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Sample records for amaranthus dubius mart

  1. Effects of diets with Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. on performance and digestibility of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects on performance and digestibility in growing rabbits were studied by comparing 3 diets containing increasing inclusion rates of amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.: 0 (A0, 160 (A16 and 320 g/kg (A32 diet. Diets were formulated isoproteic and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. One hundred and thirteen weaned New Zealand White rabbits (mean±standard deviation weight: 760±102 g, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of the 3  experimental diets. Rabbits were fed ad libitum from 35 to 87 d of age, and health status and performance traits were  onitored. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of the diets were measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 12 rabbits per treatment. Amaranthus dubius contained 209 g/kg dry matter (DM of crude protein and 398 g/kg DM of neutral detergent fibre. There were no significant differences between treatments in weight gain (mean 21.6 g/d and live weight at the end of the fattening period (mean 1883 g. Daily feed intake was higher (P<0.05 in A0 than in A16 and A32 diets (85.4 vs. 73.7 and 69.9 g/d, respectively, and feed conversion rate improved with increased inclusion of A. dubius in the diet (from 3.84 to 3.28 for A0 and A32 diets, respectively; P<0.05. Health status was not affected by the amaranth inclusion rate. Total tract apparent digestibility showed high values, with no differences among diets except for ether extract. Thus, A. dubius could be considered as an alternative source of protein and fibre for rabbit feeding in tropical and subtropical regions.

  2. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: La incorporación de ingredientes funcionales como el amaranto (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) en la elaboración de pan es una estrategia para aumentar el consumo de fibra, el cual está relacionado con efectos beneficiosos para la salud, mejorando la respuesta glicémica y el perfil lipídico. Materiales y métodos: Treinta ratas machos Sprague dawley se distribuyeron al azar en tres grupos: dieta de pan con 0% de amaranto (PA0, control), dieta de pan con 10% de amaranto (PA10) y dieta de pan con 20% de amaranto (PA20) para determinar el consumo de alimento, ganancia en peso, triglicéridos, colesterol total, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, proteínas y la respuesta glicémica postpandrial. Los datos fueron analizados a través de un análisis completamente aleatorizado con 10 repeticiones, utilizando la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para los parámetros bioquímicos. La respuesta glicémica postprandial fue analizada por el método de medidas repetidas en el tiempo. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta diaria y la ganancia de peso no se afecto (p>0,05) en los grupos con PA10 y PA20. La concentración de glucosa, triglicéridos y proteína presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) por la diferencia de contenido de amaranto de las dietas. Los valores de colesterol total, LDL-C, factor de riesgo e índice aterogénico presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) resultando el grupo de menor valor el formado por PA10 y PA20. En los grupos PA10 y PA20 el pico de hiperglucemia y la fase de hiperglucemia total fue más bajo, mostrando una mejor respuesta glicémica. Conclusión: el amaranto podría ser utilizado como ingrediente funcional en la elaboraciones de panes ya que permitió mejorar el perfil lipídico así como la respuesta glicémica postpandrial.

  3. Efectos del consumo de panes integrales elaborados con harina de Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. y harina de trigo en ratas con sídrome metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Quiroga, Keyla Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El género Amaranthus se caracteriza por su alto contenido de nutrientes comparables a los alimentos de origen animal. Sin embargo, la especie Amaranthus dubius, la cual está diseminada en Venezuela, se considera un arvense de cultivos de subsistencia, como el maíz, sorgo y leguminosas; esto impulso la investigación sobre la posible aplicación del amaranto venezolano para la alimentación humana. El estudio se inició con la evaluación de la composición proximal, el contenid...

  4. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO. The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius. The morphology of the synthesized graphene was examined by SEM analysis.

  5. Translocation and accumulation of Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Ni by Amaranthus dubius (Amaranthaceae) from contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, John J; Baijnath, Himansu; Odhav, Bharti

    2009-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology where specially selected and engineered metal-accumulating plants are used for bioremediation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Amaranthus dubius for phytoremediation of chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Locally gathered soil and plants of A. dubius were investigated for the metals from a regularly cultivated area, a landfill site and a waste water treatment site. Metals were extracted from the samples using microwave-digestion and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy. The mode of phytoremediation, effect of the metals on the plants, ability of the plant to extract metals from soil (Bioconcentration Factor) and the ability of the plants to move the metals to the aerial parts of the plants (Translocation Factor) were evaluated. The survey of the three sites showed that soils were heavily contaminated with Cr, Hg, Cu and Ni. These levels were far above acceptable standards set for soils and above the standards set for the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Specimens of A. dubius from the three sites showed that they could tolerate Hg, sequester it from the soil, and translocate it to the shoots. Cr could only be removed from the soil and stored in the roots, with limited amounts translocated to the aerial parts. Pb, As, Ni, and Cu have some degree of transportability from the soil to the roots but not to aerial parts. The ability of A. dubius to be considered for phytoremediation has to be viewed with caution because translocation of the metals to the aerial parts of the plant is limited.

  6. Spermatogenesis, the mature sperm, and sperm egg association in Nematospiroides dubius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Nematode spermatogenesis was investigated using the strongyloid Nematospiroides dubius. The primary spermatocytes, development of spermatids, and changes in the sperm in the female tract are described.

  7. Pharmacological Characterization of the Edema Caused by Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) Spider Venom in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-E-Silva, Thomaz A A; Linardi, Alessandra; Antunes, Edson; Hyslop, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bites by tarantulas (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) in humans can result in mild clinical manifestations such as local pain, erythema, and edema. Vitalius dubius is a medium-sized, nonaggressive theraphosid found in southeastern Brazil. In this work, we investigated the mediators involved in the plasma extravasation caused by V. dubius venom in rats. The venom caused dose-dependent (0.1-100 μg/site) edema in rat dorsal skin. This edema was significantly inhibited by ((S)1-{2-[3(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-iso-propoxyphenylacetyl)piperidine-3-yl]ethyl}-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octone, chloride) (SR140333, a neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist), indomethacin [a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor], cyproheptadine (a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine1/2 and histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). In contrast, mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist), D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Thi(5),D-Tic(7),Oic(8)-]-BK (JE 049, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist), and ((S)-N-methyl-N-[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-di-chlorophenyl)butyl]benzamide) (SR48968, a neurokinin NK2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability. In rat hind paws, the venom-induced edema was attenuated by ketoprofen (a nonselective COX inhibitor) administered 15 minutes postvenom. Preincubation of venom with commercial antiarachnid antivenom attenuated the venom-induced edema. These results suggest that the enhanced vascular permeability evoked by V. dubius venom involves serotonin, COX products, neurokinin NK1 receptors, and nitric oxide formation. The attenuation of hind paw edema by ketoprofen suggests that COX inhibitors could be useful in treating the local inflammatory response to bites by these spiders.

  8. Two New Tryptamine Derivatives, Leptoclinidamide and (--Leptoclinidamine B, from an Indonesian Ascidian Leptoclinides dubius

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    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new tryptamine-derived alkaloids, named as leptoclinidamide (1 and (--leptoclinidamine B (2, were isolated from an Indonesian ascidian Leptoclinides dubius together with C2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (3. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data for 1 and its N-acetyl derivative (4. Compound 1 was an amide of tryptamine with two β-alanine units. Although the planar structure of 2 is identical to that of the known compound (+-leptoclinidamine B (5, compound 2 was determined to be the enantiomer of 5 based on amino acid analysis using HPLC methods. Compounds 1 to 4 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma cells, but none of the compounds showed activity.

  9. Purification and characterization of hyaluronidase from venom of the brazilian spider Vitalius dubius (Aranease, Theraphosidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Sutti

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A hialuronidase (Hyase) de peçonha contribui para a difusão da peçonha do local da inoculação. Neste trabalho, foi purificada e caracterizada a Hyase da peçonha da Vitalius dubius (Araneae, Theraphosidae), uma aranha caranguejeira encontrada no sudeste do Brasil. A peçonha obtida por estimulação elétrica de machos e fêmeas adultas foi fracionada por cromatografia em gel filtração em uma coluna Superdex 75 (tampão acetato de sódio 0,1 M, pH 6, contendo 0,15 M de NaCl), a um fluxo de 1 ...

  10. Mart Laar : impeeriumi enesepettus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Parlamendiliige Mart Laar kirjutab USA mõjukas päevalehes The Wall Street Journal, et naftadollarite toel ja lääneriikide leeris valitseva korratuse tingimustes loodab Venemaa taastada oma kadunud impeeriumi

  11. AQS Data Mart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AQS Data Mart is a database that contains all of the information from the AQS system. It is a storehouse of air quality information that allows users to make...

  12. P-Mart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-07

    P-Mart was designed specifically to allow cancer researchers to perform robust statistical processing of publicly available cancer proteomic datasets. To date an online statistical processing suite for proteomics does not exist. The P-Mart software is designed to allow statistical programmers to utilize these algorithms through packages in the R programming language as well as offering a web-based interface using the Azure cloud technology. The Azure cloud technology also allows the release of the software via Docker containers.

  13. Kunstiga Eestimaad avastamas / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Kirjastuselt "Kunst" ilmunud uued raamatud: "Eestimaa. Looduse teejuht", tekst ja fotod Tiit Hunt; "Eestimaa. Linnuste teejuht", tekst Mart Helme; "Eestimaa. Kirikute teejuht", tekst Mart Helme, fotod Peeter Säre; "Eestimaa. Kultuurituristi teejuht", koostaja Tiiu Viirand; "Eestimaa. Ranniku teejuht", tekst Tiiu Viirand; "Eestimaa mõisate teejuht", fotod Peeter Säre, tekst Mart Helme, Alfred Wells

  14. Nutritional study of raw and popped seed proteins of Amaranthus caudatus L and Amaranthus cruentus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Alink, G.M.; Mossallem, A.S.; Shekib, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw and popped (similar to popcorn preparation) seed proteins of two amaranth species, Amaranthus caudatus L and A cruentus L, was investigated. After popping, the true protein content in A caudatus and A cruentus decreased by 9 and 13% respectively. Among the amino acids, t

  15. Net fluxes of electrolytes in the rat intestine infected with Moniliformis dubius (Acanthocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettrick, D F; Budziakowski, M E; Podesta, R B

    1979-08-01

    The effect of Moniliformis dubius on fluxes of Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3-in the rat intestine was determined using a conventional in vivo single-pass perfusion technique. Results for ion and water movements in the uninfected gut were in agreement with previous studies. In the parasitized intestine the jejunal pH was significantly lower than that in control animals, matching the restriction of the parasites to this region of the small intestine. While parasitism did not affect Na+ transport in the distal ileum, Na+ absorption was reduced (pH 7.0), or secretion enhanced (pH 6.0), in the two proximal regions. Cl-absorption was reduced in the distal ileum, but secretion was enhanced in the other two segments. Parasitism also enhanced K+ secretion in all segments. Net H2O absorption was reduced at pH 7.0; at pH 7.0; at pH 6.0 net secretion was also reduced. These changes clearly indicate that a parasite restricted to the jejunum may significantly affect the absorptive and secretory activity of the intestine distal to the site of infection. The results are discussed in the light of current concepts of electrolyte transport. The effect of the parasites on mucosal function distal to their site of attachment is discussed in terms of the release by the parasite of toxin-like substances, changes in the physical-chemical characteristics of the intestinal lumen, and interference with neurohormonal control of gastrointestinal function.

  16. Milking and partial characterization of venom from the Brazilian spider Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-E-Silva, Thomaz A A; Sutti, Rafael; Hyslop, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The theraphosid spider genus Vitalius contains several species found in southeastern Brazil. In this work, we used electrostimulation to obtain venom from Vitalius dubius and examined its general composition. Male spiders yielded significantly less (p venom (12.5 +/- 0.7 mg of liquid/spider, n = 16; mean +/- S.E.M.) than female spiders (25.5 +/- 2.0 mg of liquid/spider, n = 11). However, when corrected for spider weight, males yielded slightly more venom (2.89 +/- 0.16 mg/g vs. 2.45 +/- 0.76 mg/g for males and females, respectively, p Venom yield correlated linearly with spider weight for spiders weighing up to approximately 12-13 g, but decreased in very heavy females. There was a marked decrease in venom yield after the first milking. The protein concentration of pooled venom was 18.3 +/- 2.4 mg/ml (n = 4) and accounted for 16.6 +/- 4.7% of the dry venom weight. The venom contained high hyaluronidase activity (275 +/- 24 TRU/mg of protein, n = 4), with a molecular mass of approximately 45 kDa estimated by zymography. SDS-PAGE revealed a few proteins with molecular masses >14 kDa but showed two staining bands of peptides venom reacted in ELISA with affinity-purified IgG from commercial arachnidic antivenom. Immunoblotting with this IgG detected proteins of 30-140 kDa only. Fractionation of the venom by reverse-phase chromatography resulted in five major and eight minor peaks.

  17. Viisitamm ikka võimul / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Parlamendiliige on üllatunud, et Reformierakonna saadikud seisid Pärnu linnavolikogus toimunud umbusaldusavaldusel linnapea Mart Viisitamme eest. Tekst pärineb Mart Laari veebipäevikust blog.irl.ee/Mart_Laar/

  18. Restauratsioon / Mart Velsker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Velsker, Mart, 1966-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Üheksavägine. Tartu : Erakkond, 1997.Märka, Veiko. Tühja aju korinad; Rahman, Jan. Vasõst vask; Rüütle, Indrek. Lahkumine Puhjast; Serpent, Franȯis. Ka jumal on inimene (kõik EK$i Kaasaegse Kirjanduse Keskuse väljaanded, Tartu, 1997). Vastukaja: Pilv, Aare. Vastuseks Mart Velskri 'Restauratsioonile' // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 4-5, lk. 185-186

  19. Photocontrol of germination in Amaranthus caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R E; Frankland, B

    1969-12-01

    Germination of Amaranthus caudatus is inhibited by light, far-red being the most effective part of the spectrum. At temperatures of 25° and below there is a low final germination percentage under continuous far-red whereas above 25° there is only a delaying effect. In the presence of a saturating concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 25° seeds germinate under continuous far-red although they are delayed. At 25° seeds exposed to 48 hr far-red fail to germinate when transferred to darkness. This induced dormancy can be broken by a single short exposure to red light given at any time after the far-red illumination. This effect of short red can be reversed by a subsequent short period of far-red indicating that the seeds are phytochrome controlled. Although most seeds have escaped from the reversing effect of short far-red after an intervening dark period of 5 hours, germination is greatly reduced by continuous far-red at this time. Results of exposing seeds to varying periods of far-red before and after dark imbibition are interpreted in terms of a continual production of phytochrome in its active P fr form and a requirement for P fr action over a long period of time. Effects of intermittent and continuous low intensity far-red on the inhibition of germination provides further evidence for a low energy photoreaction involving phytochrome. Effects on Germination Index of continuous illumination with various light sources maintaining different P fr /P total ratios have been investigated. The results suggest that the proportion of phytochrome in the P fr form is the most important factor in the regulation of germination. A scheme for the phytochrome control of germination in Amaranthus caudatus is presented and possible explanations for the dependence on P fr /P total ratio are discussed.

  20. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo; ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve tendência de A. hybridus (tipo verde dominar tanto A. hybridus (tipo roxo como A. viridis, e de A. hybridus (tipo roxo dominar A. viridis. Em cultivo misto, houve casos em que as espécies estavam competindo pelos mesmos recursos, ou explorando recursos diferentes do ambiente, ou mesmo com antagonismo mútuo.The objective of this paper was to study the interspecific interference between two Amaranthus species -- A. viridis and A. hybridus --, the latter with two distinct biotypes (green and purple; both species ocurred in two localities. In the populations of each of the locations, some independent substitution trials were made in pots, and it could be concluded that the populations that germinate more readily are those which are superior in competition i.e., those that establish themselves and produce the largest number of seeds. There was a tendency for A. hybridus (green biotype to dominate both A. hybridus (purple biotype and A. viridis, and for A. hybridus (purple biotype to dominate A. viridis. In mixed stands, there were cases where the species were competing for the same resources, cases where they were exploiting different environmental resources, and even cases of mutual antagonism.

  1. Rahvusvaheline mees Mart Laar = Mart Laar, international man / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti ekspeaministri Mart Laari uutest väljakutsetest pärast Milton Friedmani nimelise auhinna saamist. Lisad: Fakte Mart Laari kohta; Teised Mart Laarist. Vt. samas: Laar soovitab suvisel Eestimaal ringi sõita

  2. VdTX-1, a reversible nicotinic receptor antagonist isolated from venom of the spider Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-E-Silva, Thomaz A A; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Leite, Gildo B; da Silva, Pedro Ismael; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2013-08-01

    Theraphosid spider venoms can block neurotransmission in vertebrate nerve-muscle preparations in vitro, but few of the components involved have been characterized. In this work, we describe the neuromuscular activity of venom from the Brazilian theraphosid Vitalius dubius and report the purification and pharmacological characterization of VdTX-1, a 728 Da toxin that blocks nicotinic receptors. Neuromuscular activity was assayed in chick biventer cervicis preparations and muscle responses to exogenous ACh and KCl were determined before and after incubation with venom or toxin. Changes in membrane resting potential were studied in mouse diaphragm muscle. The toxin was purified by a combination of filtration through Amicon® filters, cation exchange HPLC and RP-HPLC; toxin purity and mass were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Venom caused progressive neuromuscular blockade and muscle contracture; the blockade but not the contracture was reversible by washing. Venom attenuated contractures to exogenous ACh and KCl. Filtration yielded low (LM, 5 kDa) fractions, with the latter reproducing the contracture seen in venom but with a slight and progressive twitch blockade. The LM fraction caused reversible blockade and attenuated contractures to ACh, but had no effect on contractures to KCl. VdTX-1 (728 Da) purified from the LM fraction was photosensitive and reduced the E(max) to ACh in biventer cervicis muscle without affecting the EC₅₀; VdTX-1 also abolished carbachol-induced depolarizations. V. dubius venom contains at least two components that affect vertebrate neurotransmission. One component, VdTX-1, blocks nicotinic receptors non-competitively to produce reversible blockade without muscle contracture.

  3. Mart Laar imedemaalt / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Milton Friedmani vabaduse edendamise preemia pälvinud Mart Laari arvamusi teiste laureaatide ja Eesti edu kohta. Lisa: Friedmani preemia. Vt. samas intervjuud Salvadori ekspresidendi Fransisco Florese ja Londoni majandusinstituudi peadirektori John Blundelliga

  4. STUDIES ON GENETIC PARAMETERS IN GRAIN AMARANTHUS (AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS L. AS INFLUENCED BY PLANT DENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Selvan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of genotypes with adequate combination of traits with high yield at the appropriate density level increased the productivity in amaranth. The study was therefore undertaken to estimate genetic attributes of different amaranth genotypes and to identify and select genotypes with adequate trait combination for improvement in yield. In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. ten genotypes were evaluated  for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high (D1, high (D2, normal (D3 and low plant density (D4 to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. Leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates are recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean in all the four plant density levels.

  5. Spinach Effects (Amaranthus hybridus on Spatial Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Leonita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial memory reduction in elderly is predicted to increase up to twice every 20 years. Spinach (Amaranthus hybridus is widely consumed by Indonesian people and is believed to prevent declined spatial memory function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spinach on spatial memory in wistar rat induced by diazepam Methods: An experimental study was conducted during the period of October to November 2012 in Pharmacology and Therapy Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty five wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; two groups as controls, and 3 groups were given 100, 200, and 400mg/kg BW ethanolic extract of spinach (EESL, respectively. On day 7, group 3, 4, and 5 were given 1 mg/kg BW diazepam injection. Morris water maze tests and calculations of escape latency time (ELT were performed on day 7 and 8. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD test. Results: On day 7, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 4 and group 5. On day 8, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 3 and group 4. There was no significant increase in spatial memory in group 5 (EESL 400mg/kg BW that due to the use of higher dosage does not always show better results. Conclusions: EESL can prevent impairment of spatial memory with an effective dose of 200 mg/kg BW.

  6. Does Wal-Mart Sell Inferior Goods?

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker

    2008-01-01

    I estimate the aggregate income elasticity of Wal-Mart's and Target's revenues using quarterly data for 1997-2006. I find that Wal-Mart's revenues increase during bad times, whereas Target's revenues decrease, consistent with Wal-Mart selling "inferior goods" in the technical sense of the term. An upper bound on the aggregate income elasticity of demand for Wal-Mart's wares is -0.5.

  7. EPSPS amplification in glyphosate-resistant spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus): a case of gene transfer via interspecific hybridization from glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranthus spinosus, a common weed of pastures, is a close relative of Amaranthus palmeri, a problematic agricultural weed with widespread glyphosate resistance. These two species have been known to hybridize, allowing for transfer of glyphosate resistance. Glyphosate-resistant A. spinosus was rec...

  8. Interspecific hybridization transfers a previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism in Amaranthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Todd A; Ward, Sarah M; Bukun, Bekir; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E; Westra, Philip

    2012-01-01

    A previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, was recently reported in Amaranthus palmeri. This evolved mechanism could introgress to other weedy Amaranthus species through interspecific hybridization, representing an avenue for acquisition of a novel adaptive trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for this glyphosate resistance trait to transfer via pollen from A. palmeri to five other weedy Amaranthus species (Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus powellii, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, and Amaranthus tuberculatus). Field and greenhouse crosses were conducted using glyphosate-resistant male A. palmeri as pollen donors and the other Amaranthus species as pollen recipients. Hybridization between A. palmeri and A. spinosus occurred with frequencies in the field studies ranging from <0.01% to 0.4%, and 1.4% in greenhouse crosses. A majority of the A. spinosus × A. palmeri hybrids grown to flowering were monoecious and produced viable seed. Hybridization occurred in the field study between A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus (<0.2%), and between A. palmeri and A. hybridus (<0.01%). This is the first documentation of hybridization between A. palmeri and both A. spinosus and A. hybridus.

  9. Burnout / Mart Jürisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisoo, Mart, 1950-2014

    2004-01-01

    Rootsi eestlase Mart Jürisoo peagi eestikeelsena ilmuva raamatu "Burnout - miks juhid läbi põlevad?" põhjal kokkuvõtlikult läbipõlemisest, ühiskondlikest nähtustest, mis sellele kaasa aitavad ning sellest hoidumise võimalustest

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor and their effects on gene expression of RAGE during oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornrit, W; Santiyanont, R

    2016-04-26

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used as food sources worldwide. Amaranthus leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, which act as free radical scavengers. Oxidative stress caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an important mechanism for neuronal dysfunction and cell loss in different neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective effects of antioxidant-containing plants have been extensively demonstrated in different models of neurotoxicity. However, few studies have investigated the antioxidant properties of Amaranthus extracts and their effect on the nervous system. In the present study, the leaves of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor were extracted using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and methanol. Results indicated that antioxidant activities were the highest in methanol extracts from both kinds of Amaranthus leaves. In addition, oxidative stress was induced in human neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) by using H2O2. Intracellular oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and gene expression of RAGE were then determined. In vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts can significantly decrease cell toxicity and intracellular ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, the extracts also significantly downregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes such as HMOX-1, RAGE, and RelA/ NF-κB. Our results suggested that Amaranthus leaves may be useful for reducing oxidative stress and may be beneficial for age-related diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Will the Amaranthus tuberculatus Resistance Mechanism to PPO-Inhibiting Herbicides Evolve in Other Amaranthus Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chance W. Riggins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO has been slow to evolve and, to date, is confirmed for only four weed species. Two of these species are members of the genus Amaranthus L. Previous research has demonstrated that PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus (Moq. Sauer, the first weed to have evolved this type of resistance, involves a unique codon deletion in the PPX2 gene. Our hypothesis is that A. tuberculatus may have been predisposed to evolving this resistance mechanism due to the presence of a repetitive motif at the mutation site and that lack of this motif in other amaranth species is why PPO-inhibitor resistance has not become more common despite strong herbicide selection pressure. Here we investigate inter- and intraspecific variability of the PPX2 gene—specifically exon 9, which includes the mutation site—in ten amaranth species via sequencing and a PCR-RFLP assay. Few polymorphisms were observed in this region of the gene, and intraspecific variation was observed only in A. quitensis. However, sequencing revealed two distinct repeat patterns encompassing the mutation site. Most notably, A. palmeri S. Watson possesses the same repetitive motif found in A. tuberculatus. We thus predict that A. palmeri will evolve resistance to PPO inhibitors via the same PPX2 codon deletion that evolved in A. tuberculatus.

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  13. Vaba mees Mart Laar / Mart Laar ; interv. Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu saadik, Rootsi Swedpanki nõukogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad temale CATO Instituudi poolt omistatud Milton Friedmani auhinda, osalemist poliitikas, vabaduse tähendust, võimalust saada taas peaministriks, Eesti iseseisvuse eest hääletanud Illar Hallaste ja Indrek Toome väljajäämist ordenisaajate nimekirjast, Isamaaliidu ja Res Publica ühinemist ning uue partei võimalikku juhti. Lisa: Mart Laar. Kommenteerib Tiit Pruuli

  14. Mart Ustav : me ei pruugi HI-viirusest kunagi vabaneda / Mart Ustav ; interv. Riho Laurisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ustav, Mart, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli teadlane Mart Ustav töötab välja HI-viiruse vaktsiini. Kui enamik seniseid aidsiravimeid on keemilised, siis Mart Ustav usub, et on võimalik luua ka looduslik preparaat, mida on lihtne toota ja mis tulevikus võiks abivajajale maksta kõigest mõnisada krooni. Lisaks: Teised Mart Ustavist: Mart Loog, Toivo Maimets

  15. Biological screening of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae Abordagem biológica de Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Salar Amoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays are required for the determination of the total toxicity of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae or "redroot pigweed". Therefore, the plant extract has been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina and cytotoxicity against bovine kidney cells. The LD50 values for Artemia salina were measured at 1700 ppm. The bovine kidney cells were exposed to various concentrations of the plant extracts (100 ppm-0.1 ppm. After treating with 100 and 0.1 ppm for 24 h, the cells viability were reduced by about 49% and 35% respectively in MTT viability assay. The study confirmed that Amaranthus retroflexus has a cytotoxic effect and more specific to renal cells.Ensaios biológicos foram realizados para determinação da toxidade de Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae conhecido popularmente como "redroot pigweed". Extratos desta espécie foram testados para avaliar sua bioatividade em Artemia salina e citoxidade em células bovinas de rim. Os valores de DL50 para Artemia salina foram medidos a 1700 ppm. As células de rim bovinas foram expostas a várias concentrações dos extratos de plantas (100-0,1 ppm. Após tratamento com 100 e 0,1 ppm por 24 h, a viabilidade celular foi reduzida a cerca de 49% e 35%, respectivamente, no ensaio de MTT. O estudo confirma que Amaranthus retroflexus apresenta um efeito citotóxico e, mais especificamente, para células renais.

  16. Marte Meo Metode som magtteknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre

    2015-01-01

    Pårørendeskole til pårørende for at forbedre kommunikation og samvær med familiemedlemmer med demens. Ægtefæller fortalte, at de oplevede at skulle påtage sig større ansvar, end de allerede havde, og at de gjorde modstand mod undervisernes formidlingsmåde og fortolkning af Marte Meo, der blev...

  17. Mart Habakuk viis esimese Eesti ettevõtte Londoni börsile / Mart Habakuk ; interv. Jaanika Merilo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Mart, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Metro Capital Managementi juhatuse esimees Mart Habakuk tutvustab kinnisvarainvesteerimisfirma Metro Baltic Horizons noteerimist Londoni alternatiivnimekirja AIM. Lisa: Metro Capital Management; Mart Habakuk

  18. Kõrge majandusauhind Mart Laarile / Martin Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Cato instituut premeeris Mart Laari majandusteadlase Milton Friedmani nimelise auhinnaga ja üle 6 miljoni krooniga. Vt. samas: Mart Laari varasemad autasud; Milton Friedmani auhind anti kätte kolmandat korda. Kommenteerivad: Ivari Padar, Tiit Vähi, Tiit Tammsaar, Linnar Viik ja Andres Lipstok

  19. Plasticidade fenotípica em Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae Phenotypic plasticity in Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um ensaio em casa de vegetação, no inverno, com seis populações de Amaranthus hybridus (cinco de biótipo verde e uma de biótipo roxo com o objetivo de estudar a influência da qualidade e da quantidade de luz no desenvolvimento das plantas. As plantas que receberam insolação direta no período da manhã, comparadas com as que receberam insolação direta no período da tarde, tiveram um aumento do ciclo de vida e redução na altura (cerca de 50%, número de folhas (cerca de 25%, quantidade de biomassa vegetativa-K (67 a 90%, biomassa reprodutiva-r (42 a 82% e produção total (51 a 83%. No entanto, a redução da relação r/K foi de no máximo 50%, sendo que em algumas populações não houve redução e sim acréscimo desta relação, indicando que plantas estrategistas-r, como o caso de Amaranthus hybridus que é uma invasora de culturas e possui uma grande plasticidade fenotípica, em condições de estresse sacrifica muito mais a produção de estruturas vegetativas que a produção de estruturas reprodutivas.During winter, a greenhouse trial was made in order to study the influence of light quality and quantity in the development of six Amaranthus hybridus populations (five green and one purple biotypes. Comparing plants that received direct insolation in the morning with those that were exposed to direct insolation in the afternoon, an increasing in the life cycle and a reduction in the height of the plants (around 50%, in leaf number (around 25%, in vegetative-K (67 to 90% and reproductive biomassr (42 to 82 and in total production (51 to 83% were observed in the first group of plants. However, reduction of the r/K relation reached the maximum of 50%, althougt some populations did not show this reduction but an increasing in this relation. Amaranthus hybridus, as a weed r-strategist plant, showed a high phenotypic plasticity and under stress conditions the plant metabolism seems to be deviated towards reproductive

  20. Genotypic Variations in Potassium Absorption and Utilization by Amaranthus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of K+ absorption and the utilization of both applied K and K in a calcareous alluvisol with low available K by different genotypes of grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), an ancient pseudo-cereal that produces a large biomass and a rich source of healthy nutrients and mineral elements, were studied by means of ion depletion technique and pot experiments. Grain amaranth had a high affinity for K+ uptake in comparison with corn and cotton. However, there were differences among Amaranthus spp. in K absorption and utilization. Some cultivars such as R104, CX-4, Du001, Hy015 and Hr029 which had a higher rate of K absorption and stronger affinity for K+ were typical varieties with high K-use efficiency (KUE). The results showed that high KUE cultivars grew quickly, possessed stronger ability to take up soil slowly available K and mineral K, and did not respond to K fertilization in the soil with low available K. Correspondingly, grain amaranth cultivars CX-77, Cr024, Vd001, Re003 and Sn003 were relatively low in KUE. Compared with high KUE cultivars, they took up more soil available K and both of their dry matter accumulation and K uptake responded to K applied significantly.

  1. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  2. Microsatellite variability of Sardinian pine martens, Martes martes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Licia; Cannas, Rita; Deiana, Anna M; Tagliavini, James

    2011-08-01

    The pine marten, Martes martes, is a medium-sized terrestrial carnivore associated with woodland habitats of the western Palearctic region. The present distribution area of the species also includes six islands of the western Mediterranean basin. The origin of these insular populations and their taxonomic status are still debated; their molecular characterization appears relevant for conservation purposes. To describe the genetic variability of the pine martens from Sardinia we characterized 40 insular and 14 Italian individuals at seven nuclear microsatellite loci. The identification of private alleles and the calculated F(ST) value of 0.074 revealed some genetic differentiation between the two populations, which accounts for the high percentages of correct allocation (96.39-98.80%) scored by the genotype assignment test. The presence of two distinct clusters corresponding to Sardinia and mainland Italy was further confirmed by the multivariate Factorial Correspondence Analysis of individual genotypes. Moreover, the genome of the Sardinian individuals bore signs of past demographic fluctuations, i.e. the presence of the monomorphic locus Ma-4, a lower allelic richness and a lower number of private alleles, which may derive from the combination of drift, founder effects, and human overexploitation. Anyway, if such events ever affected the Sardinian population, this is likely to have happened in the past since, according to our microsatellite data, the present-day population does not show evidence of recent bottlenecks or inbreeding, the Wilcoxon sign-rank test and the F(IS) index being not statistically significant (both P > 0.05). Based on this genetic evidence, we advance hypotheses about the distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and its significance for taxonomy and conservation.

  3. Final Critical Habitat for Amaranthus brownii from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Amaranthus brownii known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands occur...

  4. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs.

  5. Sallimatuse juured / Mart Nutt, Mikko Lagerspetz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu rassismi ja ja sallimatuse vastase komisjoni liige Mart Nutt ning Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi sotsioloogia professor Mikko Lagerspetz arutlevad Eesti internetiportaalides levivate rassistlike ja antisemiitlike kommentaaride põhjuste ning tagajärgede üle

  6. Antikommunistid tulid kokku Prahas / Mart Niklus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niklus, Mart-Olav, 1934-

    2007-01-01

    22.-25 juunini Prahas toimunud poliitvangide ja kommunismiohvrite rahvusvahelise assotsiatsiooni (INTER-ASSO) 15. kongressist. Eestit esindasid kongressil Mart Niklus ja Kalju Mätik. Lisa: Ka Tšehhis oli oma Gulag

  7. Paneeldiskussioon [veebipõhisest õpikeskkonnast] / Mart Laanpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanpere, Mart

    2003-01-01

    Maire Salundi (projekt Learning for Sharing) juhtimisel läbi viidud paneeldiskussioon, milles osalesid Mart Laanepere, Kerttu Lõhmus (AS Trainator Training), Mall Maasik (Audentes Ariko AS) ja Anne Villems (Tartu Ülikool)

  8. Mart, Peeter ja Tõnu vallutavad Leedu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Juuni esimesel poolel sõidab Mart Kivastiku näidend "Peeter ja Tõnu" kahele Leedu teatrifestivalile - Klaipeda rahvusvahelisele lühinäidendite festivalile ja Vilniusesse Balti riikide uue draama festivalile New Drama Action

  9. Herbicide resistances in Amaranthus tuberculatus: a call for new options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Patrick J; Riggins, Chance W; Bell, Michael S; Hager, Aaron G

    2011-06-08

    Amaranthus tuberculatus is a major weed of crop fields in the midwestern United States. Making this weed particularly problematic to manage is its demonstrated ability to evolve resistance to herbicides. Herbicides to which A. tuberculatus has evolved resistance are photosystem II inhibitors, acetolactate synthase inhibitors, protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors, and glyphosate. Many populations of A. tuberculatus contain more than one of these resistances, severely limiting the options for effective herbicide control. A survey of multiple-herbicide resistance in A. tuberculatus revealed that all populations resistant to glyphosate contained resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitors, and 40% contained resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. The occurrences of multiple-herbicide resistances in A. tuberculatus illustrate the need for continued herbicide discovery efforts and/or the development of new strategies for weed management.

  10. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, Lothar; Gaines, Todd A; Nissen, Scott J; Westra, Philip; Strek, Harry J; Dehne, Heinz W; Ruiz-Santaella, Juan Pedro; Beffa, Roland

    2014-08-13

    The evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds has recently increased dramatically. Six suspected glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus populations were studied to confirm resistance and determine the resistance mechanism. Resistance was confirmed in greenhouse for all six populations with glyphosate resistance factors (R/S) between 5.2 and 7.5. No difference in glyphosate absorption or translocation was observed between resistant and susceptible individuals. No mutation at amino acid positions G101, T102, or P106 was detected in the EPSPS gene coding sequence, the target enzyme of glyphosate. Analysis of EPSPS gene copy number revealed that all glyphosate-resistant populations possessed increased EPSPS gene copy number, and this correlated with increased expression at both RNA and protein levels. EPSPS Vmax and Kcat values were more than doubled in resistant plants, indicating higher levels of catalytically active expressed EPSPS protein. EPSPS gene amplification is the main mechanism contributing to glyphosate resistance in the A. tuberculatus populations analyzed.

  11. The implications of Wal-Mart's takeover of ASDA

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Burt; Leigh Sparks

    2001-01-01

    Wal-Mart is the world's largest retailer. Within the United Kingdom, retailing has generally been considered as a local or national activity. Wal-Mart's purchase of ASDA in 1999 illustrates the global scale of much modern retailing. In this paper we consider the implications of Wal-Mart's takeover of ASDA. First, the key drivers of Wal-Mart's business success are analysed. Second, the impact of Wal-Mart in Canada and Germany is considered. Third, the match of Wal-Mart with ASDA is examined. F...

  12. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  13. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Fernand W; Hilou, Adama; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2012-06-15

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight) in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method) and iron reducing power (FRAP method) ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  14. Millest kõneleb koreograaf Mart Kangro? / Heili Lindepuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindepuu, Heili

    2011-01-01

    Festivali POT raames 5. ja 6. mail Kanuti Gildi saalis taasetendunud Mart Kangro soololavastusest "Start. Based on a True Story". 27. mail Kalevi Spordihallis esietenduvast Mart Kangro lavastusest "Open Tallinn", kus on ühendatud teater, reality show ja multimeedia

  15. 2009. aasta eelarvest 2010. aastasse vaadates / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Erakonna Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit esimees avalikustab 2009.aasta eelarve arutelul välja käidud ettepanekud ja teavitab arutelu tulemused. Tekst pärineb Mart Laari blogist http://blog.irl.ee/Mart_ Laar/

  16. Painting the Town Red? Wal-Mart and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Carden, Art; Courtemanche, Charles; Meiners, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between commerce and culture in the context of the recent debate over the social effect of Wal-Mart. In spite of much public debate, little is known about how Wal-Mart affects values. Using data collected from multiple sources, we show there is little evidence that Wal-Mart makes communities more conservative or more progressive.

