baking quality is apparently inferior to that of the Mercado type of A. hypochondriacus. The heat treatment of the seeds (toasting, popping and cooking) affected protein and lysine contents as does in cereals and leguminous seeds although toasting in particular improves its sensory characteristics without altering digestibility and PER. Popping only improves PER. Heating at 90 or 170 degrees C for three to five minutes, at the usual seed's moisture rate of 6 to 15%, does not affect protein content and does so only slightly in the case of the fatty acids content. Amylographic and farinographic values of the starchy fractions indicate similarities to C. quinoa and differences with respect to wheat. In the case of "amaranth milk", viscosity and gelatinization temperature produced satisfactory values. The extension of amaranth cultivation in the country is hereby suggested in view of the seed's nutritional quality, and considering the behavior of whole amaranth flour and its fractions.

  14. Responses of two summer annuals to interactions of atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The competitive relationship between Chenopodium album L. (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus L. (C{sub 4}) was investigated in two atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and tow soil nitrogen levels. Biomass and leaf surface area of Amaranthus plants did not respond to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Only in high nitrogen did Chenopodium plants respond to increased CO{sub 2} with greater biomass and leaf surface area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was higher in Amaranthus than in Chenopodium in all treatments except for the high-nitrogen high-CO{sub 2} treatment. Under conditions of high nitrogen and low CO{sub 2}, Chenopodium was a poor competitor, but competition favored Chenopodium in high nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Chenopodium on a dry weight basis, but favored Amaranthus on a seed weight basis, reflecting early senescence of Chenopodium. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Amaranthus on a dry weight basis, but favored Chenopodium on a seed weight basis. Physiological aspects of the growth of Chenopodium and Amaranthus were studied. Acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} occurred at the enzyme level in Chenopodium. Under conditions of high nitrogen and no competition, individual Chenopodium plants responded to elevated CO{sub 2} with greater biomass, leaf surface area, and maximum net photosynthetic rates. In high nitrogen, leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, and RuBP carboxylase activity of Chenopodium decreased and NUE increased when grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen without competition, Chenopodium showed no significant response to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Amarantus grown in high and low nitrogen without competition showed no significant changes in leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, carboxylase activity, chlorophyll, or NUE of in response to CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  15. Influence of carrier volume and nozzle selection on Palmer amaranth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S Wats.) is largely viewed as one of the most troublesome weeds in the southeast. Effective control is essential in order to avoid reductions of crop yield. Due to wide-spread resistance to the ALS chemistry, postemergence contact herbicides are often the only i...

  16. Field and laboratory fomesafen dissipation in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) was discovered in central Georgia (USA) in 2006. Subsequent spread of this highly problematic weed throughout the region prompted growers and registrants to seek labels for herbicides that can provide cost-effective control. To this end, the...

  17. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were

  18. The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Katis, N.I.

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds

  19. Movement of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth pollen in-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is one of the most troublesome weeds of Southern row crops. The objective of this study was to determine if the glyphosate resistance trait could be transferred via pollen in Palmer amaranth. In 2006, a GR Palmer amaranth pollen source population was planted in t...

  20. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1962-01-01

    This paper contains acquisitions to the Netherlands adventitious flora from the year 1961. 1. Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. This is the second species of the subgenus Acnida (L.) Aellen found in the Netherlands. The first species, A. tamariscinus Nutt. was found in 1953 as a wool-alien. In October 196

  1. Produtividade do algodoeiro herbáceo em plantio direto no Cerrado com rotação de culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa José Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, instalado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo muito argiloso, teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da rotação de culturas na produtividade do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch em plantio direto sob condições de sequeiro no Cerrado. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram das rotações soja-milheto-soja-milheto-algodoeiro; soja-amaranto-soja-nabo forrageiro-soja-algodoeiro; soja-sorgo granífero-soja-sorgo granífero-algodoeiro; soja-aveia preta-soja-aveia preta-algodoeiro e soja-soja-algodoeiro. A maior produtividade do algodoeiro foi obtida com a rotação de soja e milheto, em que houve melhor controle de plantas daninhas.

  2. Informe científico de investigador: Aphalo, Paula (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Aphalo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Como punto de partida, se preparon aislados de amaranto por extracción acuosa en medio alcalino (pH 9) y posterior precipitación isoeléctrica (pH 5), según el procedimiento utilizado comúnmente en nuestro laboratorio (Martínez y Añón, 1996). Se determinó la solubilidad de los aislados, en dos buffers: a) con elevada fuerza iónica (K2HPO4 32,5 mM, KH2PO4 2,6 mM con NaCl 0,4M pH 7,5) y b) de baja fuerza iónica (K2HPO4 33,3 mM, KH2PO4 1,7 mM pH 8,5), en ambos la solubilidad fue cercana al 80%. L...

  3. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  4. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Conservacion y mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mapes S, C. [Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Laguna C, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  5. Antiulcer activity of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) from Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.C.Devaraj; B.Gopala Krishna

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera,Raphinus sativus,and Amaranthus tricolor in rats.METHODS:The antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) was evaluated using different models of gastric ulcers:ethanol-induced,indomethacin-induced and ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric ulcers.Efficacy was assessed by determining the ulcer index.RESULTS:Administration of the polyherbal formulation (150 mg·kg-1,p.o.) offered significant protection against indomethacin-induced,ethanol-induced,and ischemic reperfusion-induced ulcer models when compared to the control group.CONCLUSION:PHF,containing leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera,Raphinus sativus,and Amaranthus tricolor,was found to possess antiulcer properties in three experimental animal models of gastric ulcers,and these findings suggest that the significant gastroprotective activity could be mediated by its antioxidant activity.

  6. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  7. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.......The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...

  8. WEED INFESTATION IN DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of ecological and conventional farming systems on weed seedbank and actual weed infestation of winter wheat at agricultural farms Sebechleby, Plavé Vozokany and Dačov Lom. Significant differences between systems were determined only at the co-operative Sebechleby where the higher weed seedbank was in ecological system. Higher number of determined weed species in weed seedstock was in ecological system at Plavé Vozokany and Sebechleby. Dominant weed species in both systems were Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Higher degree of actual weed infestation was determined in ecological system. Characteristics of systems was the occurrence of perennial species Cirsium arvense and non detection of Amaranthus retroflexus L., weed that had very high weed seedbank in soil.

  9. Nutritional and toxic factors in selected wild edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil, J L; Rodríguez-García, I; Torija, E

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and carotenes); antinutritional and toxic components (oxalic acid, nitrate and erucic acid) were determined in sixteen popular species of wild edible plants which are collected for human consumption in southeast Spain. Ascorbic + dehydroascorbic acids contents were very high in several species, especially in Chenopodium album L. (155 mg/100 g). Carotenoid content ranged from 4.2 mg/100 g (Stellaria media Villars) to 15.4 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). A range of values was found for oxalic acid from absence to 1100 mg/100 g of plant material. Nitrate contents ranged from 47 mg/100 g (Salicornia europaea L.) to 597 mg/100 g (Amaranthus viridis L.). Low amounts of erucic acid were found in the Cruciferae family (Sisymbrium irio L. 1.73%; Cardaria draba L. 1.23%) and Plantago major L. 3.45%.

  10. Ion-exchange chromatography separates activities synthesizing and degrading fructose 2,6-bisphosphate from C3 and C4 leaves but not from rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, F. D.; Chou, Q.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase were separated on the basis of charge from leaves of C3 (spinach, lettuce, and pea) and C4 (sorghum and amaranthus) plants but not from rat liver--a tissue known to contain a bifunctional enzyme with both activities. [2-32P]Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate binding experiments also suggest that the major forms of these activities reside on different proteins in leaves.

  11. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Lakeview Marina Site Boat Ramp and Access, Saylorville Lake, Polk County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    cover of yellow sweet clover, red clover, and a small amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate...clover, brome grass , and switchgrass ( Paspalum virgatum) with small amounts of goldenrod (Solidago sp.) poison ivy, milkweed (Amaranthus sp.), thistle...amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate size shagbark hickory, sumac (Rhus glabra), and white

  12. Evaluation of Broadleaf Weeds Control with Selectivity of Post-Emergence Herbicides in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar CHITBAND; Ghorbani, Reza; Mohammad Hassan RASHED MOHASSEL; Majid ABBASPOOR; Abbasi, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of herbicide applications is a main research priority in recent years. In order to study the effect of individual post-emergence application of sugar beet broad-leaf herbicides at four to six true-leaf stage of weeds, experiments were conducted during 2013. Treatments included untreated control and several rates of desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, chloridazon and clopyralid on Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. A completel...

  13. Determination of Optimum Weed Control Timing in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN*, M. Nedim; ÜNAY, Aydın; BOZ, Özhan; ALBAY, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    In field experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002, the optimum timing for weed control in maize was investigated. Both experiments were designed according to randomized complete blocks, and Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Chenopodium album L. were naturally infested on experimental plots in both years. The study in 2001 was conducted to determine the critical period for weed control for maize. With this aim plots were maintained weed-free or weedy for ...

  14. Determination of Optimum Weed Control Timing in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN*, M. Nedim; ÜNAY, Aydın; BOZ, Özhan; ALBAY, Filiz

    2004-01-01

    In field experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002, the optimum timing for weed control in maize was investigated. Both experiments were designed according to randomized complete blocks, and Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Chenopodium album L. were naturally infested on experimental plots in both years. The study in 2001 was conducted to determine the critical period for weed control for maize. With this aim plots were maintained weed-free or weedy for ...

  15. Phytoremediation of a radiocesium-contaminated soil: Field evaluation of {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation in the shoots of three plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasat, M.M.; Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). US Plant, Soil and Nutrition Lab.; Fuhrman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Cornish, J. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the potential of three plant species for phytoremediation of a {sup 137}Cs-contaminated site. From the contaminated soil, approximately 40-fold more radiocesium was removed in shoots of red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) compared with those of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray). The greater potential for {sup 137}Cs removal from the soil by Amaranthus was associated with both high concentration of radiocesium in shoots and high shoot biomass production. Approximately 3% of the total {sup 137}Cs was removed from the top 15 cm of the soil in shoots of three-month-old Amaranthus plants. Soil leaching tests conducted with 0.1 and 0.5 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solutions eluted as much as 15 and 19%, respectively, of the soil {sup 137}Cs. Addition of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil, however, had no positive effect on {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots in any of the species investigated. It is proposed that either NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution quickly percolated through the soil before interacting at specific {sup 137}Cs binding sites or radiocesium mobilized by NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application moved below the rhizosphere becoming unavailable for root uptake. Further research is required to enhance the phytotransfer of the NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-mobilized {sup 137}Cs. With two croppings of Amaranthus per year and a sustained rate of extraction, phytoremediation of this {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil appears feasible in less than 15 years.

  16. Large animal hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, L A; Case, A A

    1979-10-01

    The hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants of large domestic animals have been reviewed. The most important ones are those widely distributed as weeds over pastures, negelcted forests and grasslands, those used as ornamentals, the nitrate concentrating forage crops, and the cyanophoric plants. Crotolaria spp, the ragwort (Senecia jacobaea), the lantana spp. and heliotopum are common hepatoxic plants. Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Solanum rostratum, and the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) are nephrotoxic plants.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Employment of a Mobile Laser Evaluator System (LES-M) for the 20th Fighter Wing at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    training and tactical mode. These data will be further refined when production models of the system are available (Roach 2002, Appendix D). Prior...vehicle use for the LES-M and personal vehicle use by personnel continuing to support the existing missions would consume fuel, oil , and lubricants...8217Acioenser brevirostrum• E Known ! ea-beach amaranth Amaranthus pumilus T Known Pondberrv Lindera melissifolia E Possible ···- :anby’s dropwort

  18. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    or pile driving; (3) wake induced erosion and oil spills due to boat traffic; and, (4) shading of submersed aquatic plants due to boat docks and...spinach Amaranthaceae - Amaranth family *Amaranthus albus tumbleweed Anacardiaceae - Sumac family *Schinus molle pepper tree *Pistacia chinensis...EIS/EIR H-2 Unweighted decibel measurements are frequently used for refined analyses that require data on the frequency spectrum of a sound (e.g

  19. Environmental and Cultural Resources within the Trinity River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    DICOTS Amaranthaceae ( Amaranth Family) Alternanthera pungens H.B.K. Amaranthus albus L. Apocynacete (Dogbane Family Amsonia glaberrima Woods...periods of occupation present in each area. With the insights provided by these data, the research designs can be refined and used to carry out in-depth...101 pls. Abstract: Extensive monograph. Local’dies: (261) Scony Mobil Oil Co., Field Research Laboratory, Dallas Core of type Eagle Ford, 5.2 miles

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A RE-CIRCULATORY VEGETABLE MOISTURIZER

    OpenAIRE

    M.O. Sunmonu; Odewole, M M; Obajemihi, O I; Ayodeji, A T

    2016-01-01

    A re-circulatory vegetable moisturizer for preventing wilting in vegetables was developed and its performance evaluation carried out. Freshly harvested Amaranthus vegetables were used for the experiments. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored daily. The vitamin A of this produce was determined at intervals of two days for 9 days. The effects of the storage parameters (temperature and relative humidity) on the nutritional value of the produce were determined using statistical an...

  1. Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decision Trees, Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    846 9056A Chloride (Cl) SW-846 9212, 9250, 9251 Nitrogen (N) – nitrate (NO3–) SW-846 9210A Nitrogen (N) – ammonia (NH3+) EPA 350.1, 350.2, 350.3...Gardea-Torresdey et al. 1998b Pb Spleen amaranth (pilewort) (Amaranthus hybridus) PE, PS 625 mg/kg in solution concentrated to 0.3 g/kg in shoots

  2. Amaranth Seeds and Products – The Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrodowska Dorota

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new products obtained from amaranth seeds have entered the food market including expanded “popping” seeds and flakes. Lipids and biologically-active substances dissolved in these products are susceptible to changes. Additionally, due to the fact that fat quality has high dietary importance, there is a need to conduct detailed quality and quantity studies on the lipid composition of Amaranthus cruentus.

  3. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï; Lessoy Yves Thierry Zoue; Sébastien Lamine Niamké

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5) leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leaf...

  4. Coexistence of reactive plasticity and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer diseased brains

    OpenAIRE

    J. Guevara; Dilhuydy, H.; Espinosa, B.; Delacourte, A; Quirion, R; Mena, R.; Joanette, Y.; Zenteno, E; Robitaille, Y

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a pathological process characterized by neuron degeneration and, as recently suggested, brain plasticity. In this work, we compared the reactive plasticity in AD brains associated to O-glycosydically linked glycans, recognized by lectins from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MRL), and the tau neuritic degeneration. The neuritic degenerative process was evaluated by the quantification of aggregated neuritic ...

  5. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables′ juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose induced postprandial glycemic load. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical constituents, in vitro free radicals scavenging antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities were evaluated applying various reported methods. Post-prandial glycemic excursion was induced in rats pretreated with vegetables juice by oral administration of starch and glucose. Results: All the leafy vegetables juice displayed potent free radicals scavenging activities. Juice of amaranthus, rumex, palak and raphanus displayed potential anti-oxidative property by reducing H 2 O 2 induced hemolysis in rats red blood cells RBCs. Ajwain and rumex juice showed pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity. Alternanthera, ajwain, methi, amaranthus and sowa leaves juice displayed intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa significantly mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycemic load. Amaranthus leaves juice potently mitigated glucose-induced postprandial glycemic load and also reduced hemoglobin glycation induced by glucose in vitro. Conclusions: This investigation finds that juice of leafy vegetables is potent source of biological antioxidants. In addition, juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa leaves possess capacity to mitigate starch induced postprandial glycemic burden and amaranthus leaves′ juice can reduce glucose induced postprandial glycemic excursion.

  6. Some Weeds Community Percent in Response to Pumice Application on Soil under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Zarehaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A factorial experiment (using RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2014 at the University of Tabriz-Iran, in order to determine the effects of pumice application (P1, P2, P3 and P4: control, 30, 60 and 90 tons per ha on soil and water stress (I1, I2 and I3: 100%, 70% and 50% water requirement calculated from class A pan, respectively on dominante weeds community percent. Results showed that community percent of weed species changed as a result of water stress and pumice application on soil. Distributions of Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris were sensitive to water stress but, Amaranthus retroflexus and Solanum nigrum were neutral to water stress. In contrast, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cardaria draba, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium irio, Xanthium strumarium, Convolvulus arvensis and Salsola rigida distribution were resistant to water stress. Community percent of Chenopodium album as sensitive species to water stress and Salsola rigida as resistance species to water stress positively affected by pumice application especially under water stress condition. Amaranthus retroflexus, Xanthium strumarium and Convolvulus arvensis were positively affected by pumice application under well and limited water supply conditions. In contrast, Cardaria draba, Sisymbrium irio and Solanum nigrum negatively affected by pumice under water stress and it had positive effect on community of these species under well watering conditions. Thus, application of pumice and water stress are two factors which change weed community precent.

  7. Sistema radicular de plantas de cobertura sob compactação do solo Root system of cover crops under soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer G. Gonçalves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de crescimento de raízes em camadas de solo compactadas, quatro espécies de plantas de cobertura (amaranto, milheto ADR 500, capim pé-de-galinha e kenaf foram cultivadas em anéis de PVC, com níveis de compactação em subsuperfície (densidade do solo: 1,18; 1,34; 1,51 e 1,60 Mg m-3, sendo o experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. A camada compactada em subsuperfície foi restritiva ao crescimento de raízes das espécies estudadas, ocasionando a concentração de raízes na camada superficial. O milheto ADR 500 e o amaranto foram as espécies que se destacaram na produção de massa seca da parte aérea e conseguiram desenvolver-se nas camadas compactadas e abaixo delas. O milheto ADR500 apresentou maior densidade de comprimento radicular em todas as camadas. O capim pé-de-galinha e o amaranto tiveram comportamento semelhante quanto à densidade de comprimento radicular. O capim pé-de-galinha e o kenaf apresentaram menor massa seca de raízes em relação às demais espécies. O kenaf apresentou menores valores de massa seca da parte aérea, mas não foi afetado pela presença de camadas compactadas.With the objective of evaluate the root growth capacity in the compacted soil layer, four vegetal species of the cover crops (amaranth, pearl millet ADR500, finger millet and kenaf were cultivated in columns of PVC with increasing levels of subsurface compaction (soil bulk densities: 1.18; 1.34; 1.51 and 1.60 Mg m-3. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse conditions, using a Dusky Red Latosol. The subsurface compacted layer was restrictive to the roots growth of the studied species, causing the root concentrating to the surface. Pearl millet ADR500 and the amaranth were the species that had detached in the production of dry matter weight and developed itself in the compacted layers and below of them. Pearl of millet ADR500 presented the

  8. HACIA UNA POÉTICA DE SOLEDAD FARIÑA: PROTOTEXTO Y ESCRITURA CIFRADA EN LA VOCAL DE LA TIERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bello

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende atender al carácter mitogenésico de la narración "Al alba", perteneciente al libro Otro cuento de pájaros (Santiago: Las Dos Fridas, 1999 de Soledad Fariña, como prototexto y paralelo de la "escritura" del Libro que fragmentariamente -desde el cuestiona-miento constante de los medios de representación y la capacidad perceptiva del poema- se realizará en la trilogía La vocal de la tierra (Santiago: Cuarto Propio, 1999, que incluye los poemarios El Primer Libro (Santiago: Amaranto, 1985, Albricia (Santiago: Archivo, 1988 y En Amarillo Oscuro (Santiago: Surada, 1994, constituyéndose como una nueva escritura sagrada -alternativa al libro judeocristiano patriarcal- de identificación prehispánica, de epicentro genérico femenino, que constituye a la sujeto en relación protolésbica con la Madre, ofrendante con respecto a la Diosa iniciadora, e integrante de la pareja de Amazonas amantes.This paper examines the mythogenesic character ofthe story "Al alba " from the book Otro cuento de pájaros (Santiago: Las Dos Fridas, 1999 by Soledad Fariña, seen as aprototext and a paralel to the "writing " ofthe Book that in afragmentary way -under the constant questioning ofthe means of representation and the perceptive capacity to be found in this poem- is realizedin the trilogy entitled La vocal de la tierra (Santiago: Cuarto Propio, 1999, a book that includes the collections ofpoems El Primer Libro (Santiago: Amaranto, 1985, Albricia (Santiago: Archivo, 1988 and En amarillo oscuro (Santiago: Surada, 1994; the trilogy thus becomes a new Holy Scripture -an alternative to the judeo-christian and patriar-chal Book- which can be identifiedwith the prehispanic culture and is focused in the female gender that constitutes the subject in a protolesbic relation with the Mother, as an offering to the iniciating Goddess, and as a member ofthe couple ofAmazon lovers.