  17. [Antioxidant capacity of byproducts from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mejía, Ofelia Araceli; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity (CA) of byproducts from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds from two harvest parcels as a function of three extraction methods and two solvents was evaluated. On a first stage the effect of extraction method (homogenization, low frequency ultrasound, or the combination homogenization-ultrasound) and extraction solvent (methanol or ethanol, 100%) were evaluated; on a second stage, the effect of extraction solvent concentration (100%, 70%, or 50%) was evaluated. CA was determined by DPPH• inhibition, which was expressed as mg Equivalents of Trolox (ET)/g dry matter (DM). Total Phenolic compounds (FT) were determined by means of the FolinCiocalteu assay and expressed as Equivalents of Gallic Acid (EGA)/g DM. Antioxidant compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For CA, there was not significant difference (p>0,05) among extraction methods, but there was significant difference (p0,05) between solvents when they were diluted, but a significant difference (pextracts exhibited the presence of squalene and 2,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol as the major compounds with antioxidant capacity.

  18. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  20. Antioxidant and antipyretic properties of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosusleaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN; Devangam Sheshadri Shekar; Avalakondarayappa Arun Kumar; Bachappa Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Methanolic extract ofAmaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus) leaves was screened for antioxidant and antipyretic activities.Methods:Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile(DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging,2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging assays and total phenolic content was also determined. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract ofA. spinosus was measured by yeast induced pyrexia method at concentration of200 and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: Methanolic extract ofA. spinosusshowed potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value was(87.50 ±3.52) μg/mL, (98.80±1.40) μg/mL,(106.25±0.20)μg/mL,(88.70±0.62) μg/mL and(147.50±2.61) μg/mL forDPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide andABTSradical scavenging activities. Methanolic extract ofA. spinosus showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity.

  1. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  2. Mart Susi tegevust uurib keskkriminaalpolitsei / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Keskkriminaalpolitsei algatas Concordia ülikooliga seotu uurimiseks kaks kriminaalasja, millest üks käsitleb endise rektori Mart Susi ja endise prorektori Mari-Ann Susi võimalikku ametiseisundi kuritarvitamist, teise sisuks on Concordia varade ilmne varjamine

  3. Mart Remmeli "geograafilised figuurid" / Arvo Krikmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krikmann, Arvo, 1939-2017

    2005-01-01

    Refereeritakse broshüüri Remmel, Mart. Large data bases in quantitative history : some handling techniques. Tallinn : Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R., 1979. (Preprint ; KKI-12) inimgeograafia teooria vaatevinklist ning kommenteeritakse seda Eesti folkloorinähtuste geograafilist levikut puutuva materjaliga

  4. ShanghaiMart Review in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2007 VIFF Design Club Activities Recently, the 2007 VIFF Design Club Activities, organized by the View International Fashion & Fabrics Magazine and Fashion Resource Net,was held in the Shanghai Mart in Shanghai, providing a platform for domestic and overseas garment designersto exchange views and ideas on fashion and fabrics designs.

  5. Mart Laar tuleb peatada / Villu Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Villu, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vooremaa, 8. dets. 2001, lk. 2; Nädaline, 8. dets. 2001, lk. 4; Võrumaa Teataja, 11. dets. 2001, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 13. dets. 2001, lk. 2. Kuigi ca 70% Eesti rahvast on elektrijaamade erastamise vastu, on Mart Laari valitsus ignoreerinud rahva tahet, talle on kogu aeg sekundeerinud Mihkel Pärnoja. Autor: ERL. Parlamendisaadik

  6. Sõnumeid Ungarist ja ungarlastest / Mart Niklus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niklus, Mart-Olav, 1934-

    2006-01-01

    20.-23. oktoobril 2006. a. Budapestis toimunud Endiste Poliitvangide ja Kommunismiohvrite Rahvusvahelise Assotsiatsiooni (INTER-ASSO) 14. kongressist. Eestit esindasid Mart Niklus ja Kalju Mätik. Vt. samas. Tõnu Kalvet. Ungari Jüri Estam - Tamas "Lõvi" Pinter. Ungari Jüri Liim - György Budahazy

  7. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses...

  8. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  9. Effect of Amaranthus quitensis on parsley for dehydration yield Efecto de Amaranthus quitensis sobre el rendimiento de perejil para deshidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puricelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are a severe problem in many horticultural crops but information about weed competition on parsley (Petroselinum crispus (Mill. Nym yield is lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine the critical period for Amaranthus quitensis Kunth control in parsley and to quantify the influence of A. quitensis density on parsley yield. The critical period was variable between years and weed densities and ranged between 3 and 44 days in duration. In both years, A. quitensis densities of more than 30 plants/m² can account for up to 70 % of yield loss. The results indicate that A. quitensis can significantly reduce parsley yields even at low densities if the weed is not controlled in the appropriate period.Las malezas son un problema en la producción de perejil (Petroselinum crispus (Mill. Nym para deshidratado, y existe poca información acerca del efecto de las malezas sobre el rendimiento de este cultivo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar el período crítico para el control de Amaranhus quitensis Kunth en perejil y cuantificar la influencia de la densidad de A. quitensis sobre el rendimiento del perejil. El período crítico fue variable entre años y densidad de la maleza y tuvo una duración de entre 3 y 44 días. En 2006 y 2007 una densidad de A. quitensis de más de 30 plantas/m² determina un 70 % de la reducción de rendimiento. Los resultados sugieren que bajas densidades de A. quitensis pueden reducir el rendimiento de perejil si no son controladas en el período adecuado.

  10. Ameerika jaekett Wal-Mart alustab Euroopa vallutamist / Nele Laanemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanemäe, Nele

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika jaekaubanduskett Wal-Mart plaanib kauplused avada kõigis Euroopa riikides. Wal-Mart peab enda tugevuseks madalaid hindu ja laia valikut. Lisad: Citymarket ei tunneta uues tulijas ohtu; Wal-Mart

  11. Ettevaatust! Läbipõlemisoht! / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Raamatu "Burnout - läbipõlemine" autor Mart Jürisoo räägib läbipõlemise olulisematest põhjustest ja tunnustest, võrdleb Eesti ja Rootsi juhtide juhtimisstiile ning analüüsib stressitegureid Eesti organisatsioonides ja ühiskonnas. Lisa: Läbipõlemise olulisemad sümptomid; Difuusse ehk Marshmallow-organisatsiooni tunnused ja probleemid

  12. Wal-Mart and Rural Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Swaminathan, Hema

    2004-01-01

    Wal-Mart® has created tremendous economic benefits for consumers by providing more choices at lower prices. The benefits are felt especially in communities that had only local retail monopolies prior to the arrival of the store. Yet no mretailer evokes stronger negative emotions than this chain. Recent media attention has focused on questionable labor practices and low wages combined with lack of benefits paid by the corporation, while academic studies have examined effects of the stores on r...

  13. Techonolgy of Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Dousseau; Amauri Alves de Alvarenga; Lúcio de Oliveira Arantes; Izabel de Souza Chaves; Eduardo Valente Avelino

    2013-01-01

    Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae), commonly known as "pau-terra", is an arborous species native to the Brazilian savannah which possess commercial interests, as it can be used either as an ornamental or as a medicinal plant. "Pau-terra" can also be used in the heterogeneous reforestation of areas which are destined for restoration of permanent preservation degraded areas. Propagation studies with this species are scarce, being necessary then further clarification regarding the factors t...

  14. The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David; Zhang, Junfu; Ciccarella, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the effects of Wal-Mart stores on county-level retail employment and earnings, accounting for endogeneity of the location and timing of Wal-Mart openings that most likely biases the evidence against finding adverse effects of Wal-Mart stores. We address the endogeneity problem using a natural instrumental variables approach that arises from the geographic and time pattern of the opening of Wal-Mart stores, which slowly spread out from the first stores in Arkansas. The employment r...

  15. The unique genomic landscape surrounding the EPSPS gene in glyphosate resistant Amaranthus palmeri: A repetitive path to resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expanding number and global distributions of herbicide resistant weedy species threaten food, feed, fiber and bioproduct sustainability and agroecosystem longevity. Amongst the most competitive weeds, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats has rapidly evolved increased resistance to glyphosate primarily th...

  16. Anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of three species ofAmaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girija K; Lakshman K; Udaya Chandrika; Sabhya Sachi Ghosh; Divya T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods:In this study, the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of all three plants was evaluated by using normal andSTZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of200 mg/kg and400 mg/kg p.o.daily for21days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed.Results:It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity (P<0.01), while at200 mg/kg dose less significant anti-diabetic activity (P<0.05) was observed.Conclusions:Methanol extracts ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity, which provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  17. Mart Sander ja Julie Hagen-Schwarz / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Mart Sanderi galerii "Galerii" (Sakala 18, Tallinn) avanäitusest. Eksponeeritud baltisaksa naiskunstniku Julie Wilhelmine Hagen-Schwarzi maalid, mis on pärit erakogudest. Väljas on ka Mart Sanderi tehtud koopia Julie Hagen-Schwarzi autoportreest (1855). Julie Hagen-Schwarzist ja tema loomingust

  18. Skred i marts: S minus seks mandater, SF plus ni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2008-01-01

    NYHED: "Tilslutningen til S går ad helvede til", skriver professor Søren Risbjerg Thomsen om snittet af meningsmålinger i marts.......NYHED: "Tilslutningen til S går ad helvede til", skriver professor Søren Risbjerg Thomsen om snittet af meningsmålinger i marts....

  19. Riigikogu palk külma! / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Parlamendiliikme sõnul kavatsetakse 2007. aasta lõpu tasemel külmutada Riigikogu liikmete, ministrite, presidendi, eurosaadikute, õiguskantsleri, riigikontrolöri ja teiste kõrgemate ametiisikute palk. Artikkel pärineb Mart Laari veebipäevikust http://blog.irl.ee/Mart_Laar/

  20. Mart Laar dilemma köidikus / Abdul Turay

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Turay, Abdul, 1967-

    2009-01-01

    Autor imetleb Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu esimeest Mart Laari ning märgib, et kaks monetarismi koolkonda, mida ta toetab, asuvad nüüd diametraalselt vastupidistel seisukohtadel ja Mart Laar peaks nüüd valima, keda ta edaspidi toetab

  1. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 {mu}g/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 {+-} 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  2. Entrevista a Martín Pereda

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En esta entrevista, celebrada en la Real Academia de Ingeniería Española, José Antonio Martín Pereda, padre de la fotónica, y participante en la elaboración del primer plan de I+D para España en los 80, habla sobre el desconocimiento que había en nuestro país en los años 70 sobre la fotónica y el láser. Habla igualmente sobre los ordenadores cuánticos y sobre la crisis económica.

  3. ShanghaiMart: Review in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ International Buyers Delegation Visit the city of Zhongshan On Oct.25th-27th,the international buyers group of ShanghaiMart,invited by the organizing committee of the eighth China's Casual Wear Fair,visited the city of Zhongshan in Guangdong province and took part in the expo.The delegation consisted of 29 members,mainly from eight European and American enterprises,seven Japanese and Korean enterprises,and three corporations from Hong Kong,Taiwan and the mainland of China.

  4. Preemiad said Rein Raud, fs, Mart Kivastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali 2004. aasta kirjanduse aastapreemia laureaadid on: Rein Raud ("Hector ja Bernard"), fs (luulekogu "2004"), Mart Kivastik (näidend "Külmetava kunstniku portree"), Jaan Rannap ("Nelja nimega koer"), Toomas Haug ("Troojamäe tõotus"), Harald Rajamets (tõlkeluule kogumik "Pegasos ja peegel"), Antoine Chalvin ("Kalevipoja" tõlge prantsuse keelde"), Ilmar Talve ("Eesti kultuurilugu"), Lauri Sommer (artikkel Uku Masingu käsikirja "Saadik Magellani pilvest" vaimne, ajalis-ruumiline ja elulooline taust), Boris Tuch ("Gorjatshaja desjatka estonskihh pisatelei")

  5. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzym...

  6. Identification of a catalase-phenol oxidase in betalain biosynthesis in red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Lu eTeng; Ning eChen; Xing-Guo eXiao

    2016-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzym...

  7. PHYTO-REMEDIATION OF LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS

    OpenAIRE

    Opeolu, B.O.; Bamgbose, O; Arowolo, T.A.; Kadiri, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some vegetables have the ability to absorb metals from soil. Since they are early maturity species, they possess the potential to be used as phytoremediating agents. Also, synthetic chelates have been found to induce lead desorption from soil matrix, thereby enhancing uptake into plant tissues. Therefore, a study was carried out to determine the potential of Amaranthus cruentus as a soil lead remediating plant. The experiment was carried out using a randomized...

  8. Development of E-Mart Based on Object-Oriented Databases (OODB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li; WANG Li; LIU Hao-shuang

    2002-01-01

    Focusing on the development of electronic-mart (e-mart)based on object-oriented databases (OODB), the concepts of integrated electronic-commerce (ecommerce) environment and e-mart are introduced, and the basic characteristics of OODB Jasmine are described.In addition, the database mode and hierarchy of e-mart are discussed in derail.

  9. Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum and Different Amaranth Species (Amaranthus spp. Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pospišil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigations carried out on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was to compare green mass and dry matter yields of forage sorghum and amaranth, and the nutritional value of these two crops at several development stages. Investigations included two amaranth cultivars: ‘1008’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and ‘Koniz’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. x Amaranthus hybridus L., and forage sorghum, hybrid Grazer N (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense. In all three trial years, forage sorghum gave the highest green mass and dry matter yield at the tasselling stage. In 2003, also amaranth, cultivar 1008, gave a high green mass yield at the flowering, which was in the same rank as forage sorghum. Decline of biomass quality was observed at later development stages due to a decrease in the concentration of crude and digestible proteins and an increase in NDF (neutral detergent fibre and ADF (acid detergent fibre concentrations. High quality of amaranth biomass was determined. Higher concentrations of crude and digestible proteins were found in amaranth aboveground biomass compared to forage sorghum while sorghum had a higher NDF concentration.

  10. The Diffusion of Wal-Mart and Economies of Density

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    The roll-out of Wal-Mart store openings followed a pattern that radiated from the center out with Wal-Mart maintaining high store density and a contiguous store network all along the way. This paper estimates the benefits of such a strategy to Wal-Mart, focusing on the savings in distribution costs afforded by a dense network of stores. The paper takes a revealed preference approach, inferring the magnitude of density economies by the extent of sales cannibalization from closely-packed stores...

  11. Spatio-temporal population genetic survey of the Danish pine marten (Martes martes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Barker, J Stuart F; Madsen, Aksel Bo;

    2008-01-01

    samples indicates changes in the genetic compositions over time, and the higher FST values between the two recent samples, as compared with the two historical samples, indicates that the populations in Sealand and Jutland have drifted apart within a short time span. No deviation from Hardy......A spatio-temporal study of genetic variation in the Danish pine marten (Martes martes) populations from the Jutland peninsula and from the island of Sealand was performed using 11 microsatellite markers. Samples obtained from 1892 to 2003 were subdivided into historical (prior to 1970) and recent...... (from 1970) groups. As compared with the historical samples, there was a significant loss of genetic variation in the recent Jutland population, but not in Sealand. Effective population sizes were estimated using Bayesian-based software (TMVP). Historical effective population sizes were 5897 (90...

  12. Spatio-temporal population genetics of the Danish pine marten (Martes martes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Barker, Stuart F; Madsen, Aksel Bo;

    2008-01-01

    A spatio-temporal study of genetic variation in the Danish pine marten (Martes martes) populations from the Jutland peninsula and from the island of Sealand was performed using 11 microsatellite markers. Samples obtained from 1892 to 2003 were subdivided into historical (prior to 1970) and recent...... (from 1970) groups. As compared with the historical samples, there was a significant loss of genetic variation in the recent Jutland population, but not in Sealand. Effective population sizes were estimated using Bayesian-based software (TMVP). Historical effective population sizes were 5897 (90...... samples indicates changes in the genetic compositions over time, and the higher FST values between the two recent samples, as compared with the two historical samples, indicates that the populations in Sealand and Jutland have drifted apart within a short time span. No deviation from Hardy...

  13. Mart Mets : "Mida rohkem ajaloolisi kihistusi, seda põnevam on aed" / Mart Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mets, Mart

    2006-01-01

    Eesti elukutselisi aialoojaid tutvustavas sarjas vastab küsimustele maastikuarhitekt Mart Mets. M. Metsast, tema tähtsamad tööd. M. Mets endast, oma õpetajatest, lemmikstiilist, oma tulevasest aiast ja töödest, koostööst klientidega, uuselamurajoonide kruntide probleemidest, vana aia ümberkujundamisest, ilutaimedest, Eesti aiast jpm. Ill.: M. Metsa portreefoto, 6 ill. tema töödest

  14. José Martí

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria Angelica Guidolin dos

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-graduação em Literatura O objetivo deste trabalho é problematizar a intenção formadora da identidade nacional, realizada pelo escritor José Julián Martí y Pérez (1853-1895) do ponto de vista literário, destacando a revista La Edad de Oro, como representante da voz literária do escritor no panorama latino-americano. Quanto à sua produção, destaca-se a diversidade de gêneros li...

  15. Dialoog läbi seina / Mart Kangro, Jim Ashilevi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Mart, 1974-

    2016-01-01

    Videoblogidest ehk vlogidest, internetist, videomeediumist, distantsist esineja ja publiku vahel, verbaalsest eneseväljandusest, lavastusprotsessist, füüsilisest teatrist ja muust. Mart Kangro ja Jim Ashilevi vestlus

  16. Teadlastele on Saksamaa kogemus hindamatu / Mart Min, Jaan Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Min, Mart, 1943-

    2012-01-01

    Oma muljeid Saksamaalt jagavad Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli professor Mart Min, kes on viibinud õppejõuna Saksamaal ja Frankfurdis Max Plancki instituudis doktorantuuris aju ja teadvust uuriv noorteadlane Jaan Aru

  17. Wal-Mart China’s Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦平

    2014-01-01

    At Wal-Mart, we know that being an ef icient and profitable business and being a good steward of the environment are goals that can work together. In this report, taking China for example, we mainly analyze Wal-Mart China’s sustainable development strategies including market expanding, competitiveness and social responsibilities in China. In addition, we analyze Wal-Mart’s international environment to ensure it has a stable environment.

  18. Inhibition of In Vivo Growth of Plasmodium berghei by Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunnisola, Olubukola S.; Adegbola, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis used by people of Western Africa in the treatment of malaria and related symptoms were assessed for their antiplasmodial value against the chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei. Crude extracts (200 mg/kg) and chloroquine (5 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of Swiss mice. The percentage of parasitemia, survival time, and haematological parameters were determined. Both extracts significantly (p phytochemical investigations in the search for new and locally affordable antimalarial agents. PMID:28050307

  19. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, B; Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A; Biroonara, A

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Amaranthus are known to reduce crop yields and interference with harvest throughout the Iran. In the past few years, the occurrence of some Amaranthus species including of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) increased throughout the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, supplanting all the other Amaranthus species in large areas of the region and causing concern among farmers and researchers. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the tropical pulse crops, that C4 weeds such as redroot pigweed can cause yield loss in this crop production. In order to determine the critical period of redroot pigweed control in green bean, two experiments were conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, at 2004 and 2005. The experimental designs in both year was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treatments were weed-infested and weed-free in the same periods. Both year, in weed-infested experiment, redroot pigweed was seeded immediately after green bean planting and removed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks after green bean emergence (WAE). In weed-free experiment, redroot pigweed seeds were transplanted to green bean plots at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 WAE. Data were analyzed using the MSTATC software and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Ranges Test. Regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between green bean yield and duration of redroot pigweed interference using the REG PROCEDURE of SAS. Results indicated that the difference between years with a view to influence on all traits except stem height at the harvesting stage and pod yield at the first and second harvesting time were significant. Also, differences between treatments with a view to influence on all traits were significant. Contemporary growing of pigweed and green bean for early first month and weed interference 10 WAE had not significant effect on green bean above ground biomass. In both years, the highest green bean yield

  20. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  1. Variabilità microsatellitare in popolazioni italiane di martora, Martes martes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La martora, Martes martes, è un mustelide storicamente presente su gran parte del territorio italiano, soprattutto dove siano presenti foreste mature altamente strutturate e ricche di risorse. Nel corso dei decenni passati, cause quali la deforestazione con conseguente frammentazione dell'habitat, la caccia e la persecuzione da parte dell'uomo hanno portato ad un sensibile declino sia nel numero d'individui sia di popolazioni in tutta l'Europa. Frammentazione degli areali e diminuzione del numero di soggetti costituiscono le cause principali di un limitato flusso genico con conseguente formazione di popolazioni isolate di martora e perdita di variabilità genetica (Kyle et al., 2003. Per queste ragioni la martora risulta attualmente tutelata secondo quanto previsto dalla Convenzione di Berna (appendice III e dalla Direttiva europea 92/43/CEE "Habitats & Species". Di fronte a prospettive di tipo conservazionistico, diventa necessario disporre di metodologie per la valutazione della variabilità residua nella specie a livello d'individui e di popolazioni. Secondo numerosi Autori, i microsatelliti costituiscono marcatori molto efficaci nella descrizione della struttura genetica e della storia demografica di specie (Beaumont & Bruford, 1999; Linares, 1999. Il presente lavoro propone i risultati ottenuti attraverso il confronto di due campioni costituiti da individui di Martes martes provenienti dalla Sardegna (25 esemplari e dal territorio italiano (6 esemplari. L'analisi è stata condotta a livello di 7 loci microsatellitari dinucleotidici polimorfici. Il valore di FST calcolato dal confronto dei due gruppi è risultato pari a 0,102 e ricade nel range di variazione identificato di recente in popolazioni nord-europee di martora (Kyle et al., 2003. L'analisi della varianza molecolare (AMOVA, condotta a due livelli gerarchici, ha permesso in particolare di ripartire la varianza del campione

  2. Transfer and expression of ALS inhibitor resistance from Amaranthus palmeri to an A. spinosus X A. palmeri hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transfer of herbicide resistance among closely related weed species is a topic of growing concern. An Amaranthus palmeri X A. spinosus hybrid was confirmed resistant to several ALS inhibitors including imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, pyrithiobac and trifloxysulfuron. Enzyme assays indicated that the AL...

  3. Distinguishing between weedy Amaranthus species based on intron one sequences from the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization between Amaranthus species and the potential for herbicide resistance to be transferred by hybridization are of growing concern in the weed science community. It is important to confirm suspect hybrid populations early to develop an effective control strategy. With this in mind, a PC...

  4. Differences among five amaranth varieties (Amaranthus spp.) regarding secondary metabolites and foliar herbivory by chewing insects in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niveyro, Selene L.; Mortensen, Anne G.; Fomsgaard, Inge S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of secondary metabolites present in leaves of five varieties of Amaranthus, described the community of chewing insects observed in the foliage and also quantified damage by folivore insects in the field. Three flavonoid glucosides (rutin, nicotiflorin an...

  5. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  6. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Macelroy, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to analyze the effects of increasing salinity stress on growth, photosynthesis, and carbon allocation in the crop plant Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0 percent. The limits of total salinity in the plant growth medium are investigated. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2 percent. Inhibition of these phases increased from o.2 to 0.4 percent salinity and was total above 0.5 percent with 1 percent salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5 percent and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising frm changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  7. Noored lavastajad ületavad valdkondade piirid / Uku Uusberg, Mart Kase ; intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uusberg, Uku, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Noored lavastajad Uku Uusberg ja Mart Kase oma vastvalminud lavastustest. 19. mail esietendub NO99 teatris Uku Uusbergi kirjutatud ja lavastatud "Pea vahetus" ja Niine 11 kontorihoones Mart Kase kirjutatud ja lavastatud "Startup"

  8. El viaje a Marte de Modesto Brocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaureguízar, Agustín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Modesto Brocos (1852-1936 was a remarkable painter from Santiago de Compostela who emigrated at an early age to Brazil, where he lived, held in high regard, up to his death. In 1930 he published in Valencia, in Castilian, his only work of fiction, an unobtainable Voyage To Mars which is a true socialist utopia. That whole world is established as a single global state, of which he details all that goes from a Constitution to Municipal Ordinances, through the administration of justice, education, health and Women’s Rights, with only one race and one language, and as peculiar a institution as the Agricultural Army or the Humanitarian Sisters.Modesto Brocos (1852-1936 fue un notable pintor compostelano que emigró joven a Brasil y allí vivió respetado hasta su muerte. En 1930 publicó en Valencia, en castellano, su única obra de ficción, un inencontrable Viaje a Marte que es una auténtica utopía socialista. Todo ese mundo está constituido en un solo estado planetario, del que detalla cuanto va de una Constitución a unas Ordenanzas Municipales, pasando por la administración de justicia, la educación, la sanidad y la igualdad de derechos entre los sexos, con una raza única y una lengua única, contando con instituciones tan peculiares como el Ejercito Agrícola o las Hermanas Humanitarias.

  9. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  10. Näljane Wal-Mart tahab ka smiley alla kugistada / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2006-01-01

    USA jaekaubanduskett Wal-Mart tahab oma kaubamärgina registreerida smiley' - kollase naerunäo kujutise. Smiley' leiutajaks peab end Suurbritannias asuva ühemehefirma SmileyWorld omanik Franklin Loufrani. Lisa: Wal-Mart üritab jõukamaid kundesid meelitada. Tabel: Wal-Mart

  11. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  12. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Dunagan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Rio Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of 3 cores from Rio Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  13. Techonolgy of Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, commonly known as "pau-terra", is an arborous species native to the Brazilian savannah which possess commercial interests, as it can be used either as an ornamental or as a medicinal plant. "Pau-terra" can also be used in the heterogeneous reforestation of areas which are destined for restoration of permanent preservation degraded areas. Propagation studies with this species are scarce, being necessary then further clarification regarding the factors that influences the germination process. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different temperatures, substrates and light conditions on seed germination. We selected light brown seeds which were subjected to different interactions between temperatures (15-25, 20-30, 25 and 30°C, substrate (paper, sand and vermiculite and light (light and dark. All seeds were later dry-incubated at 32°C for 3, 6 and 12 hours. After treatments, seeds were kept in BOD at 58% RH and the following parameters were calculated: germination (%G and germination speed index (GSI; the formation of normal and abnormal seedlings and the number dead seeds. Interaction was observed for all variables. In the optimum temperature range, the seeds behaved as photoblastic neutral or indifferent. Under alternating temperatures, darkness enhanced the germination, especially when combined with the lower temperatures. We noted that the sowing in sand, at 25°C, allowed the maintenance of suitable combinations of germination and seedling development. With respect to desiccation tolerance, "pau-terra" seeds presented an orthodox behavior, with a linear increase of the vigor as function of drying.

  14. Fractionation by milling of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) : compositional characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Marcílio; Jaime Amaya-Farfan; Ciacco,César F.; CARLOS R. SPEHAR

    2003-01-01

    O grão de amaranto é geralmente consumido na sua forma integral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da moagem do grão de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus) brasileiro na composição química, nutricional, a estabilidade à oxidação e cor da farinha. Os grãos foram pré-condicionados para umidades entre 9,2 e 13,7% e fracionados em moinho para cereais. O aumento da umidade de 9,2 para 13,7% resultou na diminuição progressiva do rendimento da farinha, de 39 para 14%. A farinha refinada (qu...

  15. Biochemical characterization of a trypanosomatid isolated from the plant Amaranthus retroflexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Marín

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A protozoan flagelate has recently been isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus. This plant grows near economically important crops in southeastern Spain, which are known to be parasitized by Phytomonas spp. The present study focuses on the characterization of the energy metabolism of this new isolate. These flagellates utilize glucose efficiently as their primary energy source, although they are unable to completely degrade it. They excrete ethanol, acetate, glycine, and succinate in lower amount, as well as ammonium. The presence of glycosomes was indicated by the early enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, one enzyme of the glycerol pathway (glycerol kinase, and malate dehydrogenase. No evidence of a fully functional citric-acid cycle was found. In the absence of catalase activity, these flagellates showed significant superoxide dismutase activity located in the glycosomal and cytosolic fractions. These trypanosomes, despite being morphologically and metabolically similar to other Phytomonas isolated from the same area, showed significant differences, suggesting that they are phylogenetically different species.

  16. Evaluation of herbicide combinations for livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) control in tuberous begonia (Begonia x tuberhybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, M; van Labeke, M C

    2004-01-01

    In the past years livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) is observed increasingly in begonia production fields. Control of weeds in begonia is generally done by a combined application of the soil herbicides isoxaben + simazin followed 10 days later by application of the contact herbicide bentazone. This treatment usually controls the weed population sufficiently with exception of amaranth. In 2003 a field trial was conducted to evaluate control of livid amaranth in tuberous begonia with isoxaben, simazin. S-metolachloor, phenmedipham + desmedipham and bentazone. These herbicides were used as combinations of soil treatment and contact herbicides. The results suggest that a soil treatment of isoxaben + S-metolachloor significantly reduces livid amaranth compared to isoxaben + simazin, without a pronounced negative effect on tuber yield. Application of phenmedipham + desmedipham however did not improve control of livid amaranth compared to bentazone.

  17. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  18. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  19. Characterization of the Amaranthus palmeri Physiological Response to Glyphosate in Susceptible and Resistant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Escalada, Manuel; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Zabalza, Ana; Royuela, Mercedes

    2016-01-13

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the aromatic amino acid (AAA) biosynthetic pathway. The physiologies of an Amaranthus palmeri population exhibiting resistance to glyphosate by EPSPS gene amplification (NC-R) and a susceptible population (NC-S) were compared. The EPSPS copy number of NC-R plants was 47.5-fold the copy number of NC-S plants. Although the amounts of EPSPS protein and activity were higher in NC-R plants than in NC-S plants, the AAA concentrations were similar. The increases in total free amino acid and in AAA contents induced by glyphosate were more evident in NC-S plants. In both populations, the EPSPS protein increased after glyphosate exposure, suggesting regulation of gene expression. EPSPS activity seems tightly controlled in vivo. Carbohydrate accumulation and a slight induction of ethanol fermentation were detected in both populations.

  20. Influence of the addition of Amaranthus mantegazzianus flour on the nutritional and health properties of pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Martinez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the nutritional and functional properties of pasta, bread wheat flour was substituted with wholemeal flour from Amaranthus mantegazzianus (WMAF at 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w. Proteins, dietary fibre, glycemic index (GI and carbohydrate and protein digestibility were determined in the resulting pasta. Squalene content was also measured, in view of the beneficial health properties of this compound. With the addition of 30% of WMAF, where the technological quality of pasta remained acceptable, protein and fibre contents resulted in 23 and 50% higher than control pasta. Pasta presented a significant enrichment of squalene content at all levels of substitution with WMAF. In addition, all samples remained in the range of low GI foods, and protein digestibility values were even higher than control pasta.

  1. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  2. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffo Kamela, Arnaud Landry; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Ashish, Rawson; Maffo Tazoho, Ghislain; Glory Moh, Lamye; Pamo Tedonkeng, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked), milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet), DI (egg white as reference protein), DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus), DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus), DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus), and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus). The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter) while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes. PMID:28078277

  3. Transmission of herbicide resistance from a monoecious to a dioecious weedy Amaranthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, J.; Wassom, J.; Jeschke, R.; Rayburn, L.

    2002-10-01

    The genus Amaranthus includes several important monoecious and dioecious weed species, and several populations of these species have developed resistance to herbicides. These species are closely related and two or more species often coexist in agricultural settings. Collectively, these attributes raise the concern that herbicide resistance might transfer from one weedy Amaranthus species to another. We performed research to determine if a dominant allele encoding a herbicide-insensitive form of acetolactate synthase (ALS) could be transferred from a monoecious species, A. hybridus, to a dioecious species, A. rudis. Numerous F(1) hybrids were obtained from controlled crosses in a greenhouse between A. rudis and herbicide-resistant A. hybridus, and most (85%) of these hybrids were herbicide-resistant. Molecular analysis of the ALS gene was used to verify that herbicide-resistant hybrids contained both an A. rudis and an A. hybridus ALS allele. Although hybrids had greatly reduced fertility, 42 BC(1) plants were obtained by backcrossing 33 hybrids with male A. rudis. Fertility was greatly restored in BC(1) progeny, and numerous BC(2) progeny were obtained from a second backcross to A. rudis. The herbicide-resistance allele from A. hybridus was transmitted to 50% of the BC(1) progeny. The resistance allele was subsequently transmitted to and conferred herbicide resistance in 39 of 110 plants analyzed from four BC(2) families. Parental species, hybrids, and BC(2) progeny were compared for 2C nuclear DNA contents. The mean hybrid 2C nuclear DNA content, 1.27 pg, was equal to the average between A. rudis and A. hybridus, which had 2C DNA contents of 1.42 and 1.12 pg, respectively. The mean 2C DNA content of BC(2) plants, 1.40 pg, was significantly (alpha herbicide resistance can be acquired by A. rudis through a hybridization event with A. hybridus.

  4. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  5. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  6. Digestibility, chemical compound and protein quality of amaranthus forage at two harvested cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooria ehsani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amaranth, genus Amaranthus, belongs to the Amaranthaceae family and includes more than 60 species (28. Amaranth forage, is distinguished by high yield performance of up to 70 t/ha (30. Plant maturity was found to affect neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, CP and nitrate content of amaranth forage (27. Several studies (21, 27, 29 have shown that the nutritive value of amaranth as a ruminant feed is equal to, or better than, commonly used forages such as alfalfa. Its favorable chemical analysis (e.g., high crude protein (CP and low lignin ranges from 80 to 285 and from 17 to 73 g/kg DM, respectively and its high dry matter (DM digestibility (590–790 g/kg DM low nitrate and oxalic acid concentrations (below toxic levels suggest that it has potential value as a ruminant feedstuff (21, 23, 27. Materials and Methods The forage was planted in spring at one field (10 ha near Karaj city (Iran. The area is at an altitude of 1215 m above sea level, with a mean annual rainfall and temperature is 305.8 mm and 15C◦, respectively. In the early autumn, samples were harvested by hand from at least 10 locations within the field and pooled to five samples. The dry samples were analyzed for DM (method 930.15, ash (method 924.05 and CP (method 9 84.13 of AOAC (6. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF according to the method of Robertson and Van Soest (35 with NDF and ADF assayed sequentially without a heat stable amylase, and expressed inclusive of residual ash (25. Insoluble CP, soluble CP (SP, true protein (TP, AD insoluble CP (ADICP and ND insoluble CP (NDICP were determined according to Licitra method (15. Nitrate was determined by a colorimetric method (8, and oxalic acid was determined according to Abaza method (2. Ca and Mg were determined by atomic absorption, P was analyzed by spectrophotometer and K by flame emission spectrometer (6. DMD, OMD and DOMD were determined by a two stage

  7. Field evaluation of Amaranthus species for seed and biomass yields in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Pizza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a crop with a potentially increasing cultivation area. Little information is available on amaranth cultivation in Mediterranean environments and in southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic traits and assess the grain and biomass yield responses of 11 genotypes belonging to 5 Amaranthus species, provided from the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System. There was wide diversity in agronomic traits among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. The accessions belonging to A. cruentus had the shortest growing cycle followed by A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and, finally, A. hybrid that had the longest growing season. The A. cruentus accessions reached maturity more quickly than the other species. The total above-ground dry matter ranged from 15 to 23 t ha-1 with A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, and A. hybridus being the most productive. The stem plus branches dry matter was well correlated to the plant height (r2 = 0.75**. The tested amaranth genotypes showed appreciable biomass production that can thus be regarded as an interesting secondary product after seed harvesting. Grain yield and components varied among species and accessions. A. hypochondriacus showed the highest yield per plant (55.4 g followed by five accessions belonging to A. cruentus and A. hybridus (26.4 g on average. Considering together their shorter growing season and their higher grain production, the five accessions belonging to A. cruentus species appear to be better adapted to Mediterranean environments and southern Italy as compared to the other species.

  8. José Martí: modernidade e utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Veloso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da trajetória intelectual e política de José Martí. Busca analisar as rupturas que o mesmo introduziu no campo cultural da América Latina, ao reescrever as relações entre civilização e barbárie, assim como entre literatura, história e política. Utilizou-se da crônica jornalística como arma de combate para introduzir um discurso novo que apontasse para outra modernidade, onde os grupos subalternos e esquecidos pudessem transformar-se em atores sociais, protagonistas da história latino-americana.The article deals with José Martí's intellectual and political trajectory. I aim at analyzing the breakthroughs that brought Martí to the Latin American cultural field by motivating him not only to redraw the civilization barbarism lines but also to redefine the connections between literature, history and politics. As I attempt to demonstrate, Martí deployed the newspaper chronic as a weapon to introduce a new discourse that sought to highlight the existence of an alternative modernity, whereby subaltern and forgotten groups could become social actors and protagonists of Latin American history.