  9. The fucose-mannose ligand-ELISA in the diagnosis and prognosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, G P; Da Silva, V O; Da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    1999-08-01

    The fucose-mannose ligand (FML)-ELISA assay showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% in diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) (kala-azar) in sera from naturally infected dogs from São Gonçalo do Amaranto, Rio Grande de Norte, Brazil. The overall prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania in the endemic area was 23% (79 of 343). Seroreactivity detected by a Leishmania chagasi immunofluorescent (IF) assay was much lower (2.9%) and similar to the percentage of dogs with kala-azar symptoms (2.6%). Twenty-one of 21 asymptomatic, FML-seropositive animals died of kala-azar in a period ranging from 0 to 6 months after diagnosis. The predictive value was 100% for the FML-ELISA, 43% for an L. mexicana ELISA, and 24% for the L. mexicana and L. chagasi IF assays, respectively. In experimentally infected dogs, all assays detected seropositivity between 90 and 120 days after infection. Since the current strategy for control of CVL is based on detection and destruction of infected dogs, the highly predictive, sensitive, and specific FML-ELISA represents a useful tool for field control of the disease.

  10. Aptitud agroclimática en la Mesa Central de Guanajuato, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Granados Ramírez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente en la agricultura de temporal están implícitos el riesgo y la incertidumbre; constantemente los agricultores temporaleros obtienen los menores rendimientos por unidad de superficie y los mayores índices de siniestralidad. Las principales causas de siniestro son impugnables al ambiente, principalmente por los cambios climáticos paulatinos que se han presentado. Conocer el comportamiento y la distribución actual de los elementos del clima en tiempo y espacio, es de vital importancia para adecuar técnicas agrícolas que se ajusten a estos cambios. Este trabajo consistió en integrar un conjunto de indicadores térmicos y pluviales que influyen directamente en la actividad agrícola. Los indicadores fueron aplicados en la región norte de Guanajuato, para obtener una regionalización potencial climática y sugerir la introducción de cultivos alternativos como: amaranto, sorgo y girasol forrajero.

  11. ANÁLISIS ALIMENTARIO DE LOS CULTIVOS ANCESTRALES: UNA MIRADA DESDE LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta  investigación  cualitativa  se  basó  en  la  enseñanza  de  la  educación ambiental a través de la siembra de alimentos y plantas nativas de la ciudad de Bogotá. Los estudiantes pudieron trabajar la tierra, pensando como urban@s de esta ciudad, a partir  de  su  experiencia  sembrando  Quinua,  Amaranto  y  Maíz  en  su  colegio, descubrieron una historia de solidaridad, de conexión con la tierra y de re-significación de las plantas. Desde la educación ambiental los estudiantes desarrollaron diferentes talleres pedagógicos aprendieron a sembrar las diferentes especies jugando y construyendo huertas con figuras de animales.   Estos estudiantes enseñaron con sus saberes como volver a sembrar en esta ciudad de cemento de una manera natural, de una manera originaria.

  12. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity.

  13. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roughan, G. (Horticulture Research Inst., Auckland (New Zealand)); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Browse, J. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  15. Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, Stephen B

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. Until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. Since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the Americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. Consequently, in regions of the USA where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of the economically damaging weed species Ambrosia artemissifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Amaranthus palmeri S Watson, Amaranthus rudis JD Sauer, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) JD Sauer and various Conyza and Lolium spp. Likewise, in areas of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in Argentina and Brazil, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers and Euphorbia heterophylla L. respectively. As transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops will remain very popular with producers, it is anticipated that glyphosate-resistant biotypes of other prominent weed species will evolve over the next few years. Therefore, evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. However, glyphosate-resistant weeds are not yet a problem in many parts of the world, and lessons can be learnt and actions taken to achieve glyphosate sustainability. A major lesson is that maintenance of diversity in weed management systems is crucial for glyphosate to be sustainable. Glyphosate is essential for present and future world food production, and action to secure its sustainability for future generations is a global imperative.

  16. Can soil seed banks serve as genetic memory? A study of three species with contrasting life history strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Mandák

    Full Text Available We attempted to confirm that seed banks can be viewed as an important genetic reservoir by testing the hypothesis that standing (aboveground plants represent a nonrandom sample of the seed bank. We sampled multilocus allozyme genotypes from three species with different life history strategies: Amaranthus retroflexus, Carduus acanthoides, Pastinaca sativa. In four populations of each species we analysed the extent to which allele and genotype frequencies vary in consecutive life history stages including the summer seed bank, which has been overlooked up to now. We compared the winter seed bank (i.e., seeds collected before the spring germination peak, seedlings, rosettes, the summer seed bank (i.e., seeds collected after the spring germination peak and fruiting plants. We found that: (1 All three species partitioned most of their genetic diversity within life history stages and less among stages within populations and among populations. (2 All genetic diversity parameters, except for allele frequencies, were similar among all life history stages across all populations in different species. (3 There were differences in allele frequencies among life history stages at all localities in Amaranthus retroflexus and at three localities in both Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa. (4 Allele frequencies did not differ between the winter and summer seed bank in most Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa populations, but there was a marked difference in Amaranthus retroflexus. In conclusion, we have shown that the summer seed bank is not genetically depleted by spring germination and that a majority of genetic diversity remains in the soil through summer. We suggest that seed banks in the species investigated play an important role by maintaining genetic diversity sufficient for recovery rather than by accumulating new genetic diversity at each locality.

  17. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  18. Elemental uptake by edible herbs and lettuce (Latuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Veni; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-05-01

    The total concentration of toxic elements (aluminum, cadmium, chromium and lead) and selected macro and micro elements (iron, manganese, copper and zinc) are reported in six leafy edible vegetation species, namely lettuce, spinach, cabbage, chards and green and red types of Amaranth herbs. Although spinach and chards had greater than 125 mv of iron, both the amaranthus herbs recorded > than 320 microg g(-1) dry weight. In both the spinach and chard species, the Mn and Zn levels were appreciable recording > 225 microg g(-1) and 150 microg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Aluminum concentrations were (in microg g(-1) dry weight) lettuce (10), cabbage (11), spinach (167), chards (65), amaranthus green (293) and amaranthus red (233). All the micro and macro elements and the toxic elements (Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb) elements analyzed, were below the recommended maximum permitted levels (RMI) in vegetables. Further the elemental uptake and distribution of the nine elements, at three growth stages of the lettuce plant grown on soil bed under controlled conditions are detailed. In the soil, except for iron (16%), greater than 33% of the other cations were in exchangeable form. Generally in the lettuce plant, roots retained much of the iron (> 224 microg g(-1)) and aluminum (> 360 microg g(-1)), while leaves had less than 200 microg g(-1) of iron and 165 microg g(-1) of Al. Although the concentrations of elements marginally decreased with growth, the lettuce leaves had significant amounts of Mn (30 microg g(-1)), Zn (50 microg g(-1)) and Cu (3.6 microg g(-1)). Some presence of lead in leaves (2.0 microg g(-1)) was noticed, but all the toxic and other elements analyzed were well below the RMI values for the vegetables.

  19. Natural occurrence of zearalenone and toxicogenic fungi in amaranth grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, G; Vaamonde, G; Brizzio, S

    1991-05-01

    Zearalenone was detected as the natural contaminant in two samples of Amaranthus cruentus grains (1980 micrograms/kg and 420 micrograms/kg, respectively). Fungi isolated from these samples were screened for mycotoxin production. Two of eight isolates of Fusarium (F. equiseti and F. moniliforme) produced zearalenone. One of four isolates of Aspergillus flavus and all four isolates of A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins. Other species potentially toxicogenic such as Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium viridicatum, P. puberulum, P. crustosum, P. citrinum, P. expansum and Fusarium solani were also found.

  20. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  1. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed.

  2. Phosphorus correlation study for vegetables grown in the ultisol: Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, J.G.; Anas D Susila

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) correlation experiment has been done in Ultisol soil in Nanggung District, Bogor, Indonesia from 2006-2007 to find the best P extraction method which suitable for vegetables i.e Amaranth (Amaranthus sp), Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L), Eggplant (Solanum melongena L), Chili (Capsicum annuum L), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L), and Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguilata L). Treatments were P rate : 0, 45, 90, 135 dan 180 kg P2O5ha-1 or equal to 0...

  3. Phosphorus correlation with relative Yield of Vegetable Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, J.G.; Anas D Susila

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) correlation experiment has been done in Ultisol soil in Nanggung District, Bogor, Indonesia from 2006-2007 to find the best P extraction method which is suitable for vegetables i.e Amaranth (Amaranthus sp), Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L), Eggplant (Solanum melongena L), Chili (Capsicum annuum L), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L), and Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguilata L). Treatments were P rate : 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg P2O5ha-1 or equal t...

  4. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  5. Teores de macro e micronutrientes e a relação c/n de várias espécies de plantas daninhas

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Luciano S. de; Edivaldo D. Velini; Maimoni-Rodella,Rita C.S.; Martins, Dagoberto [UNESP

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn) e a relação C/N, presentes na matéria seca da parte aérea das seguintes espécies de plantas daninhas: Ageratum conyzoides L., Amaranthus lividus L., Bidens pilosa L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc., Senna occidentalis (L.) Link., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Indigofera truxi...

  6. Contents of macronutrients and micronutrients and CN relation of several weed species

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Luciano S. de; Edivaldo D. Velini; Maimoni-Rodella,Rita C.S.; Dagoberto Martins

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn) e a relação C/N, presentes na matéria seca da parte aérea das seguintes espécies de plantas daninhas: Ageratum conyzoides L., Amaranthus lividus L., Bidens pilosa L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc., Senna occidentalis (L.) Link., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Indigofera truxi...

  7. The 1996 Survey of Threatened and Endangered Species on Army Lands: A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    improvement, refining question content, and expanding survey instructions. Pretests helped ascertain if the questions could be answered and showed how...Clm Cd C -r) C.J Cd C a0a) 0O 0 -o -u 0 0 o 0 0cc E (D AD to Li a) CD C D - C CDd- - a ) C d C ) N0. ~ ~ ~ r CD N(D C -- 0 0 D 05 0E OIL CD CD CD <D <D...PORT AMARANTHUS PUMILUS SEABEACH AMARANTH T PLA C COMMAND, SUNNY POINT MTMC 1303D MAJOR PORT CARETTA CARETTA LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE T REP C COMMAND

  8. Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir, Missouri, Holocene Adaptations Within the Lower Pomme de Terre River Valley, Missouri. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    ZOAN xj IOXXXXX 1,*Axx ,X I . u"X.. ..... I OAENOA OIl X041 6400144 IJ,,,XIII::::::X. 44GA19d )JJSA-::.: XX X.$a oe44 XS6 2sf O JXXXXXXX.o : 44- - - --i...extensive areas of cortex remaining on one or both faces. Twenty (51%) bifaces show more refined percussion flaking with clear definition of the thinning...smartweed) X P. sagittatum-type (tear thumb) X LDesmodiwn sp. (tick trefoil) X Amaranthus sp. ( amaranth ) C X Gewn ccmadense (white avens) X Daucus sp

  9. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    chenopod and amaranth . Amaranthus spinosas (spiny amaranth ) was one of the first plants to appear in the cleared areas around the Tibbee Creek site during...time and get an impression of the overall site layout. I i W - - - - - - -- - ~ ______ 23 oII oil ON Rom T U. o - Of’ 024 o 0 n 01? 0 FS 0 0 FIO F7...extent that the long axis of the artifact is apparent but it has no refinement . These artifacts are generally asymmetrical and may not be bifacially

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of heterocyclic analogues of bromoxynil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Brosnan, James T; Best, Michael D; Kopsell, Dean A; Bruce, Barry D; Bostic, Heidi E; Layton, Donovan S

    2014-01-15

    One attractive strategy to discover more active and/or crop-selective herbicides is to make structural changes to currently registered compounds. This strategy is especially appealing for those compounds with limited herbicide resistance and whose chemistry is accompanied with transgenic tools to enable herbicide tolerance in crop plants. Bromoxynil is a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor registered for control of broadleaf weeds in several agronomic and specialty crops. Recently at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville several analogues of bromoxynil were synthesized including a previously synthesized pyridine (2,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyridine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), a novel pyrimidine (4,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyrimidine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), and a novel pyridine N-oxide (2,6-dibromo-1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-4-carbonitrile). These new analogues of bromoxynil were also evaluated for their herbicidal activity on soybean (Glycine max), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and pitted morningglory ( Ipomoea lacunose ) when applied at 0.28 kg ha(-1). A second study was conducted on a glyphosate-resistant weed (Amaranthus palmeri) with the compounds being applied at 0.56 kg ha(-1). Although all compounds were believed to inhibit PSII by binding in the quinone binding pocket of D1, the pyridine and pyridine-N-oxide analogues were clearly more potent than bromoxynil on Amaranthus retroflexus. However, application of the pyrimidine herbicide resulted in the least injury to all species tested. These variations in efficacy were investigated using molecular docking simulations, which indicate that the pyridine analogue may form a stronger hydrogen bond in the pocket of the D1 protein than the original bromoxynil. A pyridine analogue was able to control the glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri with >80% efficacy. The pyridine analogues of bromoxynil showed potential

  11. Dinâmica populacional de plantas daninhas sob diferentes sistemas de manejo nas culturas de milho e feijão Weed population dynamics under different corn and bean production systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jakelaitis; L.R. Ferreira; A.A. Silva; E.L. Agnes; G.V. Miranda; A.F.L. Machado

    2003-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica populacional de plantas daninhas por meio de parâmetros fitossociológicos, realizou-se este trabalho com as culturas de milho e feijão em cultivos sucessivos, no período de novembro de 1998 a maio de 2001, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Câmbico, fase terraço, em Viçosa-MG. A comunidade de plantas daninhas era composta por Amaranthus deflexus, Brachiaria plantaginea, Cyperus rotundus, Galinsoga parviflora, Mucuna aterrima e Oxalis latifolia. Os tratamento...

  12. CONTROL QUÍMICO DE MALEZA DE HOJA ANCHA EN SORGO PARA GRANO

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Rosales-Robles; Ricardo Sánchez-de la Cruz; Pedro A. Cerda-García

    2011-01-01

    El control ineficiente de malezas es un problema importante en la producción de sorgo para grano (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) en el norte de Tamaulipas, México. En 2007 y 2008 se evaluaron en campo algunas opciones para el control químico de malezas de hoja ancha en sorgo en pre- (PRE) y post- emergencia (POST). Atrazina y amicarbazone a 750 g ha-1 aplicados PRE resultaron un buen control de polocote (Helianthus annuus L.) y quelite (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), sin causar daños al sorgo. En l...

  13. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing 1,2,4-Triazolinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo; PAN Li; LI Yong-hong; WANG Su-hua; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of new sulfonylureas incorporating 1,2,4-triazolinone moiety was synthesized,which were further bio-assayed for the herbicidal activity against four herbs,representative of monocotyledons and dicotyledons.Some of them exhibited high potency to inhibit the growth of dicotyledons(Bassica napus and Amaranthus retroflexus) in the pot experiment.Compounds 9a and 9b also displayed an excellent herbicidal activity against Bassica napus at a concentration of 15 g/hectare,which were comparable with commercial triasulfuron.

  14. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  15. Protease obtention using Bacillus subtilis 3411 and amaranth seed meal medium at different aeration rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Maria Delia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of Amaranthus cruenthus seed meal to the medium, as nutrient and growth factor, on protease production by Bacillus subtilis 3411 was studied. Tests were carried out in a rotary shaker and in mechanically stirred fermenters. The influence of aeration was also evaluated. The addition of amaranth in a concentration of 20 g/L resulted in 400% increase in protease production. Aeration up to 750 r.p.m. and 1 L/L.min had a favorable effect.

  16. Protein quality of developed home made weaning foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C; Sehgal, S

    1992-07-01

    Home made weaning foods developed from locally available foods like bajra, barley, green gram (Vigna radiata L.), amaranth grain (Amaranthus sp.) and jaggery using household technologies like roasting and malting had a PER ranging from 2.04 to 2.13, BV 79.56 to 80.68, NPU 66.75 to 67.86, NPR 2.13 to 2.76 and PRE 34.18 to 44.18. The values were comparable to that of cerelac--a commercial weaning food.

  17. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  18. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto, Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo, Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão Amaranthus deflexus (caruru, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram identificados, na rizosfera das plantas estudadas, os ácidos oxálico, cítrico, acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo os dois primeiros encontrados em maiores concentrações, em relação aos demais. As maiores concentrações dos ácidos identificados ocorreram em B. pilosa.In order to identify and quantify organic acids in the rizosphere of weeds infesting coffee plantations, the rizosphere samples of the weeds Bidens pilosa, Alternanthera ficoidea, Taraxacum officinale, Amaranthus deflexus were collected at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG - Lavras-MG, Brazil. The samples were submitted to extraction and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic, citric, acetic, butyric and propionic acids were identified in the rizosphere of the studied plants. The first two were found in larger concentrations and the largest concentrations occurred in B. pilosa.

  19. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASBAG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  20. Homogenity of oil and sugar components of flour amaranth investigated by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of liposoluble and hydrosoluble flour extracts of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp. All three samples were first defatted with hexane. Hexane extracts were used for the analysis of fatty acids of lipid components. TMSH (Trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol was used as the transesterification reagent. With transesterification reaction, fatty acids were esterified from acilglycerol to methyl-esters. Defatted flour samples were dried in the air and then extracted with ethanol. Ethanol extracts were used for the analysis of soluble carbohydrates. TMSI (trimethylsilylimidazole was used as a reagent for the derivatization of carbohydrates into trimethylsilylethers. The results show that the dominant methyl-esters of fatty acids are very similar in all the three samples. Such a similarity was not detected in the analysis of soluble sugars. The following test cluster analysis was used for the comparison of liposoluble and hydrosoluble flour extracts of three genotypes of Amaranthus sp.

  1. Transcription factors as targets of the anti-inflammatory treatment. A cell culture study with extracts from some Mediterranean diet plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalińska, K; Guzdek, A; Rokicki, M; Koj, A

    2005-03-01

    During the inflammatory response at least 2 transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1, are involved in the altered profile of gene expression. We used human hepatoma (HepG2) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model system: NF-kappaB and AP-1 were activated by the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 in the absence or presence of 21 selected plant extracts and the effect was evaluated by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In both types of cells activation of NF-kappaB by IL-1 was significantly inhibited by extracts from Scandix australis and Artemisia alba, whereas extracts from Amaranthus sp., Eryngium campestre, Thymus pulegioides and Reichardia picroides elicited cell-type dependent response. The IL-1-induced AP-1 activation was diminished by extracts from Scandix australis, Amaranthus sp. and Artemisia alba more potently in HUVEC, while extracts from Urospermum picroides and Scandix pecten-veneris in HepG2 cells. Inhibitory activities of plant extracts towards cytokine activated NF-kappaB and AP-1 depend to some extent on the order of addition of IL-1 and plant extract to the cell culture, but the mechanism of action of extract components is not clear: although plant polyphenols may participate they are unlikely to be the only mediators, and MAP kinases were found generally not involved in down-regulation of transcription factors activity by plant extracts.

  2. The effect of processing on total organic acids content and mineral availability of simulated cassava-vegetable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewusi, S R; Ojumu, T V; Falade, O S

    1999-01-01

    Changes in pH, titratable acidity and mineral content (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn) were estimated in processed cassava products while the mineral content of raw and blanched amaranthus vegetable was determined. pH of fresh cassava (6.5) decreased as total organic acid (0.07%) increased with fermentation period. Fufu and lafun had the lowest pH and the highest total organic acids contents. Fermentation of cassava increased the total calcium and iron contents, reduced magnesium level while zinc remained fairly constant in grated cassava but was reduced when soaked in water (for the preparation of fufu and lafun). Fermentation also increased the availability of these selected minerals in both cassva products and simulated cassava-vegetable diets. Blanching reduced the mineral content of amaranthus vegetable but increased mineral availability. Fermentation of cassava and blanching of vegetables play an important role in making minerals more available and these processing methods should be encouraged to potentially ameliorate the disease states associated with mineral deficiency.

  3. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  4. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  5. Effects of gaseous ammonia on intracellular pH values in leaves of C 3- and C 4-plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zu-Hua; Kaiser, Werner; Heber, Ulrich; Raven, John A.

    Responses of cytosolic and vacuolar pH to different concentrations (1.3-5.4 μmol NH 3 mol -1 gas or 0.940-3.825 mg NH 3 m -3 gas) of gaseous NH 3 were studied in experiments of 3 h duration by recording changes in fluorescence of pyranine and esculin in leaves of C 3 and C 4 plants. After a lag phase of 0.5-4 min, the uptake of NH 3 at 50-200 nmol m -2 leaf area s -1 increased pyranine fluorescence, indicating cytosolic alkalinization in leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. (C 3) and Amaranthus caudatus L. (C 4). A smaller increase in esculin fluorescence induced by NH 3 indicated some vacuolar alkalization in a Spinacia oleracea L. leaf. Photosynthesis and transpiration remained unchanged during exposure of illuminated leaves to NH 3 for up to 30 min (the maximum tested). CO 2 concentrations influenced the extent of cytosolic alkalinization. 500 μmol CO 2 mol -1 gas suppressed the NH 3-induced cytosolic alkalinization relative to that found in 16 μmol CO 2 mol -1 gas. The suppressing effect of CO 2 on NH 3-induced alkalization was larger in illuminated leaves of the C 4Amaranthus than the C 3Pelargonium. These results indicate that the alkaline pH shift caused by solution and protonation of NH 3 in aqueous leaf compartments is affected by assimilation of NH 3.