  9. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured we

  10. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  11. Mart Sander ei tea oma saate tulevikku / Heili Sibrits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sibrits, Heili, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Muusikasaatest "Tähed muusikas". Mart Sanderi juhitav MTÜ Bel-Etage suurprojektidest 2002. aasta maist augustini: Sir Arthur Sullivani koomilisest ooperist "Trial by Jury" ("Vandekohus") ja Lionel Moncktoni muusikalist "The Arcadians" ("Arkaadlased"). Sander juhib BBC Eurovisioni-eelset saadet eesti muusikast

  12. Mart Laar : teatavad erimeelsused on parteis olnud juba mõnda aega / Mart Laar ; interv. Kerttu Rannamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Küsimused puudutavad Mart Laari ilmajäämist välisministri kohast, erimeelsusi IRL-is, Riigikogu spiikri ja ministrikohtade jagamist, ministrikandidaate Jaak Aaviksood ja Jüri Pihli, koalitsioonilepingut ja Keskerakonna arvamust selle kohta, Milton Friedmani auhinnaraha. M. Laar peab õigeks, et riigikogu võimu ja autoriteeti tuleb tugevdada ning edendada parlamentaarset mõtteviisi

  13. Crescimento e desenvolvimento do amaranto (amaranthus spp. sob estresse salino e cobertura morta Growth and development of amaranth (amaranthus ssp under saline stress and mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeson Mateus Alves da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigar cultivares tolerantes à salinidade da água de irrigação e do solo é uma necessidade nas áreas agrícolas abastecidas por água de qualidade insatisfatória. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação e da cobertura morta do solo no desenvolvimento vegetativo do amaranto (Amaranthus spp. cultivado em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi realizado entre março e maio de 2006, utilizando-se colunas de PVC com 30 kg de um solo de textura franco-siltosa. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo testado o uso ou não de cobertura morta e quatro níveis de salinidade na água de irrigação (0,147; 1,5; 3,0; e 4,5 dS m-1, a 25 °C. A cobertura morta antecipou o início da floração e aumentou a área foliar, a altura de planta, o diâmetro de caule e a produção de biomassa. O aumento na concentração salina não ocasionou redução nos teores de Ca e Mg, no tecido foliar. O aumento na concentração de sais na água de irrigação retardou a floração do amaranto, porém a espécie apresentou tolerância até o limite de 4,5 dS m-1, pois a produção de biomassa seca não foi afetada por esse aumento de salinidade.In agricultural areas irrigated with water of unsatisfactory quality, plants that are tolerant to the salinity in water and soil are needed. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the salinity of irrigation water and soil mulch on the vegetative development of amaranth (Amaranthus spp in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out from March to May 2006 in PVC columns with 30 kg of soil with silt loam texture. The non-use of mulch and four salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.147; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5 dS m-1, to 25 °C was evaluated in a completely randomized design with eight treatments and four replications. Mulch reduced the beginning of flowering and increased the leaf area, plant

  14. Intoxicação natural por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae em ovinos no Sudeste do Brasil Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae poisoning in sheep in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Estado do Rio de Janeiro descreve-se um surto de intoxicação aguda por Amaranthus spinosus em 12 ovelhas, caracterizado clinicamente por hálito urêmico, ausência de movimentos ruminais, dispnéia e aborto. Os animais foram colocados em um pasto adubado e severamente invadido pela planta. A necropsia realizada em seis ovinos revelou rins pálidos, em geral, com estriações esbranquiçadas desde o córtex até a medula; em um animal verificaram-se diversos infartos sob forma de figuras geométricas no córtex. O fígado apresentava-se mais claro, por vezes com lobulação evidente. Em um animal verificaram-se áreas pálidas no miocárdio. Os pulmões congestos, algo mais pesados e consistentes, por vezes evidenciavam áreas de hepatização vermelha e cinzenta na porção cranial. Petéquias, equimoses e sufusões foram observadas em serosas, na mucosa do tubo digestório e em outros órgãos. Ao exame histológico verificaram-se acentuada nefrose tubular tóxica, focos aleatórios de necrose coagulativa no fígado, áreas de necrose coagulativa no miocárdio e pneumonia intersticial aguda incipiente acompanhada por áreas de broncopneumonia. Na literatura não foram encontradas referências à intoxicação natural por A. spinosus em ovinos. Tentativas de reprodução da intoxicação com a planta em ovinos, não foram bem sucedidas, provavelmente porque, nos experimentos, não se utilizou A. spinosus proveniente de áreas adubadas. A necrose do miocárdio encontrada, ao exame microscópico do coração de diversos animais foi atribuída a hipercalemia secundária à insuficiência renal, ao passo que a gênese dos infartos renais verificados em um ovino permanece obscura.An outbreak of acute poisoning caused by Amaranthus spinosus is described in ewes of southern Brazil. The clinical signs were characterized by uremic halitosis, loss of ruminal motility, dispnoea and abortion. Grossly in the kidneys there were pale red spots, white

  15. A rapid and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker for the identification of Amaranthus cruentus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jun; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Matsushima, Kenichi; Minami, Mineo; Nemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker was developed to identify the Amaranthus cruentus species by comparing sequences of the starch branching enzyme (SBE) locus among the three cultivated grain amaranths. We determined the partial SBE genomic sequence in 72 accessions collected from diverse locations around the world by direct sequence analysis. Then, we aligned the gene sequences and searched for restriction enzyme cleavage sites specific to each species for use in the PCR-RFLP analysis. The result indicated that MseI would recognize the sequence 5'-T/TAA-3' in intron 11 from A. cruentus SBE. A restriction analysis of the amplified 278-bp portion of the SBE gene using the MseI restriction enzyme resulted in species-specific RFLP patterns among A. cruentus, Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Two different bands, 174-bp and 104-bp, were generated in A. cruentus, while A. caudatus and A. hypochondriacus remained undigested (278-bp). Thus, we propose that the PCR-RFLP analysis of the amaranth SBE gene provides a sensitive, rapid, simple and useful technique for identifying the A. cruentus species among the cultivated grain amaranths.

  16. Micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. Micropropagation of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíce Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., conhecido popularmente como pé-de-perdiz, é uma planta medicinal nativa do Cerrado, cuja raiz é utilizada na forma de decoctos para combater infecções do aparelho reprodutor masculino e feminino. A coleta da planta é realizada de forma extrativista e não há trabalhos a respeito da sua conservação. O objeto do trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo de micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus. Foram avaliados o efeito de diferentes concentrações das citocininas, o tamanho do recipiente para o cultivo in vitro, o co-cultivo e a posição da gema em relação ao desenvolvimento dos explantes, bem como a influência do AIB no enraizamento in vitro e a aclimatização dos explantes. O melhor desenvolvimento in vitro foi obtido com explantes do tipo gema apical, co-cultivadas em meio MS suplementado com BAP (1µM, em frasco tipo pote. O enraizamento foi obtido em meio MS sem regulador vegetal e a aclimatização pode ser realizada em solo do cerrado com brotações sem a presença de raízes desenvolvidas in vitro.Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., popularly known as "pé-de-perdiz", is a native medicinal plant of Cerrado, whose root is used in the form of decoctions against infections of the male and female reproductive. The collection of the plant is carried through of extractives form and there are no studies regarding its conservation. The aim of this study was to establish a micropropagation protocol of C. antisyphiliticus. The effect of different concentrations of cytokinins, the size of the container for the in vitro culture, co-cultivation and bud position in relation to the development of the explants, as well as the influence of AIB on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of explants were evaluated. The best development in vitro was obtained with apical explants co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1µM in bottle type pot. Rooting was achieved on MS medium without

  17. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  18. José Martí y la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nuestro José Martí, ejemplo de una formación humanística integral, escribió en una carta a María Mantilla:”Donde yo encuentro poesía mayor es en los libros de ciencia…” Martí vio la ciencia como un fenómeno social y consideró que el desarrollo científico técnico debía estar en función de la satisfacción de las necesidades de las grandes mayorías. Su sistemática voluntad  de cultivarse, de tratar de entender al mundo y no sólo de vivirlo, de razonarlo, fue el motor principal que llevaría a Ma...

  19. Attalea blepharopus Mart. (Arecaceae) from Bolivia revisited since Martius

    OpenAIRE

    MORAES, R. M.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Populations in Bolivia of an Attalea Kunth species (Arecaceae) with regularly spaced pinnae were historically assigned to Attalea butyracea (Mutis) Wess. Boer, which also occurs in Colombia, western Venezuela and northern Ecuador. During a recent fieldtrip to the Chapare province in Cochabamba department (central Bolivia), we visited the Yuracare people's territory that Alcide d'Orbigny mentioned as harboring a large and distinct palm, Attalea blepharopus Mart. Based on its morphology, we rec...

  20. Maytensifolone, a new triterpene from Maytenus distichophylla Mart. ex Reissek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Marcelo Cavalcante; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Madeiro, Sara Alves L.; Costa, Vicente Carlos O.; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da, E-mail: marcelosobral.ufpb@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Agra, Maria de Fatima [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia. Departamento de Biotecnologia; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2013-10-15

    Phytochemical study of the leaves of Maytenus distichophylla Mart. ex Reissek led to the isolation of the new triterpene 3,16,21-trioxo-6{beta},12{alpha}-dihydroxy-1-en-friedelane, named maytensifolone, along with the known triterpenes 3-oxofriedelane, 3,12-dioxofriedelane, 3{beta}-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-12{alpha}-hydroxyfriedelane and 3-oxo- 30-hydroxyfriedelane. Their structural identification was based on spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. (author)

  1. The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Basker, Emek

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response...

  2. Mart Jaanson. Nikaia-Konstantinoopoli usutunnistuse ladinakeelse normteksti grammatiline, teoloogiline ja muusikaline liigendamine / Toomas Siitan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siitan, Toomas, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Jaanson, Mart. Nikaia-Konstantinoopoli usutunnistuse ladinakeelse normteksti grammatiline, teoloogiline ja muusikaline liigendamine. Tartu : University of Tartu Press, 2014 (Dissertationes theologiae universitatis Tartuensis ; 30)

  3. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  4. Influences of calcium silicate on chemical forms and subcellular distribution of cadmium in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Wu, Jingtao; Shen, Yong; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Tang, Yetao; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (CS) on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in grain amaranths (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cv. ‘K112’) grown in a Cd contaminated soil. Results showed that the dry weight and the photosynthetic pigments contents in grain amaranths increased significantly with the increasing doses of CS treatments, with the highest value found for the treatment of CS3 (1.65 g/kg). Compared with the control, application of CS4 (3.31 g/kg) significantly reduced Cd concentrations in the roots, stems and leaves of grain amaranths by 68%, 87% and 89%, respectively. At subcellular level, CS treatment resulted in redistribution of Cd, higher percentages of Cd in the chloroplast and soluble fractions in leaves of grain amaranths were found, while lower proportions of Cd were located at the cell wall of the leaves. The application of CS enhanced the proportions of pectate and protein integrated forms of Cd and decreased the percentages of water soluble Cd potentially associated with toxicity in grain amaranths. Changes of free Cd ions into inactive forms sequestered in subcellular compartments may indicate an important mechanism of CS for alleviating Cd toxicity and accumulation in plants.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by γ-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  6. Effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on lipid metabolism of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

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    Rosa Nilda Chávez-Jáuregui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on plasma lipids in moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Twenty-two subjects [30-65 years old, 11 males, with total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg.dL-1, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c 160-190 mg.dL-1 and plasma triglycerides (TG < 400 mg.dL-1] were randomized in a double blind clinical trial to receive an amaranth snack (50 g/day or equivalent corn snack (placebo for 2 months. There were no differences between amaranth and placebo on TC and LDL-c, and TG respectively: -8.4 and -5.7% (p = 0.17; -12.3 and -9.7% (p = 0.41 and -0.6 and -7.3% (p = 0.47. However, amaranth snacks significantly reduced high-density cholesterol (HDL-c: -15.2 vs. -4% (p = 0.03. In conclusion, the intake of 50 g of extruded amaranth daily during 60 days did not significantly reduce LDL-c in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects; furthermore there was a significant reduction in HDL-c. Studies with greater number of subjects and greater quantity of this food are necessary to test the effects of amaranth on lipid metabolism in humans.

  7. Cloning and Expression of Ama r 1, as a Novel Allergen of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen

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    Payam Morakabati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to Amaranthus retroflexus pollen is very common in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study we aimed to produce a recombinant allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this weed. To predict cross-reactivity of this allergen (Ama r 1 with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Ama r 1 was investigated. The expression of Ama r 1 in Escherichia coli was performed by using a pET-21b(+ vector. The IgE-binding potential of recombinant Ama r 1 (rAma r 1 was evaluated by immunodetection and inhibition assays using 26 patients’ sera sensitised to A. retroflexus pollen. The coding sequence of the Ama r 1 cDNA indicated an open reading frame of 507 bp encoding for 168 amino acid residues which belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family. Of the 26 serum samples, 10 (38.46% had significant specific IgE levels for rAma r 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays revealed that the purified rAma r 1 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Ama r 1, the second allergen from the A. retroflexus pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein.

  8. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of extract of Amaranthus spinosus L. in Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the apoptosis inducing effects of Amaranthus spinosus L. aqueous extract in Allium cepa root meristematic cells and human erythrocytes. Cytogenetic assay revealed many apoptosis inducing cytogenetic aberrations viz., cytoplasmic breakage, cytoplasmic disintegration, cytoplasmic shrinkage, receding of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolation, enucleated cell, ghost cell, nuclear vacuolation, nuclear fragmentation and nuclear disintegration. A remarkable modification of red blood cell surface morphology was observed in the result of RBC assay. The treated RBCs show membrane blebbing and shrinkage, features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. Significant induction of cell death was observed in treated Allium root tip cells after Evans blue staining, disclosing the membrane damage potential of the plant extract. TTC assay results in reduced mitochondrial/metabolic activity in Allium root tip cells after treatment, designating the adverse effect of plant extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results confirm the apoptosis inducing potential of A. spinosus extract. Confirming the present results by further in vitro studies, it can be effectively targeted against cell proliferation during cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis. Thus from the present investigation it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of A. spinosus exhibited apoptosis induction and cytotoxic activities.

  9. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, U.; Islam, Md T.; Rabbani, Md G.; Oba, S.

    2015-07-01

    Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014) for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively). Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27) showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss. (Author)

  10. Disease-tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Ah-AMP gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ah-AMP, was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis results revealed that this gene is 261 bp in length encoding a precursor polypeptide of 87 amino acid residues. Ah-AMP gene was inserted in the binary vector pBin438 to construct a plant expression vector pBinAH916. Leave explants of Nicotiana tabacum var. SR1 were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the above expression vector. Results from PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that the Ah-AMP gene had been integrated into the tobacco genome and was transcribed at mRNA level. Two bacterial-resistant transgenic plants were selected by inoculating the plants with Pseudomonas solanacearum and statistic analysis of two T1 lines showed that the resistance increased by 2.24 and 1.62 grade and the disease index decreased by 49.6% and 37.3% respectively when compared with the non-transformed control plants SR1. The results from challenging the plants with inoculums of Phytophthora parasitica showed that the symptom development was delayed and disease index was significantly reduced. These results suggest that Ah-AMP gene may be a potentially valuable gene for genetic engineering of plant for disease-resistance.

  11. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  12. Identification of a catalase-phenol oxidase in betalain biosynthesis in red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu eTeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO, was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  13. Wild Amaranthus caudatus seed oil, a nutraceutical resource from Ecuadorian flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, R; Medici, A; Guerrini, A; Scalia, S; Poli, F; Muzzoli, M; Sacchetti, G

    2001-11-01

    Seed oil of wild Amaranthus caudatus from Ecuador was analyzed for determining the tocopherol, fatty acid, and sterol contents. The data obtained were compared with the analogous chemical profile of seed oil of Italian A. caudatus with the objective of evaluating the nutraceutical and alimentary potential of the Ecuadorian matrix. Supercritical fluid and ultrasound-enhanced extractions were performed on both matrices. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of tocopherols were performed by HPLC, whereas GC and GC-MS were used to determine the fatty acid composition and sterols, respectively. Supercritical fluid extraction at 400 atm was the most efficient extraction method in terms of both total yield extract and tocopherol yield. Seeds of Ecuadorian of A. caudatus contained higher levels of tocopherols than Italian samples, whereas the fatty acid composition and sterol content were similar. From the obtained results it can be suggested that seed oil of wild Ecuadorian A. caudatus can prove to be an effective nutraceutical and alimentary resource and a valid alternative to the European varieties.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

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    Sava Vrbničanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2 were collected from arable land of the Institute of Maize Research at Zemun Polje in 2006. Sampling was performed at the stage of full vegetative growth of plants.Permanent microscoping preparations were made to measure and analyze elements of the anatomy of stems (stem epidermis, cortex, collenchyma, central cylinder and diameter and leaves (leaf epidermis upper surface and underside, mesophyll, leaf thickness and bundle sheath thickness.Both analysed populations of A. retroflexus, morphologically characterized by different density of stem hairiness, were found to have a typical structure of herbaceous dicots. The stem had three distinctive zones: epidermis, cortex and central cylinder. Amaranth leaves have dorsoventral structure, i.e. their upper surface and underside can be differentiated. The results indicated high and very high significance of differences found in stem anatomy between the two analysed populations, while leaf anatomy was not found to display significant differences other than in mesophyll thickness.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Lindsay; Mangelson, Ryan; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The amaranth genus contains many important grain and weedy species. We further our understanding of the genus through the development of a complete reference chloroplast genome. Methods and Results: A high-quality Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Amaranthaceae) chloroplast genome assembly was developed using long-read technology. This reference genome was used to reconstruct the chloroplast genomes for two closely related grain species (A. cruentus and A. caudatus) and their putative progenitor (A. hybridus). The reference genome was 150,518 bp and possesses a circular structure of two inverted repeats (24,352 bp) separated by small (17,941 bp) and large (83,873 bp) single-copy regions; it encodes 111 genes, 72 for proteins. Relative to the reference chloroplast genome, an average of 210 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 122 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) were identified across the analyzed genomes. Conclusions: This reference chloroplast genome, along with the reported simple sequence repeats, SNPs, and indels, is an invaluable genetic resource for studying the phylogeny and genetic diversity within the amaranth genus. PMID:27672525

  16. [Cereal bars with peanut and puffed amaranthus: chemical composition and stability in accelerated storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Yañez, E

    1994-03-01

    Three different cereal bars, CM3A-CM3B and CM3C were prepared following the flow sheat of Escobar et al: different amount of oat, wheat germ, and puffed amaranthus were used: to stick them together, natural sweeteners and fats were added. Proximate analysis, were run on raw materials and snack bars. They were evaluated organoleptically to know their quality and acceptability. Bars were kept in accelerated storage at 37 degrees C during 15 days to know their stability. Every 5 days were measured the water activity (Aw), moisture, and peroxides development; also appearance of organoleptic randicity. Acceptability of bar CM3B was 91.67% with 0.0% of rejection; CM3A and CM3C got the same acceptability (66.67%) and 8.33% of rejection. In accelerate storage, Aw and moisture content decreased until reaching a value of 0.48 and 5.9 in the CM3B bar, respectively. Peroxide content of CM3B and CM3C increased gradually up to 12 and 17 meq/kg respectively at 15 days. Rancyd aroma appearance was not the same in the bars, CM3A and CM3B had a decreasing at 15 days, while CM3C showed an increasing at the same time. In brief, CM3B showed the best sensory quality, the higher acceptability and the greater stability in accelerated storage.

  17. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, M.Z.I. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: makhan.inst@gmail.com; Khan, Ruhul A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2009-01-15

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by {gamma}-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 3} orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  19. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC, and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect.

  20. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolorL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Sarker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014 for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively. Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27 showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss.

  1. Characteristic of fermented spinach (Amaranthus spp.) polyphenol by kombucha culture for antioxidant compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Iskandar, Jeti M.; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation on spinach (Amaranthus sp.) vegetable by kombucha culture as an effort to get poliphenol as antioxidant compound had been done. Purification of fermented spinach extract suspension was carried out through microfiltration (MF) membrane (pore size 0.15 µm) fitted in dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at fixed condition (stirrer rotation 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Result of the experimental activity showed that long fermentation time increased total acids, total polyphenol and Total Plate Count (TPC), and decreased total solids and reducing sugar in biomass. The optimal fermentation time was reached for 2 weeks with total polyphenol recovery increasing of 92.76 % from before and after fermentation. On this optimal fermentation time, biomass had identified galic acid with relative intensity of 8 %, while as polyphenol monomer was resulted 5 kinds of polyphenol compounds with total intensity 27.97 % and molecular weight (MW) 191.1736, 193.1871 and 194.2170 at T2.5, T2.86 and T3.86. Long fermentation time increased functional properties of polyphenol as antioxidant.

  2. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  3. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela N; Pan, Zhiqiang; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K; Baldwin, Brian S; Shaw, David R; Dayan, Franck E

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses contain higher 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene copy numbers than the S population. EPSPS expression, EPSPS enzyme activity, EPSPS protein quantity, and level of resistance to glyphosate correlated positively with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Transfer of resistance was more influenced by the female than the male parent in spite of the fact that the multiple copies of EPSPS are amplified in the nuclear genome. This led us to hypothesize that this perplexing pattern of inheritance may result from apomictic seed production in A. palmeri. We confirmed that reproductively isolated R and S female plants produced seeds, indicating that A. palmeri can produce seeds both sexually and apomictically (facultative apomixis). This apomictic trait accounts for the low copy number inheritance in the Female-S × Male-R offsprings. Apomixis may also enhance the stability of the glyphosate resistance trait in the R populations in the absence of reproductive partners.

  4. No fitness cost of glyphosate resistance endowed by massive EPSPS gene amplification in Amaranthus palmeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Goh, Sou S; Gaines, Todd A; Han, Heping; Busi, Roberto; Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    Amplification of the EPSPS gene has been previously identified as the glyphosate resistance mechanism in many populations of Amaranthus palmeri, a major weed pest in US agriculture. Here, we evaluate the effects of EPSPS gene amplification on both the level of glyphosate resistance and fitness cost of resistance. A. palmeri individuals resistant to glyphosate by expressing a wide range of EPSPS gene copy numbers were evaluated under competitive conditions in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Survival rates to glyphosate and fitness traits of plants under intra-specific competition were assessed. Plants with higher amplification of the EPSPS gene (53-fold) showed high levels of glyphosate resistance, whereas less amplification of the EPSPS gene (21-fold) endowed a lower level of glyphosate resistance. Without glyphosate but under competitive conditions, plants exhibiting up to 76-fold EPSPS gene amplification exhibited similar height, and biomass allocation to vegetative and reproductive organs, compared to glyphosate susceptible A. palmeri plants with no amplification of the EPSPS gene. Both the additive effects of EPSPS gene amplification on the level of glyphosate resistance and the lack of associated fitness costs are key factors contributing to EPSPS gene amplification as a widespread and important glyphosate resistance mechanism likely to become much more evident in weed plant species.

  5. Distribución geográfica de las especies cultivadas de Amaranthus y de sus parientes silvestres en México Geographical distribution of cultivated species of Amaranthus and their wild relatives in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia-Rangel

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener los patrones de distribución de Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus y sus parientes silvestres, mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, además de realizar un patrón de variación geográfica de las zonas donde se localizan. El género Amaranthus está distribuido a lo largo de México. A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus se distribuyen en la parte centro sur del país, mientras que A. powellii está distribuido del centro al norte de México. Por otro lado, A. hybridus se puede cultivar prácticamente en todo México, por lo que fue la especie que presentó la mayor adaptación en comparación a las otras tres especies que mostraron una distribución más limitada. De acuerdo con la hipótesis que A. hybridus puede ser el ancestro más probable de A. cruentus y según los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, esta hipótesis podría ser cierta debido que en toda la distribución de A. cruentus está presente A. hybridus. Cabe mencionar, sobre la hipótesis que A. hypochondriacus puede ser un híbrido entre A. cruentus y A. powellii, se puede concluir que es cierta ya que A. hypochondriacus presentó un patrón de variación latitudinal parecido a A. powellii y un patrón de variación altitudinal similar a A. cruentus; además que todas ellas convergen en el Valle de México.The aim of this work was to obtain the distribution patterns of Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and its wild relatives using Gorgraphic Information Systems, as well as creating a geographic variation pattern of the areas in which they are found. The genus Amaranthus is distributed throughout Mexico. A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are distributed in the south-central area of the country, whereas A. powellii is found in the center and north of Mexico. On the other hand, A. hybridus can be cultivated in practically any part of the country, making it the species with the

  6. Review of Nuria del Campo Martínez: Illocutionary Constructions in English: Cognitive Motivation and Linguistic Realization (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    A review of Nuria del Campo Martínez: Illocutionary Constructions in English: Cognitive Motivation and Linguistic Realization (2013)......A review of Nuria del Campo Martínez: Illocutionary Constructions in English: Cognitive Motivation and Linguistic Realization (2013)...

  7. FITOEXTRACCIÓN DE PLOMO Y CADMIO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS USANDO QUELITE (Amaranthus hybridus L.) Y MICORRIZAS

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Ortiz-Cano; R. Trejo-Calzada; R. D. Valdez-Cepeda; J. G. Arreola-Ávila; A. Flores-Hernández; B. López-Ariza

    2009-01-01

    Las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas practicadas en la Comarca Lagunera, México han contaminado el suelo, el aire y el agua. El uso de plantas es una de las estrategias para la remediación de suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre remediación con plantas de zonas áridas y su asociación con micorrizas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la capacidad extractora de Plomo (Pb) y Cadmio (Cd) del quelite (Amaranthus hybridus L.) al adicionar una me...

  8. Mart Kangro: uhkete dekoratsioonide taga peab olema elus hetk / intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Mart, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu koreograafi, lavastaja ja tantsija Mart Kangroga, kes kindlustab end pigem vaimses plaanis, kui loob endale müüre ümber. Ta leiab, et oluline on olla mobiilne, olla kulgemises, olla teel. Kanuti Gildi saalis etendub 24., 26. ja 27. septembril Mart Kangro tantsulavastus "Talk to Me"

  9. Mart Laar - visionäärina kuulsam välismaal / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Maailmas on kümneid riike, kes imetlevad meie endise peaministri Mart Laari reforme Eestis. Kommenteerivad Margaret Thatcher, Alfredo Arias-King ja Tiit Vähi. Vt. samas: Väljavõtteid Mart Laari kohta ajakirjandusest; Laia haardega tegutseja: Liikmelisus

  10. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  11. Literatura y realidad histórica. Un reencuentro con Ezequiel Martínez Estrada y su interpretación del Martín Fierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amán Rosales Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to critically review some of the main theoretical tenets in Ezequiel Martínez Estrada’s pessimistic stance about the Argentinean history and society of his time. Focusing on his critical remarks about the so-called «literatura o poesía gauchesca» as well as on his enthusiastic assessment of José Hernández’ Martín Fierro, the achievements and missing points in Martínez Estrada’s skeptical diagnosis will be underlined and put in broader philosophical context. For the Argentinean writer the controversial notion of a “superimposed reality” – as he infers its existence from the Martín Fierro – captures a kind of ambivalent metaphysical concurrence among the literary creation, the geographical setting and the sociopolitical state of the country.

  12. O-Glycosylation of NnTreg Lymphocytes Recognized by the Amaranthus leucocarpus Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Jiménez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O-glycosidically-linked glycans have been involved in development, maturation, homing, and immune regulation in T cells. Previous reports indicate that Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL, specific for glycans containing galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine, recognizes human naïve CD27+CD25+CD4+ T cells. Our aim was to evaluate the phenotype of CD4+ T cells recognized by ALL in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy volunteers. CD4+ T cells were isolated by negative selection using magnetic beads-labeled monoclonal antibodies; the expression of T regulatory cell phenotypic markers was assessed on ALL-recognized cells. In addition, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β intracellular production in ALL+ cells was also evaluated. The analyses of phenotypic markers and intracellular cytokines were performed through flow cytometry. ALL-recognized CD4+ T cells were mainly CD45RA+, CCR7+ cells. Although 52±10% CD25+Foxp3+ cells were positive to ALL, only 34±4% of ALL+ cells corresponded to CD25+Foxp3− cells. Intracellular cytokines in freshly obtained ALL+CD4+ T cells exhibited 8% of IL-4, 15% of IL-10, 2% of IFN-γ, and 15% of TGF-β, whereas ALL−CD4+ T cells depicted 1% of IL-4, 2% of IL-10, <1% of IFN-γ, and 6% of TGF-β. Our results show that galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and N-galactosamine-bearing CD4+ T cells expressed phenotypic markers of NnTreg cells.

  13. Reviviendo a Martí en las aulas costarricenses

    OpenAIRE

    Segura Cano, Diego; Cajina Vázquez, Olga; Villalobos Trigueros, Irina

    2011-01-01

    La presente ponencia constituye un esfuerzo por sintetizar el trabajo de investigación-acción titulado Ética ciudadana para niños y niñas de primaria a partir de La Edad de Oro de José Martí: Material Educativo, el cual se enmarca como Trabajo Final de Graduación (TFG) de la Maestría en Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad Nacional (IDELA-UNA). Éste proyecto busca la producción de un material educativo multimedia dirigido a la educación primaria que tenga como referente la angula...

  14. Nongastrointestinal helminths in marten (Martes americana) from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seville, R S; Addison, E M

    1995-10-01

    Six species of nongastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from 405 marten, (Martes americana), examined from six areas in Ontario, Canada in 1992 to 1993. Three species (Crenosoma petrowi, Eucoleus aerophilus, Filaroides martis) were found in the respiratory tract, one in the urinary bladder (Pearsonema plica), one in the kidney (Dioctophyme renale), and one in the musculature (Trichinella sp. larvae). This is the first report of F. martis and P. plica from this host. In addition a specimen of Dracunculus insignis collected from a marten pelt was received. Based on our results, martens are primary definitive hosts for few nongastrointestinal nematodes. Animals in more southern areas had greater species richness than those from higher latitudes.

  15. High residue cover crops alone or with strategic tillage to manage glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth (amaranthus palmeri) in Southeastern cotton (gossypium hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats) is redefining row crop weed management in the Southeast due to its widespread distribution, high competitive ability, copious seed production, and resilience to standard weed management programs. Herbicides alone are failing to p...

  16. Glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S Wats.): hyperspectral reflectance properties of plants and potential for classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a troublesome agronomic weed in the southern United States, and several populations have evolved resistance to glyphosate. This paper reports spectral signatures of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) plants, and explor...

  17. Metabolic profiling and enzyme analyses indicate a potential role of antioxidant systems in complementing glyphosate resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri biotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted metabolomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify metabolite-level perturbations induced by glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. Plants were treated with 0.4 kg ae ha-1 glyphosate and tissues were harvested at 8 and 72 hours af...

  18. José Martí y la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Suárez Lezcano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro José Martí, ejemplo de una formación humanística integral, escribió en una carta a María Mantilla:”Donde yo encuentro poesía mayor es en los libros de ciencia…” Martí vio la ciencia como un fenómeno social y consideró que el desarrollo científico técnico debía estar en función de la satisfacción de las necesidades de las grandes mayorías. Su sistemática voluntad  de cultivarse, de tratar de entender al mundo y no sólo de vivirlo, de razonarlo, fue el motor principal que llevaría a Martí a hacerse de una cultura científica y técnica poco común entre los hombres de su época. También el hecho de vivir durante muchos años en los Estados Unidos le permitió analizar con  profundidad y realismo la sociedad de la época, y por tanto llegó a tener una visión muy avanzada de la relación hombre – naturaleza - sociedad, llegando a convertirse en un gran divulgador de los avances de la ciencia y la técnica de aquella época. La originalidad del periodismo de nuevo tipo que inicia José Martí como vehículo para la divulgación científico - técnica encuentra una de sus más altas expresiones en la revista “La América”. Esta publicación había comenzado en abril de 1882, en Nueva York, bajo la dirección de Rafael de Castro Palomino, quien solicita la colaboración del poeta. A partir del mes de marzo de 1883, el Maestro redacta “La América” en su totalidad, desde los titulares hasta los artículos ensayísticos. Martí caracteriza “La América” como “periódico útil”, pues se dedicó a divulgar los adelantos de la industria, comercio y agricultura de los productores de la América del Norte, y en el avisador prudente de los compradores de la América del Sur. Este carácter de la publicación permite a José Martí tratar desde las páginas de “La América” los recientes descubrimientos científicos, la reseña detallada de las exposiciones que exhibían los últimos logros de la t

  19. Caridad Martínez: Una mujer de su tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Romero Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de Caridad Martínez ha estado íntimamenteligado a la dirección de radionovelas género donde seha distinguido por la profesionalidad que la caracteriza.También es una excepcional maestra e investigadora consagrada,lo que le ha permitido descubrir el secreto profundode la vida humana, sus conflictos, sus vicios, susgrandezas, y ese espíritu de pasión, y amor que muevena los hombres, y sacuden lo más profundo de su esencia,lo cual refleja en sus escritos con admirable delicadeza.El secreto de Caridad Martínez está en esa entregatotal e incondicional a todo lo que hace, en ella la necesidadde hacer sus realizaciones todo lo mejor posible esparte esencial de su formación y de su vida. El medio, loscompañeros, y el sentir la imperiosa necesidad de ser mejores lo que la guía a transformar la fealdad en belleza , lamaldad en amor, el interés mezquino en bondad, lo cualha recreado en cada una de las novelas que ha dirigidoy plasmado en sus enseñanzas y en la educación de sushijos en donde cristaliza la brillantez de obra.

  20. Morphological characterization of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. cork from brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polliana D`Angelo Rios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kielmeyera coriacea Mart., known as “pau-santo”, is mentioned in the literature as the main tree species which produces cork of the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological aspect of Kielmeyera coriacea (“pau-santo” cork cells through its microscopic structure and to compare it with the cellular morphology of Quercus suber (cork oak, which is the main cork producing species worldwide. The bark from three trees of the species Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. was collected randomly at points 1.30 m above the ground, with four repetitions per sample. Samples came from native stands situated in the region of Luminárias - MG, Brazil. The study of morphological characteristics was conducted by counting the number of sides of the cells, and measuring the dimensions of the cells from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Images were analyzed using the LEOUIF software. The distribution in faces and edges of cork cells from Kielmeyera coriacea, was observed to have from 4 to 8 sides, with a predominance of hexagonal cells, similar to Quercus suber. The averages of height and thickness of the cell walls were 40 to 70 µm and 1.5 to 2.0 µm respectively, indicating cells from an early growth season. Both height and thickness were observed to be greater than those present in Quercus suber

  1. Retrieving HapMap Data Using HapMart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Albert Vernon

    2008-07-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe primary goal of the International Haplotype Map Project has been to develop a haplotype map of the human genome that describes the common patterns of genetic variation, in order to accelerate the search for the genetic causes of human disease. Within the project, ~3.9 million distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been genotyped in 270 individuals from four worldwide populations. The project data are available for unrestricted public use at the HapMap Web site. This site, which is the primary portal to genotype data produced by the project, offers bulk downloads of the data set, as well as interactive data browsing and analysis tools that are not available elsewhere. Because of performance considerations, interactive access to HapMap data via the genome browser on the HapMap Web site is limited to regions no more than 5 Mb wide. Researchers who wish to obtain data for chromosome- or genome-wide data have two choices: Bulk download or HapMart access. HapMart, described in this protocol, allows researchers to select SNPs using diverse criteria and to display just those aspects of the data set that they are interested in.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Amaranthus tricolor L%红苋菜提取物抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴明艳

    2016-01-01

    研究红苋菜不同部位提取物的抗氧化活性。用75%的乙醇溶液,分别对红苋菜的根、茎、叶3个部位进行超声浸提,进一步评价各提取物清除超氧自由基、清除DPPH自由基、清除羟自由基、总抗氧化力与还原力。结果发现,叶部位提取物对超氧自由基清除、DPPH自由基清除和总抗氧化力最强;而茎部提取物清除羟自由基能力最强。红苋菜具有较好的抗氧化活性,其中活性较强的部位为叶。%Antioxidant activity of extracts from different parts of Amaranthus tricolor L. was studied. Using 75%ethanol solution, roots, stems and leaves of Amaranthus tricolor L. were conducted to ultrasonic extraction, re-spectively. Furthermore, the effects of Amaranthus tricolor L. extracts on scavenging superoxide free radical, DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power were evaluated. The results found that leaf extracts from Amaranthus tricolor L. showed the strongest effects on scavenging superoxide radi-cal and DPPH free radical, and had the biggest total antioxidant capacity, while the stem extract had the strongest effects on scavenging hydroxyl free radical. Different parts of Amaranthus tricolor L. especially leaves have a good antioxidant activity.

  3. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Chun Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl-1α,25(OH2D3, the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC.

  4. Effects of Copper on the Photosynthesis and Oxidative Metabolism of Amaranthus tricolor Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Shi-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to gain better insight into the physiological mechanisms on the effects of copper (Cu) on photosynthesis and active oxygen metabolism in three-colored amaranth plant (Amaranthus tricolor). Three-colored amaranth seedlings were subjected to different Cu levels in soils during the entire experimental period. The parameters of growth, photosynthesis, mineral elements contents, and active oxygen metabolism were investigated using plant physiological methods. The results showed that 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 treatments decreased the whole plant biomass to 91 and 73% of the control, respectively. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the stomatal conductance (gs) were similarly reduced in the third leaves of three-colored amaranth seedlings treated with 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 soil,respectively. None of the investigated Cu levels decreased the internal CO2 concentration (Ci). The effect of Cu on the potential efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (Fv/Fm) was negligible, whereas the effect of Cu on the PS Ⅱ quantum efficiency (φPS Ⅱ) after plant adaptation in actinic irradiation was more noticeable. On the other hand, decreases in water percentage, contents of photosynthetic pigments and mineral elements including Fe, K, and Mg, and significant increase in the Cu content were observed in the third leaves of Cu-treated plants. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD)activities as well as the proline (Pro) content significantly increased in the third leaves of the three-colored amaranth seedlings treated with 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 soil, while catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities as well as the contents of carotenoid (Car), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid (AsA) decreased, and accompanied by the increases in the contents of hydrogen preoxide(H2O2),superoxide anion(O-·2),and malondialdehyde(MDA),and electrolyte leakage. As a result of the imbalance of active oxygen metabolism, Pn and φPSⅡ decreased, and

  5. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  6. Estimating Wal-Mart's Impacts in Maryland: A Test of Identification Strategies and Endogeneity Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Hicks

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I estimate the impact of Wal-Mart on labor markets in Maryland. My goal is to compare estimation techniques that incorporate corrections for endogeneity of Wal-Mart's entrance and those that test for and fail to reject exogeneity in Wal-Mart's entrance decision. The instrumental variable approaches I test include those offered by Basker and Neumark et al., and a new test introduced in this paper. I also explain why differences in choice of sample time and location may lead to d...

  7. Entrevista al Martín D. Farrell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell, Martín D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista al Martín D. Farrell, abogado y Doctor en Derecho, ambos por la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Profesor Emérito de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y Profesor y Director de Investigaciones y Doctorado de la Universidad de Palermo. Investigador Permanente del Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Sociales Ambrosio L. Gioja. Ex Juez de la Cámara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil y Comercial Federal. Fue Vicepresidente de la Sociedad Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas. Es miembro y fue tesorero y secretario de la Sociedad Argentina de Análisis Filosófico. En 1996 obtuvo el premio Konex de Platino en Ética.

  8. José Martí: infancia y duelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Josiowicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a figura do luto pela morte da criança, presente na cultura da modernidade do fim do século XIX, na literatura de José Martí e, especificamente, em suas leituras de Ralph Waldo Emerson. O trabalho investiga a figura da criança morta em dois sentidos principais: como uma ferida narcisística na subjetividade do escritor e como uma interrupção da teleologia linear da história. Nesses autores, também investiga a emergência de um horizonte de representações sobre a infância com importantes implicações biopolíticas, estéticas e filosóficas.

  9. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  10. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  11. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Dynamics Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  12. Mart ja Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad omanikena Concordia pankrotti / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektor Mart Susi esitas kohtule avalduse, milles taotleb ülikooli pidanud Concordia Varahalduse OÜ pankroti väljakuulutamist. Vt. samas: Mari-Ann Susi õigustas ülikooli raha kasutamist

  13. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Status Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  14. Wal-Mart tahab jõuda igasse Euroopa riiki / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Maailma suurim jaekaubanduskett Wal-Mart kavatseb laiendada oma tegevust Euroopas nii turul olevate kauplustekettide ülevõtmise kui investeeringutega uute kaupluste ehitamiseks. Vt. samas: Andres Kärssin. Euroopa kaubandus prantslaste ja sakslaste käes

  15. Kunstjäsemetega inimsööjad / Mart Kalvet, Alvo Aabloo, Kristjan Port

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Inimene, meditsiin ja biotehnoloogia aastal 2031. Ennustavad tõlkija Mart Kalvet, Tartu Ülikooli arukate materjalide ja süsteemide labori professor Alvo Aabloo ja Tallinna Ülikooli Terviseteaduste ja Spordi Instituudi direktor Kristjan Port

  16. Znat russkii jazõk polezno / Mart Laar ; interv. Viktor Sokolov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Peaminister Mart Laari intervjuu ajalehele "Nezavissimaja Gazeta" ئ vene keele kasutamisest Eestis, Eesti-Vene suhetest, liitumisest NATO-ga. Art. refereerib T. Kallas, PM Jan/7 lk. 11. Allikas: Nezavissimaja gazeta

  17. Rol mezhdu proshlõm i budushtshim / Mart Laar ; interv. Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Parlamendisaadik ning ekspeaminister Mart Laarile meeldib kõige enam tema roll ajaloolasena, otsusest esitada oma kandidatuur peaministri kohale kevadistel parlamendivalimistel, 1940. a. sündmuste mõju Eesti arengule, venelased Eestis

  18. Konteki edu saladus peitub efektiivsete lahenduste kiires rakendamises / Mart Urbas ; intervjueerinud Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urbas, Mart

    2009-01-01

    Firma juhataja asetäitja Mart Urbas 1991. aastal asutatud betoonifirmast AS Kontek Int, tehtud töödest (Tigutorn Tartus, Tornimäe 3 hotelli betoonkonstruktsioonid Tallinnas jt.), järelpingestatud betoonkonstruktsioonidest

  19. The Development Strategy of Wal-mart in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳南

    2016-01-01

    In this study,I will discuss how a country's political,legal,technological,and economic environment pose an opportunity or a threat to MNC's seeking to do business there.MNC is called Multinational Corporation for short,refers to an enterprise operating in several countries but managed from one home country.Generally,any company or group that drives a quarter of its revenue from operations outside of its home country is considered a multinational corporation.When the company expands its business into the international market,the company will has to face opportunities and threats.These opportunities and threats are mainly caused by other countries'political,economic environment,legal and technological.In this paper,I will analyze opportunities and threats which MNC will faced based on PEST analysis.PEST analysis stands for"Political,Economic,Society,and Technological analysis"and describes a framework of macro-envi-ronmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management.It is a part of the external analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market,and gives an overview of the different macro environmental factors that the company has to take into consideration.It is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline,business position,potential and direction for operations.In order to be able to more detailed study the selected topic,I will choose one MNC,Wal-Mart as case.And analyze what are the opportunities and threats Wal-Mart faced in China.

  20. First case report of anaphylaxis caused by Rajgira seed flour (Amaranthus paniculatus) from India: a clinico-immunologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Niphadkar, P V; Saran, Aditya; Mathur, Chandni; Singh, A B

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is reported to be 3-4% in adults and about 6% in children. However food allergy across different countries accounts for 35-50 % all cases of anaphylaxis to foods. In the present study, we have reported a case of anaphylaxis to Amaranth grain (Amaranthus paniculatus) commonly known as Rajgira (Ramdana) in India. A 60 year old female suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Rajgira seed flour generally consumed during fasting. Food allergy to Amaranth seeds is not reported so far. The patient reported to hospital with complaints of itching in mouth, choking throat, redness and swelling of face and burning abdomen within 5 min of consuming Rajgira flour. Clinical and immunological investigations revealed SPT and oral challenge positivity beside high allergen specific IgE in the serum of the patient. Three IgE binding protein fractions were detected in roasted Rajgira seed flour extract which could be considered to be allergenically important for triggering anaphylaxis.

  1. Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline→betaine aldehyde→glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. And Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. Tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42℃), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4℃), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.

  2. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L. : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle.

  3. The Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoou; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2010-01-01

    The Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Supermarkets’ Profit Margins. XIAOOU LIU (Email: , School of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China 100872) RIGOBERTO LOPEZ (Professor and Department Head, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Storrs, CT 06269) This paper quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using simulated methods of moment and ...

  4. Wu Mart Lands Hong Kong:A Hint to Mainland Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    One of the biggest chain supermarkets in Beijing——Wu Mart Group Co., Ltd. has been listed on Growth Enterprise Market of Hong Kong as the new share with most funds.The opening offer of the stock is HK$8 which is up 29% of the IPO HK$ 6.22. On the contrary to Bear Market in mainland, Wu Mart stock has been the favor of Hong Kong market that give morc confidence to mainland retailers.

  5. Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Koffuor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria. Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001 and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001 and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01. The extract (80-800 mg kg-1 was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function. Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 517-527

  6. The Almohad Mecca. Locating Igli and the Cave of Ibn Tūmart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromherz, Allen J.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Igli was the Mecca of the Almohads. In the Cave of Igli Muḥammad Ibn Tūmart proclaimed the beginning of the Almohad movement in North Africa. Despite the obvious importance of Igli, there was little knowledge about the precise location of Igli or the famous cave of Ibn Tūmart on the map. This paper details the discovery of the small village of Igli 30 kilometers East of Tarūdant. The location of this modem village corresponds with Almohad Igli. Primary sources, oral testimony and physical remains are all evidence that modem Igli was the birthplace of Ibn Tūmart.

    Igli era La Meca de los Almohades. En la cueva de Igli Muḥammad Ibn Tūmart proclamó el principio del movimiento almohade en África del norte. A pesar de la importancia de Igli, no se conocía su localización exacta o de la cueva de Ibn Tūmart. Aquí se detalla el descubrimiento de la pequeña aldea de Igli 30 kilómetros al este de Tarūdant. La localización de esta aldea moderna parece corresponder con el Igli almohade. Las fuentes primarias, el testimonio oral y los restos físicos se aducen como evidencia de que el Igli moderno era el lugar de nacimiento de Ibn Tūmart.

  7. Facing global markets – usage changes in Western Amazonian plants: the example of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Palms (Arecaceae are one of the most important families of useful plants, and indigenous societies have developed very distinct ways of utilizing this resource. The clonal Euterpe oleracea Mart. has long been used for the preparation of frothy beverages in the eastern Amazon, in particular by colonists and caboclos, but to a much lesser extent by the indigenous population. Euterpe precatoria Mart., which grows in the western Amazon, is traditionally reported as resource for construction and thatch, but not as important species in alimentation. Our recent work indicates that the use of both species has dramatically shifted in the recent past. Prices for Euterpe products have increased dramatically due to the global commodization first of palm hearts and “Açaí berry juice” as nutritional supplement. This is especially evident in western Amazonia: In Bolivia and Peru, where older indigenous informants mostly reported thatch and houseposts as regular use for E. precatoria and did not know E. oleracea. Younger informants most commonly reported to a large extent on E. precatoria being used for the production of palm hearts, but less for other, while the youngest informants in many cases only knew E. precatoria fruits as source of beverages, as commercial fruit, and as source for handicrafts, and indicated that E. oleracea was being introduced because the species yielded higher harvests. In addition, many mid-age and younger informants reported Euterpe sp. as medicinal species, a less frequently mentioned by older informants. The local mestizo population in contrast had a broader distributed knowledge with regard to “food” uses of Euterpe sp., and mentioned the species as source of construction material less frequently.

  8. Optimization of the volume reconstruction for classical Tomo-PIV algorithms (MART, BIMART and SMART): synthetic and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L.; Tremblais, B.; David, L.

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), simultaneous MART and block iterative MART reconstruction techniques was carried out on synthetic and experimental data. Different criteria were defined to improve the preprocessing of the initial images. Knowledge of how each reconstruction parameter influences the quality of particle volume reconstruction and computing time is the key in Tomo-PIV. These criteria were applied to a real case, a jet in cross flow, and were validated.

  9. An ABAGE-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 Inhibited the Growth of Hypocotyls and Roots of Amaranthus retroflexus Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; DONG Jin-gao; SHANG Hong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite, which had an inhibitory effect on plant growth, was isolated from cultural filtrate of Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4 by column chromatography on silica gel and preparative HPLC. Its structure was determined from HPLC-ESI MS, GC,IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data, as well as chemical hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar to abscisic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(ABAGE) in structure. The inhibitory effect of the ABAGE-like metabolite on plant growth was investigated using a weed Amaranthus retroflexus L. as a bioassay material. The results showed that it inhibited hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seedlings when its concentration was over 0.5 μM. The concentrations for 50% inhibition of hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus seedlings were 2.8 and 1.4 μM, respectively.

  10. Modeling and analysis of real-time and embedded systems with UML and MARTE developing cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Selic, Bran

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time and Embedded Systems with UML and MARTE explains how to apply the complex MARTE standard in practical situations. This approachable reference provides a handy user guide, illustrating with numerous examples how you can use MARTE to design and develop real-time and embedded systems and software. Expert co-authors Bran Selic and Sébastien Gérard lead the team that drafted and maintain the standard and give you the tools you need apply MARTE to overcome the limitations of cyber-physical systems. The functional sophistication required of modern cyber-physical

  11. Áreas prioritarias para colectar germoplasma de Amaranthus en México con base en la diversidad y riqueza de especies Priority areas to collect Amaranthus germplasm in Mexico based on diversity and species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia Rangel

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo utilizar el Sistema de Información Geográfico, para crear mapas de índices de diversidad y riqueza de especies del género Amaranthus en México, para proyectar las mejores áreas de colecta de germoplasma. La máxima riqueza de especies se encontró en el centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal y la costa del Pacífico, entre Jalisco y Colima, así como en Sinaloa. El índice de biodiversidad de Brillouin mostró alta diversidad en la costa del Pacífico, Sinaloa, entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, además el centro occidente de Nuevo León, la región de la Huasteca del sureste de Tamaulipas y noreste de Veracruz, así como la zona noroeste de la Península de Yucatán. Las áreas prioritarias que se proponen son: la costa central de Sinaloa, sur de la región biogeográfica de Sonora, parte centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal, región biogeográfica del Eje Volcánico Transmexicano y la costa del pacífico centro entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, finalmente en la región biogeográfica de la costa pacífica mexicana.This investigation had as objective to use the Geographical Information System, to create maps of indexes of diversity and wealth of species of genus Amaranthus in Mexico, to plan the best areas of germplasm collection. The maximum wealth of species was in west center of State of Mexico including Distrito Federal and the Pacific coast, between Jalisco and Colima, as well as in Sinaloa. The Brillouin index of biodiversity showed high diversity in the Pacific coast, Sinaloa, between the states of Jalisco and Colima, also the west center of Nuevo León, the region of Huasteca of southeast of Tamaulipas and northeast of Veracruz, as well as the northwest area of Yucatán Peninsula. The priority areas proposed are: the central coast of Sinaloa, south of biogeographic region of Sonora, west center section of State of Mexico

  12. Overcome dormancy of seeds of Tucum (Astrocaryum huaimi Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolyana Lorrayne Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion for varying periods in different concentrations of gibberellic acid and separate methods of scarification on the germination of seeds tucum. In the first trial, testing different soaking periods (24 and 48 hours, different forms of soaking (fast and slow and different concentrations of gibberellic acid (0 , 100 and 200 mg L-¹ compared to the control (water under completely randomized design in a factorial 2x2x3. The second experiment evaluated the different scarification treatments being: physical (seed coat removal in the hilar region with the aid of a scalpel, chemical (sulfuric acid 98 PA for 2:04 minutes and thermal (hot water at approximately 98 ° C and cold water at about 2°C for 4 minutes. In the first trial were evaluated % of contaminated seeds (seeds infected by microorganisms and hard seeds ( who did not start the germination process , but not soiled, and in the second we assessed germination percentage (% every two days for three months; germination Speed Index (GSI, time to occurrence of 50 % germination (T50 and Emergency Speed Index (ESI. The use of gibberellic acid was ineffective in promoting germination of Tucum (Astrocaryum Huaimi Mart.. Scarification treatments were effective in promoting germination and emergence of seedlings in the nursery and the most efficient physical removal scarification of the seed coat in the hilar region with the highest percentage of germination.

  13. GERMINAÇAO DE SEMENTES DE Combretum leprosum MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURO VASCONCELOS PACHECO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combretum leprosum Mart. is a tree species native of the Caatinga, used in the restoration of degraded areas and in folk medicine. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the germination and vigor of the seeds subjecting them to different pre-germinative treatments, temperatures and substrates. In the first experi- ment, we tested the pre-germinative treatments: mechanical scarification with sandpaper, chemical scarification with H2SO4 for 1, 5, 10 and 20 minutes, immersion in water at 80 oC and imbibition in distilled water for 24 hours, beyond of the control. In the second experiment, after treatment of imbibition in water for 24 hours, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 5 x 4 (five substrates: into paper, sand, coconut fiber, vermiculite and paper towel organized in the form of rolls; and four temperatures: 25, 30, 35 and 20-30 oC. The following parameters were evalueted: seed moisture content, germination, germination speed index, first germination count and seedling length and dry matter weight. The seeds of Combretum leprosum have not coat dormancy. However, pre-germinative treatments of mechanical scarification with sandpaper and imbibi- tion in water for 24 hours allows better expression of seeds vigor. The paper towel and the temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30 oC provide adequate conditions for evaluating the germination of Combretum leprosum seeds.

  14. Antiproliferative activity of Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Dioni A; Alves, Vanessa G; Franco, Danielle M M; Ribeiro, Laryssa C; de Souza, Maria C; Kato, Lucilia; de Carvalho, João E; Kohn, Luciana K; de Oliveira, Cecília M A; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2012-01-01

    Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae) is known as 'açoita-cavalo' and is one of the most important medicinal plants found in the Brazilian cerrado. The crude methanolic extracts of the branches and leaves and their fractions were evaluated using the following cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR (breast expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype), NCI-460 (lung), UACC-62 (melanoma), 786-0 (kidney), OVCAR (ovarian), PCO-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon) and K-562 (leukaemia). The crude methanolic extracts from the branches (B) and leaves (L) were able to inhibit the growth of the K-562 and 786-0 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with GI(50) values of 8.1 and 5.4 µg mL(-1), respectively. The hexane (L1), chloroform (L2) and methanol (L4) fractions derived from extract L showed a high selectivity and pronounced cytostatic activity against 786-0 (GI(50) ~ 40 µg mL(-1)). A significant amount of lupeol was isolated from fraction L2. The chloroform (B2) and methanol (B3) fractions derived from extract (B) exhibited less selectivity, showing the highest cytostatic activity against K-562, NCI-ADR, OVCAR, MCF-7 and NCI-460 cells, with GI(50) values between 27 and 40 µg mL(-1). Lupeol, betulin, a mixture of steroids, (-)-epicatechin, vitexin and liriodendrin were isolated from these active fractions.

  15. Ketamine and midazolam anesthesia in Pacific martens (Martes caurina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Jack A; Moriarty, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of midazolam as a tranquilizer for anesthesia in mustelids in conjunction with the cyclohexamine ketamine is not well documented. Because midazolam is fast acting, inexpensive, and quickly metabolized, it may serve as a good alternative to other more commonly used tranquilizers. We trapped and anesthetized 27 Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in Lassen National Forest (northern California, US) August 2010-April 2013. We assessed anesthesia with ketamine at 18 and 25 mg/kg combined with 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam by comparing mean times of induction, return to consciousness, and recovery, plus physiologic parameters. No reversal was used for the midazolam portion of the anesthetic. Mean (±SD) induction for both ketamine dosages was 1.7±0.5 and 1.8±1.0 min, respectively. Return to consciousness mean times were 8.0 min longer (Pmidazolam provided reliable field anesthesia for Pacific martens, and supplemental oxygen is recommended as needed.

  16. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Cyathea phalerata Mart. (Cyatheaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Dalbó, Silvia; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant properties of Cyathea phalerata Mart. (Cyatheaceae) using in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro antioxidant potential of the crude extract (CE), precipitate (PPT), aqueous fraction (AQF), n-butanolic fraction (BUF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from C. phalerata was evaluated through the scavenging of diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) (nitroblue tetrazolium assay) and hydroxyl radicals (OH(*)) (deoxyribose assay), and lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. In these assays, it was observed that EAF had marked antioxidant potential, especially as a scavenger of the OH(*) radical and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The in vivo evaluation of oxidative stress (DNA fragmentation, membrane lipoperoxidation and carbonyl protein formation) and the antioxidant defenses (concentration of reduced glutathione, as well as catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities) were measured in mice pre-treated with EAF (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg, orally) and later exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The EAF decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels, DNA damage and carbonyl protein contents, and increased catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Based on these results, it is concluded that the EAF from C. phalerata protects liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) in mice and these effects are probably related to the antioxidant activity associated with the free radical scavenging property of this fraction.

  17. Martí y la psicología Martí e a psicologia Marti’s psychological ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Jorge González Serra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es demostrar que existe un pensamiento psicológico en José Martí. Se señala el criterio martiano de la unidad de observación y reflexión como base de la ciencia, su pensamiento multilateral y sintético, su promoción explícita de la ciencia del espíritu, su concepción sobre la unidad de lo general, lo particular y lo individual en el hombre, sus ideas sobre el pensamiento, la imaginación, la inteligencia, la afectividad, sobre la unidad del conocimiento y el afecto y sobre el espíritu de los pueblos.O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar que existe um pensamento psicológico de José Martí. Destacam-se o critério martiano da unidade de observação e reflexão como base da ciência, o seu pensamento multilateral e sintético, sua promoção explícita da ciência do espírito, sua concepção sobre a unidade do geral, o particular e o individual no homem, suas ideias sobre o pensamento, a imaginação, a inteligência, a afetividade, sobre a unidade do conhecimento e do afeto e sobre o espírito dos povos.The aim of the present paper is to bring to light Marti's psychological ideas. The paper discusses Marti's concepts on the science of the spirit. It deals with his beliefs on the unity of observation and thinking as the basis of science; with his multilateral and synthetic thinking; with his ideas regarding the unity of the general, the particular and the individual in man; with his concepts of thinking, imagination and intelligence, moral and motivation; with his beliefs on the unity of cognition and affection, and with his ideas on the spirit of peoples.

  18. Gregorio Martínez, cronista de otra historia Gregorio Martínez, chronicler ot another history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Huespe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los mitos fundamentales de la conquista de América se sostuvieron sobre una idea de base: la existencia de una región fabulosa situada sobre la franja equinoccial. La necesidad de hallar oro en esas regiones ignotas marcó un impulso fundamental en el proceso de conquista y constituyó uno de los móviles más fuertes, sino tal vez el más importante. A partir del concepto ficciones de archivo que propone Roberto González Echevarría (2000, el presente trabajo aborda la forma en que se actualizan los mitos de la conquista en la obra literaria Crónica de músicos y diablos (1985 del escritor peruano Gregorio Martínez (Nasca, 1942.The fundamental myths of the conquest of America were based upon one fundamental principle: the existence of a region located on the fabulous equator strip. The need to find gold in those unknown regions was a major boost in the process of conquest and was one of the strongest motives, and perhaps the most important one. Based on the concept ficciones de archivo proposed by Roberto Gonzalez Echevarría (2000, this paper addresses how myths of conquest are updated in Crónica de músicos y diablos (1985 written by Gregorio Martinez (Nasca, 1942.

  19. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  20. José Martí, Viajes y Apreciación del Pueblo Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bojórquez Urzaiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone y examina los cambios de percepción que experimentó José Martí sobre el papel de los pueblos originarios de América, entre 1875 y 1878, años en los que vivió en México y Guatemala, con intensa escala en Yucatán, lugares donde conoció directamente la cultura y el pueblo maya. Martí resume una visión inicial de nuestra América en la figura lítica de Chacmool cuando después de ser expropiada por el gobierno yucateco, el Apóstol cubano la admira en la ciudad de Mérida y expresa que es la síntesis de las culturas americanas. Aspecto poco estudiado en la obra de Martí es este acercamiento etnográfico a la realidad maya de Yucatán y Guatemala.   This paper aims at presenting and examining the change of perception José Martí underwent in relation to the role of the native peoples of America between 1875 and 1878, the years he lived in Mexico and Guatemala, during which he spent a large amount of time in Yucatan, where he was able to get to know the Mayan culture and its people first hand. Martí summarized his initial vision of our America in the lithic figure of Chacmool, which he was able to admire in the city of Merida, after it had been expropriated by the government of Yucatan. The Cuban apostle described this as a synthesis of American cultures. This ethnographic insight into the Mayan reality in Yucatan and Guatemala represents a scarcely explored aspect of Martí's work.

  1. Management Options and Factors Affecting Control of a Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Biotype Resistant to Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B. Harder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use of protox-inhibiting herbicides has resulted in a common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer biotype that survived lactofen applied up to 10 times the labeled rate. Field and greenhouse research evaluated control options for this biotype of common waterhemp. In the field, PRE applications of flumioxazin at 72 g ai ha−1, sulfentrazone at 240 g ai ha−1, and isoxaflutole at 70 g ai ha−1 controlled common waterhemp >90% up to 6 weeks after treatment. POST applications of fomesafen at 330 g ai ha−1, lactofen at 220 g ai ha−1, and acifluorfen at 420 g ai ha−1 resulted in <60% visual control of common waterhemp, but differences were detected among herbicides. In the greenhouse, glyphosate was the only herbicide that controlled protox resistant waterhemp. The majority of herbicide activity from POST flumioxazin, fomesafen, acifluorfen, and lactofen was from foliar placement, but control was less than 40% regardless of placement. Control of common waterhemp seeded at weekly intervals after herbicide treatment with flumioxazin, fomesafen, sulfentrazone, atrazine, and isoxaflutole exceeded 85% at 0 weeks after herbicide application (WAHA, while control with isoxaflutole was greater than 60% 6 WAHA. PRE and POST options for protox-resistant common waterhemp are available to manage herbicide resistance.

  2. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization.

  3. Effects of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing ACA Gene from Amaranthus caudatus on the Population Development of Myzus persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOHong-Nian; JIAYan-Tao; ZHOUYong-Gang; ZHANGZhen-Shan; OUYANGQing; JIANGYing; TIANYing-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible function of the agglutinin from Amaranthus caudatus L. (ACA) in plant defending against insect pests, ACA cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and the 5' and 3' sequences were confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The phloem-specific expression vector of ACA gene, pBCACAc, was constructed based on the plant binary vector pBC438 and transfered into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Results from PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that AOA gene was integrated into the genomes of transformed plants and the transgene integration varied from one to four estimated copies per genome. Western blotting analysis indicated that ACA gene was transcribed and translated in the transgenic plants. The bioassay of Myzus persicae Sulzer on detached leaves demonstrated that the 78% transgenic tobacco plants displayed an average aphid-resistant rate of more than 75%. Some apterous progeny of M. persicae were found dead on the resistant plants. These results indicate that ACA gene should be an effective aphid-resistant gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for aphid resistance.

  4. Assessing the Economic Impact of Inversion Tillage, Cover Crops, and Herbicide Regimes in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Infested Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Duzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. producers in Alabama are faced with a rapidly expanding problem that decreases yields and increases production costs: herbicide-resistant weeds. Producers increasingly rely on integrated weed management strategies that raise production costs. This analysis evaluated how tillage, cover crops, and herbicide regime affected net returns above variable treatment costs (net returns for cotton production in Alabama from 2009 to 2011 under pressure from Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.. Annual net returns were compared for two tillage treatments (inversion and noninversion tillage, three cover crops (crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.], cereal rye [Secale cereal L.], and winter fallow, and three herbicide regimes (PRE, POST, and PRE+POST. Results indicate that under heavy Palmer amaranth population densities one year of inversion tillage followed by two years of noninversion tillage, along with a POST or PRE+POST herbicide application had the highest net returns in the first year; however, the economic benefit of inversion tillage, across all herbicide treatments, was nonexistent in 2010 and 2011. Cotton producers with Palmer amaranth infestations would likely benefit from cultural controls, in conjunction with herbicide applications, as part of their weed management system to increase net returns.

  5. Expression and characterization of a His-tagged 11S seed globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Nielsen, Niels C; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2004-01-01

    DNA encoding a His-tagged 11S globulin from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (amarantin) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strains BL21 (DE3) and Origami (DE3). The two strains produced different accumulation patterns. Whereas most of the proamarantin expressed in BL21 (DE3) was localized in inclusion bodies, that produced in Origami (DE3) was soluble (76 mg/L). Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation analysis of the expressed soluble proamarantin revealed that the protein was assembled into trimers. Treatment of proamarantin trimers in vitro using purified asparaginyl endopeptidase resulted in the appearance of peptides of the sizes expected for acidic and basic chains. Because the proamarantin assembles into trimers with the expected sedimentation characteristics and is cleaved into acidic and basic chains rather than being degraded, the results suggest that the protein folding occurring in E. coli is similar to that taking place in seeds. The His-tagged proamarantin was purified in a single step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography with a final yield of 48 mg/L. The overexpression of proamarantin in E. coli, together with the one-step purification will facilitate further investigation of this storage protein through site-directed mutagenesis.

  6. Use of low-calcium cultivars to reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bao-Yan; Yu, Dan-Ping; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jia-Li; Xia, Yan; Li, Qu-Sheng; Wang, Li-Li; Ling, Ling; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops using edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) as a model. Fifteen amaranth cultivars were grown in long-term contaminated soil, and the differences in soil Cd mobilization, root uptake, and root-shoot translocation between low- and high-Cd accumulating cultivars were examined. The transport pathways of Cd across the root were further identified in Hoagland nutrient solution using the Ca channel blocker La(3+), the ATP inhibitor 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and a nutrition-deficient culture. Cd concentrations in amaranth cultivars varied about six-fold and showed an elevated trend as the concentration of Ca and Zn increased (p low-Cd cultivars were significantly lower than those of high-Cd cultivars, and decreased with decreasing levels of soluble rhizosphere exudates. These findings indicated that low co-mobilization of Cd with essential metals mediated by root-induced exudates of low-Cd cultivars contributed to its low accumulation in amaranth. Uptake of Cd was inhibited along with Ca by La(3+) and DNP, but was promoted by Ca or Fe deficiency treatment. Therefore, the Ca pathway is likely the mode of Cd entry into amaranth roots, although Zn and Fe transporters may also be involved. Low-Ca cultivars exhibited lower Cd uptake capability than high-Ca cultivars. The low translocation efficiency of Cd from root to shoot also contributed to its low content accumulation in edible parts of amaranth.

  7. The Effect of Entry by Wal-Mart Supercenters on Retail Grocery Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Bobby J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. retail grocery industry shifted from an industry dominated by small grocers serving local markets to one characterized by large retailers present in international markets. Average retail grocery concentration as measured by CR4 increased from 19.9 in 1997 to 31.0 in 2002 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2000; 2005). Wal-Mart’s tremendous growth is the catalyst to this change, but little is known about Wal-Mart’s effect on market concentration. This analysis eva...

  8. Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of Wal-Mart expansion on retail employment at the county level. Using an instrumental-variables approach to correct for both measurement error in entry dates and endogeneity of the timing of entry, I find that Wal-Mart entry increases retail employment by 100 jobs in the year of entry. Half of this gain disappears over the next five years as other retail establishments exit and contract, leaving a long-run statistically significant net gain of 50 jobs. Wholesal...

  9. THE EFFECT OF ENTRY BY WAL-MART SUPERCENTERS ON RETAIL GROCERY CONCENTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Bobby J.; Dooley, Frank J.; Kim, Sounghun

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. retail grocery industry shifted from an industry dominated by small grocers serving local markets to one characterized by large retailers present in international markets. Average retail grocery concentration as measured by CR4 increased from 17.8 in 1982 to 43.0 in 1999 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1982; Trade Dimensions Marketing Guidebook, 2000). Wal-Mart's tremendous growth is the catalyst to this change. Although Wal-Mart has been studied from multiple perspectives, little is known abou...

  10. Vigencia política de José Martí

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Semblanza del escritor y político cubano José Martí (1853-1895), con especial atención a la vigencia de su pensamiento ético, base de su permanente actualidad. Martí fue el organizador y líder de la última guerra americana contra el colonialismo europeo clásico, pero el sentido profundo que dio a esa lucha la convirtió en una verdadera guerra de liberación nacional: el primer movimiento concreto contra el imperialismo. Entre los rasgos más originales del pensamiento martiano están: la proclam...

  11. Estudo comparativo farmacognóstico e atividade biológica de Maytenus rigida Mart. E Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex. Reiss. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares da Rocha, Cristiano

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho compreende o estudo farmacognóstico comparativo (padronização botânica, avaliação fitoquímica e avaliação da atividade biológica) entre as espécies Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex. Reiss. e M. rigida Mart. (Celastraceae), esta última bastante utilizada popularmente, em nosso estado, para o tratamento de distúrbios gástricos (gastrite e úlceras gástricas), indicações idênticas àquelas registradas através de vários estudos para M. ilicifolia. A padronização botânica...

  12. Fracionamento do grão de Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro por moagem e suas características composicionais Fractionation by milling of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus. Compositional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marcílio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O grão de amaranto é geralmente consumido na sua forma integral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da moagem do grão de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro na composição química, nutricional, a estabilidade à oxidação e cor da farinha. Os grãos foram pré-condicionados para umidades entre 9,2 e 13,7% e fracionados em moinho para cereais. O aumento da umidade de 9,2 para 13,7% resultou na diminuição progressiva do rendimento da farinha, de 39 para 14%. A farinha refinada (quebra + redução, com 9,2% de umidade, mostrou teores de proteína total de 13,9%, contra 16,2% da farinha integral. O teor de lipídeos totais no amaranto integral (9,2% de umidade variou de 6,78, para 6,11% na farinha refinada e o teor de fibra nos farelos diminuiu de 3,6 para 3,1%, ao passo que a cor da farinha se tornou mais atraente. Conclui-se que o fracionamento da farinha do grão de amaranto, apesar de produzir uma farinha com melhor aparência e alto teor protéico, apresenta rendimento baixo e não mostra diminuição substancial no teor de óleo da farinha refinada como para garantir uma maior estabilidade à autooxidação.Grain amaranth is normally consumed whole. The effect of milling on the chemical and nutritional composition, stability to oxidation and color of the flours of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus has been assessed. Grains of the cv Japônica were pre-conditioned to moistures from 9.2 to 13.7% and fractionated in a cereal mill. Increasing the moisture resulted in a pronounced decrease of flour yield from 39 to 14%. The refined flour (break and reduction fractions combined of the 9.2% moisture grain showed a total protein content of 13.9%, against the 16.2% of the whole flour, whereas the total lipid content fell from 6.78 to 6.11% with no detectable change in oxidative stability after refining. The fiber content was reduced slightly, from 4.6 to 3.8% for the highest and the lowest moisture contents

  13. Predacion de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. en un cultivo de soja: influencia del sistema de siembra Predation of Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. seeds in soybean crops: influence of the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nisensohn

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar las pérdidas del banco superficial de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. (yuyo colorado debidas a la predación por insectos en un cultivo de soja y en el barbecho posterior, en dos sistemas de laboreo. Los experimentos se realizaron durante las campañas 94/95 y 95/96. Para calcular la tasa de predación se emplearon bandejas cubiertas con tejido para evitar el ingreso de roedores y con tela de tul en los tratamientos testigos; en cada una se sembraron 100 semillas de la maleza y cada 15 días se registró el número de semillas remanentes. Para determinar los insectos presentes y su abundancia se emplearon trampas "pitfall". Entre los insectos capturados se encontró el carábido Notiobia cupripennis, su mayor abundancia se registró en marzo (4,5 y 5,8 insectos/trampa en convencional y 2,7 y 3,3 insectos/trampa en siembra directa, coincidiendo con las tasas de predación más altas (5,6% y 8% en convencional y 2,7% y 3,8% en siembra directa; tanto en abundancia como en predación se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambos sistemas. A partir de este mes, las diferencias no fueron significativas, el número de insectos y la tasa de predación disminuyeron. En ambos años existió una correlación positiva entre estas variables.The objective was to evaluate the losses of the superficial bank of Amaranthus quitensis seeds, due to insect predation, in a soybean crop and in the subsequent fallow, in two tillage systems. Experiments were conducted during 1994/95 and 1995/96. To estimate predation rates, trays covered with wire meshes to prevent rodent predation, and with fine sheer net (tulle in the control treatment were used; 100 weed seeds were sown in each tray, and the number of remaining seeds was registered every 15 days. Pitfall traps were used to identify insects species occurring in the field and to estimate their abundance. The carabid Notiobia cupripennis was captured in pitfall traps, the higher

  14. Deveria o Brasil investir em novos grãos para a sua alimentação? A proposta do amaranto (Amaranthus SP).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O gênero Amaranthus compreende várias espécies de plantas dicotiledôneas cujas folhas e sementes são regularmente consumidas como alimento em diversos países, entre os quais não se inclui o  Brasil. As espécies graníferas se destacam pela vantagem da rapidez de crescimento e produção, possibilitando o cultivo em condições de escassez de umidade na fase reprodutiva. Dadas suas nobres características nutricionais, este grão se apresenta como um alimento naturalmente balanceado, com propriedades...

  15. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain,Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electroph...

  16. Ensayo del efecto diurético de los extractos acuosos de Amaranthus muricatus (Moquin) Gill. Ex Hicken, Bauhinia candicans Benth. y Smilax campestris Griseb.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Los extractos acuosos de Amaranthus muricatus (Amarantaceae), Smilax campestris (Liliaceae) y Bauhinia candicans (Leguminosae) fueron ensayados con relación a su actividad diurética en ratas. La evaluación farmacológica revela que la administración oral de los extractos de las especies citadas a dosis de 250,500 y 1000 mg/kg de peso no producen un aumento significativo en el volumen de orina excretado, por lo que el uso tradicional como diurético de las tres especies estudiadas no pudo ser de...

  17. Evaluación de la calidad de vida en personas con discapacidades significativas: aplicación de la Escala San Martín en la Fundación Obra San Martín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hierro Zorrilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La Escala San Martín es un instrumento que permite evaluar la calidad de vida de personas con discapacidades significativas con evidencias adecuadas de fiabilidad y validez. En 2012 se administró la Escala San Martín a 85 personas con discapacidad intelectual que acudían a alguno de los centros de la Fundación Obra San Martín. El presente artículo recoge los resultados obtenidos agregados en el mesosistema, un ejemplo del microsistema y las líneas de trabajo puestas en marcha a partir de los resultados obtenidos.

  18. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  19. EHRC 2012, 146, (17966/10: Manzanas Martín v. Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ramos Martin

    2012-01-01

    De klager, Manzanas Martín, was van 1 november 1952 tot en met 30 juni 1991 werkzaam als priester bij de Spaanse evangelische kerk. Hoewel hij gedurende deze periode loon ontving van de kerk, betaalde de laatste geen sociale verzekeringspremies met betrekking tot zijn aanstelling. Na zijn pensioneri

  20. Concordia ülikooli õppejõud nõuavad rektor Mart Susi lahkumist / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli õppejõud ja tudengid esitasid senisele rektorile Mart Susile palve oma kohalt lahkuda, nad ei pea õigeks, et ülikooli juhib ülikooli rahaga patustanud inimene. Susi väitis üliõpilaste ees peetud pressikonverentsil, et jutud ülikooli võlgadest ja tema enda ametikoha kuritarvitustest ei vasta tõele

  1. Mart ja Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad omanikena Concordia pankrotti / Andri Maimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri

    2003-01-01

    Concordia Ülikooli rektori kohast loobunud Mart Susi ning prorektori ametikohalt lahkunud Mari-Ann Susi taotlevad neile kuuluvat ülikooli pidanud miljonivõlgades firma pankrotti. Hiljuti loodi õppejõududest, tudengitest js töötajatest mittetulundusühing Concordia Akadeemiline Ühisus (CAU), selle nõukogu esimees on Hagi Šein

  2. Eesti talendid välismaale / Juko-Mart Kõlar, Tiina Jokinen, Anu Jaanson... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimustele muusikute vahendamisest välismaale vastavad MTÜ Eesti Muusika Ekspordi tegevjuht Juko-Mart Kõlar, Estonian Record Productionsi tegevdirektor Tiina Jokinen, sama firma mänedžer Anu Jaanson ja Pille Lille Muusikute Toetusfondi tegevjuht Leelo Lehtla

  3. Wal-Mart tõmbab USA elatustaset alla / Eva Rüütel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Eva

    2005-01-01

    USA majanduskriitikud väidavad, et riigi suurim tööandja jaekaubanduskett Wal-Mart kisub ameeriklaste elatustaset alla. Püüdes laialtlevinud arusaama kummutada, palkas ettevõte majanduskonsultatsioonifirma Global Insight'i, et uurida firma mõju ulatust Ameerika majandusele

  4. A miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) as a compact breaking wave analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant; Collins, Douglas B.; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Dommer, Abigail; Schill, Steven; Forestieri, Sara; Survilo, Mathew

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols, repeatable, controlled methods for their generation are required. A new system, the miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART), has been designed after the success of the original MART system, to approximate a small oceanic spilling breaker by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The smaller tank utilizes an intermittently plunging jet of water produced by a rotating water wheel, into an approximately 6 L reservoir to simulate bubble plume and foam formation and generate aerosols. This system produces bubble plumes characteristic of small whitecaps without the large external pump inherent in the original MART design. Without the pump it is possible to easily culture delicate planktonic and microbial communities in the bulk water during experiments while continuously producing aerosols for study. However, due to the reduced volume and smaller plunging jet, the absolute numbers of particles generated are approximately an order of magnitude less than in the original MART design.