  6. An ABAGS-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 and Its Inhibitory Activity to Seed Germination of Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at finding out natural compounds to kill weeds, a plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4, was chosen as a source. A significantly polar metabolite, which was different in chromatographic behavior from ABAGE-like metabolite, was isolated from cultural filtrate of the fungus by column chromatography on silica gel, preparative LC, TLC and HPLC. The structure of the metabolite was determined by HPLC-ESI MS, g.l.c, IR, 1H NMR and hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar with ABAGS. The bioassay showed the metabolite had inhibition to seed germination of both broadleaf weeds [Amaranthus retroflerus L. and Chenopodium album L.] and gramineae weeds [Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop and Echinochloa crusgalii L. Beauv]. It also had inhibitory activity to the seedling growth of broadleaf weeds. The bioassay, using Amaranthus retroflexus L. as an indicator, showed that the lowest concentration of the metabolite to inhibit root+sprout growth of A. retroflexus was 0.6 μM, and the concentration for 50%inhibition was 1.3 μM.

  7. Genetic Diversity Study Among Six Genera of Amaranth Family Found in Malang Based on RAPD Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Arubil Fatinah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genera of amaranth family tend to have phenotypic variation partly caused by environmental factor. Phenotypic variation was the result of interaction between genetic and environmental factors. One of molecular markers that is widely used for detecting genetic variation is RAPD. RAPD is used for polymorphism detections and is now possible for identifiying a large number of loci and ascribes unambiguous taxonomic and genetic relationships among different taxa. Members of amaranth family found in Indonesia are Amaranthus, Celosia, Aerva, Alternanthera, Achyranthes, Gomphrena, Salsola, and Iresine. Six genera of which (Amaranthus, Celosia, Aerva, Alternanthera, Achyranthes, and Gomphrena were observed in this study. DNA was extracted from fresh young leaves using Doyle and Doyle’s method with modification in the extraction buffer used. RAPD analyses were carried out with 20 decamer primers from Kit A of Operon Technology. DNA was amplified using master cycler gradient Eppendorf with 35 cycles. RAPD products were separated on 1,5 % agarose gels and detected by staining with ethidium bromide. There were 374 bands generated in 18 random primers. The number of monomorphic bands, polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphism were 21 bands, 353 bands, and 94,38 % respectively. The high number and percentage of polymorphic bands revealed genomic DNA variation. This variation is in accordance with phenotypic variation detected in this experiment. Therefore, it can be concluded that, based on DNA polymorphism detected by RAPD, Amaranth family can be classified into two sub families namely Amaranthoideae and Gomphrenoideae.

  8. Use of multicopy transposons bearing unfitness genes in weed control: four example scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Jonathan; Levy, Avraham A

    2014-11-01

    We speculate that multicopy transposons, carrying both fitness and unfitness genes, can provide new positive and negative selection options to intractable weed problems. Multicopy transposons rapidly disseminate through populations, appearing in approximately 100% of progeny, unlike nuclear transgenes, which appear in a proportion of segregating populations. Different unfitness transgenes and modes of propagation will be appropriate for different cases: (1) outcrossing Amaranthus spp. (that evolved resistances to major herbicides); (2) Lolium spp., important pasture grasses, yet herbicide-resistant weeds in crops; (3) rice (Oryza sativa), often infested with feral weedy rice, which interbreeds with the crop; and (4) self-compatible sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which readily crosses with conspecific shattercane and with allotetraploid johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). The speculated outcome of these scenarios is to generate weed populations that contain the unfitness gene and thus are easily controllable. Unfitness genes can be under chemically or environmentally inducible promoters, activated after gene dissemination, or under constitutive promoters where the gene function is utilized only at special times (e.g. sensitivity to an herbicide). The transposons can be vectored to the weeds by introgression from the crop (in rice, sorghum, and Lolium spp.) or from planted engineered weed (Amaranthus spp.) using a gene conferring the degradation of a no longer widely used herbicide, especially in tandem with an herbicide-resistant gene that kills all nonhybrids, facilitating the rapid dissemination of the multicopy transposons in a weedy population.

  9. [Storage and use of antioxidants in cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Tepper, A; Castillo, E

    1998-06-01

    The use of fatty materials in cereal bars gives to them a good energetic value; however they are exposed to oxidative rancidity which can affect their acceptability and nutritional value. So, the purpose of this research was to determine the stability in storage and the effect of antioxidants on three tipes of cereal bars with peanuts. Cereal bars with 18% of peanuts were prepared, with and without antioxidants (BHA + BHT; 100 ppm). Bars were packed in polyprolpilene-aluminium-polythilene bags, and were stored at room temperature (18-20 degrees C) for 90 days. Each 30 days, analysis of water activity (Aw); moisture content, peroxides index, sensory quality (flavor, aroma and appearance) and acceptability, were carried out. Moisture content was similar in all bars (7.6-9.6%) and Aw was higher in the bar which contained expanded amaranthus and antioxidant. At the 60th day of storage, the peroxide values were lower in the bars with antioxidants; only the bar which included expanded amaranthus showed significant differences (16.4 meq/kg in the bar with antioxidant and 25.7 meq/kg for the control bar). The sensory parameters were kept within normal status without differences between the bars with antioxidants and the control ones, along all the storage period. Shelf life of bars CM1 and CM2 was at least of 60 days when they are kept at 18-20 degrees C.

  10. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASBAG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  11. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  12. Activity of mesotrione on resistant weeds in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter; Richards, Claire; Buren, Larry; Glasgow, Les

    2002-09-01

    Mesotrione is a new callistemone herbicide that inhibits the HPPD enzyme (p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) and introduces a new naturally selective tool into weed-management programmes for use in maize. Mesotrione provides control of the major broad-leaved weeds, and it can be used in integrated weed-management programmes depending on the grower's preferred weed-control strategy. At post-emergence rates of 150 g AI ha-1 or less, mesotrione provides naturally selective control of key species that may show triazine resistance (TR), e.g. Chenopodium album L, Amaranthus species, Solanum nigrum L, as well as species of weed that show resistance to acetolactase synthase (ALS) inhibitors e.g. Xanthium strumarium L, Amaranthus spp and Sonchus spp. The data presented show that resistant and susceptible biotypes of these species with resistance to triazine herbicides, such as atrazine, simazine, terbutylazine and metribuzin, or ALS-inhibitor herbicides, such as imazethepyr, remain susceptible to mesotrione. These results confirm that there is no cross-resistance in biotypes with target site resistance to triazine or ALS-inhibiting herbicides. It is important that herbicide choice and rotation becomes an integral part of planning weed management, so as to minimise the risks of crop losses from weed competition, build-up of weed seed in the soil and the further development of weed resistance across a range of herbicide modes of action.

  13. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  14. Avaliação do consumo de corantes artificiais por lactentes, pré-escolares e escolares Evaluation of artificial dye intake by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pinheiro Alves Schumann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o consumo, por 150 crianças de até 10 anos, de pó para gelatina, preparado sólido para refresco e refrigerante. Foi feita aplicação de questionário de freqüência quantitativa e qualitativa com população infantil atendida no ambulatório de pediatria do Hospital Universitário Gafrée Guinle, Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente pelo programa SPSS 8.0. Verificou-se que os alimentos pesquisados são ampla e freqüentemente consumidos, sendo introduzidos na dieta, em muitos dos casos, antes da criança completar 1 ano de idade. Sabe-se que os produtos estudados não são adequados nutricionalmente, pois apresentam, além dos corantes, outros aditivos alimentares e não contêm nenhum nutriente importante para o funcionamento do organismo. Em relação aos corantes presentes nos produtos mencionados pela população estudada, constatou-se que os mais informados na rotulagem destes produtos, no item ingredientes, são amarelo crepúsculo, tartrazina e amaranto. Estimando que o teor dos corantes nos alimentos analisados esteja no limite máximo permitido pela legislação, observou-se que a grande maioria das crianças avaliadas pode estar excedendo a ingestão diária aceitável para o corante amaranto e que cerca de 20% da população pode estar excedendo o consumo recomendado para o amarelo crepúsculo. É importante que os valores máximos permitidos de corantes em alimentos, no Brasil, sejam adequados às recomendações realizadas pelo órgão internacional que avalia a segurança dos aditivos, e que ações educativas sejam realizadas.This study aimed at evaluating the intake of solid jelly powder, solid juice powder and soft drinks by children. The intakes were estimated through the application of a quantitative and qualitative food frequency questionnaire. The study was pursued in the pediatric nutrition ambulatory of Gaffrée Guinle University Hospital in Rio de

  15. El tarwi o chocho: una de las principales fuentes de proteína vegetal de las comunidades indígenas de los Andes Centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planchuelo, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El lupino andino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet conocido también como tarwi o chocho, es una especie de leguminosa nativa de los Andes Centrales. Su domesticación se remonta a los principios de la cultura Nazca y desde ese entonces hasta la actualidad el cultivo está ampliamente difundido en las laderas montañosas y en los altos valles de Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia. La importancia del lupino para las comunidades andinas prehispánicas quedo documentada en pinturas de cerámicas y en tributos encontrados en tumbas de 100-150 años AC. Diversas técnicas de lavado y de mejoramiento vegetal fueron aplicadas desde la antigüedad para eliminar los alcaloides tóxicos que le confieren el sabor amargo a la planta y los granos. El tarwi, el maíz. los frijoles, los pseudocereales, quinoa y amaranto y la papa junto a otras raíces y tubérculos constituyen la comida básica de muchas culturas andinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los componentes nutricionales de los granos del lupino andino para compararlos con los otros constituyentes de la dieta de las comunidades campesinas. Se analizaron por medio de técnicas fitoquímicas distintas variedades de tarwi. Se determinaron los contenidos de proteínas y grasas y los patrones de ácidos grasos. Los resultados muestran que la ingesta de lupinos, que provee un buen balance de proteínas y grasas en combinación con el maíz y los tubérculos, que aportan los hidratos de carbono, forman una dieta balanceada y de alto valor nutricional.

  16. Efeito da substituição da farinha de trigo no desenvolvimento de biscoitos sem glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires dos Santos VIEIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O glúten pode determinar a qualidade da farinha de trigo, conferindo às massas características como elasticidade e capacidade de absorver água, o que torna a elaboração de produtos de panificação isentos de glúten um desafio. Desse modo, o presente estudo buscou avaliar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de biscoitos elaborados com ingredientes sucedâneos ao trigo, como fécula de mandioca, farinha de soja, de quinoa e de amaranto. Para a caracterização física foram determinados: peso, diâmetro, espessura, fator de expansão e volume específico. Quanto à composição química foram determinados: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, fibras alimentares, carboidratos totais, energia, além de pH e acidez. A aceitabilidade foi determinada por meio de uma escala hedônica de nove pontos. As formulações contendo farinhas sucedâneas ao trigo apresentaram bom rendimento, maior teor de cinzas, de proteínas, de lipídios e de fibras alimentares. Também, essas apresentaram percentuais de aceitabilidade superiores a 70%, exceto para a avaliação do sabor da amostra com maior teor de soja (40 g/100g. Conclui-se que as formulações contendo farinhas sucedâneas ao trigo podem ser consideradas promissoras, disponibilizando alternativas alimentares àqueles que almejam produtos com valor nutricional superior e posicionamento único no mercado, visto que os produtos disponíveis muitas vezes possuem baixo valor nutritivo ao serem elaborados com farinhas amiláceas.

  17. The effect of Amaranth oil on monolayers of artificial lipids and hepatocyte plasma membranes with adrenalin-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelisyeyeva, O P; Semen, K O; Ostrovska, G V; Kaminskyy, D V; Sirota, T V; Zarkovic, N; Mazur, D; Lutsyk, O D; Rybalchenko, K; Bast, A

    2014-03-15

    In this paper the oil from seeds of Amaranthus cruentus L. (AmO) was shown to be an efficient modulator of the physical chemical properties of artificial lipid and rat hepatocyte plasma membranes. AmO improved the membrane stability, their stress resistance and the adsorption of neurotensin to plasma membranes with the distinct biphasic interactions being observed even after adrenalin stress exposure. The analysis of pro-/antioxidant balance in rat blood revealed a mild prooxidant activity after AmO intake, which was accompanied by accumulation of oxidative destruction products in plasma membranes. This prooxidant action of AmO was corroborated in vitro in an adrenalin autooxidation model. On the other hand, the observed improved resistance to adrenalin stress in AmO supplemented rats was associated with an antioxidant response in blood and plasma membrane studies. The AmO effects can be attributed to the modulation of the metabolic pathways involved into oxygen and free radical homeostasis.

  18. IMPORTANT FINDINGS ON PLANTS HAVING ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkayastha Sanhita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have certain biologically active molecules and many of the present drug discoveries are based on these molecules found in the plants used in traditional system of medicine. In this review paper 20 plants (Emblica officinalis Linn., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.Nees, Curcuma domestica Valet, Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn., Camellia sinensis assamica (Masters Kitomura, Centella asiatica (L.Urban, Mangifera indica Linn., Hypericum perforatum L., Cymbopogon citratus(DCStaf, Vitex negundo Linn., Hemidesmus indicus R.Br., Catharanthus roseus(Linn.G.Don, Euphorbia hirta Linn., Prunus persica (Linn.Stokes, Oxalis corniculata Linn., Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms, Amaranthus spinosus L.,Alternanthera sessilis (L. R. Br. ex. DC., Garcinia cowa Roxb. are viewed which have antioxidant property. Studies on these plants may throw light on various therapeutic potential and uses of these herbs and plants.

  19. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activities of Potassium Methyl 1-(Substituted Phenoxyacetoxy)alkylphosphonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; WANG Wei; PENG Hao; HE Hong-wu

    2013-01-01

    A series of potassium methyl 1-(substituted phenoxyacetoxy)alkylphosphonates(9a-9o) was designed and synthesized.The results of preliminary bioassays indicate that most of the title compounds possess excellent pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicidal activities against Brassica napus,Amaranthus mangostanus,Medicago sativa,Echinochloa crusgalli,and Digitaria sanguinalis at a dosage of 1500 g/ha(1 ha=10000 m2).Especially,potassium methyl 1-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetoxy)-1-(4-methylphenyl)methylphosphonate(9g) and potassium methyl 1-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetoxy)-1-(furan-2-yl)methylphosphonate(9j) show the best herbicidal activity against five tested weeds with more than 85% inhibitory rate in pre-emergence.

  20. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  1. Can biochar and phytoextractors be jointly used for cadmium remediation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanping Lu

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with cadmium was tested after liming (CaO or biochar addition, using red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. as test plant species. Two biochars with contrasting characteristics were prepared from two feedstocks and added to the soil at a rate of 3% (w:w: Eucalyptus pyrolysed at 600°C (EB and poultry litter at 400°C (PLB. Liming was carried out in two treatments (CaO1 and (CaO2 to the same pH as the treatments EB and PLB respectively. Total plant mass increased in soils amended with PLB and with a mixture of PLB and EB; however this was not sufficient to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. Bioavailable and mobile fractions of Cd diminished after liming or biochar addition. Our study infers that, both the amount of Cd immobilized and the main mechanism responsible for this immobilization varies according to biochar properties.

  2. 上海植物区系新资料(Ⅵ)%Newly recorded plants in Shanghai (Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏庆; 熊申展; 陈纪云; 桂萍; 胡超

    2013-01-01

    A newly exotic genus Kickxia Dumort. (Scrophulariaceae) is recorded in Shanghai and China. And 11 newly recorded species are found in Shanghai, namely, Kickxia elatine (L. ) Dumort. , Amaranthus polygonoides L. , Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb. ) Makino, Asarum forbesii Maxim. , Ammannia multiflora Roxb. , Elymus shandongensis B. Salomon, Rorippa dubia (Pers. ) H. Hara, Cardamine scutata Thunb. , Corydalis sheareri S. Moore, Basella alba L. and Melochia corchorifolia L. respectively.%记载了中国及上海新记录外来植物凯氏草属,上海新记录植物戟叶凯氏草、合被苋、白蔹、杜衡、多花水苋菜、山东披碱草、无瓣蔊菜、圆齿碎米荠、地锦苗、落葵及马松子等11种.

  3. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  4. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Besek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003 was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in control of annual grass- and broad-leaved weeds. The efficacy of all herbicide treatments in 2003 was lower. The best results of herbicide effectiveness were achieved with combination of linuron + dimethenamid (91.3%, trifluralin (90.1% + napropamide and clomazone + linuron (89%.

  5. Phytotoxic activity of foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Labiatae family, were investigated for their phytotoxic activities on seed germination and root growth of crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and weed species (Lolium perenne L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Foliar volatiles of C. nepeta (L.) Savi strongly inhibited both germination and root growth of lettuce, and its essential oils, especially at 125, 250 and 500 μL/L, inhibited both processes in lettuce, radish and A. retroflexus L. species, while displaying a little effect on L. perenne L. By GC-MS, 28 chemicals were identified: 17 monoterpenes, 8 sesquiterpenes, 1 diterpene and 2 miscellaneous. Pulegone was the main constituent of the C. nepeta (L.) Savi essential oils. The terpenic components of essentials oils were probably responsible for the phytotoxic activities.

  6. Allelopathic Inhibiting Effect of the Aqueous Extracts from Aerial Part of Ocimum basilicum L.on Germination of Weed Seeds%罗勒地上部水浸液对杂草种子萌发的化感抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜男; 刘保东; 白红彤; 李慧; 李东; 崔洪霞; 石雷

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨罗勒(Ocimum basilicum L.)化感作用在杂草防治中的可行性,采用培养皿滤纸法研究了罗勒花期地上部分的水浸液对田间常见杂草马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus L.)和灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)种子萌发的抑制作用.结果表明,罗勒水浸液处理对3种杂草的种子萌发均有抑制作用,抑制作用随着水浸液浓度的增加而逐渐增强;抑制强度因杂草种类而异,表现为灰菜>反枝苋>马齿苋.

  7. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  8. Biochemical and Immunological Studies on Eight Pollen Types from South Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65 pollen types were identified from two years atmospheric pollen survey in the environmental conditions of South Assam. Out of them, eight pollen types viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cassia alata, Cleome gynandra, Cocos nucifera, Imperata cylindrica, Ricinus communis and Trewia nudiflora, were selected for biochemical studies on the basis of their dominance in the study sites. Among the sample extract tested, Ricinus communis was found to contain the highest amount of soluble protein, free amino acid and total carbohydrate, per gram of dry weight followed by Imperata cylindrica and Cassia alata. Maximum numbers of protein polypeptide bands were detected in the sample extract of Cassia alata by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method followed by Acacia auriculiformis, Imperata cylindrica and Cocos nucifera. IgE binding protein fractions were maximum in Cassia alata and minimum in Trewia nudiflora.

  9. Differential responses of photosynthetic parameters of pigeonpea and amaranth leaf discs to SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswathi, J.; Rao, K.V.M. [Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India). Dept. of Botany

    1995-08-01

    The reduction in chlorophyll (Chl) and protein contents and the increase in amino acid content in leaf discs in response to aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure under continuous irradiance were more expressed in Amaranthus paniculatus (C-4 plant) than in Cajantus cajan (C-3 plant). The content of SH-compounds increased more in pigenonpea than in amaranth leaf discs in response to SO{sub 2}. Aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure also reduced the CO{sub 2} fixation and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities in leaf discs of both plant species. The differences in sensitivity of these plants to SO{sub 2} were related to their conversion efficiency of SO{sub 2} to less toxic substances and sulphydryl compounds.

  10. Biological hydrogen production from phytomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Renewable sources of energy have received wide attention lately. One candidate is hydrogen which has the added advantage of involving no greenhouse gases. Biological hydrogen production from wastewater or biowastes is a very attractive production technique. So far, most studies have concentrated on the use of photosynthetic bacteria. However, dark fermentation has recently become a popular topic of research as it has the advantage of not requiring light energy input, something that limits the performance of the photosynthetic method. While pure cultures have been used in most of the investigations to date, in industrial situations mixed cultures will probably be the norm because of unavoidable contamination. In this investigation the phytomass of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L) was used to produce hydrogen. Specific organic loading, organic loading, and pH were varied to study the effect on hydrogen production. 18 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  12. 油棕枯萎病研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤玉; 覃伟权; 朱辉; 马子龙

    2009-01-01

    油棕枯萎病的病原菌为油棕尖镰孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend. f. sp. elaeidis Toovey) ,该菌为土壤习居菌,菌丝体和厚垣孢子可以在土壤中长期存活,特别是厚垣孢子的存活力更强。该菌主要危害非洲油棕(Elaeis guineensis),但通过人工接种从西非分离到的菌株也可使南美棕(Elaeis oleifera)发病。此外,把从刺苋(Amaranthus spinosus)、

  13. New weed control strategies in maize considering narrow crop rotations with maize, greater ALSresistance in common weeds and application restrictions with regard to active substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many herbicides with different HRAC-groups are available for weed control in maize. Because of narrow maize crop rotation summer weeds and warmth loving weeds are encouraged. On the other hand the new confirmed cases of an ALS target site resistance in the weed species Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in Brandenburg, Stellaria media in Saxony and Matricaria recutita and Tripleurospermum perforatum in Brandenburg and Thuringia, warn that in the future the sulfonylureas must be used only according to the management of herbicide resistance. In this way the selection of resistant weed biotypes will be prevented. Moreover in protected water areas it may be a requirement to reduce and to substitute the input of some active substances, for example terbuthylazine and bentazon. The control of E. crus-galli and P. convolvulus with non-sulfonylurea or/and non-terbuthylazine herbicides according to management of herbicide resistance will be discussed.