  5. Nõukogude modernism : perifeeria rääkimata lood / Mart Kalm ; intervjueerinud Sille Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2012-01-01

    Näitus "Nõukogude modernism 1955-1991. Rääkimata lood" Viini Arhitektuurikeskuses. Kuraatorid: Katharina Ritter, Ekaterina Shapiro-Obermair, Alexandra Wachter. Näitusega kaasneb publikatsioon. Näituselt puudub Venemaa. Arhitektuuriajaloolane Mart Kalm eesti arhitektuurist ja oma ettekandest konverentsil

  6. Is Maxima a Wal-Mart in sheep's clothing? / Todd Graham

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graham, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Nii USA-s kui Leedus tegutsev teadlane Randy Richards uuris Ida-Euroopas jõudsalt laienenud kaubaketi Maxima ja USA Wal-Mart-i turu hõivamise, -positsiooni ja -strateegiate sarnasusi ja erinevusi. Vt. samas: Baltic retail continues to thrive. Kaubanduskeskuste ehitusbuum Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus

  7. Vihula mõis = Vihula manor / Mart Keskküla ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keskküla, Mart, 1947-

    2011-01-01

    Vihula mõisakompleksist, lühidalt mõisa ajaloost, mõisahoonete restaureerimisest. Vihula mõis on nüüd turismikeskus. Arhitekt Mart Keskküla, ajaloolane Kaarel Truu, sisekujundajad Reet Saluvere, Heli Eensalu, Ija Kuuse (AS Restor). Maastikuarhitekt Kersti Lootus (AS Lootusprojekt)

  8. Valmib valus lavalugu perest : Athenas jõuab vaatajate ette Mart Kivastiku suhtedraama / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    SA Eesti Teatri Festival esietendab 4. mail Athena keskuses Margus Kasterpalu lavastuses Mart Kivastiku näidendit "Meie isa, kes sa oled ..." Mängivad Vanemuise näitlejad Marika Aidla, Hannes Kaljujärv, Tanel Jonas ning Leino Rei

  9. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  10. Homme algab valge olümpia / Mart Siimann, Paavo Kivine ; interv. Sulev Valner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siimann, Mart, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City olümpiamängude eelõhtul olid Maalehe vestlusringis spordist, olümpiast ja ausast mängust mõtteid avaldamas publitsist Paavo Kivine ja Eesti Olümpiakomitee president, parlamendisaadik Mart Siimann

  11. Mart Siimann asus tööle presidendi sisenõunikuna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka Sakala (2003/Sep/30) lk. 7 ;Virumaa Teataja (2003/Sep/30) lk. 1. Eesti Olümpiakomitee president ja endine peaminister Mart Siimann asus veerandi kohaga tööle presidendi sisenõunikuna. Senine sisenõunik Jüri Kaljuvee asus julgeolekunõuniku kohale

  12. Ilu võitlus koleduse välja vastu / Rebekka Lotman ; kommenteerinud Mart Anderson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Rebekka, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    Konkursside "25 kauneimat Eesti raamatut" ja "Viis kauneimat Eesti lasteraamatut" võidutööde näitus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus. Võidutööde valikut kommenteerib žürii esimees Mart Anderson. Loetletud 2008. aasta 25 kaunimat raamatut. Nimekiri: 2008. aasta 25 kauneimat raamatut

  13. A Study of the Discount Retail Industry and Wal-Mart Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    lilith /no- wal/index.html.; Internet, accessed 14 August 1997. 115 Deirdre McMurdy, "Baffling Bentonville: Executives from the Arkansas-based Retail...December 1997. "Up Against the Wal! Facts You Should Know About Wal-Mart," http://tdg.uoguelph.ca? lilith /no-wal/index.html; Internet; accessed 14

  14. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations.

  15. "Ja öeldakse, oh, õudust, kus me oleme" / Mart Laar ; interv. Helena Eenmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu liider Mart Laar Eesti jätkusuutlikkusest ja konkurentsivõimest, kapitali rahvusvahelistumisest, teadus- ja arendustegevuse paigalseisust, maksusüsteemist, ajaloost ja Tõnismäe pronkssõdurist, Venemaa-poliitikast, suhetest USA-ga, Eesti huvidest Gruusias

  16. Mess TEHNOLOOGIA 2000 - teaduse, tehnika ja rahamaailma kohtumine / Rein Ruubel, Mart Min ; interv. Urmi Reinde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruubel, Rein

    2000-01-01

    Maikuus Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis toimunud messi eesmärgiks oli ülevaate saamine innovaatilise ettevõtluse seisust ning arengu- ja arendamisvõimalustest Eestis : Vestlus messi projektijuhi Rein Ruubeli ja Elektroonika Instituudi direktori, professor Mart Miniga

  17. Pensamiento político y partidos. Francesc Romeu i Martí PSPV-PSOE

    OpenAIRE

    Innodret, Grupo

    2010-01-01

    Pensamiento político y partidos. Francesc Romeu i Martí PSPV-PSOE. Historia del Pensamiento Político Moderno. Prof. Benito Sanz Díaz. Licenciatura en Ciencias Políticas y de la Administración. Facultat de Dret Universitat de Valencia

  18. Euterpe oleracea Mart. extract prevents vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Silva Cristino Cordeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. We assessed the effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí seed extract (ASE rich in proanthocyanidins and catechin on vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress associated with hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. SHR and control rats were treated with ASE (200 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 10 weeks. In the rat mesenteric arterial bed (MAB, acetylcholine response, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1 expressions were studied. The antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative damage and nitrite quantification were assessed in MAB and heart homogenates. eNOS immunohistochemistry and histological analysis was carried out on aortic sections. ASE was able to attenuate the hypertension and prevent the endothelial dysfunction in MAB of SHR. The increased levels of protein carbonylation and associated low levels of nitrite in MAB and heart of SHR were attenuated by ASE. The up-regulation of eNOS and SOD1 expression and the increased activity of SOD in MAB from SHR were normalized by ASE. In aorta from SHR, ASE prevented the increase in media thickness, media:lumen ratio and the decrease in the percentage of elastic fibers. Our results suggest that ASE produces antihypertensive effect and prevents the vascular dysfunction in SHR, through mechanisms involving antioxidant effects and NO production. Industrial relevance. Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí has been considered one of the most important medicinal plants of the Amazon by its beneficial effects in the treatment of fever, pain, inflammation and anemia. More recently, Euterpe oleracea Mart. has been reported to reduce blood pressure with an important antioxidant property. The present research reports the protective effect of the extract of the seeds from Euterpe oleraca Mart. against high blood pressure and the associated vascular structural and functional changes. The test for antihypertensive and vascular anti-hypertrophic effect of the hydro

  19. Etnocentrismo, racismo y miedo: los indígenas y los incultos en Martí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Camacho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the following article I return to the idea of ethnicity and liberalism in Latin America during the last part of the 19th century. I also discuss Martí’s view of the Indians after 1885, when his chronicles were fueled by the rhetoric of pro-indigenous groups such as the Friends of Indians Association. I propose to look at other ways in which Martí’s ethnocentric view of culture and race intertwined with his agenda of “defending” the Indians, especially in his essay “Nuestra América.” For that purpose I retrace some of my previous arguments and discuss other essays that have recently elaborated on Martí’s “other side”, the one that imposes on the Indians his own liberal agenda, and the vision of modernity that the elites were constructing in Latin America at the end of 19th century. In my previous articles I discussed Martí’s chronicles on the Guatemalan, Mexican and American Indians and here I will focus on the similarities between the positivists in Mexico and Martí’s emphasis on “scientific politics” as well as his fear that those that were at the lowest level of society could one day revolt against the republic and destroy the justice “accumulated in books.” For books symbolized for Martí the “lettered elite”, those that had power and exercised it to their own advantage. He talked about this fear in Mexico, and in his most famous essay he returned to it again with a somewhat different perspective, but still with the conviction that within a democracy everything could be solved and a revolt from the “unlettered” masses was not justified. I argue that even if “Nuestra América” meant a more positive view of the “Indian problem”, Martí still considers the Indians, the “gauchos” and the rest of the “incultos” as a threat. They were the natural ally of the “caudillos” that ruled for so long Latin America, charismatic caudillos such as Juan Manuel de Rosas.

  20. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  1. Modeling Light Interception and Distribution in Mixed Canopy of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus in Competition with Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid VAZIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To model light interception and distribution in the mixed canopy of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus rertoflexus with corn, an experiment was carried out in randomized complete blocks design with factorial arrangement in Gonabad during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 growing seasons. The factors used in this experiment was consisted of three corn densities (7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 plants per meter of row and three densities of redroot pigweed (zero, 2, 4, 6 and 8 plants per meter of row. INTERCOM model was used through replacing parabolic function with triangular function of leaf area density. Vertical distribution of the species� leaf area showed that corn had concentrated the most leaf area in layer of 50 to 150 cm, while redroot pigweed has concentrated in 40-60 cm of canopy height. Model sensitivity analysis showed that leaf area index, species� height, height where maximum leaf area is seen (hm, and extinction coefficient had influenced on light interception rate of any species. In both species, the distribution density of leaf area at the canopy length fit a triangular function, and the height in which maximum leaf area was observed change by increasing the density. There was a correlation between percentage of the radiation absorbed by the weed and percentage of corn seed yield loss (r2 = 0.89. Ideal type of corn was determined until the stage of tasseling in competition with weed. This determination indicates that the corn needs more height and leaf area, as well as less extinction coefficient to successfully fight against the weed.

  2. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La nor cadmium chloride (Cd induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  3. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-04-30

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  4. A Novel Tetraenoic Fatty Acid Isolated from Amaranthus spinosus Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arijit; Guria, Tanmoy; Maity, Tapan Kumar; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) has been shown to be useful in preventing and mitigating adverse pathophysiological conditions and complex diseases. However, only limited information is available on the anticancer potential of this plant. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus—(14E,18E,22E,26E)-methyl nonacosa-14,18,22,26 tetraenoate—against HepG2 human liver cancer cells. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine cell viability, flow cytometry assay for cell cycle analysis, and Western blot analysis to measure protein expression of Cdc2), cyclin B1, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The MTT assay showed that the fatty acid markedly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosage-dependent fashion, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 25.52 µmol/L. This antiproliferative result was superior to that of another known fatty acid, linoleic acid (IC50 38.65 µmol/L), but comparable to that of standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50 24.68 µmol/L). The novel fatty acid also induced apoptosis mediated by downregulation of cyclin B1, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2, resulting in the G2/M transition arrest. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus exhibits significant antiproliferative activity mediated through the induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These encouraging results may facilitate the development of A. spinosus fatty acid for the prevention and intervention of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27669220

  5. Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amaranthus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, M F; Osborn, R W; Goderis, I J; Noe, L; Acland, D; Hart, C A; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Broekaert, W F

    1996-08-01

    The cDNAs encoding the seed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from Mirabilis jalapa (Mj-AMP2) and Amaranthus caudatus (Ac-AMP2) have previously been characterized and it was found that Mj-AMP2 and Ac-AMP2 are processed from a precursor preprotein and preproprotein, respectively [De Bolle et al., Plant Mol Biol 28:713-721 (1995) and 22:1187-1190 (1993), respectively]. In order to study the processing, sorting and biological activity of these antimicrobial peptides in transgenic tobacco, four different gene constructs were made: a Mj-AMP2 wild-type gene construct, a Mj-AMP2 mutant gene construct which was extended by a sequence encoding the barley lectin carboxyl-terminal propeptide, a known vacuolar targeting signal [Bednarek and Raikhel, Plant Cell 3: 1195-1206 (1991)]; an Ac-AMP2 wild-type gene construct; and finally, an Ac-AMP2 mutant gene construct which was truncated in order to delete the sequence encoding the genuine carboxyl-terminal propeptide. Processing and localization analysis indicated that an isoform of Ac-AMP2 with a cleaved-off carboxyl-terminal arginine was localized in the intercellular fluid fraction of plants expressing either wild-type or mutant gene constructs. Mj-AMP2 was recovered extracellularly in plants transformed with Mj-AMP2 wild-type gene construct, whereas an Mj-AMP2 isoform with a cleaved-off carboxyl-terminal arginine accumulated intracellularly in plants expressing the mutant precursor protein with the barley lectin propeptide. The in vitro antifungal activity of the AMPs purified from transgenic tobacco expressing any of the four different precursor proteins was similar to that of the authentic proteins. However, none of the transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance against infection with either Botrytis cinerea or Alternaria longipes.

  6. A Novel Tetraenoic Fatty Acid Isolated from Amaranthus spinosus Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Arijit; Guria, Tanmoy; Maity, Tapan Kumar; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-09-22

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae) has been shown to be useful in preventing and mitigating adverse pathophysiological conditions and complex diseases. However, only limited information is available on the anticancer potential of this plant. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus-(14E,18E,22E,26E)-methyl nonacosa-14,18,22,26 tetraenoate-against HepG2 human liver cancer cells. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine cell viability, flow cytometry assay for cell cycle analysis, and Western blot analysis to measure protein expression of Cdc2), cyclin B1, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The MTT assay showed that the fatty acid markedly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosage-dependent fashion, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 25.52 µmol/L. This antiproliferative result was superior to that of another known fatty acid, linoleic acid (IC50 38.65 µmol/L), but comparable to that of standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50 24.68 µmol/L). The novel fatty acid also induced apoptosis mediated by downregulation of cyclin B1, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2, resulting in the G₂/M transition arrest. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that a novel fatty acid isolated from A. spinosus exhibits significant antiproliferative activity mediated through the induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These encouraging results may facilitate the development of A. spinosus fatty acid for the prevention and intervention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS PROCESSADOS ARTESANALMENTE DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea MART. E BACABA (Oenocarpus bacaba MART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO TIMONI BUCHDID CAMARGO NEVES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os frutos do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e da bacabeira ( MOenocarpus bacabaart, duas palmeiras tropicais nativas e socioeconomicamente importantes para os estados Amazônicos, são utilizados na produção de polpas processadas em sistemas agrofamiliares. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou a avaliação da qualidade físico-química e funcional de polpas de açaí e bacaba processadas artesanalmente. Os frutos foram coletados em propriedades rurais do município do Cantá/Roraima (bacaba e Boa Vista/ Roraima (açaí. Para a constituição do experimento, as polpas processadas foram armazenadas em pequenas embalagens de politereftalato de etileno (PET transparente e com tampa (mesmo material, com capacidade de 145 mL e refrigeradas a 3 ± 0,2°C e 45% de U.R., durante 5 dias. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, relação SS/AT, açúcares totais e redutores, pectinas totais e solúveis, teor de antocianinas e fenólicos totais. Ao final, para as polpas de açaí, levando-se em consideração os limites estabelecidos pelo Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ, apenas o parâmetro AT apresentou-se fora da instrução normativa. Entretanto, a inexistência de padrões para bacaba inviabilizou tal comparação. Quanto ao teor das pectinas totais, pode-se concluir que ambas as polpas apresentam baixas concentrações desse componente, não sendo indicadas para produção de doces e geleias sem adição de agentes geleificantes. Os teores de compostos fenólicos e de antocianinas, em ambas as polpas, apesar de diminuir com o período de armazenamento refrigerado, apresentam altas concentrações quando em comparação a outros alimentos com apelo funcional.

  8. Effect of Amaranthus on Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warisa Amornrit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used extensively as a vegetable and are known to possess medicinal properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs cause cell toxicity in the human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, through an increase in oxidative stress, as shown by reducing cell viability and increasing cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. We found that preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells with either petroleum ether, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of A. lividus and A. tricolor dose-dependently attenuated the neuron toxicity caused by AGEs treatment. Moreover, the results showed that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts significantly downregulated the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 genes in AGEs-induced cells. We concluded that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts not only have a neuroprotective effect against AGEs toxicity, but also have anti-inflammatory activity by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. This suggests that Amaranthus may be useful for treating chronic inflammation associated with neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Changes in soil diversity and global activities following invasions of the exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis L., decrease the growth of native sahelian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Arsene; Béguiristain, Thierry; Cébron, Aurelie; Berthelin, Jacques; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Leyval, Corinne; Sylla, Samba; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the invasive plant Amaranthus viridis influenced soil microbial and chemical properties and to assess the consequences of these modifications on native plant growth. The experiment was conducted in Senegal at two sites: one invaded by A. viridis and the other covered by other plant species. Soil nutrient contents as well as microbial community density, diversity and functions were measured. Additionally, five sahelian Acacia species were grown in (1) soil disinfected or not collected from both sites, (2) uninvaded soil exposed to an A. viridis plant aqueous extract and (3) soil collected from invaded and uninvaded sites and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that the invasion of A. viridis increased soil nutrient availability, bacterial abundance and microbial activities. In contrast, AM fungi and rhizobial development and the growth of Acacia species were severely reduced in A. viridis-invaded soil. Amaranthus viridis aqueous extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on rhizobial growth, indicating an antibacterial activity of this plant extract. However, the inoculation of G. intraradices was highly beneficial to the growth and nodulation of Acacia species. These results highlight the role of AM symbiosis in the processes involved in plant coexistence and in ecosystem management programs that target preservation of native plant diversity.

  10. Mart Humal, "Uuringuid tonaalsusstruktuuridest. Sissejuhatus ja neliteist analüütilist etüüdi" / Kerri Kotta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotta, Kerri, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Humal, Mart. Uuringuid tonaalstruktuuridest : sissejuhatus ja neliteist analüütilist etüüdi = Studies on tonal structures : introduction and fourteen analytical studies. Tallinn : Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia, 2007. - Töid muusikateooria alalt ; 3

  11. Hodorkovski - Venemaa kuulsaim vang / Cyril Tuschi, Vladimir Juškin, Mart Helme ; vestlust juhtis Tunne Kelam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuschi, Cyril, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmi "Hodorkovsky" režissöör Cyril Tuschi, Balti Vene Uuringute Keskuse direktor Vladimir Juškin ja suursaadik Mart Helme filmi peategelasest Mihhail Hodorkovskist ja Venemaa sisepoliitlisest olukorrast

  12. Mida arvatakse omavalitsustes koolivõrgu optimeerimisest? / Mart Järvik, Maris Liiders, Peeter Aas, Kaarin Veinbergs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Arvamust avaldasid Järvakandi vallavanem, Raplamaa omavalitsuste liidu esimees Mart Järvik, Harju maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Maris Liiders, Põlva maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas, Ida-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Kaarin Veinbergs

  13. Laar sidus NRG-kaitsekõne Eesti pääsuga NATO-sse / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Olulisemaid lõike peaminister Mart Laari Riigikogus peetud kõnest, milles ta põhjendas, miks valitsus müüb Narva elektrijaamad USA kompaniile NRG. Kommenteerivad Janno Reiljan, Tiit Tammsaar, Liina Tõnisson. Autor: Isamaaliit. Parlamendisaadik

  14. Efeito de diferentes substratos e condições ambientais na germinação de sementes de Euterpe edulis Mart. e Geonoma schottiana Mart Effects of different substrates and environmental conditions upon the germination of seeds of Euterpe edulis Mart, and Geonoma schottiana Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies da família Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart. (palmiteiro e Geonoma schottiana Mart. (guaricanga, ambas com potencial ornamental e em vias de extinção, estão sendo estudadas no Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, quanto à germinação de suas sementes. Testes de germinação foram realizados em diferentes condições ambientais (casa de vegetação e laboratório e substratos (terra vegetal, areia, esfagno natural, esfagno seco moído e vermiculita. O efeito dos substratos e dos ambientes na germinação das sementes, foi avaliado através da porcentagem de germinação e velocidade de germinação (V.G.. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o melhor substrato para germinação de Euterpe edulis Mart. em casa de vegetação foi o esfagno natural. Já em condições controlada (25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, o melhor substrato para germinação das duas espécies investigadas foi a vermiculita.Two species of the family Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart, (palmiteiro and Geonoma schottiana Mart, (guaricanga, both potentially ornamental and threatened by extinction, are being studied for seed germination. Tests were undertaken in different environmental conditions (greenhouse and laboratory and substrates (organic soil, sand, green sphagnum moss, dry, ground spahgnum and vermiculite. The effect of environmental conditions and substrates upon the germination of seeds was evaluated by the percentage germination and rate of germination (V.G. percentages. The best substrate for the germination of Euterpe edulis Mart., in greenhouse was green sphagnum moss. Under controlled conditions (25ºC and 12 hours photoperiod, the best substrate for germination of both species investigated was vermiculite.

  15. Martí en España: El Destierro Purificador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available José Martí llegó a España el 1 de febrero de 1871 como consecuencia de la deportación de la que fuera objeto por las autoridades cubanas quienes, desde 1869, lo habían retenido en prisión a causa de su postura contraria a la Metrópoli española. Su estadía en Madrid le sirvió para abrirse espacio en el mundo intelectual, sobre todo tras la publicación del artículo “Castillo” y del ensayo “El Presidio Político en Cuba”. La estancia de Martí en España le sirvió para culminar sus estudios, insertarse sobre debates de enorme significación filosófica, así como en la Masonería. Martí partió de la Península Ibérica, de retorno a América a finales de noviembre de 1874 en dirección a México. Había experimentado un destierro purificador que solo pudo ser posible en una persona del talento como fue el caso del cubano José Martí.   José Marti arrived in Spain on February 1, 1871, as a result of the deportation that was imposed on him by Cuban authorities, which since 1869 had kept him in prison due to his attitude against the Spanish Metropolis. During his stay in Madrid, he conquered new spaces in the intellectual world, especially after the publication of the article “Castillo” (“Castle” and the essay "El Presidio Político en Cuba" (“Political Imprisonment in Cuba”. While in Spain, Martí managed to complete his studies, engage in debates of great philosophical significance, as well as with the Masonry. In late November 1874, Martí left the Iberian Peninsula and returned to America, arriving in Mexico. Therefore, he experienced a purifying exile that could only be possible for a talented person like him.

  16. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,V.L.; M.F.V. Souza; L.M. Batista; Silva,B.A.; LIMA, M. S.; Souza,A.M.F; F.C Barbosa; R.M.R. Catão

    2011-01-01

    A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart.) sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC ...

  17. Fenología reproductiva y productividad de frutos de Euterpe oleracea (Mart.) y Oenocarpus bataua (Mart.) en bosques inundables del Chocó biogeográfico

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes Gómez, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Oenocarpus bataua (Mart.) es una especie de palma frecuente en el Chocó Biogeográfico y, usualmente, conforma rodales homogéneos en bosques estacionalmente inundables. Es considerada promisoria porque sus frutos contienen aceite y proteínas de alta calidad; por ello, el manejo sostenible de estos bosques y la cosecha periódica de sus frutos pueden proveer alimento e ingresos monetarios a las comunidades locales y, así, mejorar su calidad de vida. Se estudió la fenología reproductiva y la prod...

  18. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  19. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil A.Nirmal; Jayashri M.Ingale; Shashikant R.Pattan; Sanjay B.Bhawar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski.(Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice.METHODS:Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n =6).Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg,intraperitoneally).Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and piperine (5 mg/kg,per oral).Ulcer index,colitis severity,myeloperoxidase (MPO),malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue.Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).RESULTS:Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration,hemorrhage,necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation.Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg,respectively.The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg,respectively (P < 0.05).Similarly,this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue.Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS.CONCLUSION:The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl,eugenol and benzene,and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic,anti-inflammatory,and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A.roxburghianus root.

  20. Teores de água no solo e eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de Amaranthus hybridus Soil water contents and fomesafen efficacy in controlling Amaranthus hybridus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Zanatta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de plantas de Amaranthus hybridus se desenvolvendo em solo com diferentes teores de água e determinar qual o menor teor de água do solo que não prejudica a ação desse herbicida no controle dessa espécie, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, envolvendo cinco intervalos entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas e cinco doses de fomesafen (0,0, 62,5, 125,0, 250,0 e 375,0 g ha-1. Quando as plantas atingiram estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram aplicados 10 mm de chuva simulada, conforme tratamento previsto. Ao término do período de simulação de chuva, aplicou-se o herbicida utilizando pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, com volume de calda de 120 L ha-1. Aos 5, 22, 29 e 43 dias após a aplicação (DAA do herbicida, foi avaliado o controle (por escala visual de A. hybridus e, aos 43 DAA, foram avaliadas também a massa seca das raízes e a da parte aérea. A aplicação de 375,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen proporcionou controle satisfatório de A. hybridus, independentemente do intervalo entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida ou do teor de umidade do solo, dentro da faixa avaliada. Pulverizações de 250,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 24 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,12 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus. Aplicações de 125,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 12 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,15 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fomesafen in controlling Amaranthus hybridus grown under different soil humidity levels

  1. Dokumentationsprojektet: Kommunernes omstilling til øget inklusion pr. marts 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Baviskar, Siddhartha; Lausten, Mette;

    Denne rapport udgør en redegørelse for status på inklusionsprocessen i tolv danske kommuner pr. marts 2014. Den samlede undersøgelse, der går under navnet "Dokumentationsprojektet", løber i tre år og blev givet til et konsortium bestående af Aarhus Universitet og SFI den 16. januar 2013.......Denne rapport udgør en redegørelse for status på inklusionsprocessen i tolv danske kommuner pr. marts 2014. Den samlede undersøgelse, der går under navnet "Dokumentationsprojektet", løber i tre år og blev givet til et konsortium bestående af Aarhus Universitet og SFI den 16. januar 2013....

  2. BioMart Central Portal--unified access to biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed; Ballester, Benoit; Smedley, Damian; Zhang, Junjun; Rice, Peter; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2009-07-01

    BioMart Central Portal (www.biomart.org) offers a one-stop shop solution to access a wide array of biological databases. These include major biomolecular sequence, pathway and annotation databases such as Ensembl, Uniprot, Reactome, HGNC, Wormbase and PRIDE; for a complete list, visit, http://www.biomart.org/biomart/martview. Moreover, the web server features seamless data federation making cross querying of these data sources in a user friendly and unified way. The web server not only provides access through a web interface (MartView), it also supports programmatic access through a Perl API as well as RESTful and SOAP oriented web services. The website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  3. El doble testimoni de Miquel Martí i Pol (1957-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Carbó

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Resum: The essay offers a revisión of Miquel Martí i Pol’s poetry written between 1957 and 1971. This poetry has been regarded by critics as linked to historical realism, and in our opinión consitutes the literary consolidation of the Roda de Ter-born poet after his his apprenticeship in existential poetry. Throughout five books and a long poem, the authorembodies a double social dimensión in his verse: on the one hand, extemal and collective history, especially achieved through the universe of the village and the factory; on the other hand, the inner and personal history dealing with aspects of his most intérnate experience in themes such as love or the function of poetry.  Paraules clau: Miquel Martí i Pol; poesia existencial; poesia catalana contemporània

  4. Disain tähendab julgust tavapärasest erineda / Mart Jõhvikas ; interv. Ketlin Priilinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõhvikas, Mart

    2007-01-01

    Pehmet disainmööblit tootva firma Borg OÜ juhataja Mart Jõhvikas tutvustab firma poolt pakutavat mööblit ja kasutatavaid materjale. 60% ulatuses valmistatakse mööblit eriprojektide järgi restoranidele, hotellidele, klubidele ja kohvikutele, ülejäänud toodang jõuab kodudesse läbi sisearhitektide ja edasimüüjate

  5. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'açaí' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Q. A. Galotta; Maria Amélia D. Boaventura; LUCIANA A.R.S. LIMA

    2008-01-01

    Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using β-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. Al...

  6. Mart Laar murrab ikkagi Andrus Ansipi valitsusse / Tuuli Koch, Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 28. märts 2007, lk. 2. Koalitsiooniläbirääkimistel Reformierakonna, IRL-i ja SDE vahel kujunes tüliõunaks haridusministri koht, mida soovivad nii Peeter Kreitzberg kui Tõnis Lukas. Mart Laar võib saada kaitseministriks. Lisa: Võimalik uus valitsus ja riigikogu juhatus. Vt. samas: Savisaar: rohelistele näidati ust, sest nad nõudsid võrdset kohtlemist

  7. The BioMart community portal: An innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by thei...

  8. Martínez Sanabria en un país de artesanos

    OpenAIRE

    Jimena Montaña Cuéllar

    2011-01-01

    De la arquitectura orgánica a la arquitectura del lugar en las casas Wilkie (1962) y Calderón (1963) de Fernando Martínez Sanabria. Germán Darío Rodríguez Botero. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Sede Bogotá), Facultad de Artes, Colección Punto aparte, Bogotá, 2007, 232 págs.

  9. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J.

    2016-01-01

    abuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermen...

  10. Martín de Andújar y la Virgen de los Afligidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Morales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El arquitecto y escultor Martín de Andújar Cantos se estableció entre 1634 y 1641 en Canarias procedente de Sevilla, donde se había formado a la sombra del maestro Juan Martínez Montañés. Con él llegaron a las Islas los novedosos planteamientos de la escuela hispalense de imaginería y también los modos de trabajo que regían sus obradores, que pudo trasmitir a aprendices locales en Garachico. La localización en las escribanías tinerfeñas de un documento inédito nos permite respaldar su autoría respecto a la desaparecida imagen de la Virgen de los Afligidos, que realizó junto al Nazareno para la Orden Tercera del Convento franciscano de Los Realejos en 1637.The architect and sculptor Martín de Andújar Cantos moved from Seville, where he had worked under the guidance of Juan Martínez Montañés, to the Canary Islands, where he lived from 1634 to 1641. Novel proposals from the Seville School of religious imagery arrived with him at the islands, as well as the new working methods employed at his workshopds, which he was able to transmit to the Garachico local apprentices. The finding at the Island’s Court Clerkships of an unpublished document allows us to back his authorship of the dissapeared image of the Virgen de los Afligidos, made next to the Nazarene in 1637 by commission of the Third Order of Los Realejos franciscan convent.

  11. The antibody response against MART-1 differs in patients with melanoma-associated leucoderma and vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulings, Hansje-Eva; Willemsen, Karin J; Glykofridis, Iris; Krebbers, Gabrielle; Komen, Lisa; Kroon, Marije W; Kemp, E Helen; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Luiten, Rosalie M; Tjin, Esther P M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with melanoma may develop skin depigmentation spontaneously or following therapy, referred to as melanoma-associated leucoderma (MAL). As clinical presentation of MAL may precede primary/metastatic melanoma detection, recognition of MAL is important to prevent its misdiagnosis as vitiligo and the subsequent application of immunosuppressive treatment. To reveal the immunity involved in MAL development, we investigated the presence of antibody and T-cell immune responses directed against the melanocyte-differentiation-antigens MART-1 (Melan-A), tyrosinase and gp100 in patients with MAL, as compared to patients with vitiligo. Autoantibodies to gp100 and tyrosinase were commonly found in both diseases. Interestingly, MART-1 antibodies were only present in patients with MAL. Melanocyte antigen-specific T cells were found in all patients, with relatively more specific T cells in patients with active vitiligo. Although MAL and vitiligo may appear clinically similar, our results indicate that the humoral immune responses against MART-1 differ between these diseases, which can help to differentiate MAL from vitiligo.

  12. Integration of Simulink, MARTe and MDSplus for rapid development of real-time applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy); Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy); Neto, A.; Sartori, F. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); De Tommasi, G. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Consorzio CREATE/DIETI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The integration of two frameworks for real-time control and data acquisition is described. • The integration may significantly fasten the development of system components. • The system includes also a code generator for the integration of code written in Simulink. • A real-time control systemcan be implemented without the need of writing any line of code. - Abstract: Simulink is a graphical data flow programming tool for modeling and simulating dynamic systems. A component of Simulink, called Simulink Coder, generates C code from Simulink diagrams. MARTe is a framework for the implementation of real-time systems, currently in use in several fusion experiments. MDSplus is a framework widely used in the fusion community for the management of data. The three systems provide a solution to different facets of the same process, that is, real-time plasma control development. Simulink diagrams will describe the algorithms used in control, which will be implemented as MARTe GAMs and which will use parameters read from and produce results written to MDSplus pulse files. The three systems have been integrated in order to provide a tool suitable to speed up the development of real-time control applications. In particular, it will be shown how from a Simulink diagram describing a given algorithm to be used in a control system, it is possible to generate in an automated way the corresponding MARTe and MDSplus components that can be assembled to implement the target system.

  13. El Profesor Académico, Dr. Pablo Gómez Martínez.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Cuéllar-Montoya

    2007-12-01

    Más adelante, en la misma Presidencia de la Academia del Profesor Pedro José Almánzar Vargas (1963 – 1965, fue promovido Gómez Martínez a la categoría de Miembro de Número(2,10 con el trabajo “Ilio-cisto-plastia con colgajo sero-muscular invertido y reconstrucción de vejigas funcionales” (2,11. En la sesión ordinaria de la Academia del día 12 de marzo de 1964, el Académico Correspondiente Gómez Martínez presentó el trabajo mencionado(2,12 y, en la sesión ordinaria del día 14 de mayo de 1964, en virtud de haber quedado vacantes las sillas de los Señores Académicos de Número Jaime Jaramillo Arango, fallecido en Bogotá, el 31 de julio de 1962(2,13, Manuel José Luque Guevara, retirado por precarias condiciones de salud(2,14, y Fernando Torres Restrepo, trasladado definitivamente a los Estados Unidos(2,15, la Academia, en votación secreta, eligió, como Miembros de Número, a los Señores Académicos Correspondientes Pablo Gómez Martínez, Alfredo Artunduaga y J. Hernando Hernández Garay(2,16...

  14. Functional Behavior Pattern for Data Mart Based on the Attribute Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Paulraj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for huge volume of data in enterprise and corporate environment, fuel the demand of data warehousing. Data warehousing collects the data at different levels (i.e., departmental, operational, functional and stored as a collective data repository with better storage efficiency. Various data warehousing models concentrate on storing the data more efficiently and quickly. In addition accessibility of data from the warehouse needs better understanding of the structure in which the data layers are stored in the repository. However function requirements of users are not easily understood by the data warehouse model. It needs efficient decision support system to extract the required user demanded data from data warehouse. To handle the issue of functional decision support system to extract user relevant data, data marts are introduced. Data marts built separate functional data repository layers based on the departmental decision support requirements in the enterprise and corporate data applications. In our research work, we plan to built a Functional Layer Interfaced Data Mart Architecture (FLIDMA to provide a better decision support system for larger corporate and enterprise data applications. In this work, the functional behavior of the corporate system is analyzed, based on its operational goal to build layers of data storage repositories with relevant data attributes using functional behavior pattern (FBP. An experimental evaluation is conducted with benchmark datasets from UCI repository data sets and compared with existing multi-functional data warehousing model in terms of number of functional data attributes, attribute relativity, analysis of functional behavior.

  15. RESPON LINGKUNGAN BELANJA SEBAGAI STIMULUS PEMBELIAN TIDAK BERENCANA PADA MINI MARKET MAMI MART PAINAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareta Kemala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research planning not purchase the mami mini market mart visits from customer response to environmental spending as a stimulus, a customer case study on mini market mart mom Painan. Research using response variables shopping environment consisting of Pleasure, Arousal, Dominance.as mediator variable, hedonic shopping value, utilitarian shopping value, resources expenditure on the purchase was not planned (Impulse Buying. Data were collected using questionnaires distributed during the 2 weeks to the respondents who never shop at mini market. The study population is that they all are a mini market mami mart customers aged 18-55 years and have never shopped with a minimum of 2 times the transaction, the methods used by the descriptive analysis, and processing research model with smartPLS program. Mengunggapkan research results that the response variable dominance shopping environment positive effect on resources expenditure. Shopping environment arousal response variable positive effect on resources expenditure. Also revealed that spending resources poengalaman variable expenditure not a mediator between the response variable shopping environment and other variables shopping experience, as well as the negative effect on the purchase was not planned. But the expenditure of resources affect the shopping experience more variables such as the hedonic shopping value, utilitarian shopping value, resources expenditure

  16. MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chan; Juang, Horng-Heng; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Hsu, Jun-Te; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C.; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsiao, Michael; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3. Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was found to be involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 meditated growth inhibition for CCA as knockdown of NGAL decreased Ki-67 expression in SNU308 cells and rendered SNU308 cells less responsive to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockdown partly abolished MART-10-induced inhibition of NGAL and cell growth in SNU308 cells. The xenograft animal study demonstrated MART-10 could effectively repressed CCA growth in vivo without inducing obvious side effects. The IHC examination of human CCA specimen for VDR revealed that higher VDR expression was linked with better prognosis. Collectively, our results suggest that MART-10 could be a promising regimen for CCA treatment. PMID:28256614

  17. Vigencia Política de José Martí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Laviana Cuetos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Semblanza del escritor y político cubano José Martí (1853-1895, con especial atención a la vigencia de su pensamiento ético, base de su permanente actualidad. Martí fue el organizador y líder de la última guerra americana contra el colonialismo europeo clásico, pero el sentido profundo que dio a esa lucha la convirtió en una verdadera guerra de liberación nacional: el primer movimiento concreto contra el imperialismo. Entre los rasgos más originales del pensamiento martiano están: la proclamación de la igualdad de razas; la búsqueda de la superación de las diferencias de clase mediante el equilibrio de las fuerzas sociales; la reivindicación de la solidaridad hacia los humildes como un deber; la predicación de una “guerra sin odios”, que debía ser obra del pueblo y no de líderes; la comprensión y definición de Nuestra América; la insistencia en la necesidad de una descolonización cultural latinoamericana; y el antiimperialismo.   This paper is a sketch of the Cuban writer and politician José Martí (1853-1895, with special attention to the validity of his ethical thinking, which is the basis of his permanent relevance. Martí was the organizer and leader of the last American war against European colonialism, but the deep commitment he made to that struggle turned it into a war of national liberation, the first concrete movement against imperialism. Among the most original features of Martí’s thought are the proclamation of the equality of races; the search for overcoming class differences through the balance of social forces; solidarity with the poor being considered a duty; the preaching of a “war without hates” that must be the work of the people, its leaders; the comprehension and definition of Our America; the insistence on the need, throughout Latin America, of cultural decolonization; and an anti-imperialistic stance.