  14. Discoloured seeds of amaranth plant infected by Alternaria alternata: physiological, histopathological alterations and fungal secondary metabolites associated or registered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelting María Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aspects of discolouration that could influence both the production and consumption of amaranth were analyzed with the objectives to identify the presence of Alternaria alternata on seeds, to analyze possible changes in the anatomy of seed tissues and to detect the presence of fungal secondary metabolites. Component plating, histopathological and mycological analyses on discoloured seeds allowed i location of propagules of A. alternata in all seminal components; ii observation of hypertrophies in perisperm and embryo and iii determination of several fungal secondary metabolites, mainly high concentrations of tenuazonic acid. To our knowledge, the information presented in this paper, related to physiological, histopathological changes and fungal secondary metabolites on discoloured seeds of (Amaranthus mantegazzianus syn. A. caudatus subsp. mantegazzianus (Pass Hanelt affected by A. alternata, is the first worldwide record.

  15. TECHNOLOGY OF SOIL BIOREMEDIATION AND CONVERSION OF CONTAMINATED PHYTOMASS INTO USABLE ENERGY FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULICNY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The work solves scientific problem of decontamination of the soil using biomass. Our investigation was subject to Cu, Pb, Hg and As with aim to examine whether plants are able to accumulate heavy metals. The laboratory experiment was performed in order to determine heavy metals content is the soil before plast sowing and after is harvesting. Amaranth (amaranthus was used as a bioaccumulator. As significant amount of the heawy metals is accumulated in the root, there arise task to harvest plant and its root. Roots leaving in the soil mean retrograde contamination after the plant decomposition. But, there is lack of agricultural machinery able to harvest amaranth together with the root. Next part of the study is focused on the amaranth utilization as energy. Energy value is comparable with other biomass materials as wooden sawdust, grain straw etc. The final phase of the research is dealing with means suitable to trip the solid remainders after burning in the smoke.

  16. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R inf.) and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.65, and 2.20 microns. The R inf. of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85 micron wavelength were significantly (p = 0.05) higher than for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), ragweed parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 micron chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, johnsongrass, ragweed parthenium, and London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, whereas annual sowthistle and Palmer amaranth were usually lowest.

  17. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-05

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate.

  18. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  19. Analysis of the differential response of five annuals to elevated CO sub 2 during growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbutt, K. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (USA)); Williams, W.E. (St. Mary' s College of Maryland, St. Mary' s City (USA)); Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects, without competition, of CO{sub 2} on germination, growth, physiological response, and reproduction, the authors focussed on co-occurring species that are prominent members of an annual community in Illinois. Five species of old field annual plants - Abutilon theophrasti (C{sub 3}), Amaranthus retroflexus (C{sub 4}), Ambrosia artemisiifolia (C{sub 3}), Chenopodium album (C{sub 3}), and Setaria faberii (C{sub 4}) - were grown for their entire life cycle as individuals at CO{sub 2} concentration of 350 {mu}L/O, 500 {mu}L/L, and 700 {mu}L/L. Emergence time, growth rate, shoot water status, photosynthesis, conductance, flowering time, nitrogen content, and biomass and reproductive biomass were measured. There was no detectable effect of enhanced CO{sub 2} on timing of emergency in any of the species. The three levels of carbon dioxide concentration were shown to produce varying effects on remaining quantities measured in the five different plants. Some of these differences were not statistically significant. The response of most characters had a significant species {times} CO{sub 2} interaction. However, this was not simply caused by the C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} dichotomy. Reproductive biomass (seed, fruits, and flowers) increased with increasing CO{sub 2} in Amaranthus (C{sub 4}) and in Chenopodium and Ambrosia (both C{sub 3}), but there was no change in Setaria (C{sub 4}), and Abutilon (C{sub 3}) showed a peak at 500 {mu}L/L. Species of the same community differed in their response to CO{sub 2}, and these differences may help explain the outcome of competitive interactions among these species above ambient CO{sub 2} levels.

  20. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of N- [ 2- (4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin -2-yloxy) benzylidene ] substituted amine derivatives%N-[2-(4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶-2-氧基)苯亚甲基]取代胺类衍生物的合成及除草活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元祥

    2011-01-01

    Six title compounds (3a - 3f) were synthesized using 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde as starting material by substitute reaction,addition reaction and elimination reaction. Thereinto,3a -3d were new compounds. All of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay results showed that the inhibition rate of synthesized compounds to the Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Bluegrass ,Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album reached 80% , except 3f to the E. Crus-galli was 55% at the application rate of 150 g a. I. /hm2. The inhibition rate of some of the compounds to E. Crus-galli,Poa annua,A. Retroflexus or C. Album reached 100% at the application rate of 150 g/hm2.%以水杨醛为原料,经取代、加成和消除反应合成了6个标题化合物(3a~3f),其中4个(3a~3d)为新化合物,其结构经核磁共振氢谱、质谱和元素分析确认.初步的除草活性测试结果表明,在有效成分150 g/hm2的剂量下,除化合物3f对稗草Echinochloa crus-galli的抑制率为55%外,其余5个化合物对供试杂草的抑制率均在80%以上,部分化合物对稗草、早熟禾Poa annua、反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus或小藜Chenopodium album的抑制率达100%.

  1. The differential effects of CO{sub 2} on relative growth rates of a C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grise, D.J.; Sage, R.F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    We examined growth and allocation in Chenopodium album (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus (C{sub 4}) at three CO{sub 2} levels (350, 750 and 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}), at 34{degrees}C. Although net assimilation rate increased at higher than current ambient CO{sub 2} treatments for Chenopodium, relative growth rates for this species were significantly lower (P<0.001) than for Amaranthus at all CO{sub 2} treatments. However, the nature of the difference in relative growth rate changed across CO{sub 2} treatments. At 350 and 750 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, differences in relative growth rates between species were not linearly maintained throughout the course of the experiment, the difference in relative growth rates between species was larger at the start of the experiment than at the end of the experiment. At 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, the difference in relative growth rate between species was linearly maintained throughout the course of the experiment. In this treatment, the pattern of relative growth rate for the C{sub 3} plant is the same as that of the C{sub 4} plant. On the basis of this experiment, we predict, at 34{degrees}C, the C{sub 3} plant will not successfully compete with the C{sub 4} plant at 350 or 750 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, but might be able to compete successfully at 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}.

  2. Interferência entre espécies de planta daninha e duas cultivares de feijoeiro em duas épocas de semeadura Interference between weed species and two bean cultivars in two times of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de feijão, mas a interferência das plantas daninhas pode causar reduções de produtividade entre 15% e 80%, devido a fatores como cultivar de feijoeiro e espécies de plantas daninhas presentes na área. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de seis espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, em duas safras. Observou-se que as plantas eudicotiledôneas causam maior interferência na cultura, principalmente Amaranthus viridis e Raphanus raphanistrum. Todas causam perdas na produção do feijoeiro, exceto Eleusine indica, a menos competitiva. A cultivar ´Rubi´ é mais produtiva e mais competitiva que a ´Carioca´, e a maior produtividade é atingida na safra da seca. A escolha da cultivar e da data correta para a semeadura podem ser estratégias de manejo no controle de invasoras.Brazil is the world's largest producer of bean, but weed interference can cause yield losses between 15 to 80% due several factors such as bean cultivar and weed species in the area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weed species on growth and productivity of two bean cultivars, in two sowing seasons. It was observed that the dicot plants cause more interference in the crop, especially Amaranthus viridis and Raphanus raphanistrum. All cause losses in bean yield except Eleusine indica that was less competitive. The ´Rubi´ bean cultivar is more productive and competitive than ´Carioca´, and the higher production is achieved during the drought sowing season. The choice of cultivar and correct season for sowing may be management strategy as in weeds control.

  3. Plantas tóxicas para suínos Toxic plants for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Dias Timm

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as intoxicações por plantas que ocorrem em suínos no Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina. Descrevem-se a intoxicação por sementes de Senna occidentalis, que causa necrose muscular segmentar e lesões hepáticas, e a intoxicação por sementes de Aeschynomene sp., caracterizada por áreas de degeneração focais e simétricas na substância branca do cerebelo. Mencionam-se, também, a intoxicação por Wedelia glauca e Xantium spp., que causam necrose centrolobular no fígado; a intoxicação por Amaranthus spp., que produz necrose tubular tóxica; a intoxicação por Solanum malacoxylon, caracterizada por calcificação dos tecidos moles; a intoxicação por frutos maduros de Melia azedarach, que causa sinais nervosos, digestivos e musculares; e a intoxicação por Crotalaria spectabilis, estudada experimentalmente no Brasil como causa de hepatite crônica.Poisonous plants for swine in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina are reviewed. Poisoning by seeds of Senna occidentalis, as a cause segmentar muscle necrosis, and by seeds of Aeschynomene sp., as a cause of symmetric focal degeneration in the white matter of the cerebellum, are described. Nefrosis due to Amaranthus spp., soft tissue calcification caused by Solanum malacoxylon, acute periacinar liver necrosis caused by Wedelia glauca and Xanthium spp., and nervous, digestive and muscular signs caused by the fruits of Melia azedarach, are also mentioned. The intoxication by Crotalaria spectabilis, studied experimentally in Brazil as a cause of chronic hepatitis, is also reveiwed.

  4. Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, L P; Vanderjagt, D J; Rivera, C; Tsin, A T; Muhamadu, I; Mahamadou, O; Millson, M; Pastuszyn, A; Glew, R H

    1998-01-01

    In the western Sahel, indigenous plants become important staples when cereal harvests are inadequate to support populations inhabiting that region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrient content of several of these edible wild plants. The leaves of the following seven plant foods were analyzed: Ziziphus mauritiana, Cerathotheca sesamoides, Moringa oleifera, Leptadenia hastata, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Amaranthus viridis, and Adansonia digitata. The fatty acid, vitamin E, carotenoid, selected mineral and amino acid contents of these plant foods were determined. These same analyses were performed on the fruit of the Adanisonia digitata. In quantitative and qualitative terms, Amaranthus viridis was found to be an excellent source of protein. Its amino acid composition compared favorably to that of a World Health Organization (WHO) protein standard. It also contained considerable amounts of the two fatty acids that are essential in humans (linoleic and alpha-linolenic) and a number of minerals including iron, magnesium. calcium and zinc. The leaves of Hibiscus sabdarifa contained an appreciable quantity of protein the composition of which was comparable to the WHO standard. The mineral content of the leaves of this plant was also exceptionally high; noteworthy was its high zinc content. H. sabdarifa also contained significant quantities of the two essential fatty acids. Ziziphus mauritiana was an excellent source of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid and several of the metals including iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Its content of other essential nutrients, however, was rather low. In general, Adansonia digitata leaves were nutritionally superior to the fruit of the tree; however, the fruit did contain useful quantities of potassium, phosphorus, zinc and alpha-linolenic acid. The Leptadenia hastata leaves were an especially good source of lutein and beta-carotene. These data should be useful to the people who inhabit the western Sahel in

  5. Lime and Phosphate Could Reduce Cadmium Uptake by Five Vegetables Commonly Grown in South ChinaABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wan-Neng; LI Zhi-An; QIU Jing; ZOU Bi; LI Ning-Yu; ZHUANG Ping; WANG Gang

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in artificially Cd-contaminated (5 mg Cd kg-1) soils to investigate the feasibility of using lime (3 g kg-1) or phosphate (80 mg P kg-1) to mitigate uptake of Cd by vegetables. Five common vegetables in South China, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. Chinensis (L.) var. parachinensis (L. H. Bailey) Hanect], Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. albiflora Kuntze), white amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and purslane (Amaranthus viridis L.), were grown in the soils and harvested after 60 d. The results showed that liming significantly reduced Cd uptake by most vegetables by 40%-50% (or a maximum of 70%), mainly due to immobilization of soil Cd. Increased availability of Ca in the soil might also contribute to the Cd uptake reduction as a result of absorption competition between Ca and Cd. Liming caused biomass reduction in white amaranth and purslane, but did not influence growth of the other vegetables. Phosphate decreased Cd uptake by vegetables by 12%-23%. Compared with lime, phosphate decreased, to a smaller extent, the bioavailability of Cd in most cases. Phosphate markedly promoted growth of vegetables. Changes in soil chemistry by adding lime or phosphate did not markedly influence nutrient uptake of vegetables except that lime increased Ca content and phosphate increased P content in shoots of the vegetables. The results suggested that a proper application of lime could be effective in reducing Cd uptake of vegetables, and phosphate could promote growth of the vegetables as well as alleviate the toxicity of Cd.

  6. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de la polinosis se ha duplicado en las últimas dos décadas. Diversos estudios sugieren que incluso 50% de los adultos residentes del Distrito Federal pueden tener datos de alergia respiratoria y que los pólenes de árboles, pastos y malezas constituyen una causa frecuente. Conocer la prevalencia de sus familias y cruces antigénicos permite ofrecer diagnósticos y tratamientos adecuados. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de sensibilización a pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas en adultos con alergia respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal en el periodo de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2013. Material y método: estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo efectuado con pacientes que acudieron al servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI de la Ciudad de México, de 2007 a 2013, con diagnóstico de rinitis, asma y conjuntivitis alérgica. Analizamos los resultados de las pruebas cutáneas para pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas de los pacientes. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se incluyeron 672 pacientes, 70% hombres, la edad promedio fue de 34 ± 16 años. En relación con su ocupación 31% eran estudiantes, 48% trabajadores y 21% amas de casa. El 53% tenía rinitis alérgica, 47% asma y 40.5% tenía ambos padecimientos. Se encontró prevalencia de sensibilización a malezas de 56%, a árboles de 33% y a gramíneas de 11%. Conclusiones: la sensibilización a malezas constituye en México la primera causa de polinosis respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal, el polen del amaranto fue el más prevalente en esta zona. La sensibilización a los árboles es la segunda causa de polinosis, con predominio de las familias Betulaceae, Fagaceae y Oleacea. La sensibilización a gramíneas constituye la tercera causa de polinosis respiratoria. Las más frecuentes son la

  7. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja (Glycine max Weed resistance to ALS - inhibiting herbicides in soybean (Glycine max crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monqueiro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans (picão-preto e Amaranthus quitensis (caruru são controladas na cultura da soja por diversos herbicidas, sendo os inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS os mais utilizados pelos sojicultores. O uso intensivo e repetitivo destes herbicidas em áreas cultivadas com soja no município de São Gabriel do Oeste (MS - Brasil e nas províncias de Córdoba e Tucumã (Argentina proporcionou grande pressão de seleção nas populações destas plantas daninhas, resultando em populações resistentes. Com o objetivo de determinar a resistência cruzada aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, pertencentes aos grupos químicos sulfoniluréia e imidazolinona, foi conduzido um experimento, em condições de casa de vegetação, na Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo. As plantas daninhas picão-preto e caruru, provenientes de áreas com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, foram tratadas com os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron em diversas doses e comparadas com as plantas provenientes de populações suscetíveis. Os tratamentos foram estabelecidos considerando-se doses que proporcionariam no mínimo 50% do controle das plantas daninhas (GR50, utilizando-se para isso doses abaixo e acima das doses recomendadas de cada herbicida. O herbicida chlorimuron-ethyl foi aplicado nas doses de 1.500, 750, 150, 75, 15, 7,5 e 1,5 g i.a. ha-1; o imazethapyr, nas doses de 8.000, 4.000, 800, 400, 80, 40 e 8 g i.a. ha-1; e o nicosulfuron, nas doses de 1.200, 600, 120, 60, 12, 6 e 1,2 g i.a. ha-1. Os biotipos resistentes apresentaram diferentes níveis de resistência cruzada aos herbicidas utilizados. O biotipo resistente de picão-preto apresentou GR50 para chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron de 1,49; 1,27; e 20,08 g i.a. ha-1, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, o GR50 do biotipo resistente de caruru foi de 6,8; 2,45; e 23,54 g i

  8. Bioensaio rápido de determinação da sensibilidade da acetolactato sintase (ALS a herbicidas inibidores Rapid bioassay to determine the sensitivity of acetolactate synthase (ALS to inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Andrea Monqueiro

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade da acetolactato sintase (ALS, em plantas resistentes e suscetíveis de B. pilosa e A. quitensis após a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da ALS. O método baseia-se na utilização do ácido ciclopropanodicarboxílico (CPCA para inibir a cetoácido reductoisomerase (KARI, enzima que catalisa a reação seguinte do acetolactato na cadeia de biossíntese dos aminoácidos valina, leucina e isoleucina, provocando assim, o acúmulo de acetolactato, que na presença de um ácido forte forma acetoína. A base para a distinção entre os biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis é a quantidade de acetoína formada, que será maior nos biotipos em que a enzima ALS não sofreu inibição, ou seja, nos biotipos resistentes. A quantificação da acetoína acumulada ocorreu através da formação de um complexo colorido vermelho, devido a reação entre acetoína, creatina e naftol, cuja densidade ótica a 530 nm é proporcional à concentração do acetolactato formado na reação. Sendo assim, foi desenvolvido um ensaio utilizando este método após a aplicação dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr nos biotipos R e S de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus quitensis no estádio de dois pares de folhas. O bioensaio demonstrou que a enzima ALS dos biotipos resistentes é insensível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS e que este tipo de bioensaio é uma forma rápida e eficaz de diferenciação entre biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis.In order to compare the acetolactate synthase (ALS activity of resistant and susceptible biotypes of Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus quitensis to ALS inhibitor herbicides, a method based on ciclopronocarboxilic acid (CPCA to inhibit the enzyme ketoacidredutoisomerase (KARI is used. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction after acetolactate in the biosynthesis reaction chain of the aminoacids valine, leucine and isoleucine. In the presence of a KARI inhibitor, carbon from pyruvate flows through the branched chain

  9. Investigation on Distribution and Damage of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Liaoning Province%辽宁省烟田杂草种类、分布与危害程度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 吴元华; 贝纳新; 赵秀香; 高萍

    2011-01-01

    为明确辽宁省烟田杂草的分布和危害情况,采用倒置W九点取样法对辽宁省烟田杂草进行了调查.结果表明,辽宁省烟田杂草共有51种,分属20科,其中阔叶杂草40种,占78.43%,禾本科杂草6种,占11.76%,其它杂草5种,占9.80%;一年生杂草占绝对优势,有41种,占80.39%,多年生杂草10种,占19.61%.马唐、铁苋菜、灰藜、反枝苋、莎草、列当、鸭跖草和稗草的相对多度在15%以上,是辽宁省烟田的优势杂草.地区间杂草危害情况差异显著,鹅不食和马唐在丹东地区危害较重,铁岭烟区杂草以铁苋菜和灰藜危害为主,朝阳烟区列当、马齿苋和反枝苋的危害占优势,而阜新烟区则以列当、反枝苋、灰藜和刺藜的危害为重.%An investigation was carried out by inverted W - 9 point sampling to study the distribution and damage of weeds in tobacco fields in Liaoning Province.The results showed that there were 51 weed species belonging to 20 families, including 40 kinds of broad-leaved weeds (accounted for 78.43% ) , 6 kinds of gramineous weeds (accounted for 11.76% ) and 5 kinds of the others (accounted for 9.80% ) ; among them, there were 41 kinds of annual weeds ( accounted for 80.39% ) and 10 kinds of perennial weeds (accounted for 19.61% ).The weeds whose relative abundance was more than 15% were Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Acalypha australis L., Chenopodium album L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Cyperus diffbrmis L., Orobanche caerulescens Stephan, Commelina communis L.and Echinochloa crusgalli ( L.) Beauv., which were dominant weeds in Liaoning.Weed damages in different districts differed significantly, in Dandong area, the major injurious weeds were Centipeda minima ( L.) A.Br.et Ascher.and Digitaria sanguinalis ( L.) Scop.; in Tiding area were Acalypha australis L.and Chenopodium album L.; in Chaoyang area were Orobanche caerulescens Stephan, Portulaca oleracea L.and Amaranthus retroflexus L.; in Fuxin area were

  10. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus

  11. Influência do tipo e da quantidade de resíduos vegetais na emergência de plantas daninhas Influence of type and amount of crop residues on weed emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da semeadura no outono/inverno de diferentes espécies: sorgo de cobertura (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'híbrido Cober Exp', milheto forrageiro (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana e braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha para formação de palha (nas quantidades de 3,0 e 5,5 t ha¹, na emergência de plantas daninhas, foi conduzido experimento no ano agrícola 2003/04, na fazenda Três Marcos, em Uberlândia, MG. Foi mantida uma testemunha como tratamento adicional, sem cobertura com restos vegetais. A composição específica e as densidades populacionais das comunidades infestantes foram influenciadas pelos sistemas de produção de cobertura morta. A emergência das plantas daninhas foi menor nas coberturas de sorgo e braquiária e nos maiores níveis de palha. O número de plântulas emergidas de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis e gramíneas foi inibido pelas coberturas, enquanto para Chamaesyce spp. os resíduos contribuíram para incremento na sua emergência.To evaluate the effects on weed emergence of autumn/winter sowing of different species [sorghum (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'Cober Exp hybrid', forage millet (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', finger millet (Eleusine coracana and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha, for mulch formation (at rates of 3.0 and 5.5 t ha-1, an experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2003/2004, in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specific composition and population densities of the infesting community were influenced by the mulch production systems. Weed emergence was minor under sorghum and Sta Lucia grass cover and in greater amounts of straw. Straw cover inhibited the emergence of seedlings of Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis and grasses and stimulated the emergence of Chamaesyce spp.

  12. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  13. Seletividade e eficácia da aplicação sequencial de oxyfluorfen e de ioxynil-octanoato, em semeadura direta de cebola Selectivity and efficacy of the sequential application of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoate in direct sowing of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos do parcelamento da dose de oxyfluorfen e ioxyniloctanoato sobre a tolerância de plantas de cebola 'Granex 33' e a eficiência no controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, instalada por semeadura direta, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um na presença de plantas daninhas e o outro na ausência das mesmas. Ioxynil-octanoato, quando aplicado em doses acima de 0,125 kg/ha, aos 19 DAS, foi menos seletivo para o cultivar Granex 33 do que o oxyfluorfen. O parcelamento da dose, em até três aplicações, aumentou a tolerância das plantas de cebola ao oxyfluorfen e ao ioxynil-octanoato. Oxyfluorfen, nas doses avaliadas, controlou Galinsoga parviflora e Amaranthus hybridus, porém não controlou Lepidium virginicum e Coronopus didymus. Ioxynil-octanoato a 0,125 kg/ha, aos 19 DAS, mais duas aplicações de 0,25 kg/ha aos 34 e 65 DAS, controlou as espécies daninhas presentes, com produção de bulbos semelhantes à testemunha capinada. Nenhum dos herbicidas influenciou a conservação pós-colheita dos bulbos até 120 dias de armazenamento.With the purpose of evaluating the splitting of the dose of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyloctanoato on the tolerance of the 'Granex 33' onion plants and the efficiency on the weed control at crop, installed by direct sowing, two experiment were carried out, one in the presence and the other in the absence of weeds. Ioxynyloctanoato, when applied in doses higher than 0.125 kg/ha, at 19 DAS, was less selective for the 'Granex 33' cultivar than oxyfluorfen. Splitting of the doses, up to three applications, increased the tolerance of onion plants toward both oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoato. Oxyfluorfen, at the evaluated doses, controlled Galinsoga parviflora and Amaranthus hybridus; however it did not control Lepidium virginicum and Coronopus didymus. Ioxynyl-octanoato at 0.125 kg/ha, at 19 DAS, plus two applications of 0.25 kg/ha at 34 and 65 DAS, controlled the existing weeds, with

  14. Prevalencia de sensibilización a aeroalérgenos en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Iván Narváez-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La rinitis alérgica es la enfermedad crónica más común, de elevado impacto sanitario y de importancia creciente en la mayor parte del mundo, los aeroalérgenos de ácaros, hongos y pólenes constituyen los desencadenantes más frecuentes de alergia respiratoria, por lo que se realizó un estudio de prevalencia para comprobar la sensibilización cutánea a los mismos, utilizando la prueba de Prick en pacientes con rinitis alérgica en el sur de Bolivia. El estudio fue descriptivo en el universo de pacientes derivados al servicio de Alergia en la ciudad de Tarija. Se incluyeron 350 pacientes con diagnóstico de rinitis alérgica entre 11 y 60 años y se realizaron 18 pruebas cutáneas a cada uno, asignados por orden consecutivo entre junio de 2013 y julio de 2015. Como instrumentos de recogida de información se utilizaron la historia clínica, registro de pacientes atendidos y una encuesta confeccionada y validada en nuestra institución. Las variables de estudio fueron edad, sexo y sensibilización cutánea hacia Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium notatum, Acer negundo, Betula verrucosa, Cupressus arizonica, Eucalyptus globulus, Salix fragilis, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia trifida y Chenopodium album. La prueba de Prick se consideró positiva cuando los habones fueron ≥3 mm. Se realizaron 6300 pruebas cutáneas, la mayor prevalencia de sensibilización fue para los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (90% y Dermatophagoides farinae (66%, seguido del hongo Alternaria alternata (23% y pólenes Chenopodium álbum (20%, Amaranthus retroflexus (19% y Salix fragilis (21%. Se concluye que los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Dermatophagoides farinae constituyeron la causa de mayor sensibilización cutánea en pacientes con rinitis alérgica.

  15. Comportamento de diversas plantas daninhas, de ocorrência comum no estado de São Paulo, em relação a duas espécies de nematóides das galhas: primeira parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.C.B. Ferraz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de 10 espécies de plantas daninhas, comuns no Estado de São Paulo, quando o solo em que vegetavam foi inoculado com os nematóides das galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 ou M. javanica. As avaliações foram feitas 50 dias após a inoculação dos parasitos, baseando-se nos números de galha s e ootec as pre sentes nas raízes e nos valores de altura e de pesos secos da parte aérea e sistemas radiculares das plantas. Em relação as duas espécies de nematóides, comportaram-se como alta mente suscetíveis Alternaria ficoidea (apaga -fogo e Ipomoea acuminata (cordade -viola , como olerantes Amaranthus hybridus var. patulus (caruru e Commelina virgunica (trapoeraba, como pouco suscetível Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo e como altamente resistentes Blainvillea rhomboidea (erva - palha, Crotonn glandulosus (gervãobranco, Emilia sonchifolia (serralha e Tagetes minuta (cravo-de-defunto. O carrapicho-de-carneiro, Acant horpermum hispidum, mostrou-se altamente resis tente a M. incognita raça 4 e moderadamente suscetível a M. javanica.The behaviour of ten different weed species belonging to Amaranthaceae, Commelinaceae, Compositae, Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae in relation to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 4 and M. javanica was studied under greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 50 days after the nematode inoculations, by means of gall and egg masses indexes observed in the root systems and through the determination of height and/or top dry weight of the plants. Alternanthera ficoidea and Ipomoea acuminate were considered highly suscetible to both nematode species; Amaranthus hybridus var. patul us and Commelina virgunica were tolerant to the arasites whereas Euphorbia heterophylla showed low susceptibility; Acanthospernum hispidum was conside red moderately suscetible to M. javanica and highly resistant to M. incognita race 4; all other weeds - Blainvillea rhomboidea

  16. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-12-31

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  17. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  18. 新型吡唑双酰肼类化合物的合成及除草活性%Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel diacylhydrazine derivatives containing pyrazolyl moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海琴; 戴志猛; 谢旭峰; 刘幸海; 谭成侠

    2016-01-01

    为了寻找具有较高除草活性的农药先导化合物,将吡唑环与双酰肼结构进行拼接,设计合成了13个未见报道的含吡唑环的双酰肼类目标化合物6a~6m,其结构均通过核磁共振氢谱及高分辨质谱确认。培养皿法测定结果表明:在200 mg/L下,化合物N'-(2-(2,4-二氯苯氧基)乙酰基)-3-(二氟甲基)-1-甲基-1H-吡唑-4-甲酰肼(6i)对小麦Triticumaestivum、油菜Brassica campestris、高粱Sorghum bicolor、萝卜Raphanus sativus和黄瓜Cucumis sativus根、茎的抑制率均达80%以上。盆栽试验表明:在有效成分150 g/hm2剂量下,采用苗后茎叶喷雾处理,化合物6i对反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus和鳢肠Eclipta prostrata的抑制率均达80%;相同剂量下采用苗前土壤喷雾处理,6i对反枝苋A. retroflexus的抑制率也达80%。%In order to discover pesticide lead compounds with high herbicidal activity, 13 novel diacylhydrazine derivatives containing pyrazolyl pharmacophore were designed and synthesized by introducing the pyrazolyl pharmacophore into the diacylhydrazine scaffold. Their structures were confirmed by1H NMR and HRMS. The herbicidal activity of these compounds was evaluated. The dish test results indicated that the growth inhibition rates of the roots and stems of Triticum aestivum, Brassica campestris,Sorghum bicolor and Cucumi sativus were up to 80% for N'-(2-(2,4-dich-lorophenoxy) acetyl)-3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazide (6i) at the dosage of 200 mg/L. The pot test results showed that the growth inhibition rate of Amaranthus retroflexus and Ecliptaprostrate for compound6i were 80% by postemergence foliar spray processing at the dose of 150 g/hm2; and compound 6i also demonstrated inhibition rate of 80% againstA. retroflexus by pre-emergence soil spray processing at the same dose.

  19. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola em semeadura direta Efficacy of herbicides on weed control in onion direct sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cebola provenientes da semeadura direta no campo são mais danificadas pelo cultivo mecânico e são mais sensíveis aos herbicidas, principalmente os latifolicidas, do que quando transplantadas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas oxyfluorfen, ioxynil-octanoato e fluazifop-p-butil, aplicados em pós-emergência, isoladamente ou em mistura no tanque, com ou sem aplicação de paraquat, antes da emergência das plantas de cebola, conduziu-se este trabalho no município de Monte Alto, SP. Nenhum dos herbicidas aplicados isoladamente foi eficiente no controle de todas as espécies daninhas presentes na área experimental. As misturas no tanque de fluazifop-p-butil com oxyfluorfen ou ioxynil-octanoato, independente da aplicação ou não de paraquat aos cinco dias após a semeadura, controlaram eficientemente Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea, com produção de bulbos semelhante à da testemunha capinada.Onion plants, from direct sowing to the field, are more damaged by mechanical cultivation and more sensitive to herbicides, especially to broadleaf herbicides, than transplanted onions. With the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of the herbicides oxyfluorfen, ioxynyl-octanoato and fluazifop-p-butyl, applied in post-emergence, alone or tank mix, with or without paraquat application, before onion plants emergence, this investigation was carried out at Monte Alto County, São Paulo State, Brazil. None of the herbicides sprayed alone were efficient in the control of all the weeds present in the experimental area. The tank mix of fluazifop-p-butyl plus oxyfluorfen or ioxynyl-octanoato, regardless of paraquat application, at five days after sowing, controlled efficiently Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinoclhoa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica and Brachiaria

  20. 副特提斯东部地区Sarmatian期(中-晚中新世)古植物群的演化%THE SARMATIAN (MIDDLE-LATE MIOCENE) PALEOFLORA EVOLUTION IN THE EASTERN PARATETHYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The territory of Moldova lies within the Eastern Paratethys. The continental and marine Sarmatian sedimentsare wide spread. Based on mollusc and foraminifera fossils three-members of the Sarmatian is locally adopted. The recentlyobtained palynological spectra of 700 samples from 37 wells and outcrops in various parts of Moldova support the three-member division of the Sarmatian. These fossil data indicate the changes in regional vegetation in response to climate varia-tions and marine transgressions and regressions. The broad-leaved Fagacean-type forests with subtropical species predomi-nated the Early Sarmatian. Sometimes the quota of dark-coniferous species increased. During the regressive Late Sarmatian,abundance of herbs with halophylous species (Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthus, Artemisia) increased. The obtained data show acyclic evolution of vegetation in Eastern Paratethys during the Sarmatian time with a steady decrease in diversity of subtropi-cal flora and increase of grasses. This suggests a climate change toward a lower average annual temperature, a higher aridity,and more pronounced continental character.%摩尔多瓦位于东特提斯地区内,海相、陆相Sarmatian期沉积都很发育.根据软体动物和有孔虫化石,当地Sarmatian期沉积被分为三段.最近从摩尔多瓦各地3 7口井下和露头700块样品获得的孢粉结果支持Sarmatian期三分.这些孢粉化石资料说明区域性植被响应气候演变、海进、海退等所发生的变化.含有亚热带种类的山毛榉阔叶林统治了早Sarmatian期,有时暗针叶林增加.在海退期的晚Sarmatian期,含有喜盐植物(Chenopodiaceae,Amaranthus,Artemisia)的草本类增加.已有的资料显示了在东特提斯地区Sarmatian期植被的周期性变化.伴随着亚热带植物不断减少和禾草类不断增加,说明当时气候在朝年均温逐渐降低、干早化增加、更加大陆性方向变化.

  1. Efeito de extratos orgânicos, associados ao surfactante tween 80, na germinação e crescimento de plântulas de alface Effect of organic extracts associated with surfactant Tween 80 on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Costa dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, visou-se a identificar, por meio de bioensaio, o efeito dos extratos de caruru (Amaranthus retroflexus L., capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitchc., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L. e de três cultivares de milho (AG1051, C333 e C435 sobre a germinação e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Marisa AG216. Os extratos metanólicos foram concentrados sob vácuo e solubilizados em surfactante Tween 80 a 1% (v/v em água. A seguir, aplicaram-se as soluções obtidas em papel de filtro sobre placa de Petri, onde foi semeada alface. Utilizaram-se água destilada como testemunha e surfactante Tween 80 a 1% como tratamento branco. O extrato de mentrasto, o de caruru e da cultivar de milho AG1051 promoveram redução no índice de velocidade de germinação em relação à testemunha com água destilada. O percentual de germinação foi afetado apenas pelo extrato de mentrasto (82,5% de redução. Todos os extratos e o surfactante Tween 80 provocaram inibição do crescimento de radículas de plântulas de alface, com redução de comprimento de raiz entre 9,53 e 14,83 mm, e de hipocótilo, entre 21,6 a 30,95 mm.This work aimed at identifying, through bioassay, the effect of organic extracts of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., signal grass (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitchc., ageratum (Ageratum conyzoides L. and three corn cultivars (AG1051, C333 and C435 on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Marisa AG216 germination and seedling. Thus, the methanolic extracts of their straws were concentrated under vacuum and dissolved in 1% (v/v aqueous surfactant Tween 80. Then, the resulting solutions were applied to filter papers contained in Petri dishes, where lettuce was sowed. Distilled water and 1% Tween 80 were used as controls treatment. The corn cultivar extracts AG1051, pigweed and ageratum promoted reduction of the germination index in relation to the control with distilled water. The germination percentage was

  2. ASAP: Amplification, sequencing & annotation of plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of DNA sequence information is vital for pursuing structural, functional and comparative genomics studies in plastids. Traditionally, the first step in mining the valuable information within a chloroplast genome requires sequencing a chloroplast plasmid library or BAC clones. These activities involve complicated preparatory procedures like chloroplast DNA isolation or identification of the appropriate BAC clones to be sequenced. Rolling circle amplification (RCA is being used currently to amplify the chloroplast genome from purified chloroplast DNA and the resulting products are sheared and cloned prior to sequencing. Herein we present a universal high-throughput, rapid PCR-based technique to amplify, sequence and assemble plastid genome sequence from diverse species in a short time and at reasonable cost from total plant DNA, using the large inverted repeat region from strawberry and peach as proof of concept. The method exploits the highly conserved coding regions or intergenic regions of plastid genes. Using an informatics approach, chloroplast DNA sequence information from 5 available eudicot plastomes was aligned to identify the most conserved regions. Cognate primer pairs were then designed to generate ~1 – 1.2 kb overlapping amplicons from the inverted repeat region in 14 diverse genera. Results 100% coverage of the inverted repeat region was obtained from Arabidopsis, tobacco, orange, strawberry, peach, lettuce, tomato and Amaranthus. Over 80% coverage was obtained from distant species, including Ginkgo, loblolly pine and Equisetum. Sequence from the inverted repeat region of strawberry and peach plastome was obtained, annotated and analyzed. Additionally, a polymorphic region identified from gel electrophoresis was sequenced from tomato and Amaranthus. Sequence analysis revealed large deletions in these species relative to tobacco plastome thus exhibiting the utility of this method for structural and

  3. 北京松山自然保护区外来入侵植物研究%The Research of Alien Invasive Plant in Beijing Songshan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳凯; 姚可侃; 张容; 夏阳; 王慧慧; 张振明; 吴计贵; 蒋万杰

    2012-01-01

    为了对松山地区外来植物进行长期有效的监测和管理,防止其对当地的自然生态系统造成破坏,对松山国家级自然保护区的植物进行了详细的样方调查,并对保护区外来入侵植物的分布和相对盖度进行分析.结果表明:松山自然保护区共发现外来植物入侵植物23种,隶属于12科17属,其中大麻(Cannabis sativa)、反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)、萱草(Hemerocallis fulva)、洋槐(Robinia pseudoacacia)、荷包豆(Phaseolus coccineus)等较为常见,影响外来植物入侵的主要因素是道路修建和坡向.该区域的外来物种的各种群规模不大,且多集中在人为活动较为频繁的实验区,对保护区内重点保护的天然次生油松林以及落叶阔叶次生林的生态系统并不存在特别大的威胁.%In order to establish a long-term monitoring mechanism of exotic plants in Songshan Nature Reserve, the author conducted this study, through the survey and the analysis of distribution and relative coverage of alien invasive plants in Songshan Nature Reserve, the results showed that 23 species of alien invasive plants were found, belonging to 12 families and 17 generas. Among them marijuana (Cannabis sativa), redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus), day lily (Hemerocallis fulva), acacia {Robinia pseudoacacia) and scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) were more common. The road construction was the first factor, which influenced and promoted the distribution of alien plants. The next factor was the aspect. Research showed that the alien species population scale was not big and the adverse impact on the local ecological system was not obvious.

  4. Potencial de espécies utilizadas como adubo verde no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas Potential of species used as green manure in the integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. Erasmo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Gurupi-TO, Brasil. O experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de avaliar durante 60 dias, em campo, a interferência de oito espécies utilizadas freqüentemente como adubos verdes (Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum americanum e Sorghum bicolor, híbrido BR304 sobre a comunidade infestante. As espécies de plantas daninhas mais freqüentes na área do experimento foram: Digitaria horizontalis, Hyptis lophanta e Amaranthus spinosus. Foram realizadas amostragens aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a formação da cobertura, utilizando um quadrado de amostragem equivalente a 0,25 m². As plantas daninhas foram devidamente identificadas, coletadas, secas e pesadas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado e constou de nove tratamentos, com quatro repetições cada. Verificou-se que as espécies C. spectabilis, S. bicolor, C. ochroleuca, M. aterrima e M. pruriens reduziram significativamente o número e o peso da matéria seca da população das plantas daninhas avaliadas (D. horizontalis, H. lophanta e A. Spinosus, principalmente as duas últimas, enquanto P. americanum mostrou-se a menos eficiente nesse aspecto.This work was carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Tocantins, Gurupi-TO, Brazil, to evaluate the interference of eight species frequently used as green manure (Mucuna aterrima, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum americanum and Sorghum bicolor, hybrid BR304 in the weed community, for sixty days under field conditions. The most frequent weed species in the experimental area were Digitaria horizontalis, Hyptis lophanta and Amaranthus spinosus. Samplings were made at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after formation of green manure covering, using

  5. 重庆市北碚区入侵植物风险评估%On Risk Assessment of Invasive Plants in Beibei District of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严桧; 杨柳; 邓洪平; 齐雪丹; 丁艳霞; 邹建平; 田晨

    2016-01-01

    通过对重庆市北碚区入侵植物种类的调查,结果显示入侵植物共41种,隶属于19个科,34个属。调查发现,部分物种已形成较大危害,部分存在潜在危害。本文采用国际上有害生物风险分析“PRA”(Pest Risk Analy‐sis),以及国内外来入侵植物风险评价指标体系等,将北碚区外来入侵植物进行定量分析并排序。结果显示,41种外来入侵植物中,有18种属于高危害风险植物、12种中危害风险植物、11种低危害风险植物。有30种物种危险性综合评价均达到二级及以上,属于中、高度危害性植物。其中风险等级由高到低排列前10的分别为小白酒草、落葵薯、空心莲子草、反枝苋、相思草、三叶鬼针草、凤眼莲、日本菟丝子、土荆芥、刺苋。%Based on the Chongqing Beibei species of invasive plants survey ,the results show that a total of 41 invasive plant ,belonging to 19 families ,34genera .It has been found in the survey that some species have been form a larger ,part of a potential hazard .The paper uses the international Pest Risk Analysis on"PRA"(Pest Risk Analysis) Risk evaluation index system of alien plant and sorted .The results show that ,of the 41 specials of invasive plants ,there are 18 special belong to high risk of harm plants ,12 kinds of hazard risk in plants ,dangerously low hazard ,11 kinds of plants .T here are 30 specials risk comprehen‐sive evaluation are reaching level 2 and above ,belongs to the highly dangerous plants .The risk level from high to low arrangement top ten are :Conyza canadnsis ,Anredera cordifolia ,Alternantheraphiloxe‐roide ,Amaranthus retroflexus ,Conyzabonariensis ,Bidens pilosa ,Eichhorniacrassipes ,Cuscutajapon‐ica Choisy ,Dysphania ambrosioides ,Amaranthus spinosus .