  18. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations.

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for controlling Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alebrahim, M. T.; Majd, R.; Rashed Mohassel, M. H.;

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post......-emergence (POST) at seven rates. The experiments showed that trifluralin applied PRE, rimsulfuron applied PRE or POST and oxadiargyl applied POST provided the best control of A. retroflexus. Rimsulfuron and oxadiargyl applied POST and pendimethalin applied PRE were the best control options for C. album. Except...... for trifluralin and pendimethalin the susceptibility of the two weed species to the herbicides was similar. Trifluralin was more effective against A. retroflexus than C. album while the opposite was true for pendimethalin. Applied POST oxadiargyl was more effective than applied PRE. In contrast no differences...

  20. Response of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., to method and rate of cattle kraal manure application at Kadawa and Samaru in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Ahmed Manga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted between June and October 2010 wet season at two different locations. The first was at the Horticultural Research Garden of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR, Samaru in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone and the second experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Irrigation Research Sub-Station (IRS, Kadawa in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone also of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria to evaluate the response of grain amaranth growth and green edible vegetable yield components to three methods of cattle kraal manure application (broadcasting, side banding and spot placement incorporated and five rates of cattle kraal manure application (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1, using the variety ‘Pure branch’. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD and replicated three times. Cattle kraal manure application rates significantly (p > 0.05 increased growth of green edible vegetable yield characters of grain amaranth except stem girth at Samaru. Growth and green edible vegetable yield characters were generally not influenced by methods of cattle kraal manure application except for plant height, number of leaves per plant at 12 WAT at Samaru, and plant fresh weight at 12 WAT at Kadawa and dry weight at 4 and 12 WAT at Samaru and 12 WAT at Kadawa. Application of cattle kraal manure of 10 t ha-1 to Amaranthus cruenthus gave the highest mean values which were comparable to those of 15 and 20 t ha-1 rates for all the characters measured such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights. Thus, the finding suggests that 10 t ha-1 should be recommended to farmers growing Amaranthus in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savanna of Nigerian agro-ecologies.

  1. MART-1 adenovirus-transduced dendritic cell immunization in a murine model of metastatic central nervous system tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Howard; Anderson, Andrea; Kremen, Thomas J; Odesa, Sylvia K; Liau, Linda M

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to play a critical role in the initiation of host immune responses against tumor antigens. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding the melanoma-associated antigen, MART-1, was used to transduce murine DCs, which were then tested for their ability to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and induce protective immunity against B16 melanoma tumor cells implanted intracranially. Genetic modifications of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to express MART-1 was achieved through the use of an E1-deficient, recombinant adenovirus vector. Sixty-two C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with AdVMART-1-transduced DCs (n = 23), untransduced DCs (n = 17), or sterile saline (n = 22). Using the B16 murine melanoma, which naturally expresses the MART-1 antigen, all the mice were then challenged intracranially with viable, unmodified syngeneic B16 tumor cells 7 days later. Splenocytes from representative animals in each group were harvested for standard cytotoxicity (CTL) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. The remaining mice were followed for survival. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with DCs transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding the MART-1 antigen elicited the development of antigen-specific CTL responses. As evidenced by a prolonged survival curve when compared to control-immunized mice with intracranial B16 tumors, AdMART-1-DC vaccination was able to elicit partial protection against central nervous system tumor challenge in vivo.

  2. Assessment of the irrigation feasibility of low-cost filtered municipal wastewater for red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Chandra Biswas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the scarcity of clean water, treated wastewater potentially provides an alternative source for irrigation. In the present experiment, the feasibility of using low-cost filtered municipal wastewater in the irrigation of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma cultivation was assessed. The collected municipal wastewater from fish markets, hospitals, clinics, sewage, and kitchens of households in Sylhet City, Bangladesh were mixed and filtered with nylon mesh. Six filtration methods were applied using the following materials: sand (T1; sand and wood charcoal consecutively (T2; sand, wood charcoal and rice husks consecutively (T3; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks and sawdust consecutively (T4; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust and brick chips consecutively (T5; and sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust, brick chips and gravel consecutively (T6. The water from ponds and rivers was considered as the control treatment (To. The chemical properties and heavy metals content of the water were determined before and after the low cost filtering, and the effects of the wastewater on seed germination, plant growth and the accumulation rate of heavy metals by plants were assessed. After filtration, the pH, EC and TDS ranged from 5.87 to 9.17, 292 to 691 µS cm−1 and 267 to 729 mg L−1, respectively. The EC and TDS were in an acceptable level for use in irrigation, satisfying the recommendations of the FAO. However, select pH values were unsuitable for irrigation. The metal concentrations decreased after applying each treatment. The reduction of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, As and Zn were 73.23%, 92.69%, 45.51%, 69.57%, 75.47% and 95.06%, respectively. When we considered the individual filtering material, the maximum amount of As and Pb was absorbed by sawdust; Cu and Zn by wood charcoal; Mn and Cu by sand and Fe by gravel. Among the six filtration treatments, T5 showed the highest seed germination (67.14%, similar to the control T0 (77

  3. The immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted MART-1 epitope is not presented on the surface of many melanoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Junker, Niels; Kirkin, Alexei;

    2009-01-01

    of the melanoma cells with the MART-1 epitope. Thus, the very frequently used MART-1 epitope was not expressed on the surface of many melanoma cell lines. Our data emphasize that the selected tumor antigens and/or epitopes are critical for the outcome of anti-cancer immunotherapy....

  4. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  5. Chemical constituents from roots and leaf stalks of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae); Constituintes quimicos da raiz e do talo da folha do acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Queiroz de Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dianadb@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br

    2005-07-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of roots and leaf stalks of Euterpe precatoria Mart. (acai), afforded stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one (3); p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4); 3{beta}-O-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol (5); {beta}-sitosterol palmitate (6); mixtures of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol (1 and 2), {alpha}-, {beta}-amyrin and lupeol (7, 8 and 9), friedelin-3-one and 28-hydroxy-friedelin-3-one (10 and 11) and {alpha}-, {beta}-D-glucose (12, 13). Except for 1, 2 and 4, the other isolated constituents are described in the genus for the first time. Compounds 3 and 5 gave good results in the brine shrimp bioassay, which detects compounds with potential uses as antitumor agents, pesticides, etc.. (author)

  6. Antioxidant activity of extracts and condensed tannins from Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss; Atividade antioxidante de extratos e taninos condensados das folhas de Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessuto, Monica Bordin; Costa, Isis Casemiro da; Souza, Angelita Boldieri de; Nicoli, Fernanda Michely; Mello, Joao Carlos Palazzo de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: mello@uem.br; Petereit, Frank [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry; Luftmann, Heinrich [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Organic Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reiss. Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) is a native plant of South America and popularly known as 'espinheira-santa'. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of extracts and isolated compounds from this plant. The antioxidant activity of the crude and semipurified extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated through DPPH-radical and phosphomolybdenum-complex assays. By both methods, the ethyl-acetate fraction demonstrated better antioxidant capacity compared with vitamin C and trolox. In the compounds, the higher the number of hydroxyls, the greater the antioxidant activity. In addition, stereochemistry influenced antioxidant activity, i.e., compounds with 2 R,3 R showed greater activity than those with 2 R,3 S. (author)

  7. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillón-Arbeláez Paula; Martínez-Gallardo Norma; Arnaut Hamlet; Tiessen Axel; Délano-Frier John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. Recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. A multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements...

  8. The 1793 eruption of San Martín Tuxtla volcano, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola, J. M.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M. L.; Schaaf, P.; Rodríguez, S. R.

    2010-11-01

    San Martín Tuxtla (N18.562°; W95.199°, 1659 masl) is a basaltic volcano located in southern Veracruz, a Mexican State bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It rises in a volcanic field strewn with monogenetic volcanic cones, maars and three other large volcanoes mostly dormant since the late Pliocene: Santa Marta, San Martín Pajapan and Cerro El Vigía. The latest eruptive event of San Martín occurred in 1793 and was described by Don José Mariano Moziño, a naturalist under the commission of the Viceroy of the then New Spain. In this work we present results of the study of this eruption based on historical accounts and field observations. We identified an ash deposit around the volcano related to the 1793 eruption, mapped its distribution and determined its granulometric, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. These studies suggest that the volcano began its activity with explosive phreatomagmatic explosions, which were followed by Strombolian activity; this period lasting from March to October 1793. The activity continued with an effusive phase that lasted probably 2 years. The eruption covered an area of about 480 km 2 with at least 1 cm of ash; the fines reaching distances greater than 300 km from the crater. A total mass of about 2.5 × 10 14 g was ejected and the volcanic columns probably reached altitudes of the order of 10 km during the most explosive phases. The lava emitted formed a coulee that descended the northern flank of the volcano and has an approximate volume of 2.0 × 10 7 m 3.

  9. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration

  10. Los idearios pedagógicos de José Martí y Amado Nervo

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Vigne Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Estos dos escritores importantes del Modernismo latinoamericano se interesaron enormemente por la pedagogía y la educación en general de los niños de sus países respectivos. Este artículo estudia sus producciones en este campo y señala las diferencias de enfoque y de soportes que cada autor utilizó para poner en práctica sus ideas. En Martí se manifiesta el deseo de despertar la curiosidad de sus pequeños lectores por medio de artículos y ficciones publicados en su revista infantil La Edad d...

  11. Martín Heidegger: crítica al concepto hegeliano de experiencia (segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García-Aguilar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo retomar la temática expuesta por Martín Heidegger, en su artículo “El concepto hegeliano de experiencia”, para rescatar sus reflexiones en el campo de la ontología. Se busca abrir nuevamente la discusión en un mundo metafísico donde se consolida lo que el autor llama “la imagen del mundo”, y donde se considera esta, erróneamente, como la única forma de enfrentarse y apoderarse de la realidad.

  12. La deconstrucción de la historia en Martes de carnaval

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    La génesis de esta obra es curiosa y significativa. Empieza con la publicación en la revista La Pluma de El esperpento de los cuernos de Don Friolera que apareció en los números del 11 al 15 correspondientes a los meses de abril a agosto de 1921. Su primera edicion en forma de libro apareció en el Volumen XVII de la Opera omnia y salió a luz el 20 de abril de 1925. El volumen XVII fue relevado por un tomo de la misma Opera omnia titulado Martes de carnaval, fechado 3 de junio de 1930. En este...

  13. The population structure and the individual forms of Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassips (Mart.) Solms, in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    OSADA, MASAO; OKINO, TOKIO

    1986-01-01

    Certain ecological characteristics of the Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms population were studied in Thailand in 1982, in order to gain a basic knowledge for its use as a bio-resource in the future. The waters were eutrophic in the study area, where the Waterhyacinth population prospered. The biomass and the Leaf Area Index of Waterhyacinth population showed large values ranging from 1.18 to 2.32 kg d.w./㎡ and from 5.1 to 7.1 ㎡ /㎡ , retpectively. The diagram of the productiv...

  14. Ezequiel Martínez Estrada: el profesor al servicio de las ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Gasillón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ezequiel Martínez Estrada was an important essayist in the cultural field thanks to to his descriptions and analyses of Argentine and Latin American reality. However, he also reflected on Argentine and foreign intellectuals and he worked as a teacher. In this paper, we focus on the compilation En torno a Kafka y otros ensayos [Regarding Kafka, and other essays] to establish a connection between his concept of education and the writer's own teaching practice, starting from his literary influences, Franz Kafka and Pedro Henríquez Ureña

  15. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells.The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants.

  16. Eesti Vabariigi avaldus [13. 07.1994] / Lennart Meri, Ülo Nugis, Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1994-01-01

    Avaldus seoses Vene vägede väljaviimisega. Ilmunud ka: The Monthly Survey of Baltic and Post-Soviet Politics (1994) juuli, lk. 46, pealkiri: Statement of the Republic of Estonia ; Eesti Sõnumid, 14. juuli, lk. 1, Postimees, 14. juuli, lk. 1, pealkiri: Eesti Vabariigi avaldus ; Эстония, 14. juuli, lk. 1, pealk.: Заявление Эстонской Республики. - Allkiri: Lennart Meri, Ülo Nugis, Mart Laar

  17. Complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments of isojuripidine from Solanum asterophorum Mart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania M.S.; Costa, Rodrigo A.; Oliveira, Eduardo J.; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Agra, Maria F.; Camara, Celso A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: sarmento@ltf.ufpb.br

    2005-11-15

    Isojuripidine was isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum astherophorum Mart. Its structure was determined using a combination of homo- (1D {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR-HBBD and {sup 13}C NMRDEPT) and heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H-COSY, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H-NOESY, HSQC, HMBC), and HREIMS. The unambiguous assignments of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data of derivatives 3-N,6-Odiacetyl- isojuripidine and 3-N-cinnamoyl-isojuripidine are described. (author)

  18. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Vanda Lucia dos; Costa,Viviam Bruna Machado; Agra,Maria de Fátima; Silva, Bagnólia Araújo da; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2007-01-01

    The crude ethanol extract (EEOH) of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p.) of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01) in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exh...

  19. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,V.L.; M.F.V. Souza; L.M. Batista; Silva,B.A.; LIMA, M. S.; Souza,A.M.F; F.C Barbosa; R.M.R. Catão

    2011-01-01

    A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart.) sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC ...

  20. Group process and the power issue in Martín-Baró

    OpenAIRE

    Sueli Terezinha Ferreira Martins

    2003-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da concepção de processo grupal e poder social enfocada por Martín-Baró.¹ O autor retoma a concepção de grupo presente no trabalho de Sílvia Lane, quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. Na perspectiva da psicologia social, segundo o autor, é muito mais relevante a análise do papel do poder na vida cotidiana, no dia-a-dia das pessoas, do que se centrar nos acontecimento...

  1. Inconsciente genérico, feminismo y Nubosidad variable de Carmen Martín Gaite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecchi, Barbara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In a context of marked tensions between gynocritics and contemporary Spanish women writers, Carmen Martín Gaite’s novel Nubosidad variable (Variable Cloud,1992 stands out as a curious paradox. As is well known, Martín Gaite repeatedly declared not to be a feminist and even scorned women who fought for equality between both sexes. This article argues that Nubosidad variable, however, constitutes one of the best examples of a consciously feminist text. In this novel Martín Gaite applies some of the most prominent paradigms of feminist literary theory, such as the construction of a non-linear and a-chronological narration (Julia Kristeva, the attempt to create a “language of the body” (Helène Cixous, the foregrounding of a mother-daughter bond (Luisa Muraro, as well as the use of female writing as a means of self-discovery (Elaine Showalter.En un contexto de falta de comunicación entre ginocrítica y escritura femenina, la novela Nubosidad variable (1992 de Carmen Martín Gaite se presenta como una significativa paradoja. Si por un lado su autora declaró repetidas veces no ser feminista —y hasta menospreció con ironía a las mujeres que han luchado por la igualdad—, Nubosidad variable es una innegable aplicación de algunos de los más conocidos paradigmas de la teoría literaria feminista. Desde la narración no-lineal y atemporal que sigue el “tiempo de las mujeres” de Julia Kristeva, hasta el intento de crear una lengua del cuerpo a lo Hélène Cixous; desde el vínculo madre-hija teorizado por Luisa Muraro, hasta la escritura femenina como auto-descubrimiento de Elaine Showalter, esta novela representa uno de los mejores ejemplos, dentro de la narrativa contemporánea española, de lo que llamaría un texto conscientemente feminista.

  2. Wal-Mart en México, una trajectoria exitosa y sus causas

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Cédric

    2009-01-01

    International audience; El caso de Wal-Mart en México es, sin duda, el fenómeno más avanzado de un proceso más largo de internacionalización de las grandes cadenas internacionales de comercio durante los años noventa, en particular en muchas regiones de la periferia. Este proceso es de importancia mayor en términos de reconfiguración de las economías locales tanto a nivel interno como a nivel de la integración internacional. El objetivo de este articulo es de proponer una lectura a nivel macr...

  3. La validez del pensamiento de Ignacio Martín-Baró

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Nelly Patricia

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo explora las reflexiones del psicólogo social Ignacio Martín-Baró, a los veinte años de su asesinato, lo cual, lejos de borrar su pensamiento, resaltó la importancia y aplicabilidad de su método en la praxis psicosocial de latinoamericana. A través de sus textos, se observa una personalidad impregnada de fe y compromiso, manifestados en su proyecto transformador y liberador, basado en la utopía de la igualdad y la justicia social, que no son irreales, sino que evidencian l...

  4. Importancia agroecológica del coyul (Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart.)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca C. Ramírez Hernández; Julia Zañudo Hernández; Javier E. García de Alba Verduzco; John Paul Délano Frier; Enrique Pimienta Barrios; Miguel Ángel García Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. es una especie que se extiende desde el Pacífico mexicano hasta Centro y Sudamérica. El fruto (coyul) es apreciado desde la época prehispánica, sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido frente a otros frutos nativos y así como de los introducidos con mayor aceptación en el mercado. Se realizó un estudio en San Blas, Nayarit, México, en el que se llevó a cabo la caracterización de un agroecosistema típico donde se explotan poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas de co...

  5. 苋属4种外来有害杂草在中国的适生区预测%Prediction of potential distribution of four alien invasive Amaranthus weeds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卉; 何兴金

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Potential distribution of Amaranthus retrofiexus, A. lividus, A. spinosus and A. viridis in China were evaluated to provide the basis for working out the quarantine and control measures. [Method] Two ecological niche models, GARP and Maxent, were used to predict the four Amaranthus weeds' potential distribution areas in China. [Result] It showed that wet days, elevation, minimum temperature, water vapour pressure and slope are key environmental factors affecting their distribution. The model evaluation showed that both models made good prediction results, and Maxent performed better. Based on both models, we predicted that the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. were eastern China, part of northern China, small parts of northwestern and northeastern China, southwestern China except Tibet and west of Sichuan Province, and most area of southern China. [Conclusion] It is suggested that prediction and control measures for the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. should be taken.%[目的]明确反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)、凹苋(A.lividus)、刺苋(A.spinosus),皱果苋(A.viridis)4种有害杂草在中国的适生区,为有效制定检疫措施和防治决策提供依据.[方法]基于4种苋属杂草已有的分布点数据,使用GARP和Maxent两个生态位模型对其在中国的适生区进行预测.[结果]对4种苋属植物适生区影响最大的环境因子主要为雨日频率、海拔、极端低温、水汽压、坡度.模型评价表明,Maxent和GARP两模型对4种杂草的分布均能较好地进行预测,Maxent的结果稍好于GARP.以Maxent为主,GARP作参考,得出苋属4个种在中国的适生区主要集中在华东地区、华北的部分地区、西北和东北的少数地区、除西藏和四川西部以外的西南地区以及中南的大部分地区.[结论]建议相关部门对4种杂草适生区域及其周边做好相应的预警和治理工作.

  6. Lutero y el luteranismo: El buzón postal Martín Lutero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ornelas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la idea de que la comunicación social opera de manera acoplada con las conciencias de los seres humanos – pero no es generada por ellas – , y utiliza como ejemplo al reformador alemán Martín Lutero. El traslape de operaciones de la conciencia y de operaciones comunicativas – interpenetración – se hace posible por la distinción persona/actor, que se actualiza en la comunicación mediante esquemas (el esquema per sona y el esquema actor, el llamado buzón postal Martín Lutero. La postura de Lutero ante las principales controversias en que participó – las rebeliones campesinas (anabaptismo radical, el libre albedrío y el debate sacramental – , marcó el futuro de su mo vimiento de Reforma y estuvo orientada decisivamente por el esquema persona. El esquema persona y el esquema actor también permite diferenciar entre Lutero/persona y el luteranismo/doctrina.

  7. Carmen Martín Gaite: la escritura terapéutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the therapeutic power of the written and oral communication, as well as the benefit of reading literary texts proposed by the narrative of Carmen Martín Gaite. If the author prioritized spoken communication in her first novels, with the passing of time, defended her narrative writing versus orality, making it the vehicle of choice for characters to communicate and ultimately for herself, to find the healing through the word.En este artículo se analiza el poder terapéutico de la comunicación oral y escrita, así como el beneficio de la lectura de textos literarios que propone la narrativa de Carmen Martín Gaite. Si la autora priorizó la comunicación hablada en su primeras novelas, con el paso del tiempo, su discurso narrativo defendió la escritura frente a la oralidad, convirtiéndola en el vehículo elegido por sus personajes para comunicarse y, en definitiva por ella misma, para buscar la curación a través de la palabra.

  8. Una finestra sul passato: Irse de casa di Carmen Martín Gaite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Tosolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond historical and social implications, migration represents the possibility of crossing a threshold and opening oneself up to new empirical and emotional spaces. Amparo, the main character of Carmen Martín Gaite’s Irse de casa (1998, is the perfect personification of the gaitian feminine canon. After leaving Spain and settling in New York, she became a successful fashion designer, and seemed happy and easy-going. The bond with memory and the past is the main topic of this novel, as it is in most of Martín Gaite’s production. The window on the past that Amparo closed moving to the US suddenly reappears when she needs to discover herself and her origins. This inconvenience in an anonymous life brings huge changes that will condition her and her loved ones. Travelling to Spain and interacting with places and people connected with her childhood, Amparo goes through the window she had closed forty years before, restoring the order. The window connects the present and the past, symbolizes the emigrant’s transience, personified in the novel by Amparo, who can definitely find the lost serenity and heart’s-ease.

  9. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases.

  10. Histochemistry and infrared microspectroscopy of lignified tissue in young stems of Struthanthus vulgaris Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely de Lima Oliveira

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine lignified tissue in young stems of Struthanthus vulgaris Mart. by infrared microspectroscopy and histochemical methods as well as by fluorescence microscopy. Struthanthus vulgaris Mart. is a mistletoe species that belongs to the Loranthaceae family. A brief anatomical description was also carried out. The first procedure for analysis was to elaborate anatomical cross sections (20-30 µm from young stems before and after treatment with NaOH 1%. This procedure was applied to release possible low molecular mass phenolic compounds. Safranin-astra blue was used to distinguish anatomical tissues while Wiesner test enabled verification of lignified pericyclic fibers. Infrared microspectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of lignin in this region according to the following spectral signals: 1600 (shoulder, 1511, 1453, 1338 and 1244 cm-1. Analyses of the cross section of young stems under fluorescence microscopy before and after treatment with NaOH 1% allowed us to confirm the presence of low mass phenolic compounds in the region of pericyclic fibers.

  11. Wal-Mart, caballo de Troya de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Paul Desse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Creada en 1962 por Sam Walton, una pequeña empresa de distribución norteamericana se convertirá rápidamente en la primera empresa mundial. Desde Bentonville, Arkansas, hasta el interior de China, Wal-Mart muestra un camino bastante clásico que va desde la sede principal de la empresa hacia una proliferación de sus tiendas en una quincena de países. Con una facturación de 405 mil millones de dólares en 2008, la empresa de distribución número uno en el mundo fue sobrepasada en abril de 2009 por la empresa petrolera Exxon Mobil en la clasificación de las quinientas empresas mundiales más importantes. Pero a diferencia de otras grandes transnacionales como Exxon Mobil o Microsoft, Wal-Mart, la primera empresa mundial de distribución, tiene que adaptarse al medio ambiente local con el fin de atraer a un máximo de consumidores. El artículo propone una aproximación a escala múltiple de las estrategias de desarrollo de esta firma internacional. Así, la aplicación de un análisis espacial es apropiada para esclarecer los vínculos existentes entre los territorios y las estrategias de los actores a diferentes escalas geográficas.

  12. Literatura y filosofía: Sartre, Martín-Santos y Bartleby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Pargada, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Luis Martín Santos has been, after his soon death, one of the most unfairly forgotten Spanish intellectuals. This situation happens to be even more unjust considering the success of his novel “Time of Silence” and his unfinished “Time of Destruction”. The works of this psychiatrist, philosophically formed in the existentialism tradition, tackle from psychiatric and medical studies to interpretations of Dilthey, Jaspers and Heidegger. Maybe the most important achievement made by Dr. Martín-Santos was the fact of pooling in his novels all the different fields he worked in, namely: existential philosophy, psychiatry and literature. This mutual influence leads to a clearly existential interpretation of the narrative subject and to a nihilist conception of freedom: the nothingness completely understood as Sartre did. And, consequently, the attractiveness of approaching the Spanish author through literary theories that are close to the French contemporary philosophy and the primacy, not only of the existential analysis in literature, but also of the influence of the literary character as a fiction that is able to create possible realities. That is why it is interesting to study “Bartleby the Scrivener” as a paradoxical example of the existential nothingness made flesh. To put it in a nutshell, the existential triviality, a sign of modern times, has been indeed very successfully portrayed by Martín-Santos.Luis Martín-Santos ha sido, tras su temprana muerte, uno de los grandes olvidados entre los intelectuales españoles del franquismo. Olvido especialmente injusto, teniendo en cuenta el éxito de su novela Tiempo de Silencio y su interesante proyecto inacabado Tiempo de Destrucción. La obra de este psiquiatra formado filosóficamente en el existencialismo abarca desde trabajos psiquiátricos relativos a la medicina hasta interpretaciones de Dilthey, Jaspers y Heidegger. Tal vez el mayor logro de Martín- Santos fuera el de aunar en sus

  13. La primera frase... y el final del cuento: Dos cuentos maravillosos de Carmen Martín Gaite

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Análisis de la estructura de dos cuentos de Carmen Martín Gaite: El Castillo de las Tres Murallas y El Pastel del Diablo. Estos cuentos siguen el esquema tradicional de la búsqueda y el viaje, pero también proponen una interpretación desde dentro que dobla y completa el relato.

  14. Enesetapp - rääkida või vaikida? / Gerda Kordemets, Mart Laisk ja Merike Sisask ; intervjueerinud Tiina Jõgeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kordemets, Gerda, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Kas noorte enesetappudest rääkimine toob matkijaid või on teemast rääkimine vajalik? Suitsiiditeemaga kokku puutunud Mart Laisk, Eesti Televisiooni uue sarja "Klass: elu pärast" üks režissööre Gerda Kordemets ja suitsidoloog Merike Sisask arutlevad

  15. Mart Laar : Eesti jääb IT-inimestele väikeseks / Gerli Ramler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ramler, Gerli

    2008-01-01

    Ekspeaminister Mart Laar, E-Riigi programmi juhataja Ivar Tallo ja AS-i MicroLink Eesti juhatuse esimees Enn Saar arutlevad riigi panuse üle infotehnoloogia arendamiseks ning IT-spetsialistide koolitamiseks. Seni on riigi IT-teenuste müügipotentsiaal jäänud aga kompetentsi ja rakendamisoskuste puudumise tõttu kasutamata

  16. Ida-Virul on aeg oma võimalused välja mängida / Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laar, Mart, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Ida-Virumaa Zavtra 15. mai, lk. 4. Ekspeaministrist IRL-i esimehe Mart Laari hinnangul on Ida-Virumaa eduka arengu võtmeküsimused korruptsiooni ja kuritegevuse vähendamises ning ettevõtluskeskkonna parandamises

  17. Mart Laari tagatoa salajane missioon Gruusias / Janar Filippov, Priit Hõbemägi, Argo Ideon...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 15. aug. lk. 6-7. Näited, kuidas Eesti riik on kaasa aidanud Gruusia arengule. Mart Laari visiidist Gruusiasse vahetult enne sõjategevuse algust. Vt. samas: 2000: Eestlaste ebaõnnestunud missioon Minskis; 1993: Eesti suutis Ida-Virumaal Osseetia sündroomi vältida; 2008: Eesti ei saatnud Gruusiasse doonorverd

  18. Development of 22 new microsatellite loci for fishers (Martes pennanti) with variability results from across their range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Mark J.; Higley, Mark; Matthews, Sean M.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Barrett, Reginald H.; Palsboll, Per J.

    2007-01-01

    We developed 22 new microsatellite loci for the fisher (Martes pennanti), a North American mesocarnivore. The loci were developed with samples from the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, and were screened with samples from this population and four other populations. We observed a range

  19. A historical approach to information management at “José Martí” College of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvajal, Bárbara María

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a historical approach to information management in teachers training at “José Martí” College of Education. A theoretical framework is constructed as a way of completing the information gather in interviews to professors and graduates. The results include the identification and description of five periods of development.

  20. Estabilidade da polpa do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. congelada por 12 meses Stability of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. frozen for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virlane Kelly Lima da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de realizar o processamento e avaliar a estabilidade da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. submetida ao congelamento durante 12 meses. Durante o período de armazenamento não ocorreram alterações significativas nas características físico-químicas da polpa quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, atividade de água, açúcares totais e redutores, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos poliméricos e oligoméricos, pectina total e solúvel e cor L, a* , b*, enquanto que a acidez total e relação SST/AT variaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os compostos fenólicos dímeros apresentaram aumento em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos, a polpa de bacuri não pode ser considerada uma boa fonte de vitamina C. Por outro lado, apresenta baixos teores de compostos fenólicos caracterizando a polpa como, potencialmente pouco adstringente e com potencial para o processamento. A qualidade microbiológica não foi alterada durante o período de armazenamento. Os resultados apontam a eficiência do congelamento na manutenção das características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da polpa de bacuri.The objective of this work was to process and evaluate the stability of the bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. pulp submitted to freezing for 12 months. During the storage period there were significant changes in the physiochemical characteristics of the pulp as for the content of total soluble solids, pH, water activity, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, polimer and oligomeric phenolic compounds , total and soluble pectin and color L, the a*, b *,while total acidity and soluble solids varied with the storange period. The dimers phenolic compounds incresead with the time. According to the results, the bacuri pulp cannot be considered a good source of vitamin C, but it presents low contents of phenolic compounds characterizing the pulp as little astringent, thus showing potential for the processing

  1. Morfometria das fibras das folhas de Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. (ARECACEAE Leaf fibers morphometry of Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. (ARECACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Beltrão Rosas Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise morfométrica das fibras das folhas de Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. revelou que as fibras do pecíolo apresentaram comprimento e espessura da parede superiores às regiões da ráquis e folíolo, com médias variando de 1.266,09 µm a 3.270,56 µm e 5,56 µm a 10,67 µm, respectivamente. Em relação ao índice de Runckel e coeficiente de flexibilidade, as regiões pecíolo e ráquis obtiveram valores considerados favoráveis para sua utilização na indústria papeleira e, o índice de enfeltramento demonstrou que provavelmente as fibras dessas regiões apresentarão uma boa resistência ao rasgo quando submetidas às avaliações físico-mecânicas. Diante dos resultados, a espécie se revela promissora como fonte alternativa de matéria-prima para a produção de papel, sendo necessários, entretanto, estudos de resistências físico-mecânicas a consolidação deste pré-diagnóstico.The analysis morphometric of the leaf fibers of Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. demonstrated that the petiole's fibers had presented length and wall thickness superiors than the rachis and leaflets, with yours means varying of 1.266,09 µm to 3.270,56 µm and 5,56 µm to 10,67 µm, respectively. In relation the index of Runckel and flexibility's coefficient the petiole and rachis had gotten values considered favorable for its use in the paper industry and, the felting index it probably demonstrated that the fibers of these regions will present good crash resistance when submitted to the evaluations physical-mechanical. therefore, the results show the species is a alternative source of raw material to produce paper, but its necessary to do physical-mechanical resistance studies to consolidate this pre diagnostic.

  2. Armazenamento e tratamento pré-germinativos em sementes de jacarandá (Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. Storage and pregerminative treatments in jacarandá (Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura, do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos pré-germinativos na porcentagem de emergência (%E e no índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE de jacarandá (Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart.. O experimento foi conduzido em fatorial 5 x 2 x 4 (cinco períodos de armazenamento (0, 30, 60, 90 e 150 dias x 2 temperaturas (12 ± 2º C e 25 ± 2º C x 4 tratamentos pré-germinativos (1- Imersão em GA 125 mg L-1 /24 h; 2- Imersão em GA 250 mg L-1 /24 h; 3- Imersão em água quente; 4- Testemunha, em DIC com cinco repetições de 30 sementes. A emergência aumentou de 29% no tempo zero a 79% aos 150 dias, sendo que as sementes podem ser armazenadas por 150 dias, alcançando emergência superior a 70% sem nenhum tratamento pré-germinativo. Embora o IVE não tenha variado entre os tratamentos aos 150 dias nas sementes sob refrigeração (média de 0,82 e sob temperatura ambiente, o maior valor foi observado nas sementes tratadas com água quente e GA 250 mg.L-1 (0,41.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature, period of storage and pregerminative treatments on the emergence percentage (E % and emergence speed index (SEI of Jacarandá (Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart.. The experiment was carried out in factorial 5 x 2 x 4 (5 storage periods (0, 30, 60, 90 and 150 days C 2 temperatures (12 ± 2ºC and 25 ± 2ºC C 4 pregerminative treatments (1- immersion in GA 125 mg .L-1 / 24 hours; 2- immersion in GA 250 mg L-1 / 24 hours; 3- immersion in hot water; 4- control, in DIC with 5 replications of 30 seeds. The emergence increased from 29% at the first day to 79 % at the 150th day. The seeds may be stored for 150 days reaching emergence higher than 70% without any pregerminative treatment. Although there was no SEI change among the treatments after storage of seeds for 150 days under refrigeration (average 0.82, the highest value was observed with seeds kept at room temperature and treated with

  3. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae

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    V.L Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart. sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut e 01-S isoladas de ambiente aquático, utilizando o método de difusão em agar. Os testes revelaram que o extrato e fase de M. rigida apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana in vitro frente a todas as cepas de S. aureus testadas, apresentando concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de 400 mg mL-1. Entretanto, estes produtos não apresentaram atividade frente às linhagens de bactérias Gram-negativas testadas, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Salmonella sp.Ppharmacological studies are essential to prove the effectiveness of using medicinal plants to treat diseases and discover new phytotherapics. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "bom-nome" (Maytenus rigida Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, three samples of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with nosocomial infections, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut and 01-S isolated from water environment, using the agar diffusion test. Both extracts showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against all S. aureus strains, presenting 400 mg mL-1 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. However, these products did not show activity against strains of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp.

  4. Leismaniasis cutánea y cutáneo-mucosa en la región San Martín / Perú 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Vela, F.; Bueno, C; Arévalo, H.

    1999-01-01

    Resúmenes de trabajos de investigación de laboratorio regional de San Martín (Publicado: Revista de la Sociedad Chilena de Parasitología. enero 99) Con el fin de conocer las características de la Leishmaniasis en la Región San Martín en el período enero-diciembre 1997, se estudiaron datos sobre Leishmaniasis existentes en las Direcciones de Inteligencia Sanitaria, Estadística e Informática, Transmisibles y del Laboratorio Referencial Regional de la Dirección Regional de Salud de San Martín...

  5. Dos cartas inéditas de María Lejárraga dirigidas a Gregorio Martínez Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El artículo recoge la publicación de dos cartas inéditas de la correspondencia privada de Gregorio Martínez Sierra. Las cartas están fechadas en 1925 y 1946, respectivamente. Están escritas por María de la O Lejárraga y dirigidas a Gregorio Martínez Sierra. El artículo pretende dejar constancia de la relación profesional y personal que mantuvieron Gregorio Martínez Sierra y María Lejárraga hasta la muerte del dramaturgo en 1947.

  6. "Nuestra América": José Martí ante la Razón Moderna

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    Pedro Pablo Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un acercamiento al difícil y singular diálogo con el pensamiento moderno y sus procedimientos del escritor, pensador y político cubano José Martí. La tesis es que el ideario de Martí expresó los intereses y la perspectiva de los pueblos de Hispanoamérica, a la que llamó Nuestra América, por oposición, según escribió “a la otra América, que no es nuestra”. Plenamente consciente de que la identidad de la región se sustentaba en una cultura nueva, mestiza de lo aborigen y lo español, el cubano dedicó su ensayo “Nuestra América” a explicar los factores internos que mantenían las estructuras sociales, políticas y de pensamiento de la época colonial, así como el peligro que representaba el creciente poderío de Estados Unidos.   This article aims to approach Cuban writer, thinker and politician José Martí's harsh, singular dialogue with modern thinking and its procedures. It argues that Martí's set of ideas expressed the interests and viewpoint of the peoples of Hispanic America, which he called Our America, as opposed to, according to his own texts, "the other America, the one that is not ours". Fully conscious of the fact that the region's identity was based on a new culture, resulting from a mix of the indigenous and the Spanish, Martí used his essay "Our America" (originally, "Nuestra América" to explain the internal factors that maintained the colonial social, political and ideological structures, in addition to expressing the threat the growing power of the United States represented.