  6. Palinologia do componente herbáceo na atmosfera de Caxias do Sul, RS, Brasil Palinology of the herbaceous component in the atmosphere of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Vergamini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na cidade de Caxias do Sul de 1/janeiro/2001 a 31/dezembro/2002 e objetivou identificar os tipos polínicos de táxons herbáceos presentes na atmosfera e suas oscilações sazonais. A cidade está localizada na Encosta Superior Nordeste, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Seu clima é tropical pluvisazonal e apresenta três diferentes tipos de vegetação: Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Decidual e Campo. O monitoramento polínico foi realizado utilizando o captador volumétrico de sucção Burkard®, instalado no topo do Hospital Geral a uma altura aproximada de 20 m. Durante o período de estudo foram identificados 40 tipos polínicos, sendo 11 de táxons herbáceos, representando 23,22% do total de grãos coletados. A concentração máxima das táxons herbáceos registrou-se nos meses de outubro e novembro. O tipo polínico Poaceae R.Brown apresentou a maior incidência, seguido por Cyperaceae Juss., Plantago L., Amaranthus L., Rumex L., Iridaceae Juss., Brassicaceae Burnett, Apiaceae Lindl., Alternanthera Forssk., Convolvulaceae Juss. e Caryophyllaceae Juss.This study was carried out in the city of Caxias do Sul, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 and aimed to identify pollen types and seasonal fluctuation of herbaceous taxa in the atmosphere. The city is located on the Upper Northeast Slopes in Rio Grande do Sul State. The climate is tropical with seasonal rainfall and there are three different types of vegetation: mixed ombrophilous forest, deciduous forest and grassland. Pollen monitoring was done with a Burkard® volumetric spore-trap sampler placed on top of the Hospital Geral, about 20m above ground level. During the study period 40 pollen types were identified, 11 from herbaceous taxa, which represents 23.22% of the total number of grains collected. Maximum concentration of herbaceous taxa was registered in October and November. The Poaceae R.Brown pollen type had the highest incidence, followed by

  7. [Influence of amaranth on the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus niger NRRL 3112].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, D D; Lorda, G; Balatti, A P

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the amaranth seed meal and the aeration conditions on the alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus niger NRRL 3112 were studied. The assays of selection of culture medium were carried out in a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 2.5 cm stroke. The aeration conditions were studied in a mechanically stirred fermentor New Brunswick type. A concentration of alpha-amylase of 2750 U.Dun/ml was achieved at 120 h with a dry weight of 8.0 g/l, using a base medium with 5.0 g/l Amaranthus cruentus seed meal. In the experiment performed in a New Brunswick fermentor, the highest value was 2806 U.Dun/ml. This result was obtained after 120 h, operating at 300 rpm and an airflow of 1 l/l. min. in a limited dissolved oxygen concentration. It was determined that the increase in the agitation rate was not favorable to the enzyme production, despite that an increase was verified in the dissolved oxygen. The morphology of the microorganism, in long and ramified hyphae, was the critical factor to obtain higher levels of alpha-amylase.

  8. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-02-26

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that the essential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also with potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. Summary Quinoa and amaranth are pseudocereal grains rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. This paper reviews recent advances in research related to phytochemical composition of the two grains, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the bioactives and their role in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases. Bioactives in these two grains are indeed beneficial. Future research needs were identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytotoxic Effects and a Phytotoxin from the Invasive Plant Xanthium italicum Moretti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Shao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of different parts of the plant Xanthium italicum Moretti were evaluated by conducting bioassays against two dicot plants, amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L. and lettuce (Lectuca sativa L., and two monocot plants, wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn and ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. Leaf and fruit extract possessed the strongest biological activity, killing all seeds of four test species at 0.05 g/mL concentration. Fruits were chosen for further investigation because of their high biomass. This led to the isolation and identification of a phytotoxin—Xanthinosin—a known sesquiterpene lactone. Xanthinosin significantly affected seedling growth of all test species at 160 µM concentration. Cultivating seeds in 800 μM xanthinosin solution resulted in a great decrease in seedling growth of all test species, especially for the two dicot plants, amaranth and lettuce, whose root length was inhibited by 78% and 89%, respectively. By comparison, the numbers were 69% lower for wheat, and 66% for ryegrass, two monocot plants. When treated with 4 mM xanthinosin solution, seed germination of all test plants was almost completely inhibited. The possibility of utilizing xanthinosin as an eco-friendly herbicide was discussed.

  10. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Widawati S (2011 Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB. While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from the sample registered 18.59 g-1L-1, 18.31 g-1L-1, and 5.68 g-1L-1 of calcium phosphate (Ca-P, Al-P and rock phosphate solubilization after 7-days. Phosphate solubilizing capacity was the highest in the Ca-P medium. Two strains, 13 and 14, registered highest Phosphomonoesterase activities (2.01 µgNP.g-1.h-1 and 1.85NP µg.g-1.h-1 were identified as Serattia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescense, respectively. Both strains were isolated from the crops of Amaranthus hybridus and I. aquatica, respectively, which are commonly observed in coastal ecosystems. The presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize various types of phosphate species are indicative of the important role of both species of bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  11. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides.

  12. Effect of Processing on the Vitamin C Content of Seven Nigerian Green Leafy Vegetables

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    Olubukola Babalola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of processing on the Vitamin C content of seven Nigerian green leafy vegetables, Telfaria occidentalis (ugu, Talinum triangulare (waterleaf, Basella alba (indian spinach, Celosia argentea (soko, Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf, Amaranthus hybridus (tete and Crassephalum crepidioees (rorowo. Processing methods employed are, blanching, boiling, sundrying, squeezewashing, squeeze-washing with salt and squeeze-washing with boiling. Raw ugu had highest Vitamin C content of 62.50 mg/100g while raw waterleaf had the lowest value of 9.30 mg/100g. Blanching and boiling reduced the Vitamin C content of soko and tete tremendously with a value of 91.50% reduction for boiled tete. The percentage loss for sundried vegetables was the lowest when compared with other processing methods with a reduction of 6.50 and 12.40% in indian spinach and rorowo, respectively. Squeeze washing reduced the Vitamin C content of ugu from 62.50 mg/100g to 6.47 mg/100g (89.65% and bitter leaf from 42.40 mg/100g to 4.28 mg/100g (89.90%. Squeeze-washing followed by boiling of bitter leaf reduced the Vitamin C content from 42.40 mg/100g to 2.18 mg/100g recording the highest loss of 94.90% when compared with other processing methods.

  13. 乌桕不同器官除草活性研究%Study on Herbicidal Activities of Different Organs of Sapium sebiferum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 罗小勇

    2011-01-01

    在10 g/L的浓度下,乌桕不同器官粉末对生菜和小麦幼苗的生长均有较高的抑制活性,且以叶器官活性最高,果实最低.而叶在0.1~10.0 g/L的不同浓度下对夏至草、反枝苋、生菜、荠菜、小麦和黄瓜幼苗的生长具有不同程度的抑制作用,且抑制活性随浓度的增加而提高,其中以夏至草的敏感性最高,而黄瓜最低.%Inhibition activety of different organs of Sapium sebiferum on seedlings growth of Lactuca sativa and Triticum aestivum is much higher at the concentration of 10 g/L, and the leaves and fruits show the highest and lowest inhibition activity respectively. Moreover, the leaves of S. Sebiferum present different inhibition effects on seedling growth of Lagop-sis supina, Amaranthus TetToflexus, L. Sativa, Capsella bursa - pastoris, T. Aestivum and Cucumis sativus respectively at the concentration of 0. 1 ~ 10. 0 g/L, and the inhibition activety increases as the treat concentrations increase. Among all the receiver plants, L supine seedlings present the highest sensitivity and C. Sativus seedlings present the lowest sensitivity to the leaves of S. Sebiferum.

  14. EKSPLORASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI GULMA, HIJAUAN PAKAN DAN LIMBAH PERTANIAN YANG DIMANFAATKAN SEBAGAI PAKAN TERNAK DI WILAYAH LAHAN KERING LOMBOK UTARA

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    Ni Made Laksmi Ernawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties on weeds control and fodder scarcity in dry season are the major problems at dry land. Aim of this research was to identify and to explore the potency of several kinds of weeds, forages, and agricultural wastes that can be used as fodder, and further might be processed to make hay and silage. Explorative research to identify, observe, and collect data has been done using descriptive method of dominant weeds, forages, and agricultural waste that frequently used as fodder by farmers. The farmer’s decision to use weeds, forages, and agricultural wastes were determined by preference level of cattles and farmers empirical experiences. Result showed that dominant weeds found were broad leafed weeds with domination level 34.62-81.45% and narrow leafed weeds (grasses and teki with domination level 28.65-65.38%. Broad leafed weeds that generally used as fodder were Cintella asiatica, Amaranthus spp., Mikania sp., Cyclosorous aridus, Gleichenia linearis, Physalis angulata, Portulaca oleracea, Mucaena pruriens, and Desmodium scalpe. Grasses weeds and teki were potential fodder with preference level of cattle from very much like to extremely like. Forage and agricultural waste that be potential as fodder were gamal leaf, sengon leaf, banana leaf and stem and coconut, agricultural waste of peanuts, corn, and sweet potato. (Key words: Animal feed, Agricultural wastes, Dry land, Fodder, Forage, Identification and exploration, Weeds

  15. The allelopathy of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, an invasive weed species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao XU; Wenehao XU; Yajun YANG; Bu TAO; Jinlin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To identify the allelopathic effect of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze (F, bMenti) on other plants, the effects of different extracts from F. bidentis on the growth of sev-eral plants were studied by bioassay. Results showed that the water extracts inhibited the growth of corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton (Gassypium Hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine hispida L.), peanut (Arachi shypogaea L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) and rigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), with the most reactive indexes found in root and stem of cotton at -0.85 and -0.88, respectively, at a concentration growth of rice. In addition, the reactive indexes of the extracts of petroleum ether chloroform, ethyl acetate, acet and alcohol were higher than that of the water extracts, and that of the acet extracts was the highest. The melting point of the refined acetone extract ranged from 192.5℃ to 193.5℃, and its maximum absorbing wavelength was 220 nm. This extract was found to be herbicide-active and played an inhibitory role in the growth of crabgrass and

  16. Changes in weed infestation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under conditions of strip intercropping and different weed control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the years 2004-2006 in a private farm in the village of Frankamionka in Zamość district. There were two experimental factors: I. Cultivation methods - sole cropping and strip intercropping; and II. Tending methods - mechanical, mechanical-chemical, and chemical weed control. The subject of the study was weed infestation of the Mela variety of common bean. Beans were sown between 30 April and 5 May. Weed infestation was assessed in the last week before harvesting by determining its floristic composition and the frequency of occurrence of particular weed species, as well as the air-dry weight of weeds. The dominant weed species were Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, and Amaranthus retroflexus, which comprised 84.7% of the total number of weeds. Strip intercropping markedly reduced the number of weeds per unit area (by 50%, as well as the dry weight of their aerial parts. The most effective method of weed control was the mechanical-chemical method, which resulted in the lowest occurrence of weeds. It also significantly reduced the weight of weeds.

  17. Biogas digestates affect crop P uptake and soil microbial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfauf, Sebastian; Bachmann, Silvia; Fernández-Delgado Juárez, Marina; Insam, Heribert; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina

    2016-01-15

    Fermentation residues from biogas production are known as valuable organic fertilisers. This study deals with the effect of cattle slurry, co-digested cattle slurry, co-digested energy crops and mineral fertilisers on the activity and composition of soil microbiota. Furthermore, the effect of solid-liquid separation as a common pre-treatment of digestate was tested. The fertilising effects were analysed in an 8-week pot experiment on loamy sand using two crops, Amaranthus cruentus and Sorghum bicolor. Amaranth, as a crop with significantly higher P uptake, triggered stress for occurring soil microbes and thereby caused a reduction of microbial biomass C in the soil. Irrespective of the crop, microbial basal respiration and metabolic quotient were higher with the digestates than with the untreated slurry or the mineral treatments. Community level physiological profiles with MicroResp showed considerable differences among the treatments, with particularly strong effects of solid-liquid separation. Similar results were also found on a structural level (PCR-DGGE). Alkaline phosphatase gene analyses revealed high sensitivity to different fertilisation regimes.

  18. Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by nine native plant species grown at a sewage sludge dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; Shaltout, Kamal H

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, nine native plant species were collected to determine their potential to clean up nine heavy metals from soil of a sewage sludge dump site. Almost all nine plant species grown at sewage sludge dump site showed multifold higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to plants grown at the reference site. All the investigated species were characterized by a bioaccumulation factor (BF) > 1.0 for some heavy metals. BF was generally higher for Cd, followed by Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Fe. The translocation factor (TF) varied among plant species, and among heavy metals. For most studied heavy metals, TFs were <1.0. The present study proved that the concentrations of all heavy metals (except Cd, Co, and Pb) in most studied species were positively correlated with those in soil. Such correlations indicate that these species reflect the cumulative effects of environmental pollution from soil, and thereby suggesting their potential use in the biomonitoring of most heavy metals examined. In conclusion, all tissues of nine plant species could act as bioindicators, biomonitors, and remediates of most examined heavy metals. Moreover, Bassia indica, Solanum nigrum, and Pluchea dioscoridis are considered hyperaccumulators of Fe; Amaranthus viridis and Bassia indica are considered hyperaccumulators of Pb; and Portulaca oleracea is considered hyperaccumulator of Mn.

  19. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia D.P. Huaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L. and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated by international agencies. For the Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100 with and without microsomal fraction (S9 were used. Four doses of the beverage were tested and also a possible protective effect (same four doses of beverage added to plates with mutagens. Cultures of binucleated lymphocytes and five doses of the beverage were used for the micronucleus test. Both Ames and the micronucleus tests showed the beverage has not genotoxic effect in all tested doses. However, in evaluating the possible protective effect of the beverage, it would be evident that on the contrary, the mutagenic effect of mutagens used for each strain is enhanced. These results suggest that additional tests should be performed to check the genotoxic potential of this beverage before consumption.

  20. Evaluation of Broadleaf Weeds Control with Selectivity of Post-Emergence Herbicides in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

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    Ali Asghar CHITBAND

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of herbicide applications is a main research priority in recent years. In order to study the effect of individual post-emergence application of sugar beet broad-leaf herbicides at four to six true-leaf stage of weeds, experiments were conducted during 2013. Treatments included untreated control and several rates of desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, chloridazon and clopyralid on Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. A completely randomized layout with three replications was used for each herbicide. Three weeks after spraying (WAS, plants were harvested and measured their dry weight. These herbicides were more effective to control Portulaca oleracea than other weeds, thereupon minimum dose required for a satisfactory efficacy of 90% reduction of Portulaca oleracea aboveground dry matter (ED90 were 299.22, 1138.31 and 129.44 g a.i ha-1 of desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, chloridazon and clopyralid, respectively. Solanum nigrum was more affected by clopyralid application (132.40 g a.i ha-1, and did not make significant difference in Portulaca oleracea. Chloridazon had lower effect for control of Chenopodium album due to existence of powdery covering on abaxial side of the leaves. Biomass ED50 or ED90, based on log-logistic dose–response curves, for Chenopodium album was considerably higher than other species. These results showed that tank mixtures with other herbicides may be required for satisfactory weed control and reduction in applied herbicides doses.

  1. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R., E-mail: colin.black@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ{sub M}), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  2. Occurrence of symbiotic fungi and rhizospheric phosphate solubilization in weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecido dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the ecology of the organisms involved in the production process are necessary for the development of sustainable agriculture, and sustainability is currently closely linked to the profitability of production. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in weeds infesting Brazilian crops and to evaluate the inorganic phosphate solubilization potential of the associated microbiota. A total of 36 weed species were evaluated for the occurrence of mycorrhizae; of these, 11 were selected to evaluate their potential for total and relative phosphate solubilization. All of the species demonstrated mycorrhizal colonization, including a member of the Brassicaceae family, which is usually assumed to be non-mycorrhizal. In most of the species, morphological types of arbuscular and coiled hyphae were observed, with the coiled hyphae being the most common in the grasses. Dark septate endophytic fungi were observed in most of the plants. The weeds presented different potentials for P solubilization in the rhizosphere; Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa and Leonotis nepetaefolia showed high values of relative phosphate solubilization. This is the first report on the mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilization activity in weeds in Brazil.

  3. Comparative study of radio sensibility between local breeds native of Mexico pseudo cereals; Estudio comparativo de radiosensibilidad entre razas locales de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno G, A.

    2014-07-01

    Having in mind the objective of assessing the gamma radiation effect in two species of pseudo cereals, April 2012 to August 2013 in the National Institute of Nuclear Research Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores, seeds from different collections of Amaranthus hypochondria cus and Chenopodium berlandieri nuttalliae, were subjected to different doses of irradiation (from 0 to 450 Gy, within an interval of 50 Gy) that were compared with a control of (0 Gy). For amaranth, the collection A1 showed the best feedback among 0 and 300 Gy in the 15 studied variables, the one that stood out was the 200 Gy doses in seed weight per plant (SWP) with 1.33 g. Huauzontle H3 to 50 Gy showed the best results for weight and seed diameter. High doses (from 300 to 450 Gy) showed higher percentage of mortality in spite of the fact that in some cases germination was stimulated. It is advisable for future studies about these pseudo cereals doses among 50 and 250 Gy. (Author)

  4. Perspectives on allelopathy in mexican traditional agroecosystems: A case study in tlaxcala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, A L; Ramos, L; Cruz, R; Hernández, J G; Nava, V

    1987-11-01

    Agroecosystems in Tlaxcala, Mexico, are surrounded by trees and water channels and have a great variety of cultivated and noncultivated plants. The main results of a study carried out on a traditional agroecosystem in Santa Inés, Tlaxcala are presented. Some ecological aspects of polycultures, plant covers (dry leaves ofAlnus firmifolia, Berula erecta, andJuncus sp.), and the allelopathic potential of crops and noncultivated plants (fresh and dry material) were analyzed. The main plants (trees, shrubs, and herbs) present in the agroecosystem were identified. The total number of weeds in plots where plant covers were added was reduced. The number of nodules ofRhizobium phaseoli and the production of bean and squash increased with plant covers. Corn, beans, and squash showed a clear allelopathic effect, as well asChenopodium murale, Tradescantia crassifolia, Melilotus indicus, andAmaranthus hybridus, among other weeds. The contribution of allelopathy in studies of traditional agroecosystems is of great importance for the management of species in space and time. Allelopathy can be the basis of biological control of pests and weeds and of the discovery of new useful substances.

  5. Physiological and Growth Responses of C3 and C4 Plants to Reduced Temperature When Grown at Low CO2 of the Last Ice Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joy K. Ward; David A. Myers; Richard B. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    During the last Ice age, CO2 concentration ([CO2]) was 180-200 μmol/mol compared with the modern value of 380 μmol/mol,and global temperatures were ~8 ℃ cooler. Relatively little is known about the responses of C3 and C4 species to longterm exposure to glacial conditions. Here Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (C3) and Amaranthus retroflexus L. (C4) were grown at 200 μmol/mol CO2 with current (30/24 ℃) and glacial (22/16 ℃) temperatures for 22 d. Overall, the C4 species exhibited a large growth advantage over the C3 species at low [CO2]. However, this advantage was reduced at low temperature, where the C4 species produced 5× the total mass of the C3 species versus 14× at the high temperature.This difference was due to a reduction In C4 growth at low temperature, since the C3 species exhibited similar growth between temperatures. Physiological differences between temperatures were not detected for either species, although photorespirationlnet photosynthesis was reduced in the C3 species grown at low temperature, suggesting evidence of improved carbon balance at this treatment. This system suggests that C4 species had a growth advantage over C3 species during low [CO2] of the last ice age, although concurrent reductions in temperatures may have reduced this advantage.

  6. 历山自然保护区外来入侵植物研究%Study on Invasive Alien Plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世军; 王建军

    2011-01-01

    The invasive alien plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi, totally 11 species, were studied,including Chenopodium hybridum ,Amaranthus retroflexus ,Vaccaria segetalis ,Melilotus albus , Hibisicus trio-num , Ipomoea purpurea ,Datura stramonium ,Conyza Canadensis ,Erigeron annuus ,Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. The diffusing mechanism, invasion route, distribution, habitat, ecological damage and utilization value for those invasive alien plants were analyzed,respectively. Moreover,the management strategies for those invasive alien species were also discussed, including mechanical, chemical and biological controls and strengthening research of diffusing mechanism.%历山自然保护区的外来入侵植物有11种,分别是杂配藜、反枝苋、王不留行、白香草木樨、野西瓜苗、圆叶牵牛、曼陀罗、小蓬草、一年蓬、苦苣菜、野燕麦等.本文论述了它们的入侵途径、分布、生境、危害及利用价值,提出了对外来入侵植物的管理对策,包括人工措施、化学措施、生物措施、加强扩散机制研究等.