  7. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

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    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  8. Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) leaf extract attenuates streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes and oxidative stress in albino rats:A histopathological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanti Bhushan Mishra; Amita Verma; Alok Mukerjee; Madhavan Vijayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antidiabetic effects of Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract (ASEt) against streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes &oxidative stress in albino rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal way after the administration of nicotinamide (120mg/kg). The oxidative stress was measured by reduced glutathione (GSH) content and by enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver and kidney. Biochemical observations were further substantiated with histological examination of pancreas, kidney and liver. Results: The increase in blood glucose with the decrease in GSH content and in enzymatic activities were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. Administration of ASEt (250 & 500 mg/kg bw/day, i.p) for 21 days caused a significant reduction in blood glucose in STZ-nicotinamide treated rats when compared with diabetic rats. Furthermore, diabetic rats treated with ASEt leaf extract showed a significant increase in the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants when compared to those of diabetic rats. Degenerative changes of pancreatic cells in STZ treated rats were minimized to near normal morphology by administration of ASEt leaf extract as evidenced by histopathological examination.Conclusion: Results clearly indicate that Amaranthusspinosus treatment attenuate hyperglycemia by decreasing oxidative stress and pancreatic cells damage which may be attributed to its antioxidative potential.

  9. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Reveals the Role of Anabolic and Catabolic Processes in Glyphosate-Induced Amino Acid Accumulation in Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith; Nandula, Vijay; Duke, Stephen; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2016-09-21

    Biotic and abiotic stressors often result in the buildup of amino acid pools in plants, which serve as potential stress mitigators. However, the role of anabolic (de novo amino acid synthesis) versus catabolic (proteolytic) processes in contributing to free amino acid pools is less understood. Using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM), we measured the de novo amino acid synthesis in glyphosate susceptible (S-) and resistant (R-) Amaranthus palmeri biotypes. In the S-biotype, glyphosate treatment at 0.4 kg ae/ha resulted in an increase in total amino acids, a proportional increase in both (14)N and (15)N amino acids, and a decrease in soluble proteins. This indicates a potential increase in de novo amino acid synthesis, coupled with a lower protein synthesis and a higher protein catabolism following glyphosate treatment in the S-biotype. Furthermore, the ratio of glutamine/glutamic acid (Gln/Glu) in the glyphosate-treated S- and R-biotypes indicated that the initial assimilation of inorganic nitrogen to organic forms is less affected by glyphosate. However, amino acid biosynthesis downstream of glutamine is disproportionately disrupted in the glyphosate treated S-biotype. It is thus concluded that the herbicide-induced amino acid abundance in the S-biotype is contributed by both protein catabolism and de novo synthesis of amino acids such as glutamine and asparagine.

  10. Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Analysis

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    Pamela E. Akin-Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Amaranthus species are distributed worldwide with an interesting diversity of landraces and cultivars whose leaves and seeds are consumed. Despite their potential to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, grain amaranth breeding to improve nutritional quality and adoption by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. This study assessed the variation among 29 grain amaranth accessions using 27 phenotypic (10 morphological and 17 nutritional characters and 16 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers. Multivariate analysis of phenotypic characters showed the first four principal components contributing 57.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded five groups at 87.5% similarity coefficient. RAPD primers generated a total of 193 amplicons with an average of 12.06 amplicons per primer, 81% of which were polymorphic. Genetic similarities based on Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.61 to 0.88. The RAPD-based unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram grouped the accessions into nine clusters, with the same species clustering together. RAPD primers distinguished the accessions more effectively than phenotypic markers. Accessions in the different clusters as obtained can be exploited for heterotic gain in desired nutritional traits.

  11. Physical Mapping of Amplified Copies of the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene in Glyphosate-Resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Andrew; Varanasi, Vijay K.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nakka, Sridevi; Peterson, Dallas E.; Friebe, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A. tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-P synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A. tuberculatus using fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis mapped the EPSPS gene to pericentromeric regions of two homologous chromosomes in glyphosate sensitive A. tuberculatus. In glyphosate-resistant plants, a cluster of EPSPS genes on the pericentromeric region on one pair of homologous chromosomes was detected. Intriguingly, two highly glyphosate-resistant plants harbored an additional chromosome with several EPSPS copies besides the native chromosome pair with EPSPS copies. These results suggest that the initial event of EPSPS gene duplication may have occurred because of unequal recombination mediated by repetitive DNA. Subsequently, gene amplification may have resulted via several other mechanisms, such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletion/insertion, transposon-mediated dispersion, or possibly by interspecific hybridization. This report illustrates the physical mapping of amplified EPSPS copies in A. tuberculatus. PMID:27956489

  12. Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula

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    Susilowati Agustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purifying and drying both fermented biomasses of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture has been conducted to recover concentrate and powder of folic acid. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of particles characteristics and compositions of concentrate and powder from both mentioned folic acid source through Micro Filtration (MF membrane and without MF membrane. The best folic acid produced by MF membrane process (room temperature, stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, pressure 40 psia and 30 minutes and drying (30 °C, 22 cm Hg and 24 hours were resulted in biomass of the concentrate and powder with compositions of total solids 6.29 % and 96.91 %, total polyphenol 0.25 % and 0.06 %, folic acid 58.8 μg/mL and 54.33 μg/mL, reducing sugar 105.34 mg/mL and 441.39 mg/mL, and total acids 0.57 % and 2.33 %, respectively. In optimum condition, fermented spinach concentrate contributed to particles distribution with diameter size (Ø between 0,4 and 100 μm (75.45 %, and with Ø between 100 and 1000 μm (26.3 %, otherwise, the process without MF membrane was resulted the particles distribution respectively 74.1 % and 25.9% by each interval of Ø.

  13. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electrophoresis and far-Western blotting, ALL recognized two prominent proteins associated to the lipid raft microdomains in CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells. By mass spectrometry, the peptide fragments from ALL-recognized proteins showed sequences with 33% homology to matricin (gi|347839 NCBInr) and 41% identity to an unnamed protein related to moesin (gi|74186081 NCBInr). Confocal microscopy analysis of CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells confirmed that staining by ALL colocalized with anti-moesin FERM domain antibody along the plasma membrane and in the intercellular contact sites. Our findings suggest that a moesin-like O-glycoprotein is the ALL-recognized molecule in lipid rats, which induces costimulatory signals on CD4+ T cells. PMID:26417436

  14. Metabolic Profiling and Enzyme Analyses Indicate a Potential Role of Antioxidant Systems in Complementing Glyphosate Resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2015-10-21

    Metabolomics and biochemical assays were employed to identify physiological perturbations induced by a commercial formulation of glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. At 8 h after treatment (HAT), compared to the respective water-treated control, cellular metabolism of both biotypes were similarly perturbed by glyphosate, resulting in abundance of most metabolites including shikimic acid, amino acids, organic acids and sugars. However, by 80 HAT the metabolite pool of glyphosate-treated R-biotype was similar to that of the control S- and R-biotypes, indicating a potential physiological recovery. Furthermore, the glyphosate-treated R-biotype had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, higher ROS scavenging activity, and higher levels of potential antioxidant compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Thus, metabolomics, in conjunction with biochemical assays, indicate that glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations are not limited to the shikimate pathway, and the oxidant quenching efficiency could potentially complement the glyphosate resistance in this R-biotype.

  15. Constituintes qu��micos de Almeidea coerulea (Nees & Mart. A. St.-Hil. Rutaceae Chemical constituents of Almeidea coerulea (Nees & Mart. A. St.-Hil. Rutaceae

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    Lucia Elaine Ranieri Cortez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Do extrato diclorometano do caule de Almeidea coerulea (Nees & Mart. A. St.-Hil. foi isolado um triterpeno o 20-hidroxi-diidrolupeol (1, e do extrato metanólico foram isolados os alcalóides dictamina (2 e eskimianina (3, além de uma mistura dos esteróides sitosterol (4 e estigmasterol (5. A identificção substâncias foi realizada pela análise dos espectros de Massas, RMN ¹H, RMN 13C, HSQC, HMBC, e por comparação com dados da literatura.From the dichloromethane extract of Almeidea coerulea stem one triterpene, 20-hydroxy-dihydrolupeol was isolated (1 and from the methanol extract the known alkaloids dictamnine (2 and skimmianine (3, as well the steroids sitosterol (4 and stigmasterol (5. The identification of these compounds was performed on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (MS, ¹H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC and HMBC as well as comparison with literature data.

  16. Aplicações taxonômicas da anatomia foliar de espécies amazônicas de Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae Leaf anatomy applied to the taxonomy of Amazonian species of Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae

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    Rolf Junior Ferreira Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a anatomia foliar de Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. e O. minor Mart., visando verificar se existem entre as espécies diferenças anatômicas qualitativas úteis a sua delimitação taxonômica. Observou-se que as pinas de todos os representantes são anfiestomáticas e apresentam tecido epidérmico heteromórfico revestido por cutícula lisa, sobre a qual há depósitos de cera epicuticular nas formas filamentosas de extremidade gancheiforme e em placas retangulares; possuem estômatos tetracíticos e tricomas tectores bifilamentosos. O mesofilo é dorsiventral com braquiesclereídes, estruturas secretoras de mucilagem e feixes vasculares colaterais secundários e terciários, para os secundários diagnosticou-se quatro tipos, sendo o tipo III, com três vasos metaxilemáticos, o único comum às espécies. Características como: estômatos ciclocíticos; número de estratos do tecido de expansão; formas da nervura central e margem das pinas, mostraram-se peculiares a determinados taxa. Para o axis foliar, constatou-se que a forma e organização celulares do tecido parenquimático, nas regiões central e mediana, difere entre as espécies. Elaborou-se uma chave de identificação anatômica para as espécies de Oenocarpus Mart. analisadas, demonstrando que há entre estas diferenças estruturais significativas a nível qualitativo.Our aim was to study the leaf anatomy of Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. and O. minor Mart. in order to verify if there are qualitative anatomical features useful in taxonomy. Common features of the four species' leaflets are amphistomatic lamina; heteromorphic epidermal tissue; smooth cuticle; epicuticular wax in the form of hooked filaments and rectangular plates; tetracytic stomata; non-glandular, two-filamented trichomes; dorsiventral mesophyll with brachysclereids, mucilage secretory structures, type III

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

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    Euclésio Simionatto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves (sample A and flowers (sample B of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC. Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%, (--massoialactone (25.9%/17.0% and (E-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%. The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis- (6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated.

  18. Towards a Formal Semantics for UML/MARTE State Machines Based on Hierarchical Timed Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhou; Luciano Baresi; Matteo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    UML is a widely-used,general purpose modeling language.But its lack of a rigorous semantics forbids the thorough analysis of designed solution,and thus precludes the discovery of significant problems at design time.To bridge the gap,the paper investigates the underlying semantics of UML state machine diagrams,along with the time-related modeling elements of MARTE,the profile for modeling and analysis of real-time embedded systems,and proposes a formal operational semantics based on extended hierarchical timed automata.The approach is exemplified on a simple example taken from the automotive domain.Verification is accomplished by translating designed models into the input language of the UPPAAL model checker.

  19. Una lectura pigliana de la obra de Martín Caparrós

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    Christian Snoey Abadías

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es ensayar en torno a la influencia de las ideas que Ricardo Piglia ha desarrollado en sus textos teóricos y críticos sobre la problemática relación entre literatura y política en la obra de Martín Caparrós, en concreto, dos textos, la novela La Historia y la crónica El interior, con especial atención al relato del horror, la forma narrativa como una manera de resolver la tensión entre este binomio, el lenguaje, la tematización de la historia como concepto y la creación de un contradiscurso desde la ficción

  20. Luis Martín Santos est-il (vraiment) existentialiste ?

    OpenAIRE

    Capmartin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Luis Martín Santos a maintes fois réaffirmé son attachement moral et intellectuel, pour ne pas dire son admiration, à la figure de Jean-Paul Sartre. Mais n’y a-t-il pas comme une pétition de principe à en inférer que l’œuvre aussi, et au premier chef Tiempo de silencio, serait d’inspiration existentialiste, comme cela a été si souvent avancé ? Reposer le problème à neuf, à travers l’éclairage oblique que fournissent les textes peu considérés du psychiatre, telle est l’ambition élémentaire qui...

  1. Los idearios pedagógicos de José Martí y Amado Nervo

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    Vigne Pacheco, A.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Estos dos escritores importantes del Modernismolatinoamericano se interesaron enormemente por lapedagogía y la educación en general de los niños desus países respectivos. Este artículo estudia sus produccionesen este campo y señala las diferencias deenfoque y de soportes que cada autor utilizó paraponer en práctica sus ideas. En Martí se manifiestael deseo de despertar la curiosidad de sus pequeñoslectores por medio de artículos y ficciones publicadosen su revista infantil La Edad de Oro; mientrasque en Nervo, son los manuales escolares los quedesempeñan ese mismo papel.

  2. Los idearios pedagógicos de José Martí y Amado Nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vigne Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos dos escritores importantes del Modernismo latinoamericano se interesaron enormemente por la pedagogía y la educación en general de los niños de sus países respectivos. Este artículo estudia sus producciones en este campo y señala las diferencias de enfoque y de soportes que cada autor utilizó para poner en práctica sus ideas. En Martí se manifiesta el deseo de despertar la curiosidad de sus pequeños lectores por medio de artículos y ficciones publicados en su revista infantil La Edad de Oro, mientras que en Nervo, son los manuales escolares los que desempeñan ese mismo papel.

  3. L’art du cameo onirique dans Les minutes noires de Martín Solares

    OpenAIRE

    Benmiloud, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Comme auteur de romans policiers, l'écrivain mexicain Martín Solares s'inscrit à la fois dans le désir de restituer une image de la vie mexicaine contemporaine et dans la continuité de ce sous-genre littéraire. Son roman Les minutes noires se donne un cadre imaginaire mais le lecteur a beau jeu d'y retrouver des données propres à la biographie de l'auteur. Le crime qui constitue le nœud de l'intrigue, assassinats en série de petites filles dans une région du Mexique, est lui-même dérivé d'un ...

  4. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'açaí' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.

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    Ana Lúcia Q. A. Galotta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart. is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using β-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  5. Islands in Between: Martín García and other Geopolitical Flashpoints

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    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘in betweenity’ of islands is an ongoing problematic in contemporary politics. Given their geographic definition and boundedness, islands tend to be unitary jurisdictions - that means that they are unlikely to be shared by more than one power. In fact, there are just 11 islands in the world whose territory is ‘shared’ between more than one national jurisdiction. Meanwhile, there are still various small islands and other bounded territories whose status is contested amongst different (usually larger states, including Kinmen (Taiwan, Falklands/Malvinas and Gibraltar. In this context, this essay reviews the River Plate area (between Uruguay and Argentina: historically a point of tension between two major powers in Latin America; and some of that tension has been centered on the islands in the region – particularly Martín García.

  6. Chemins de traverse d’Ignacio Martínez de Pisón

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, André-Alain

    2013-01-01

    Chemins de traverse d’Ignacio Martínez de Pisón se présente comme la pseudo autobiographie d’un adolescent, Felipe, qui, à la mort de sa mère, est condamné à vivre avec un père marginal. Le texte est aussi la conversion d’un récit de type picaresque en un roman qui débouche sur la découverte mutuelle d’un père et d’un fils. L’errance des deux personnages, chemin de fuite destiné à compenser la disparition de Cecilia, conduit à une sorte d’assomption de l’amour. Caminos secundarios, de Igna...

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  8. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'acai' (Euterpe precatoria Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Q.A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D.; Lima, Luciana A. R.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using {beta}-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine. (author)

  9. HISTOANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE AQUATIC PLANT HELANTHIUM TENELLUM (MART. BRITT. (ALISMATACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns a histological study of the main features of the stem (rhizome and leaf (petiole and blade of a perennial herb native to North, Central and South America, Helanthium tenellum (Mart. Britt., growing both submerged and emerged in its native region. In our country the plant is known as an aquarium plant. However, the stem cortex is well-developed with epidermis, hypodermis and an aerenchyma tissue with a number of air chambers. The vascular system consists of amphivasal vascular bundles to the center and peripheral few collateral bundles. The leaf mesophyll is heterogenous, represented by a palisade and a spongy tissue. In the mesophyll are embedded few poor developed vascular bundles. Excepting some taxonomic studies, a study concerning the anatomy of this species is lacking.

  10. Chemical, biological, morphoanatomical and antimicrobial study of Ocotea puchury-major Mart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Pintore, Giorgio; Foddai, Marzia; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Masia, Maria Dolores; Mangano, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Ocotea puchury-major Mart. is a tree native to the Brazilian rain forest, where it is popularly known as puxurì. In local folk medicine the leaves are used for their sedative, gastroenteric and antireumatic properties. The morphoanatomical study determined those features useful in distinguishing this species from other closely related taxa. Chemical analysis was focused on the study of the volatile oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated safrol as the main compound of the volatile oil (39%). The results confirm and authenticate the use of its leaves in folk medicine. Furthermore, safrol is economically important as the starting material for hemisynthesis of several products. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was studied which showed promising activity against environmental microorganisms as well as anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. A Modeling Approach based on UML/MARTE for GPU Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Antonio Wendell De Oliveira; Dekeyser, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the High Performance Computing is part of the context of embedded systems. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are more and more used in acceleration of the most part of algorithms and applications. Over the past years, not many efforts have been done to describe abstractions of applications in relation to their target architectures. Thus, when developers need to associate applications and GPUs, for example, they find difficulty and prefer using API for these architectures. This paper presents a metamodel extension for MARTE profile and a model for GPU architectures. The main goal is to specify the task and data allocation in the memory hierarchy of these architectures. The results show that this approach will help to generate code for GPUs based on model transformations using Model Driven Engineering (MDE).

  12. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gutiérrez-Macías

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC, ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  13. Manuel Martínez de la Escalera, ciencia y aventura en Oriente

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    Casado, Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Martínez de la Escalera fue el expedicionario más destacado entre los naturalistas españoles de las décadas en torno al cambio de siglo. Su dedicación a la entomología, especialmente a los coleópteros, le llevó a organizar sendas expediciones, financiadas por un coleccionista francés, a Asia Menor y Siria en 1898 y a Persia en 1899. Lo aventurero de sus viajes a Oriente, subrayado por la penuria material con que se realizaron, marcó la incorporación de Escalera al imaginario colectivo de la reducida comunidad naturalista española, con una intensidad que contrasta con el olvido de los medios académicos oficiales y de la posterior historiografía de la ciencia.…

  14. Data mining using the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer BioMart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon A; Beare, David; Bamford, S; Cole, Charlotte G; Ward, Sari; Bindal, Nidhi; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Jia, Mingming; Kok, Chai Yin; Leung, Kenric; Menzies, Andrew; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) is a publicly available resource providing information on somatic mutations implicated in human cancer. Release v51 (January 2011) includes data from just over 19,000 genes, 161,787 coding mutations and 5573 gene fusions, described in more than 577,000 tumour samples. COSMICMart (COSMIC BioMart) provides a flexible way to mine these data and combine somatic mutations with other biological relevant data sets. This article describes the data available in COSMIC along with examples of how to successfully mine and integrate data sets using COSMICMart. DATABASE URL: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/biomart/martview/.

  15. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SW

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Wei Yang,1,* Chi-Ying Tsai,2,* Yi-Chun Pan,3 Chun-Nan Yeh,4 Jong-Hwei S Pang,5 Masashi Takano,6 Atsushi Kittaka,6 Horng-Heng Juang,7 Tai C Chen,8 Kun-Chun Chiang4,9 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 3Department of General Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Keelung, 4General Surgery Department, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, 5Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 8Endocrine Core Laboratory, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 9Zebrafish Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl-1α,25(OH2D3 (MART-10, the new brand 1α,25(OH2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT, which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH2D3 and MART

  16. Juhiks ühe päevaga? Ei! Ühe sekundiga! / Piret Jamnes, Gristel Tali, Mart Raik, Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Heaks juhiks saamise üle arutlevad Fontese partner Piret Jamnes, Columbus IT Partner Eesti AS-i tegevjuht Gristel Tali, konsultant ja koolitaja Mart Raik ning saneerimise ja nõustamisega tegeleva Catella Eesti haru juht Aavo Kokk

  17. Chemical characterization and cytoprotective effect of the hydroethanol extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose G.A.S Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin and mercury chloride (HgCl2, the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8. Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84% and Quercetin (1.19% in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P< 0.0001 and E. coli(significance P< 0.05 bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products.

  18. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  19. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  20. Ponerse a cantar. Modos de autorrepresentación del poeta cantor en El gaucho Martín Fierro y en El guacho Martín Fierro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se busca relevar y analizar de forma comparada los modos en que la figura del poeta cantor es representada en El gaucho Martín Fierro de José Hernández (publicado en 1872 y en El guacho Martín Fierro de Oscar Fariña (2011. Prestamos especial atención al modo en que se formula e intenta contestar la pregunta acerca de quién puede hablar desde la posición de cantor, es decir, desde un saber autorizado por la experiencia y especializado técnica y estéticamente. De este modo, exploramos las maneras en que en ambos textos se producen relaciones complejas con la otredad que permiten un productivo uso del lenguaje.

  1. Perfil fitoquímico e ensaio microbiológico dos extratos da entrecasca de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae Phytochemistry and microbiological assay of the bark extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Estevam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae, conhecida por "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" e "Pau-de-colher", é uma arvore de pequeno porte. A entrecasca do caule é empregada popularmente no Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores em geral, infecções e inflamações. O presente trabalho avaliou tanto o perfil fitoquímico de M. rigida por meio de um roteiro analítico, quanto à atividade antibiótica dos extratos pelo método de Kirby-Bauer modificado. Os resultados demonstraram que os extratos etanólico, aquoso, clorofórmico, acetato de etila e hidroalcoólico de M. rigida apresentam atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, enquanto que a fração hexânica não exibe qualquer atividade. Catequinas, quinonas, esteróides, triterpenos, saponinas, flavonóides e compostos fenólicos foram detectados na análise fitoquímica.Maynetus rigida Mart (Celastraceae, known as "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" and "Pau-de-colher", is a small tree. The stem bark is used by the population in the northeast of Brazil to treat aches, infections and inflammations in general. The present work evaluated both the phytochemistry of M. rigida Mart by an analytical routine, and the antimicrobial activity of the bark extracts by the Kirby-Bauer modified method. Our results showed the aqueous, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoolic extracts of M. rigida Mart has antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, while the hexane extract does not have any activity. Catechins, quinones, steroids, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds were detected by the phytochemical analysis.

  2. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Amaranthus tricolor L.under high temperature stress%高温胁迫下苋菜的叶绿素荧光特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 唐运来

    2013-01-01

    为了探明高温胁迫对苋菜(Amaranthus tricolor L.)光合过程的影响,用不同温度(25、30、35、40、45℃)处理苋菜植株1h后,随即测定了其叶绿素荧光动力学参数和快速光响应曲线特征参数的变化.结果表明:40℃以上高温胁迫下,苋菜叶片的光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)潜在光化学效率(Fv/Fo)、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)下降;最大荧光(Fm)、光合电子传递速率(ETR)、PSⅡ实际光化学效率(Yield)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)也均有所下降;而初始荧光(F.)和非光化学淬灭系数(NPQ)在40℃以上高温胁迫下显著上升.叶绿素荧光快速光响应曲线测定结果表明,初始斜率α、最大相对电子传递速率ETRmax和半饱和光强Ik在40℃以上高温胁迫下有所下降.研究表明,40℃以上高温胁迫对苋菜的光能的吸收、转换、光合电子传递和强光耐受能力等均有一定的影响.%Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) plants were exposed to several temperature levels (25,30,35,40,and 45 ℃) for 1 h,and then,the characteristic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence and the rapid light response curves of photosynthesis were measured,aimed to understand the effects of high temperature stress on the photosynthesis process of amaranth.High temperature stress (>40 ℃) decreased the maximum fluorescence (Fm),potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo),and maximum photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm).Simultaneously,the electron transport rate (ETR),actual photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Yield),and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) also had some decrease.In contrast,the initial fluorescence (Fo) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were increased significantly.The initial slope rate (a),maximum apparent electron transport rates (ETRmax),and half-saturation light intensity (Ik) under high temperature stress also had some decline.These results indicated that the photosynthesis of A.tricolor plants was very sensitive to high

  3. Era Sanctorum: la beatificación inconclusa del padre Diego Martínez, SJ (1627-1634

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the politics of sanctity of the Society of Jesus in Viceregal Peru (17th Century through the process of beatification of the Spanish Father Diego Martínez (1627-34. An unfinished process that has been filed in the Jesuit archives for centuries and was never introduced in the Sacred Congregation of Rites, in the Vatican.Este ensayo analiza las políticas de santidad de la Compañía de Jesús en el Perú virreinal (siglo XVII a través del proceso de beatificación del padre extremeño Diego Martínez (1627-34. Un proceso inconcluso que ha permanecido en los archivos jesuitas durante siglos y que nunca se introdujo en la Sagrada Congregación de Ritos, en el Vaticano.

  4. La Ritmomaquia: las virtudes educativas de un juego de tablero en la obra de Fray Martín Sarmiento

    OpenAIRE

    María Álvarez Lires; Uxío Pérez Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    La Ritmomaquia, un juego popular en los siglos XVII y XVIII, era un juego de tablero altamente complejo en el que las habilidades matemáticas desempeñaban un papel importante. En este artículo se describirá someramente este juego y se relatarán las opiniones de Fray Martín Sarmiento sobre su utilidad como recurso pedagógico. En particular, se mostrará lo avanzado del pensamiento de Fray Martín, que defendía la importancia de la actividad física para la juventud y sostenía que los juegos podía...

  5. Resposta cronotrópica ao teste anaeróbio máximo de corrida - MART

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Areal Lemos; Tony Meireles Santos

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A frequência cardíaca (FC) no teste anaeróbio máximo de corrida (MART) expressa o comportamento autonômico cardíaco em exercício. Ainda não foi investigado se tais respostas cronotrópicas apresentam associação com o desempenho aeróbio e anaeróbio. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a resposta cronotrópica cardíaca durante o MART nos segundos iniciais de estímulo (FC ON) e de recuperação (FC OFF) e estabelecer a associação entre as variáveis cronotrópicas com o desempenho aeróbio e anaeróbio. MÉ...

  6. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  7. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  8. Burkholderia ambifaria and B. caribensis promote growth and increase yield in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus) by improving plant nitrogen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cota, Fannie I; Peña-Cabriales, Juan J; de Los Santos-Villalobos, Sergio; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Délano-Frier, John P

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. However, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. In this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in Amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. Nutrisol and A. cruentus cv. Candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. The plants were grown in a rich substrate, high in organic matter, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) and under greenhouse conditions. Burkholderia ambifaria Mex-5 and B. caribensis XV proved to be the most efficient strains and significantly promoted growth in both grain amaranth species tested. Increased grain yield and harvest index occurred in combination with chemical fertilization when tested in A. cruentus. Growth-promotion and improved yields correlated with increased N content in all tissues examined. Positive effects on growth also occurred in A. cruentus plants grown in a poor soil, even after N and P fertilization. No correlation between non-structural carbohydrate levels in roots of inoculated plants and growth promotion was observed. Conversely, gene expression assays performed at 3-, 5- and 7-weeks after seed inoculation in plants inoculated with B. caribensis XV identified a tissue-specific induction of several genes involved in photosynthesis, sugar- and N- metabolism and transport. It is concluded that strains of Burkholderia effectively promote growth and increase seed yields in grain amaranth. Growth promotion was particularly noticeable in plants grown in an infertile soil but also occurred in a well fertilized rich substrate. The positive effects observed may be attributed to a bio-fertilization effect that led to increased N levels in roots and shoots. The latter effect correlated with the differential induction of several genes involved in carbon and N metabolism

  9. Assessment of Above- and Below-ground Competition between Sesame (Sesamume indicum L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus and Its Effects on Sesame Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Yanegh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out in a factorial layout on completely randomaized block design with three replications, to evaluate the above- and below- ground competition between sesame (Sesamum indicum and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and their impacts on sesame yield and yield component. The experimental treatments were all combination of crop-weed competition (shoot competition, root competition and root-shoot competition and sesame plant densitys (1, 2 and 4 plant per pot. Plants were sown in plastic pots (24 cm diameter and 28 cm height in year 2010, at feild of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. For study the shoot competition of sesame-pigweed, the roots were separated by plastic when the pots were filled with soil before sowing the seeds. Three weeks after emerging, shoots of plants were separated vertical barrier (30 x 70 cm for studing root competition. Results showed that competition treatments had a significant effect on seed weight per plant and yield components except 1000 seed weight. Among competition produced higher yield and yield components compared to othere treatments. However, sesame and pigweed biological weight in root-shoot competition was 2.6 and 13.7 respectively, that was higher than other competition treatments and was significant. Capsule number in main and sub branches, capsule number in plant, seed number in capsule and seed number in plant in complete competition treatment was 15, 2.58, 17.5, 43.7 and 693.89 respectively, that was higher than other treatments and differences among them was significant. Sesame density also had a significant effect on seed weight per plant and yield components. When low density were used (one plant, yield and yield components was more, therefore in one plant per pot density biological weight of sesame was 3.82 gr, and in higher densities the mentioned traits decreased significantly.

  10. Determinación de microorganismos fúngicos en semillas de Amaranto (Amaranthus spp. mediante diferentes métodos de análisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Noelting

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La ausencia de una metodología destinada al análisis de la micoflora en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus spp. ha motivado la realización del presente trabajo. A tal efecto, fueron sembradas semillas de dos cultivares (con y sin tratamiento de desinfección en forma previa a la siembra en papel «Blotter test» y en cinco medios agarizados: Agar Papa Glucosado al 2% (APG, Agar Extracto de Glucosa Cloramfenicol (CYG, Agar Czapek (CZ, Agar para conteo en placa (PCA y Agar Sabouraud (SAB. Los cajas fueron incubadas a 26 °C± 2 y 16 hs luz/8hs oscuridad de fotoperíodo durante siete días, a partir del cual se procedió a registrar el número máximo de géneros fúngicos desarrollados y el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas. Un total de catorce géneros fúngicos procedentes del campo y del almacenamiento fueron registrados, destacándose Alternaria por su mayor frecuencia de aislamiento. Al evaluar el número máximo de géneros fúngicos, se detectaron diferencias significativas entre los medios (p>0,001 resultando los medios APG, CZ y PCA los mas efectivos. Por otro lado, la desinfección aplicada a las semillas redujo en términos generales el desarrollo de hongos de crecimiento expansivo. El análisis de los datos correspondientes al porcentaje de germinación reveló la presencia de interacciones entre los cultivares y los niveles de desinfección significativas (p>0,001 en cuatro de los medios analizados; mientras que en el resto se registraron interacciones no significativas.

  11. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillón-Arbeláez Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. Recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. A multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements. Results Defoliation by insect herbivory (HD or mechanical damage (MD led to a rapid and transient reduction of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC in all tissues examined. This correlated with a short-term induction of foliar sucrolytic activity, differential gene expression of a vacuolar invertase and its inhibitor, and induction of a sucrose transporter gene. Leaf starch in defoliated plants correlated negatively with amylolytic activity and expression of a β-amylase-1 gene and positively with a soluble starch synthase gene. Fatty-acid accumulation in roots coincided with a high expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate transporter gene. In all tissues there was a long-term replenishment of most metabolite pools, which allowed damaged plants to maintain unaltered growth and grain yield. Promoter analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and vacuolar invertase genes indicated the presence of cis-regulatory elements that supported their responsiveness to defoliation. HD and MD had differential effects on transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolites. However, the correlation between transcript abundance and enzymatic activities was very limited. A better correlation was found between enzymes, metabolite levels and growth and reproductive parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that a rapid reduction of NSC reserves in leaves, stems and roots followed by their long-term recovery underlies tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. This requires the

  12. The novel and taxonomically restricted Ah24 gene from grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus has a dual role in development and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Armando Massange-Sanchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (abiotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed Arabidopsis showed enhanced vegetative growth and increased leaf number with no penalty in one fitness component, such as seed yield, in experimental conditions. Transgenic tobacco plants, which grew and reproduced normally, had increased insect herbivory resistance. Modified vegetative growth in transgenic Arabidopsis coincided with significant changes in the expression of genes controlling phytohormone synthesis or signaling, whereas increased resistance to insect herbivory in transgenic tobacco coincided with higher jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitor activity levels, plus the accumulation of nicotine and several other putative defense-related metabolites. It is proposed that the primary role of the Ah24 gene in A. hypochondriacus is to contribute to a rapid recovery post-wounding or defoliation, although its participation in defense against insect herbivory is also plausible.

  13. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoka Oladele Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity.

  14. Immunochemical Characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen Extract: Extensive Cross-reactive Allergenic Components among the Four Species of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tehrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen in causing respiratory allergy has been well ascertained in many countries including Iran with a high positive rate (69% among Iranian allergic patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the allergenic properties of A. retroflexus pollen. Sixteen patients with allergy to A. retroflexus pollen were selected for the study. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of the A. retroflexus pollen extract as well as pollen extracts from other species of the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family, including Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, and Salsola kali, were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunoblot inhibition assays. The resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE ranged from 10-85 kDa. Several allergenic components (MW 85, 45, 39, 18, 15, and 10 kDa of the A. retroflexus pollen extract were recognized by using patients' sera by specific antibody of IgE class using ELISA and immunoblot assays. The IgE reactivity of the A. retroflexus pollen extract was partially inhibited by all three pollen extracts tested. the inhibition by the S. kali pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters by the A. retroflexus pollen extract were highly correlated with those by C. album, K. scoparia and S. kali pollen extracts. In conclusion, three proteins with apparent MWs of 39, 45, and 66 kDa are suggested as the common allergenic components among the four pollens from the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. It appears that there are some common (similar epitopes among the four common allergenic pollens.

  15. El proyecto cultural liberador de José Martí para su tiempo y para el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmys Escribano Hervis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se sostiene la validez y significación del proyecto cultural liberador de José Martí para América Latina. Se analiza desde el momento en que fue concebido a fines del siglo xix y para la actualidad. La determinación y defensa de los puntos de vista que se presentan han sido posibles mediante el análisis de la obra completa de José Martí recogida en los 28 tomos editados en 1963, por la Editorial Nacional de Cuba. El análisis textual de dichas fuentes lo completa su contrastación con el contexto con - dicionante de las últimas décadas del siglo xix , especialmente en Cuba, México, Guatemala, Venezuela y Estados Unidos, sus con - tradicciones y tendencias de desarrollo. La exposición del con te - nido del artículo se ha estructurado en tres apartados: el primero es titulado “América Latina hasta fines del siglo XIX”; el segun - do, “José Martí, su conocimiento y vocación latinoamericana”; y el tercero, “El proyecto cultural liberador martiano para América Latina en todos los tiempos”. Se sostiene la idea de la libertad en José Martí como centro vital del proyecto de cambio y desarrollo para América Latina, en la que vertebró coherentemente su dis - curso cultural al que se integra la educación, la ciencia, la prensa y el arte, en distintas manifestaciones.

  16. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?:Cross-sectional study of Marte Meo therapists' Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Early Parent-infant Interactions: Are Health Visitors’ Observations Reliable?Cross-sectional study of Danish Marte Meo Therapists’ Competence The quality of parent-infant relations is essential for infant development, and its assessment by health visitors is potentially important to promote healthy relations. The objectives of this study were to explore health visitors’ observation skills assessing parent-infant interaction and their intention, self-efficacy and knowledge in early relationshi...

  17. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  18. Modeling the Potential Distribution of Picea chihuahuana Martínez, an Endangered Species at the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) help identify areas for the development of populations or communities to prevent extinctions, especially in the face of the global environmental change. This study modeled the potential distribution of the tree Picea chihuahuana Martínez, a species in danger of extinction, using the maximum entropy modeling method (MaxEnt) at three scales: local, state and national. We used a total of 38 presence data from the Sierra Madre Occidental. At the local scale, we...

  19. Mart Viljus : insener Garin ja moodne häkker = Engineer Garin and modern hacker / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2012-01-01

    Füüsik Mart Viljus on kunstnik, kes armastab allikmaterjalina kasutada olmes ringlevaid märke, valmisesemeid, mis on talle emblemaatilise tähendusega. Ta võtab need osadeks lahti ja paigutab seejärel nihestatult uuteks tervikuteks. Nõnda tekivad uued tähendused ja avaldub kunstniku isiklik suhtumine ühiskonda, mida vürtsitab paras annus huumorit, absurdi ja irooniat. Analüüsitakse põhiliselt 1990-ndate aastate loomingut

  20. Human macrophages and dendritic cells can equally present MART-1 antigen to CD8(+ T cells after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcela Barrio

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8(+ T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8(+ T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®(647-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8(+ T cell cross-presentation thereafter.