  7. Analysis of biological factors for determination of air pollution tolerance index of selected plants in Yamuna Nagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Panwar, Neeraj; Arora, Pooja; Luhach, Jyoti; Chaudhry, Smita

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated for various plant species growing in vicinity of three different industrial areas (Paper mill, Sugar mill, Thermal Power Plant) and Yamuna River belt of Yamuna Nagar. Studies were carried out to determine the physiological response of ten plant species. The leaf samples collected from these plant species were used to determine their plant APTI by calculating the ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, pH, and relative water content for all selected sites. Highest pH, relative water content, ascorbic acid and total chlorophyll was observed in Castor (9.86), Parthenium (96.99%), Ficus benghalensis (14.90 mg g(-1)) and Amaranthus (7.08 mg g(-1)) at Yamuna river, Thermal power plant, Yamuna river and paper mill respectively. It was concluded that out of ten species studied only one species (Ficus benghalensis) showed moderately tolerant response in all selected sites, while other species showed sensitive response. According to observed APTI values, Ficus benghalensis showed the highest value (21.65) at sugar mill followed by thermal power plant (19.38), Paper mill (17.65) and Yamuna River (17.61). The lowest APTI values were reported in Oxalis corniculata (6.42) at Yamuna River belt followed by Malvestrum at sugar mill (7.71).

  8. The Arable Weeds of Plešivica Hills (NW Croatia

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    Dubravka Dujmović Purgar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The arable weeds (segetal flora were explored on Plešivica hills (NW Croatia during vegetational seasons 2002 and 2003 at 10 locations. The common methods of plant recording, collecting and identification were applied in the research of the arable weeds. Th e nomenclature of plants was according to Tutin et al. (1964-1980, 1993. The total of 107 taxa of arable weeds that classified to 32 families was noted. The most represented families were Poaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Therophytes were dominant in the fields that were the subject of this research. Most of the species were the cosmopolites and the Euroasian origin. 78 weed species were noted in dense crop fi elds (wheat, barley. Some of them (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rausch., Cirsium arvense (L.Scop., Galium aparine L., Papaver rhoeas L., Stellaria media(L.Vill. and Veronica persica Poir. are the most harmful weeds of dense crops. 62 weeds were noted in maize fields. Some of them were typically row crop weeds, as for instance: Amaranthus retrofl exus L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L., Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. PB., Polygonum lapathifolium L. and Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. Very invasive species Abutilon theophrasti Med. was found on the row crop fields. Very dangerous aeroallergenic species Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was dispersed in many of the researched fields.

  9. Weed Survey of Buckwheat Field in Liangshan%凉山州荞麦田杂草调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓玲; 熊仿秋; 钟林; 林松; 刘纲

    2015-01-01

    通过对凉山州荞麦田杂草的种类、分布及危害进行调查,结果表明凉山州荞麦田荞麦地杂草据不完全统计有22科59种.双子叶杂草的辣子草、酸模叶蓼、尼泊尔蓼、凹头苋、三叶鬼针草、荠菜、繁缕、藜和单子叶杂草的马唐、光头稗、鸭跖草是凉山州荞麦田的优势种群.%The species ,distribution and harm of weeds of buckwheat fields in Liangshan, were investigated, the results show that according to incomplete statistics, buckwheat weeds in wheat field in Liangshan, , there are 22 families 59 species. Dicotyledonous weeds Galinsoga parviflora, Polygonum lapathifolium , Amaranthus blitum, Nepal, Bidens pilosa, Shepherd's purse, Chickweed, Chenopodium album and Monocotyledonous weeds Barnyardgrass, Commelina communis are the dominant population of buckwheat field in Liangshan.

  10. Weed Interference Affects Dry Bean Yield and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Iran. Field study was conducted in 2011 to evaluate effects of weed competition from a natural flora on growth and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The treatments consisted of weed infestation and weed removal periods (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. Control plots kept weed-infested and weed-free throughout growing season. To assess the weed competition effect on crop characteristics, Richards, Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to the data. The most abundant weed species were Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Increase in duration of weed interference decreased the stem height of dry bean. At the end of the growing season, dry bean was 20 cm taller in season-long weed-free treatment compared to the season-long weed-infested treatment. As the number of days of weed interference increased, a declining trend of LAI and number of pods was observed. The minimum number of pods was obtained in season-long weed-infested treatment (5.01 pods/plant. Weed interference during the whole growing season, caused a 60% reduction in yield. Considering 5% and 10% acceptable yield lost, the critical period of weed competition was determined from 20 to 68 and 23 to 55 days after planting (DAE, respectively.

  11. 兰州引黄灌区小麦田杂草群落及其生态位研究%Weed communities and eco-niches in wheat fields of the Yellow River irrigation zone of Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽荣; 蔺海明; 李荣

    2008-01-01

    通过田间调查,并结合生态位理论和方法对不同栽培条件下兰州引黄灌区小麦田主要杂草群落组成及生态位特征进行研究.结果表明:小麦田主要杂草种类有打碗花(Calystegia hederacea )、藜(Chenopodium album )、刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos segetum)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea )、反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus )、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、苣荬菜(Sonchus brachyotus)和萹蓄(Polygonum aviculare).藜时间、水平、垂直生态位宽度值最高,是群落中的优势杂草;其次是打碗花,为主要杂草;且藜与打碗花的时间、水平、垂直生态位重叠值比较大.研究表明小麦田杂草群落存在潜在的变化因素,随着农田环境的变化,会导致农田杂草群落发生变化.

  12. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  13. Leaf-level nitrogen use efficiency: definition and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has been widely used to study the relationship between nitrogen uptake and dry mass production in the plant. As a subsystem of plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), I have defined leaf-level NUE as the surplus production (gross production minus leaf respiration) per unit amount of nitrogen allocated to the leaf, with factorization into leaf nitrogen productivity (NP) and mean residence time of leaf nitrogen (MRT). These concepts were applied to two herbaceous stands: a perennial Solidago altissima stand and an annual Amaranthus patulus stand. S. altissima had more than three times higher leaf NUE than A. patulus due to nearly three times longer MRT of leaf N. In both species, NUE and NP were higher at the leaf level than at the plant level, because most leaf N is involved directly in the photosynthetic activity and because leaf surplus production is higher than the plant net production. MRT was longer at the plant level. The more than twice as long MRT at the plant level as at the leaf level in S. altissima was due to a large contribution of nitrogen storage belowground in the winter in this species. Thus, comparisons between a perennial and an annual system and between plant- and leaf-level NUE with their components revealed the importance of N allocation, storage, recycling, and turnover of organs for leaf photosynthetic production and plant dry mass growth.

  14. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research.

  15. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  16. Measuring Rates of Herbicide Metabolism in Dicot Weeds with an Excised Leaf Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Skelton, Joshua J; Riechers, Dean E

    2015-09-07

    In order to isolate and accurately determine rates of herbicide metabolism in an obligate-outcrossing dicot weed, waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), we developed an excised leaf assay combined with a vegetative cloning strategy to normalize herbicide uptake and remove translocation as contributing factors in herbicide-resistant (R) and -sensitive (S) waterhemp populations. Biokinetic analyses of organic pesticides in plants typically include the determination of uptake, translocation (delivery to the target site), metabolic fate, and interactions with the target site. Herbicide metabolism is an important parameter to measure in herbicide-resistant weeds and herbicide-tolerant crops, and is typically accomplished with whole-plant tests using radiolabeled herbicides. However, one difficulty with interpreting biokinetic parameters derived from whole-plant methods is that translocation is often affected by rates of herbicide metabolism, since polar metabolites are usually not mobile within the plant following herbicide detoxification reactions. Advantages of the protocol described in this manuscript include reproducible, accurate, and rapid determination of herbicide degradation rates in R and S populations, a substantial decrease in the amount of radiolabeled herbicide consumed, a large reduction in radiolabeled plant materials requiring further handling and disposal, and the ability to perform radiolabeled herbicide experiments in the lab or growth chamber instead of a greenhouse. As herbicide resistance continues to develop and spread in dicot weed populations worldwide, the excised leaf assay method developed and described herein will provide an invaluable technique for investigating non-target site-based resistance due to enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism and detoxification.

  17. Chalcone-based Selective Inhibitors of a C4 Plant Key Enzyme as Novel Potential Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, G. T. T.; Erlenkamp, G.; Jäck, O.; Küberl, A.; Bott, M.; Fiorani, F.; Gohlke, H.; Groth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world’s most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2‧,3‧,4‧,3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2‧,3‧,4‧-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4.2 μM) are potent inhibitors of C4 PEPC but do not affect C3 PEPC at a same concentration range (selectivity factor: 15–45). Binding and modeling studies indicate that the active compounds bind at the same site as malate/aspartate, the natural feedback inhibitors of the C4 pathway. At the whole plant level, both substances showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on the C4 weed Amaranthus retroflexus, while there were no measurable effects on oilseed rape, a C3 plant. Growth of selected soil bacteria was not affected by these substances. Our chalcone compounds are the most potent and selective C4 PEPC inhibitors known to date. They offer a novel approach to combat C4 weeds based on a hitherto unexplored mode of allosteric inhibition of a C4 plant key enzyme.

  18. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  19. Identificação de potenciais plantas hospedeiras alternativas de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Mateus Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar possíveis hospedeiras alternativas de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, visando a fornecer subsídios para o manejo do cancro bacteriano da videira. Vinte e seis espécies vegetais foram inoculadas artificialmente com o isolado Xcv3 e mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, sendo avaliada a evolução sintomatológica da doença, como manchas necróticas angulares e lesões nas nervuras. O Xcv3 foi reisolado a partir de cada hospedeiro alternativo com sintomas, sendo identificado por PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, com iniciadores específicos. As espécies inoculadas que apresentaram os sintomas típicos da doença foram Glycine sp., Senna obtusifolia, Desmodium discolor, Amaranthus deflexus, Azadirachta indica, Solanum lycopersicum e Vigna unguiculata. As espécies da família Poaceae, Bidens pilosa, Emilia fosbergii, Praxelis pauciflora, Macroptilium lathyroides e Portulaca oleracea não apresentaram sintomas durante o período da avaliação.

  20. [Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Tepper, A; Aguayo, M

    1998-06-01

    Snack with good nutritional value could play an important role in the physical and mental development of children and teenagers since they show a great preference for them. The tendency is increasing their nutritional value by supplying proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals in a balanced form. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality of cereal and peanut bars. Three types of bars using different ratios of oat, wheat germ, peanut, toasted and expanded amaranthus and wheat extrudate were prepared. Bars proximate composition was determined according the AOAC methods, and their acceptability according Hedonic Scale. In the biological assays, rats fed with 10% protein diets, were used to obtain the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent Digestibility (AD). Corrected PER, relative PER, relative AD, PER and NPR values did not showed difference between bars CM1 and CM2 (PER: 2.59-2.57; NPR: 3.99-3.95 respectively); CM3 bar showed a lower quality. There were not differences among bars in relation to AD. CM1 and CM2 bars had a better biological quality of the protein being CM3 bar of lower quality. From a chemical and sensorial point of view CM1 bar shows the highest protein content (14.23%) and acceptability (6.8) and CM2 bar shows a high raw fiber content (2.27%).

  1. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  2. Phytotoxic Potential and Biological Activity of Three Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives as New Natural-Like Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Araniti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin is a natural compound well known for its phytotoxic potential. In the search for new herbicidal compounds to manage weeds, three synthetic derivatives bearing the coumarin scaffold (1–3, synthesized by a carbonylative organometallic approach, were in vitro assayed on germination and root growth of two noxious weeds, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa crus-galli. Moreover, the synthetic coumarins 1–3 were also in vitro assayed on seedlings growth of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana to identify the possible physiological targets. All molecules strongly affected seed germination and root growth of both weeds. Interestingly, the effects of synthetic coumarins on weed germination were higher than template natural coumarin, pointing out ED50 values ranging from 50–115 µM. Moreover, all synthetic coumarins showed a strong phytotoxic potential on both Arabidopsis shoot and root growth, causing a strong reduction in shoot fresh weight (ED50 values ≤ 60 µM, accompanied by leaf development and a decrease in pigment content. Furthermore, they caused a strong alteration in root growth (ED50 values ≤ 170 µM and morphology with evident alterations in root tip anatomy. Taken together, our results highlight the promising potential herbicidal activity of these compounds.

  3. Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D

    1998-01-01

    Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value.

  4. The Extraction, Isolation and Identiifcation of Exudates from the Roots of Flaveria bidentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHANG Li-hui; SHI Cui-ping; SHANG Yan; ZHANG Jin-lin; HAN Jian-min; DONG Jin-gao

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of Flaveria bidentis’s root culturing solution were obtained by using DFT (deep lfow technique) equipment and these solution which was vacuum concentrated (10, 20 mg mL-1) can have a certain inhibition on Triticum aestivum, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Amaranthus retrolfexus, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crusgalli and Chloris virgata. This outcome suggested some active compounds in the root exudates of Flaveria bidentis can inhibit the germination, seedling elongation and root length. The dichloromethane extract of root exudates was identiifcated by GC-MS, and 29 kinds of compounds, including esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, thiazole, amines, etc. were obtained and the phthalate n-octyl ester, phthalate 2-ethylhexyl ester were proved to be allelochemicals. The culturing solution of root exudates was separated through the resin column and silica gel column and a component inhibiting seedling height, root length and fresh weight of wheat was got. There were 6 kinds of organic compounds in this component including dioctyl phthalate, 1,2-phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester by GC-MS.

  5. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  6. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

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    Prasad R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%, followed by dusts (12.0%, pollens (7.8%, animal dander (3.1%, and fungi (1.3%. The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3% followed by locust male (25%, grasshopper (20.8%, cricket (16.7%, cockroach female (16.7% and cockroach male (14.6%. Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  7. Oilseed Meal Effects on the Emergence and Survival of Crop and Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Rothlisberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed crops are being widely evaluated for potential biodiesel production. Seed meal (SM remaining after extracting oil may have use as bioherbicides or organic fertilizers. Brassicaceae SM often contains glucosinolates that hydrolyze into biologically active compounds that may inhibit various pests. Jatropha curcas SM contains curcin, a phytoxin. A 14-day greenhouse study determined that Sinapis alba (white mustard, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard, Camelina sativa, and Jatropha curcas applied to soil at varying application rates [0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5% (w/w] and incubation times (1, 7, and 14 d prior to planting affected seed emergence and seedling survival of cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense, and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. With each species, emergence and survival was most decreased by 2.5% SM application applied at 1 and 7 d incubations. White mustard SM incubated for 1 d applied at low and high rates had similar negative effects on johnsongrass seedlings. Redroot pigweed seedling survival was generally most decreased by all 2.5% SM applications. Based on significant effects determined by ANOVA, results suggested that the type, rate, and timing of SM application should be considered before land-applying SMs in cropping systems.

  8. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms.

  9. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host.

  10. Human Health Implications of Waste Dump Cultivated Vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa, Salihu Danlami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is purposely to determine the level of heavy metals in vegetables cultivated on waste dumps and seek its implication on the health of its consumers. Many of these waste dump sites have been converted to agricultural sites particularly for the cultivation of vegetables, to achieve both dietary and economic advantages. Farmers are taking advantage of the positive crop yield effect of these dumpsites. However, there are fears about the possible hazards of the consumption of such crops because of the presence of heavy metals. Amaranthus caudatus vegetables grown on an abandoned dumpsite and an adjacent plot were sampled and subjected to laboratory analysis to determine the levels of heavy metals. The result indicated a slightly higher presence of heavy metals in the adjacent plot, 7.27, 6.53 and 0.72 ppm for Fe, Zn and Cu respectively compared to the abandoned dumpsite where 7.10, 5.37 and 0.58 ppm respectively were recorded for the same elements; the values of the heavy metals were found to be within acceptable limits for human consumption. Although, it has been revealed that consumption of the vegetable may be safe in the short run; constant check must be made on the quality of the crop to avert possible human health hazards as a result of possible build up of the heavy metals due to mineralization.

  11. O-glycosylation expression in fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Martinez, Ruth; Leyva, Paulina; Martinez, Margarito; Hernández, Rubi; Pina, Socorro; Hernández, Claudia; Zenteno, Edgar; Hernández, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are human benign breast tumors characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stroma cells of the terminal ductal unit. Expression of O-glycans seems to contribute to the proliferation and transformation events. With this in mind, we evaluated the expression of glycans in fibroadenoma tissue through immunohistochemistry with antibodies against mucin epitopes (Anti CA15-3 and MUC1), as well as with lectins specific for glycans linked to proteins or lipids, and we compared findings with healthy breast specimens. Our results show positive expression of CA15-3 and MUC1 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in duct and stroma cells, whereas, in normal samples, staining was observed in duct cells. The lectin from Glycine max recognized equally well duct and stroma cells; this was the only lectin showing co-localization with anti-CA15-3 in healthy and tumor tissues. Dolichos biflorus, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Griffonia simplicifolia lectins recognized duct cells in control healthy tissues as well as in fibroadenoma tissue. The lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus recognized only duct cells in control samples, whereas, in fibroadenoma tissue, it recognized duct and some stromal cells, suggesting that O-glycans-type mucin linked to proteins and mucin participate in the development of fibroadenomas.

  12. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos Itandehui Belem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Findings Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  13. Phytosociological survey of weeds in banana plantations in the Gorutuba River Valley, northern Minas Gerais = Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas em áreas de bananicultura no Vale do Rio Gorutuba, norte de Minas Gerais

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    Hercules Gustavo dos Santos Sarmento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological surveys are very important when identifying an invasive community in order to carry out more suitable weed management. The aim of this study therefore, was to identify the main species of weeds in banana plantations, both newly-planted and under production, in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For the phytosociological study and characterisation of the weed community, two areas of ‘Prata’ bananas, both of 10 hectares, were evaluated using the method of inventory squares, which were randomly thrown along a zigzag path. The following phytosociological variables were evaluated: frequency, relative frequency, density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, importance value index, relativeimportance value index and similarity index. In the newly-planted area, 17 species were found, divided into 15 genera and ten families, with the Fabaceae and Poaceae families being prominent. The species with the highest importance indices were: Sida spp. (62.38, Galinsoga parviflora (32.36, Amaranthus hybridus (24.93 and Ipomoea hederifolia (19.61. In the area under production, 12 species, 12 genera and ten families were found, with the Asteraceae family being prominent. The species with the highest relative-importance value indices were: Commelina benghalensis (39.19, Emilia fosbergii (34.42 and Amaranthus hybridus (32.96. Between the two areas, there was a difference in the mean values for density, and for the number of plants with C4 metabolism; five in the newly-planted area, and three in the area under production. The Similarity Index between the two areas was 48.27%, with seven species common to both areas. = O levantamento fitossociológico é muito importante para conhecer a comunidade infestante e, com isso, realizar de forma mais adequada o manejo das plantas daninhas. Objetiva-se com este trabalho identificar as principais espécies de plantas daninhas em áreas de bananicultura recém-implantadas e

  14. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

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    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  15. Experiment on efficiency of maifanitum mineral fertilizer%麦饭石矿物肥施用效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 周俊; 朱江; 姜广羽

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽种植小白菜及后茬作物苋菜,测定其农艺性状、产量及植株中矿质营养成分含量来研究麦饭石矿物肥肥效.结果表明,麦饭石矿物肥对小白菜和苋菜的茎长、根长、鲜重和矿质元素的积累均有显著影响;当矿物肥的施用量在0~0.87g·kg-1时,随着矿物肥施用量的增加其作用明显增强,当大于0.87g·kg-1时,其增效减缓.%By pakchoi and subsequent crop Amaranthus test, determination of its agronomic traits, yield and mineral nutrient content to study on efficiency of maifanitum mineral fertilizer. The results showed that the stem length, root length, fresh weight of agronomic traits and content of mineral elements of pakchoi and amaranth were significantly affected by the maifanitum mineral fertilizer; When the mineral fertilizer usage in 0 ~0. 87 g · kg-1, the action to pakchoi or amaranth increased apparently with the mineral fertilizer increase, when greater than 0. 87 g · kg-1, its promotion efficiency was slow.

  16. Weed Control in Corn (Zea mays L. as Influenced by Preemergence Herbicides

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    Travis W. Janak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in central and south-central Texas from 2013 through 2015 to evaluate crop tolerance and efficacy of various preemergence herbicides alone and in combination for weed control in field corn. Acetochlor and pendimethalin alone, S-metolachlor plus mesotrione, and the three-way combination of S-metolachlor plus atrazine plus mesotrione provided the most consistent control of annual grasses including browntop panicum (Panicum fasciculatum L., Texas millet (Urochloa texana L., barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., and sprawling signalgrass (Brachiaria reptans L.. Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S. Wats.] control was at least 90% with fluthiacet-methyl plus pyroxasulfone, atrazine plus either acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid-P, S-metolachlor, or S-metolachlor plus mesotrione, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P, and S-metolachlor plus mesotrione. Hophornbeam copperleaf (Acalypha ostryifolia L. was difficult to control; however, acetochlor, saflufenacil or pyroxasulfone alone, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P, and S-metolachlor plus mesotrione provided at least 90% control. Acetochlor or saflufenacil alone, thiencarbazone-methyl plus isoxaflutole, dimethenamid-P plus atrazine, rimsulfuron plus mesotrione, and saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P controlled common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at least 90%. Corn injury was minimal (≤3% with all herbicides. In general, corn grain yield was greatest with herbicide treatments containing more than one active ingredient compared with a single active ingredient.

  17. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the total arsenic content in prostrate amaranth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, R.; Del Rio, M.; Velez, D.; Montoro, R.; De Haro, A

    2004-07-05

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining the total arsenic (As) content in the prostrate amaranth (Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson) was assessed. Seventy-four samples belonging to this species, were harvested at different maturity stages along the polluted area, and then were scanned by NIRS. Their As reference values were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry and they were regressed against different spectral transformations using modified partial least square (MPLS) regression. First derivative transformation equation of the raw optical data, previously standardized by standard normal variate (SNV) and De-trending (DT) transformations, resulted in a coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) in the external validation of 0.63, indicative of equations that can be used for a correct separation of the samples into low, medium and high groups. The standard deviation to standard error of prediction ratio (RPD) and range to standard error of prediction ratio (RER) for the first derivative equation were similar to those obtained for other trace metal calibrations reported in NIRS reflectance. Major cell components such as chlorophyll, lipids, starch and proteins were used by MPLS for modeling the equations. The use of NIRS for the determination of the As content in A. blitoides plants offers an important saving of time and cost of analysis.

  18. Aluminum-activated Oxalate Secretion does not Associate with Internal Content among Some Oxalate Accumulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li Yang; Lei Zhang; Shao Jian Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Although aluminum (AI)-activated secretion of oxalate has been considered to be an Important AI-exclusion mechanism,whether it is a general response in oxalate accumulators and related to oxalate content in roots are still not clear.Here,we examined the oxalate secretion and oxalate content in some oxalate accumulators,and investigated the role of oxalate secretion in AI resistance.When oxalate content in amaranth roots was decreased by about 50% with the increased ratio of NH4+-N to NO3——N in nutrient solution,the amount of AI-activated oxalate secretion still remained constant.There was no relationship between the content of the water soluble oxalate in four species of oxalate accumulators and the amount of the AI-activated oxalate secretion in roots.Furthermore,oxalate secretion is poorly associated with AI resistance among these species.Based on the above results,we concluded that although all of the oxalate accumulators tested could secrete oxalate rapidly,the density of anion channels in plasma membrane may play a more important role in AI-activated oxalate secretion.Key words: aluminum toxicity; Amaranthus; anion channel; oxalate accumulator; oxalate secretion.

  19. 基于植物波谱特征的城市环境效应研究%A STUDY OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT BASED ON SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛晓立; 刘素红; 李奇

    2009-01-01

    在苏州城市环境地球化学特征研究基础上,利用苋菜、四季豆及油菜等3种不同植物的光谱特征,研究苏州城市环境效应.研究结果显示,在苏州土壤环境污染区域,植物光谱呈现可见光绿光波段反射率升高、红谷变浅、红边蓝移等变化特征;苋菜在3种植物中可成为植物光谱效应用于城市环境地球化学质量研究的理想指示植物.%The signatures of different vegetation spectra are discussed on the basis of geochemical survey in Suzhou urban area. Three typical vegetations were used, namely amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus L), soybean (Glycine max) and cowbean (Vigna cylindrica L.). The results show that soil contamination mainly affects vegetation spectra through altering spectral reflectance in the visible (green) wave band and shifting the red edge to blue, and that amaranth seems to be a sensible vegetation in environment pollution monitoring.

  20. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

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    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  1. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  2. Herbicidal activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii essential oils from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Mercedes; García-Rellán, David; Boira, Herminio; Pérez, Eduardo; Gandolfo, Sandra; Blázquez, María Amparo

    2011-01-10

    The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively) were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51), p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52) and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99) as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41), followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34) and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06) in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125-1 µL/mL). D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  3. Herbicidal Activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii Essential Oils from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Blázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51, p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52 and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99 as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41, followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34 and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06 in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125–1 µL/mL. D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  4. Plant Community and Soil Relationships in the Vicinity of International Leather Industry and Farooq Textile Mill of Landhi Industrial Area in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Atiq-ur-Rahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies were carried around the International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill in the vicinity of Landhi industrial estate of Karachi and compared with control area of University Campus to evaluate plant community-soil relationship in the localities. The vegetation was herbaceous, shrubs and predominantly disturbed in nature at all of the sites. Based on the composition, structure and distribution of species, plant communities of each area were recognized. Both plant communities of International Leather industry and Farooq Textile Mill had low number of plant species as related to control area. Importance value index of all the species were determined. Senna holosericea (Fresen. Greuter, Corchorus depressus (L. Stocks and Amaranthus viridis L. were found in all the communities whereas, Corchorus trilocularis L. and Abutilon indicum (L. Sweet were present in industrial areas. A relationship between soil characteristics and plant communities of the industries of Landhi and control site were conducted. Industrial plant communities have low level of water holding capacity and organic matter and high concentrations of total soluble salts and available sulfate as relative to soil of plant community of control area. The research demonstrated that the plant species were retarded in numbers due to soil pollution as compared to control area of Karachi University Campus due to industrial existing contamination and pollution in soil in the area

  5. Alternate Nitrogen Amendments for Organic Fertilizers

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    M.K.C. Sridhar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N content (=1% N. Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eutrophication of surface waters that can affect public health. Gliricidia sepium, a fast-growing, tropical, perennial hedge plant was tested as a source of N in organo-mineral fertilizer formulations. Average nutrient content of Gliricidia is 3.8% N, 0.32% P, 1.8% K, 0.8% Ca, and 0.2% Mg. Using a sand culture and Amaranthus caudatus as a test crop, it was shown that amending commercial composts with 30% Gliricidia prunings would benefit many small-scale farmers and control environmental pollution.

  6. Weed Control and Peanut Tolerance with Ethalfluralin-Based Herbicide Systems

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    W. J. Grichar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 through 2009 to determine weed efficacy and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. response to herbicide systems that included ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated. Control of devil's claw (Proboscidea louisianica (Mill. Thellung, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L., Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats., and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L. was most consistent with ethalfluralin followed by either imazapic or imazethapyr applied postemergence. Peanut stunting was 19% when paraquat alone was applied early-postemergence. Stunting increased to greater than 30% when ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated was followed by S-metolachlor applied preemergence and paraquat applied early-postemergence. Stunting (7% was also observed when ethalfluralin was followed by flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor applied preemergence with lactofen applied mid-postemergence. Ethalfluralin followed by paraquat applied early-postemergence reduced peanut yield when compared to the nontreated check. Ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by imazapic applied mid-postemergence provided the greatest yield (6220 kg/ha. None of the herbicide treatments reduced peanut grade (sound mature kernels plus sound splits when compared with the nontreated check.

  7. Coexistence of reactive plasticity and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer diseased brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J; Dilhuydy, H; Espinosa, B; Delacourte, A; Quirion, R; Mena, R; Joanette, Y; Zenteno, E; Robitaille, Y

    2004-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a pathological process characterized by neuron degeneration and, as recently suggested, brain plasticity. In this work, we compared the reactive plasticity in AD brains associated to O-glycosydically linked glycans, recognized by lectins from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MRL), and the tau neuritic degeneration. The neuritic degenerative process was evaluated by the quantification of aggregated neuritic structures. Lesions were determined using antibodies against hyperphosphorylated-tau (AD2), amyloid-beta, and synaptophysin. In these conditions, we classified and quantified three pathological structures associated to the neuritic degenerative process: 1) Amyloid-beta deposits (AbetaDs), 2) Classic neuritic plaques (NPs), and 3) Dystrophic neurites clusters (DNCs) lacking amyloid-beta deposits. Reactive plasticity structures were constituted by meganeuritic clusters (MCs) and peri-neuronal sprouting in neurons of the CA4 region of the hippocampus, immunoreactive to synaptophysin (exclusively in AD brains) and GAP-43. Besides, MCs were associated to sialylated O-glycosydically linked glycans as determined by positive labeling with ALL and MRL. Considering that these lectins are specific for the synaptic sprouting process in AD, our results suggest the co-occurrence of of several areas of reactive plasticity and neuron degeneration in AD.

  8. Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R P; Gordon, S

    1999-03-15

    Macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific member of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, displays N-linked glycosylation and a heavily sialylated, mucin-like domain. We show that phagocytosis of zymosan by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages potently alters glycan processing of macrosialin in vitro. The phagocytic glycoform is not induced by other forms of endocytosis and depends on particle internalization. Zymosan uptake does not influence macrosialin protein synthesis, but increases the specific incorporation of D-[2-3H]mannose, D-[6-3H]galactose, N-acetyl-D-[1-3H]glucosamine and L-[5,6-3H]fucose by 2-15-fold. The phagocytic glycoform displays increased binding of agglutinins from peanut, Amaranthus caudatus and Galanthus nivalis, whereas binding of the sialic-acid-specific Maakia amurensis agglutinin is slightly reduced. Digestion by N-Glycanase abolishes the incorporation of [3H]mannose label and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin binding activity, but preserves the incorporation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine and specific lectin binding. We also show that phagocytosis increases the complexity and length of O-linked chains. The data presented highlight the importance of differential glycosylation in the biology of macrosialin, phagosomes and macrophages in general.

  9. A Preliminary Study on Microbial Contamination of Leafy Vegetables in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

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    Kasimu Shehu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Sokoto metropolis were evaluated for microbiological quality using standard procedures involving standard plate count (SPC. The vegetables investigated included Lactuaca sativa (Lettuce, Amaranthus hybridus (Spinach, Vernonia amagdalina (Bitter leaf, Brassica oleracea (Cabbage and Moringa oleifera Lam (Horse radish. Ten fungal species which include Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporium, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor racemoses, Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma harzianum and four species of bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocystogens and Staphyllococus aureus were isolated from the leafy vegetables. The total colony counts of fungi ranged from 1.8 x 106 – 6.28 x 105 (cfu/g of the vegetables while that of bacteria ranged from 1.0 x 106 to 2.94 x 106 cfu/g of the vegetables. The highest counts of microbial organisms were found on A. hybridus while M. oleifera and B. olerarea had the lowest fungal and bacterial counts respectively. There is a need to reduce the levels of  microbial contamination on leafy vegetables through appropriate production practices, careful handling by the vendors and appropriate processing  with a view to minimize  the risk of human exposure to fungal and bacterial pathogens associated with the vegetables.

  10. Toward understanding the influence of soil metals and sulfate content on plant thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaiti, Abdelrahim A; Al-Oqlah, Ahmed; Shannag, Noor M; Abukhalaf, Imad K; Silvestrov, Natalia A; von Deutsch, Daniel A; Bayorh, Mohamed A

    2007-03-15

    Plants respond to increased concentrations of metals by a number of mechanisms, including chelation with phytochelatins (PCs). Soil specimens and plants (Veronica anagalis-aquatica, Typha domingensis, Cynodon dactylon, Chenopodium album, Rumex dentatus, Amaranthus gracilis, Chenopodium murale, Inula viscosa) leaves were collected from two sites in northern Jordan and subsequently metals (cadmium, copper, and lead), sulfate, and PC (from leaves) levels were determined. One of these sites was contaminated with metals and the other served as a control site. The contaminated site had elevated cadmium, copper, lead, and sulfate levels. This increase of metal and sulfate levels in the soil at the contaminated site correlated with a rise in plant total glutathione (GSH(T)) and cysteine (CYS(T)). These increases were not attributed to an elevation in total phytochelatin levels. However, a significant increase in the ratio of short-chain phytochelatins to the total phytochelatin stores was observed. The individual effects of metals and sulfate on glutathione, short-chain PCs and long-chain PCs levels were dissimilar.

  11. Alarm Photosynthesis: Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Internal CO2 Source in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-08-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are widespread among animals and plants. In land plants, crystals often reach high amounts, up to 80% of dry biomass. They are formed within specific cells, and their accumulation constitutes a normal activity rather than a pathological symptom, as occurs in animals. Despite their ubiquity, our knowledge on the formation and the possible role(s) of these crystals remains limited. We show that the mesophyll crystals of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) exhibit diurnal volume changes with a gradual decrease during daytime and a total recovery during the night. Moreover, stable carbon isotope composition indicated that crystals are of nonatmospheric origin. Stomatal closure (under drought conditions or exogenous application of abscisic acid) was accompanied by crystal decomposition and by increased activity of oxalate oxidase that converts oxalate into CO2 Similar results were also observed under drought stress in Dianthus chinensis, Pelargonium peltatum, and Portulacaria afra Moreover, in A. hybridus, despite closed stomata, the leaf metabolic profiles combined with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated active photosynthetic metabolism. In combination, calcium oxalate crystals in leaves can act as a biochemical reservoir that collects nonatmospheric carbon, mainly during the night. During the day, crystal degradation provides subsidiary carbon for photosynthetic assimilation, especially under drought conditions. This new photosynthetic path, with the suggested name "alarm photosynthesis," seems to provide a number of adaptive advantages, such as water economy, limitation of carbon losses to the atmosphere, and a lower risk of photoinhibition, roles that justify its vast presence in plants.

  12. Potential allelopathic indole diketopiperazines produced by the plant endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus using the one strain-many compounds method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Tang, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2013-11-27

    On the basis of the OSMAC (one strain-many compounds) strategy, 14 indole diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids, including spirotryprostatins (1-3), tryprostatins (4-6), and cyclotryprostatins (7-14), were isolated from the endophyte Aspergillus fumigatus associated with Melia azedarach L. Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data. All the indole DKPs were evaluated for plant growth regulation using the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. Among these compounds tested, a tryprostatin-type compound, brevianamide F (6), was identified as a new type of natural potential plant growth inhibitor with a response index (RI) higher than that of the positive control glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide. 6 can also inhibit turnip (Raphanus sativus) shoot and root elongation with RIs of -0.76 and -0.70, respectively, at 120 ppm, and it strongly inhibits amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus) seedling growth with a high RI of -0.9 at 40 ppm. The structure-allelopathic activity relationship analysis of these isolated alkaloids indicates that tryprostatin-type alkaloids without the C5 prenyl and methoxy group give the most potent inhibition of seedling growth. Brevianamide F (6) could be used to develop a natural eco-friendly herbicide.

  13. Weed Control and Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Tolerance to Pyrasulfotole plus Bromoxynil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at five locations in the Texas grain sorghum producing regions to evaluate pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations for weed control and grain sorghum response. All pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations controlled Amaranthus palmeri, Cucumis melo, and Proboscidea louisianica at least 94% while control of Urochloa texana was never better than 69%. Pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations did result in early season chlorosis and stunting; however, by the end of the growing season no visual injury or stunting differences were noted when compared to the untreated check. Early season grain sorghum chlorosis and stunting with pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations did not affect grain sorghum yields with the exception of pyrasulfotole at 0.03 kg ai/ha plus bromoxynil at 0.26 kg ai/ha plus atrazine at 0.58 kg ai/ha applied early postemergence followed by pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil applied mid-postemergence which reduced yield at one of two locations in 2008. Grain sorghum yield increased following all pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil treatments compared to the untreated check in 2009.

  14. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  15. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Albano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  16. Decline of Indigenous Crop Diversity in Colonial and Postcolonial Rwanda

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    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global influence of the wealthiest countries drives trends in crop diversity in the developing countries. In many countries, European colonization resulted in cultural disintegration and erosion of indigenous knowledge that made citizens lose interest in their own cultural heritage and adopt imperial know-how. During the same time, native biodiversity that was once maintained by the tradition it shaped declined. Alien crops prospered and finally dominated landscapes. In this paper, I looked at the apparent decline of indigenous crop diversity in Rwanda in the light of the “cultural disturbance” that occurred in the shadow of the European colonization. An integrated research methodology that combined desk-based, socioeconomic, and vegetation surveys was used. Indigenous crops now on the fringe of extinction and, thus, requiring immediate attention from conservation policy makers and managers were identified. These include Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. “inkoli” (Leguminosae, Coleus dysentericus Bak. “impombo” (Labiatae, Dioscorea alata Linn. “ibikoro” (Araceae, a sweet cultivar of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl. “bunure” (Cucurbitaceae, white cultivar of Sorghum bicolor (Linn. Moench “nyiragikori” (Gramineae, Amaranthus graecizans Linn. “inyabutongo” (Amaranthaceae, Eleusine coracana (Linn. Gaertn. “uburo” (Gramineae, and traditional cultivars of Zea mays Linn. “nyakagori” (Gramineae and Solanum tuberosum Linn. “kandore” (Solanaceae.

  17. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes.

  18. Transmissão de begomovírus de plantas daninhas para tomateiros pela mosca-branca Begomovirus transmission from weeds to tomato by the whitefly

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    A.K.F. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre numerosas enfermidades do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, destacam-se as viroses causadas por begomovírus, os quais são transmitidos pelo vetor Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Na Chapada da Ibiapaba-CE, os begomovírus têm sido encontrados em várias áreas onde o tomateiro é cultivado, causando sérios danos à produção. Este trabalho teve por objetivos investigar a transmissão de begomovírus a partir de tomateiros infectados para plantas daninhas e verificar seu retorno das plantas daninhas para o tomateiro. Mudas sadias de tomateiro 'Santa Clara' e das plantas daninhas bredo-de-espinho (Amaranthus spinosus, caruru-de-mancha (Amaranthus viridis, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa foram submetidas à inoculação por dois métodos: com o inseto vetor e por enxertia. Após 15 dias, realizou-se a extração do DNA de amostras foliares dos tomateiros e das espécies daninhas inoculadas. A PCR realizada com oligonucleotídeos degenerados e específicos para begomovírus revelou que na transmissão com o vetor as quatro espécies de plantas daninhas foram infectadas com o begomovírus do tomateiro, enquanto que, por enxertia, apenas o picão-preto foi infectado. O retorno do vírus das plantas daninhas para o tomateiro foi também observado nos dois casos. Percentuais de 70, 50, 20 e 12,5% de transmissão para os tomateiros ocorreram quando o vetor adquiriu o vírus em mentrasto, bredo-de-espinho, picão-preto e caruru-de-mancha, respectivamente. Na enxertia, a transmissão viral para os tomateiros ocorreu apenas quando se empregaram seções de bredo-de-espinho e de picão-preto infectados. As espécies daninhas investigadas demonstraram ser hospedeiras alternativas do begomovírus de tomate da região e, em condiçõs de campo e na presença do vetor, podem constituir importantes fontes do begomovírus para a hortaliça.The viruses caused by begomovirus are considered the most important virus diseases

  19. The Herbicidal Activity of Mutant Isolates from Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-lin; ZHANG Li-hui; LIU Ying-chao; MA Juan; LI Chuan; DONG Jin-gao

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen mutant isolates were obtained by ultraviolet mutation from parent isolate Botrytis cinerea BC-4. Among them three mutant isolates, BC4-1, BC4-2, and BC4-15, showed strong herbicidal activity. BC4-1 showed maximum herbicidal activity for inhibition of germination and growth of Digitaria sanguinalis L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. The results also showed that herbicidal activity was influenced by differing pH of PD media, with pH value of 4.0 being the optimum.The crude toxin was extracted using chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethyl acetate, respectively, and the ethyl acetate extracts showed the strongest inhibitory activity on the germination and growth of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L.Using HPLC, one fraction with an absorption peak at 271 nm was separated from the crude toxin. This fraction could strongly inhibit the growth of D. sanguinalis L. at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 and could completely inhibit the seed germination of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L. at a concentration of 50 mg L-1.

  20. Marcador in vitro da resposta glicêmica dos alimentos como ferramenta de auxílio à prescrição e avaliação de dietas In vitro indicator of the glycemic response to foods as a tool for diet prescriptions and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dias Capriles

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As dietas de baixo índice glicêmico e baixa carga glicêmica têm sido associadas à redução do risco de doenças crônicas. Por esse motivo há um interesse crescente na sua aplicação para avaliação e orientação nutricional. No entanto, existem limitações quanto ao uso de dados publicados de índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica, pela variedade e formas de processamento dos alimentos vegetais existentes. Devido à dificuldade de realização de ensaios in vivo, uma vez que são custosos, trabalhosos, invasivos e necessitam de período considerável de experimentação, foram desenvolvidas metodologias in vitro que, a partir da velocidade de digestão dos carboidratos, permitem estimar o índice glicêmico dos alimentos de forma prática, simples e econômica. O presente trabalho apresenta o uso de um marcador in vitro, o índice de hidrólise, na estimativa do índice glicêmico e da carga glicêmica, o método mais empregado por pesquisadores brasileiros, visando à sua aplicação por profissionais da área de Nutrição. Os cálculos e as interpretações para estimativa do Índice glicêmico e da carga glicêmica são apresentados por meio de um exemplo prático com alguns alimentos brasileiros e com o grão de amaranto submetido a diferentes processamentos. Na ausência de dados referentes à resposta glicêmica do alimento de interesse, os valores do marcador in vitro podem ser utilizados para estimar o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica dos alimentos. Porém, este marcador não deve ser utilizado indiscriminadamente, uma vez que leva em consideração apenas os fatores intrínsecos aos alimentos que influenciam o aproveitamento dos carboidratos disponíveis.Low glycemic index and low glycemic load diets have been associated with a reduced risk of certain chronic diseases. For this reason, there has been a growing interest in using these concepts' for nutritional assessment and diet prescription. However, the usage of