  1. Efecto de la profundidad de siembra, cobertura de rastrojo y ambiente térmico sobre la germinación y emergencia de Amaranthus quitensis K. Effect of seed burial, different residue levels and thermal enviroment on germination and emergence of Amaranthus quitensis K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Faccini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La germinación y la emergencia son los estadios más importantes en el proceso de invasión de malezas anuales. El objetivo fue relacionar la germinación y emergencia de Amaranthus quitensis con la profundidad de siembra, cobertura de rastrojo y diferencias del ambiente térmico de las semillas en el suelo. Durante 2000 y 2001 se sembraron semillas en bolsas a dos profundidades (0,5 y 4 cm, con dos niveles de rastrojo (0 y 6000 kg/ha determinándose periódicamente la geminación in situ. La emergencia se evaluó en macetas con los mismos tratamientos de profundidad y cobertura. Se registró la amplitud térmica diaria del suelo. La germinación y la emergencia se relacionaron linealmente con la amplitud térmica, siendo máximas a 0,5 cm y sin cobertura de rastrojo. A 4 cm y con rastrojo el retraso en la emergencia y en la tasa de incremento fueron mayores que en los otros tratamientos. La cobertura en superficie y la profundidad de siembra de las semillas afectaron los niveles de amplitud térmica. Esos niveles a su vez condicionaron la pérdida total de la dormición de manera que la germinación y la emergencia fueron menores cuando las semillas estuvieron enterradas y/o con altos niveles de cobertura.Germination and emergence are the most important stages in the invasion process of annual weeds. The objective was to relate germination and emergence of Amaranthus quitensis with seed sowing depth, crop residue and different thermal environment of seeds in the soil. During 2000 y 2001 seeds were buried in bags at two depths (0.5 and 4 cm, with two residue levels (0 and 6.000 kg/ha. In situ germination was periodically recorded. Emergence was evaluated in pots with the same seed sowing depths and residue levels treatments. In all cases, the soil daily thermal amplitude was recorded. Germination and emergence were linearly related with the thermal amplitude and were highest at 0.5 cm and without residue. At 4 cm and with residue the delay in

  2. Martín Sarmiento, el benedictino gallego que en repetidas ocasiones rechazó las ofertas del rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Puerto, José

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review some activities and appointments of Martín Sarmiento, Benedictine monk of the Saint Martin´s Abbey in Madrid. We will know details on his election in 1748 for the abbey of the monastery. We will investigate the reasons that led him not to accept the inherent salaries in the title of Cronista General de Indias, who was granted to him by Fernando VI in 1750. And also we will verify how it was designated by the king abbot of Ripoll in 1755 and why he resigned on the following year.En este artículo se recuerdan algunas actividades y nombramientos del benedictino Martín Sarmiento. Conoceremos detalles sobre su elección en 1748 para la abadía del monasterio de San Martín de Madrid, su casa de profesión. Indagaremos las razones que le llevaron a no querer cobrar los sueldos inherentes al título de cronista general de Indias, que le fue concedido por Fernando VI en 1750. Y averiguaremos cómo fue designado por el Rey abad de Ripoll en 1755 y por qué renunció al año siguiente.

  3. 优化大孔树脂提取分离苋菜红色素的工艺%Optimization of Extraction and Separation of Red Pigment from Amaranthus Paniculatus with Macroporous Adsorption Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海珠; 张云玲; 胥秀英; 郑一敏; 乔源; 傅善权

    2013-01-01

    AB-8 resin was selected out to purify the red pigment of Amaranthus paniculatus by orthogonal design. The best conditions for isolation of the red pigment of Amaranthus paniculatus were determined as follows: pH 3, adsorption velocity 1.2 mL/min, solution adsorbent 15% ethanol and elution velocity 0.9 mL/min. After AB-8 macroporous resin purification, greatly enhance the pigment quality.%采用正交设计实验筛选AB-8大孔树脂纯化苋菜红色素的最佳工艺条件.其最佳工艺为:上样pH值为3、吸附流速1.2mL/min、洗脱剂浓度为15%乙醇溶液、洗脱流速0.9 mL/min.经过AB-8大孔树脂提纯后,提高了苋菜红色素的品质.

  4. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  5. Cloning a cDNA Encoding Ribosomal Protein S25 from Amaranthus cruentus L.%籽粒苋(Amaranthus cruentus L.)核糖体蛋白S25基因(cDNA)的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳秀; 江树业; 等

    2001-01-01

    @@ Ribosomes, the agents of protein synthesis, consist of roughly equal amounts of RNA (rRNA) and protein (r-protein). Knowledge of the ribosome and its function mainly comes from the extensive work on 70S bacterial ribosomes. There are 21 proteins in the small (30S) subunit and 30 in the large (50S) subunit in E. coil ri bosomes. The 80S eukaryotic ribosomes are more com plex than the bacterial ones and contain at least 30 pro teins in the small (40S) subunit and 40 in the large (60 S) subunit. These r-proteins are named S1 to S30 and L1 to L40 according to whether they arise from the small or large subunit, and to their mobility in gels. In plants, several ribosomal protein genes and/or cDNAs have been isolated, such as the small subunit proteins S 11, S13, S14, S16, and S19 and the large subunit proteins L2, L7, L17, and L27. Here we report the r-protein S25 cDNA, Arps25, from Amaranthus cruentus L.

  6. Resposta cronotrópica ao teste anaeróbio máximo de corrida - MART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Areal Lemos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A frequência cardíaca (FC no teste anaeróbio máximo de corrida (MART expressa o comportamento autonômico cardíaco em exercício. Ainda não foi investigado se tais respostas cronotrópicas apresentam associação com o desempenho aeróbio e anaeróbio. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a resposta cronotrópica cardíaca durante o MART nos segundos iniciais de estímulo (FC ON e de recuperação (FC OFF e estabelecer a associação entre as variáveis cronotrópicas com o desempenho aeróbio e anaeróbio. MÉTODOS: Foram voluntários 13 homens assintomáticos e fisicamente ativos, com 25,1 ± 4,9 anos, 76,8 ± 12,5 kg, 178,4 ± 9,0 cm e 50,6 ± 4,1 mL×kg‑1×min‑1. Na primeira visita, após a anamnese e medidas antropométricas, foi realizado um teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE com monitoração direta dos gases expirados. Na segunda visita, foi feita uma familiarização ao MART e na terceira, o teste de MART conduzido até a exaustão. RESULTADOS: A FC de recuperação (58 ± 20 bpm comparada à FC de pico alcançada no primeiro e no último estágio de MART (39 ± 14 bpm apresentou maior inclinação, resultando em maior amplitude de variação ao longo do teste, caracterizando diferenças significativas (P = 0,0017. A FC ON apresentou entre o momento inicial, meio e final do MART diferenças significativas (inicial versus final, p = 0,007. Para FC OFF foram encontradas diferenças significativas do início com o meio (p = 0,035 e do início com o final (p = 0,005 do teste. As correlações entre as variáveis cronotrópicas e de desempenho não apresentaram significância estatística (P < 0,05, assim como com as variáveis de desempenho. CONCLUSÃO: O MART parece ser um modelo de sobrecargas fisiológicas adequado para investigação da modulação autonômica cardíaca. Observou-se atuação do sistema parassimpático mesmo em cargas supramáximas até o final do teste.

  7. Eugenia dysenterica Mart. Ex DC. (cagaita: planta brasileira com potencial terapêutico

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    Sandra Márcia MAZUTI SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui uma das maiores diversidades florísticas do mundo, com vários biomas de características diversas. Esses biomas são uma rica fonte de espécies vegetais utilizadas pelos habitantes locais como alimento e/ou para fins medicinais. Em 2006 foi publicada a Politica Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos (PNPMF que estabeleceu diretrizes de atuação do Governo Federal na área, com o objetivo de fomentar o desenvolvimento industrial e tecnológico e estimular o uso sustentável da biodiversidade nacional. O Programa Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos, por sua vez, estabeleceu as ações dos diversos parceiros, para garantir o acesso, o desenvolvimento tecnológio e o uso de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos de forma segura, eficaz e com qualidade. Eugenia dysenterica Mart ex DC é uma espécie brasileira encontrada no bioma Cerrado e utilizada como alimento e para fins medicinais. Assim, no sentido de contribuir para a PNPMF, foi elaborada uma monografia mostrando os avanços nos estudos sobre essa espécie, potencialmente útil para no desenvolvimento de fitoterápico genuinamente nacional.

  8. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-02-19

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species.

  9. Proteccionismo, filibusterismo, libre comercio: José Martí y los tratados comerciales

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    José Luis Díaz Naranjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aun cuando los tratados de libre comercio se han constituido en los principales instrumentos de regulación en lo comercial, entre países, en los últimos 25 años, estos han sido un referente constante en los procesos bilaterales y multilaterales de negociación en esta materia. Como práctica se remonta al siglo XIX. En este sentido José Martí, héroe cubano, desarrolla un análisis del acuerdo comercial entre México y los Estados Unidos, propuesto en 1883, que mantiene vigencia, sobre la base de los preceptos en los que se fundamenta, el tráficode mercancías y uso de recursos de todo tipo. Los acuerdos de esta naturaleza responden a estrategias propias del proceso de acumulación de capital, dentro del marco de la realización de la ganancia. Este artículo hace referencia al análisis martiano y su expresión en el proceso de globalización del signo actual, el referido a los tratados de libre comercio como medios de expansión y dominio político y económico.

  10. METHODS FOR OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY AND THE INITIAL GROWTH OF Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. IN DIFFERENT SOILS

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    JOSENARA DAIANE DE SOUZA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential and importance of biodiversity of the Caatinga biome, studies on endemic species are relevant to conservation of its natural resources. The objectives of this work was to evaluate seed viability and physical methods for overcoming seed dormancy in juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. and assess the influence of different types of soil on the initial growth of juazeiro plants. The experiments were conducted in three stages. In the first stage, the viability of seeds from different lots was evaluated using the tetrazolium test. The second stage was conducted in a plant nursery, evaluating the application of physical processes (scarification with sandpaper and hammer in overcoming seed dormancy, and the initial growth of the plants. In the third step, the chlorophyll a and b contents, gas exchange and dry matter accumulation were evaluated in young juazeiro plants in three types of soil (Oxisol, Entisol and Vertisol. The results indicate that the viability of juazeiro seeds is greatly influenced by differences between the progenitor plants and by storage conditions, which enable a longevity of two years when stored at 22°C and 16% of relative humidity. The scarification methods with sandpaper and hammer are not efficient to reduce the time and uniform seed germination. The juazeiro plants have high growth potential in different edaphic environments, adapting well to soils of different textures and chemical compositions.

  11. WAL-MART AS A LEADING RETAILER IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN

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    Jin-Li Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wal-Mart effect has a dramatic impact on upstream manufacturers in a supply chain. This study applies a game-theoretic approach to analyze the effects of the leading retailer in a supply chain. We propose three models relating to the interactions between upstream duopolistic manufacturers and a downstream retailer: The first model represents that both manufacturers react simultaneously and independently to the retailer‟s price decision. The second model describes both manufacturers reacting to the retailer‟s decision in a leader-follower price competitive condition. The third model is a traditional upstream-dominating situation, which will be employed to contrast with the first two downstream-dominating models. By changing the degree of substitutability of the two products made by these two manufacturers, there are some findings: (i As a downstream leader in the supply chain, the retailer profit is more than the sum of the two duopolistic manufacturers. (ii If the duopolistic manufacturers also play the leader-follower game, the leader manufacturer‟s profit is greater than the follower manufacturer‟s profit. (iii When comparing to the manufacturer-dominating model, the retailer-dominating models have the lower retail price and an increase in sale quantities. (iv Compared to the manufacturer-dominating model, the retailer-dominating models‟ producer surplus, consumer surplus, and social welfare are improved.

  12. Importancia agroecológica del coyul (Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart.

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    Blanca C. Ramírez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. es una especie que se extiende desde el Pacífico mexicano hasta Centro y Sudamérica. El fruto (coyul es apreciado desde la época prehispánica, sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido frente a otros frutos nativos y así como de los introducidos con mayor aceptación en el mercado. Se realizó un estudio en San Blas, Nayarit, México, en el que se llevó a cabo la caracterización de un agroecosistema típico donde se explotan poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas de coyul de forma tradicional y se resaltó la importancia económica, ecológica y cultural de la especie. Asimismo, se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto; la pulpa y la semilla son fuente principalmente de grasas. De esta especie se pueden obtener subproductos tales como aceites comestibles, alimento para ganado, artesanías, entre otros; igualmente se exponen alternativas de uso llevadas a cabo por otras regiones y países que puedan conducir a conservar espacios ecológicos y culturales.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

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    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  14. Aída Martínez Carreño

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    Pablo Rodríguez Jiménez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available (Bucaramanga, 16 de abril de 1940 – Bogotá, 28 de mayo de 2009. Conocí a Aída Martínez en Medellín, en 1984, en una reunión académica organizada por la Cámara del Comercio. Y fue Germán Colmenares quien me la presentó en un descanso, mientras tomábamos un café. Recuerdo la manera como el maestro se refirió a su actividad al frente del Fondo Cultural Cafetero. En la conversación también se coló el valor que tenía el Museo del Siglo xix para la cultura de Bogotá, museo al que Aída le había dedicado tanto empeño. Pero, ahora que vuelvo a recordar ese encuentro, descubro que en ese momento algo que me sorprendió fue el conocimiento preciso de Aída sobre los hechos, obras y autores del siglo xix. Un siglo que aún entonces no estudiábamos mucho, y al que efectivamente el Fondo Cultural Cafetero dedicó célebres simposios, y auspició muchas de sus publicaciones.

  15. Nitrogen transformations in a waterhyacinth-based water treatment system. [Eichornia crassipes (Mart. ) Solms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Reddy, K.R.; Graetz, D.A.

    Fate of added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N and /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N in waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)-based water treatment system was evaluated under controlled conditions. Labeled /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N uptake by waterhyacinth exceeded /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N uptake. Total /sup 15/N recovery by waterhyacinth ranged from 57 to 72% for added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N and 70 to 89% for added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N. Both sediment and detritus were potential sources of N for waterhyacinths. Waterhyacinths cultured in sewage effluent removed 55% of the added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N and 14% of the added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N, respectively. Three to 44% of the added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N was lost through nitrification in the water column and subsequent denitrification in the underlying sediments, whereas 24 to 86% of the added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N was lost through denitrification. In a system without plants, 13 to 89% of the added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N and 48 to 96% of the added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N were lost from the system through a combination of nitrification/denitrification and NH/sub 3/ volatilization.

  16. Absence of antimutagenicity of Cochlospermum regium (Mart. and Schr. Pilger 1924 by micronucleus test in mice

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    LS. Andrade

    Full Text Available Cochlospermum regium (Mart. and Schr. Pilger, popularly known as "algodãozinho do campo", is a medicinal plant that grows in the Cerrado of Brazil. This plant has been used in traditional medicine against various diseases such as leucorrhoea, gastritis and ulcers. It has also been effective in treating skin problems like pimples, boils and blotches. In the present study, the in vivo antimutagenicity of aqueous extract of C. regium was evaluated. The Micronucleus Test was performed in polychromatic erythrocytes from Swiss male mice treated with one of the four doses of extract of the plant (19, 38, 76 and 114 mg.kg-1 body weight, administered by intraperitonial injection (i.p. simultaneously with cyclophosphamide (24 mg.kg-1 b.w. or mitomycin C (4 mg.kg-1 b.w.. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE. The results showed no significant reduction of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes frequency (P > 0.05. In conclusion, the data indicate that C. regium roots aqueous extract, for the conditions used, did not exhibit the antimutagenic effect.

  17. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed.

  18. Initial development and gas exchange of Talisia subalbens (Mart. Radlk. under different shading conditions

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    Fernanda Carlota Nery

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecophysiological studies under semi-controlled conditions in nurseries and greenhouses are essential to enable the use of native species to recover degraded areas and for commercial planting. Talisia subalbens (Mart Radlk, 'cascudo', is a native fruiting species of the Cerrado on the verge of extinction. The ecophysiological performance of this species was evaluated in nursery conditions under different levels of shading (full sunshine, 30%, 50% and 70%. Initial growth, biomass allocation, gas exchange and chlorophyll content of the plants were analyzed. Full sunshine cultivated plants showed a higher accumulation of total, shoot, and root dry biomass. There was no significant difference in the root/shoot ratio among the treatments. Seedlings cultivated under full sunshine and 30% shading showed higher values for height, basal diameter, and leaf area. Differences in stomata conductance and photosynthesis rate were not observed among the different shading levels. Plants cultivated under 70% of shading had higher contents of chlorophyll a, b, and total. During the initial phase with higher levels of radiation were fundamental for the development of T. subalbens seedlings.

  19. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae

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    Paulo Humberto M. Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae and of its aqueous (TFAqF, hydroalcoholic (TFHAF, and hexanic (TFHEXF partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall.

  20. Genetic diversity of four populations of Qualea grandiflora Mart. in fragments of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiqueira, Lia Maris Orth Ritter; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure and diversity of Qualea grandiflora Mart., the most abundant woody species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from four populations subjected to different types of anthropic pressure, distributed throughout the state of São Paulo in the regions of Assis, Brotas, Itirapina and Pedregulho. Results indicated a mean number of 12 alleles per locus, but only six effective alleles. Alleles private to particular populations and rare alleles were also detected. An excess of homozygotes and moderate levels of inbreeding were observed. No clones were identified. All populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.05). Spatial structure was observed in the distribution of specimens in distance classes ranging from 30 to 40 km and three genetic clusters were identified, with genotypes in the Pedregulho population differing from the others by up to 90 %. The influence of the Wahlund effect on the studied populations lies between 8.5 and 53.3 %. Estimates of effective population size were low (<10), and the minimum viable area for conservation in the short-, medium- and long-term was estimated to be between 4 and 184 ha. Gene flow was high enough to counter the effects of genetic drift. The genetic diversity and divergence between the studied populations indicated that the Pedregulho population should be considered an Evolutionary Significant Unit and a Management Unit.

  1. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

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    Dimitrios E. Bakaloudis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone martens (Martes foina are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA=0.128 indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources.

  2. Ozone profiles retrieved from SCIMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scatter measurements using MART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, will measure the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements will be used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. It employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest can be up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since these impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIMACHY product at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  3. ESTIMATING THE AGE OF DEMARCATION OF JUVENILE AND MATURE WOOD IN Luehea divaricata Mart.

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    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the age of demarcation of juvenile and mature wood of Luehea divaricata Mart., using anatomical characteristics. Three adult trees, in good trunk, with diameter at DBH larger than 30 cm, from Encosta Superior do Nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, were selected. Discs with thickness of 2 cm at 0.1 m of height from the base of the trunk were used. From each disc a radial ribbon 2 cm wide including the pith was removed. The initial wood of each growth ring was separated for maceration (method of Jeffrey. There were measured length and diameter of thirty fibers from each growth ring. Demarcation of the two types of wood was defined by the radial variation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and wall thickness of fibers, using simple linear regression. Results indicate that fiber length is the best characteristic, while fiber diameter, lumen width and wall thickness were considered inadequate for demarcation. The age of demarcation of juvenile and mature wood of Luehea divaricata was defined as 21 years-old, approximately.

  4. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

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    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress

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    Vargas-Ortiz Erandi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. These possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. Although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains limited, particularly regarding tissue-specific and biotic stress-related genes. Thus, a large scale transcriptome analysis was performed to generate stem- and (abiotic stress-responsive gene expression profiles in grain amaranth. Results A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs. The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing

  6. Interspecific Association of Dominant Species of Amaranthus retroflexus L.Community%反枝苋群落优势种的种间关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彩莉; 张峰; 庞春花; 王慧敏; 范晓

    2013-01-01

    根据野外95个样方的调查数据,运用2×2列联表的x2检验、Jaccard关联指数、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数对山西省中南部地区反枝苋群落的25个优势种,共300个种对的种间关联性和相关性进行分析.研究结果表明:1)群落总体呈负相关趋势,优势种的分布相对独立,群落结构较为松散,显著和极显著关联的种对较少;2)x2检验与关联度指数有机结合才能更为准确的反映种间关系;3)Spearman秩相关系数灵敏度高,分析结果较x2检验与Pearson相关系数更为合理准确;4)根据25个优势种对环境的适应方式和主导生态因素结合PCA排序,将它们划分为4个生态种组,各生态种组内的种对具有相同的资源利用方式和生态要求.%Based on the data of 95 plots obtained from investigation,by using x2-test for 2 × 2 contingency table,Pearson coefficient and Spearman rank coefficient,the interspecific association and correlation among 300 species-pairs of 25 dominant plant species of Amaranthus retroflexus L.community in Shanxi were analyzed.The results indicated that:1)The plant community was negative association,the structure of the community was scattered,few species pairs showed significant or highly significant association.2)Only combine x2-test with correlation index can reflect the interspecific relationship more accurately.3)Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more sensitive.Compared with x2-test and Pearson correlation coefficient,the result of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more reasonable.4)According to the adaptability to the environment and the relationships between plants and environment,25 species were divided into four ecological species groups,with the same resource utilization ways and ecological requirements of the species in each group.

  7. Effect of agro-industrial waste amendment on Cd uptake in Amaranthus caudatus grown under contaminated soil: an oxidative biomarker response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-02-01

    In the present study phytoavailability of Cd, growth yield, cellular Cd accumulation and oxidative stress responses were studied in leafy vegetable Amaranthus caudatus under soil amendments. The test plant was cultivated in Cd contaminated soil (6 µgCdg(-1) soil) amended with different doses: 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 percent of rice husk (RH), saw dust (SD), farmyard manure (FYM), farmyard in combination with nitrogen, and phosphorus and potassium (FYM+NPK). Phytoavailability of Cd in amended soil and cellular Cd accumulation in edible parts (shoot) of A. caudatus declined maximally with 5 percent dose of each amendment, and decrease in Cd content in tissues was 36, 45, 23 and 14 percent under FYM, FYM+NPK, RH and SD amendments, respectively, over the value recorded in plants grown in Cd contaminated non-amended soil (Cd(+)NA soil). The shoot yield in control plant cultivated in the absence of Cd without amendment (Cd(-)NA soil) was 18.1 ± 0.98 gfwplant(-1) and it was declined up to 50 percent (9.2 ± 0.80 gfwplant(-1)) when plants were grown in Cd(+)NA soil. Amendments with 5 percent doses of FYM+NPK and FYM enhanced the yield up to 26.5 ± 0.57 and 20.5 ± 1.00 gfwplant(-1), respectively, which may be correlated with better mineral nutrients and organic carbon content in amended soil. RH and SD amendments with similar doses improved in yield up to 16.9 ± 0.43 and 15.2 ± 0.45 gfwplant(-1), respectively, however, it was still less than that of control. Further, correlation analysis of growth yield, Cd concentration and oxidative stress under these conditions suggest that with the decrease in cellular Cd concentration following amendment the level of oxidative markers (oxidants: O2(-) and H2O2 and lipid peroxidation: malondialdehyde; MDA) declined as a result of significant enhancement in the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, dyhydroascorbe reductase and catalase). Thus, the present technique can efficiently

  8. Fisiologia pós-colheita de frutos da palmeira Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae Postharvest physiology of Mauritia vinifera Mart. (Arecaceae palm fruits

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    Paulo Santelli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterações pós-colheita no amadurecimento dos frutos de Mauritia vinifera (buriti, colhidos com coloração marrom clara, foram estudadas acompanhando-se: massa, volumes gasosos intercelulares, concentração de CO2 e O2 na atmosfera interna, firmeza e as evoluções de CO2 e etileno, tanto a 25 ºC quanto sob baixa temperatura (8 ºC. Os frutos apresentaram injúria de resfriamento quando armazenados a 8 ºC e não amadureceram ao serem retornados para 25 ºC. Sob umidade elevada, baixa transpiração, a conservação do buriti triplicou em comparação com os frutos armazenados em ambiente menos úmido (65 a 85%. A casca resistente destes frutos perde a firmeza e o arranjo compacto das escamas e torna-se mais frágil e mais permeável a gases durante o amadurecimento ou quando armazenados sob temperatura que causa injuria de resfriamento. Os frutos de buriti contém apenas cerca de 1% volume gasoso intercelular, o que é indicativo de susceptibilidade à injúria de impacto, mediante descolamento de escamas. No amadurecimento a polpa torna-se macia, conforme leitura de penetrômetro, diminuindo a resistência ao transporte dos frutos, que passam a ser facilmente amassados. Estes frutos apresentaram comportamento climatérico típico e o pico de evolução de CO2 ocorreu dois dias após o pico do etileno. As curvas de concentração interna de CO2 e de O2 no buriti foram diferentes de outros frutos previamente estudados pelo fato de sofrerem uma grande redução da resistência difusiva da casca, causada pela formação das aberturas entre as escamas durante o amadurecimento.We studied postharvest ripening changes in Mauritia vinifera Mart. fruits, known as "buriti", harvested at a mature light-brown color stage, from palms on the Brazilian Central Plateau, as follows: weight loss, internal gaseous volume, internal CO2 and O2 concentration, firmness and CO2 and ethylene evolution, at room temperature (25ºC and at low temperature (8 ºC. M

  9. Atividade alelopática de extratos de diferentes partes de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathic activity of different parts of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

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    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de cascas e de folhas juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambos foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. No primeiro foram realizadas quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos (EF - extrato de folhas a 100 ºC, EF - extrato de folhas a 25 ºC, EC - extrato de cascas a 100 ºC, EC - extrato de cascas a 25 ºC, e água destilada. No segundo foram realizados cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto e quatro repetições com 20 sementes de alface. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a agitação das cascas e das folhas com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50 g de material para 500 ml de água. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. Os extratos brutos e diluídos de Z. joazeiro não afetaram a germinação, mas nas maiores concentrações causaram elevada porcentagem de plântulas anormais e o extrato de folhas e de cascas extraído a 100 ºC reduziram o crescimento da raiz e parte aérea. Extratos aquosos de cascas e de folhas de Z. juazeiro apresentam efeito fitotóxico na germinação de sementes de L. sativa.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts from Ziziphus joazeiro bark and leaves on the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Two experiments were conducted, which both used a randomized design. The first four replicates were the following treatments (EF-extract of leaves at 100ºC, EF-extract of leaves at 25ºC, EC-extract of bark at 100ºC, EC-extract of bark at 25ºC, and distilled water. The next five treatments used 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations of the crude extract and four replicates of 20 seeds. The crude extract was obtained after the bark and leaves were blended with water (50 g of material for 500 ml of water. The results showed that the effect of the extract

  10. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) in animal models Estudo farmacológico do extrato etanólico de Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) em modelos animais

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    Vanda Lucia dos Santos; Viviam Bruna Machado Costa; Maria de Fátima Agra; Bagnólia Araújo da Silva; Leônia Maria Batista

    2007-01-01

    The crude ethanol extract (EEOH) of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae) a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p.) of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01) in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exh...

  11. Perfil fitoquímico e ensaio microbiológico dos extratos da entrecasca de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae) Phytochemistry and microbiological assay of the bark extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Estevam; Cavalcanti,Amaro M.; Cambui,Érica Verena F.; Vítor Araújo Neto; Paulo T. G. Leopoldo; Roberta P. M. Fernandes; Araujo,Brancilene S.; Zenaldo Porfírio; Antonio Euzébio G. Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae), conhecida por "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" e "Pau-de-colher", é uma arvore de pequeno porte. A entrecasca do caule é empregada popularmente no Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores em geral, infecções e inflamações. O presente trabalho avaliou tanto o perfil fitoquímico de M. rigida por meio de um roteiro analítico, quanto à atividade antibiótica dos extratos pelo método de Kirby-Bauer modificado. Os resultados demonstrar...

  12. Effects of Moisture and Additives on Amaranthus retroflexus Silage%晾晒与添加剂对反枝苋青贮饲料品质的影响

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    梁超; 吴兆海; 许庆方; 玉柱; 白春生; 石永红; 刘建宁; 乔羽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of moisture and formic acid or sucrose on Amaranthus retroflexus silage were studied. Fresh or wilted A. Retro flexus at flowering stages were packed and ensilaged for 360 d with sucrose (2%) or formic acid (6 mL ? Kg"1). Results showed that the pH and lactic acid content of wilted A. Retro flexus silage were similar to that of fresh A. Retro flexus silage, whereas acetic acid content was increased (P<0. 01) and ammonia nitrogen content was reduced (P<0. 05). Nitrate content was reduced significantly by ensiling. The quality of Amaranthus retro flexus silage was not improved significantly compared to control. The silage fermentation quality was improved by formic acid or sucrose which reduced the pH and ammonia nitrogen content significantly (PAmaranthus retro flexus)青贮饲料品质的影响,以开花期的反枝苋为原料,在鲜贮和晾晒2种条件下分别设置甲酸(6 mL· kg-1)和蔗糖(2%)处理,以不使用任何添加剂为对照,袋装青贮360 d.结果表明:晾晒处理与鲜贮的反枝苋青贮饲料pH值和乳酸含量均无显著差异,而乙酸含量极显著增加(P<0.01),氨态氮含量显著降低(P<0.05),通过青贮硝酸盐含量显著降低,青贮饲料品质无显著差异.添加甲酸和蔗糖能够改善反枝苋青贮饲料的发酵品质,极显著降低反枝苋青贮饲料的pH值和氨态氮含量并提高乳酸生成量(P<0.01).

  13. Substâncias ergásticas foliares de espécies amazônicas de Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae: caracterização histoquímica e ultra-estrutural Leaf ergastic substances of Amazonian species of Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae: histochemical and ultrastructural characterization

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    Rolf Junior Ferreira Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo diagnosticar e caracterizar as substâncias ergásticas foliares de Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. e O. minor Mart. através de microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura, análises histoquímicas e microanálises físicas. Secções transversais e longitudinais, assim como maceração foram realizadas em material botânico fixado. As análises histoquímicas foram empregadas em material botânico in natura, seguindo-se protocolos específicos para mucilagem, amido e sílica. Microanálises físicas foram feitas com Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS detector. Nas espécies estudadas de Oenocarpus Mart., as substâncias ergásticas foliares correspondem a mucilagem amorfa; grãos de amido poliédricos do tipo simples e sílica opalina sob a forma de corpos elípticos e esféricos-globosos de superfície espiculada, ambos com elevado teor de dióxido de silício. As observações microscópicas, os testes histoquímicos e as microanálises físicas permitiram diagnosticar, caracterizar e elucidar a estrutura e ultra-estrutura das substâncias ergásticas ocorrentes nas folhas dos táxons analisados de Oenocarpus Mart.The purpose of this study was to diagnose and characterize the leaf ergastic substance of Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. and O. minor Mart. by light and scanning electron microscopy, histochemical analyses and physical microanalyses. Transverse and longitudinal sections as well as maceration were made in fixed botanical material. The histochemical analyses were made in non-fixed botanical material, using specific tests for mucilage, starch and silica. An Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS detector was used for the physical microanalyses. In the Oenocarpus Mart. species studied, the leaf ergastic substances corresponded to amorphous mucilage, simple-type polyhedrical starch grain and opaline silica in the shape of elliptical

  14. Catolé palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart fruits: fatty and amino acids composition

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    Moreira, Rosalynd V. R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Catolé Palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart Fruits were analysed for their chemical composition. The pulp and kernel portions contained 0.7 and 40.0% lipids. Freshly extracted kernel oil showed a small concentration (0.4 meq/kg of peroxides but did not contain free fatty acids. The iodine and saponification values were 27.4 and 226, respectively. A large qualitative as well as quantitative difference in the fatty acid composition between the catolé pulp and kernel oil was observed. Fifteen and 19 fatty acids were identified in the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. These oils contained 48.9 and 73.2 % saturated fatty acids. The principal saturated fatty acids of the pulp oil was palmitic (C16 acid, while that of kernel oil was lauric (C12 acid. Oleic acid was the main monounsaturated fatty acid in both oils. In pulp oil, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 were present at 23.5 and 11,3% concentrations, while kernel oil contained only linoleic acid (3.59%. In relation to amino acid composition of proteins, pulp proteins presented better amino acid profile than kernel proteins. In pulp proteins, the essential amino acids were present at concentrations higher than recommended by FAO except for methionine and lysine, while kernel proteins were deficient in all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine.Los frutos de la Palmera catolé (Syagrus oleracea Mart fueron analizados para determinar su composición química. Las fracciones de la pulpa y almendra contenían 0,7 y 40.0 % de lípidos. El aceite de almendra fresca mostró una pequeña concentración de peróxidos pero no presentó ácidos grasos libres. El índice de iodo y de saponificación fueron 27,4 y 226, respectivamente. Fue observada una gran diferencia cualitativa como también cuantitativa en la composición de ácidos grasos entre el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra. 15 y 19 ácidos grasos fueron identificados en el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra

  15. El origen glaciar de la aureola del volcán Arsia Mons, Marte

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    Anguita Virella, F.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge lobate deposits called aureoles are covering the base of the giant Martian volcanic constructs of Tharsis dome. The origin of these structures has been a matter of debate between two competing hypotheses: volcanic landslides or mountain glaciers. Here we consider the most important of the aureoles, near Arsia Mons, concluding that the glacier model explains best the deposit features, such as the layering, the ridges (interpreted as glaciotectonic ones, and the lobated terrain. We then discuss the fit of these proposed glacier deposits in the present paleoclimatic Martian models. The aureoles could be key elements in the confirmation of the «Baker cycle» model of repeated episodes of temperate, humid, sea-dominated climates coincident in time with the outflow channels activity.Al pie de los grandes volcanes marcianos del domo de Tharsis aparecen unas formas lobuladas que han recibido el nombre de aureolas. El origen de estas estructuras ha sido objeto de un largo debate entre dos hipótesis principales que las interpretan como deslizamientos de ladera o como glaciares de montaña. En este trabajo se estudia la mejor desarrollada de estas aureolas, la de Arsia Mons, llegándose a la conclusión de que la hipótesis glaciar explica mejor las características del depósito, y en concreto la existencia de estratificación, las crestas (que se interpretan como glaciotectónicas y los terrenos lobulados. Por último se discute la conexión de estos depósitos con los modelos paleoclimáticos actuales sobre Marte, lo que lleva a la conclusión de que las aureolas deben ser depósitos glaciares recientes relacionados con repetidos episodios de clima cálido (ciclos de Baker, provocados por la acción de los canales de desbordamiento.

  16. De mitos y realidades (respuesta a Luciano Martínez

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    José Luis Coraggio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye la respuesta del autor al comentario crítico realizado, en esta misma sección, por Luciano Martínez, en la pasada edición. El autor sostiene que la economía social y solidaria como un ámbito en construcción, que alberga a diversas vertientes que intentan avanzar hacia otra economía. Este carácter si bien puede albergar dudas, no debe transformase en un fatalismo inmovilizador, que permite la actualización constante del libre mercado como institución hegemónica. Antes que una utopía a denunciar desde una visión “realista”, se trata de construir una economía que combine mecanismos de mercado regulados socio-políticamente y relaciones de reciprocidad y redistribución. El texto explora, en pos de la argumentación, algunos de los elementos que conforman la economía social y solidaria.This article represents the author's response to critical commentary made in this section in the last edition by Luciano Martinez. The author maintains that the social and solidarity economy is a sphere under construction, in which several strands can be found. All of these approaches aim to move towards a different type of economy. This character as a developing realm can prompt doubts; this, however, should not lead to a paralyzing fatalism which allows the constant updating of the free market as a hegemonic institution. Far from a utopia to be denounced from a “realistic” viewpoint of economy, its concerns the construction of an economy that combines socio-politically regulated market mechanisms as well as relations of reciprocity and redistribution. The text also explores some of the elements that make up the solidarity and social economy.

  17. Perspectivas de manejo de capororoca (Myrsine umbellata Mart. utilizando análise retrospectiva

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    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise retrospectiva é um instrumento para avaliação rápida do potencial de crescimento utilizando-se a periodicidade do incremento em diâmetro, isto é, o crescimento dos anéis anuais. Utilizando-se esta técnica, foi avaliado o desenvolvimento e o crescimento da capororoca (Myrsine umbellata Mart., espécie nativa da Florestal Ombrofila Mista. O presente estudo foi realizado no Município de General Carneiro - PR, em área pertencente às Indústrias Pedro N. Pizzatto. Foi feita a análise de tronco e a medição dos anéis anuais em fatias retiradas nas alturas relativas a 10%, 50% e 75% da altura do ponto de inversão morfológico, bem como também na altura do DAP em quatro árvores, nas quais foram analisados o incremento em diâmetro e altura. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se considerar que as árvores analisadas mostraram um crescimento em diâmetro forte no estado inicial, mas seguindo uma tendência de crescimento lento e contínuo a médio prazo, até a idade de 5 anos. Com relação à altura comercial (ponto de inversão morfológico com 2 a 4 metros, nas árvores analisadas são alcançadas dentro dos primeiros dois anos de vida.

  18. The development of a systemic school-based intervention: Marte Meo and coordination meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axberg, Ulf; Hansson, Kjell; Broberg, Anders G; Wirtberg, Ingegerd

    2006-09-01

    Antisocial behavior is often persistent, and in addition to causing suffering to children and their families, it also poses considerable costs for society. Children who display externalizing behavior in their early years run a high risk of having severe problems later in life. There is a need for treatment methods that may be used in various settings because these children constitute a group that is hard to reach with conventional treatment methods. In addition, the dropout rate from ordinary treatment is often high. In the present study, a systemic school-based model for early detection and intervention among 4-12-year-old children who displayed externalizing behavior problems was developed and examined in a nonrandomized study in the county of Skaraborg in Sweden. The intervention was collaborative and included a combination of the Marte Meo model and coordination meetings based on systemic theory and practice. Treatment effects in the group who had received the intervention were compared with a group who had received treatment as usual in their ordinary school setting. Assessments were carried out before, and 2 years after, the intervention. For the intervention group (N = 33), there was a significant decrease in the children's reported symptoms in school and in the home. No decrease in externalizing behavior was found in the comparison group (N = 16). There were no dropouts in the intervention group after the intervention had begun. The results are promising; the study demonstrates that it is possible to work effectively with many children who display externalizing behavior problems in a nonclinical setting.

  19. Gamma radiation influence in physical and chemical characteristics of Bacaba Oil (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Hugo Maia; Santos, Camila Oliveira dos; Cruz, Luis Paulo Adami, E-mail: hmaiaf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de, E-mail: adriana.souza@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia

    2015-07-01

    The bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a fruit originating from the Amazon forest, and its oil has similarity to the fatty acid composition of olive oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of bacaba oil submitted to gamma radiation in the of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The extracted oil was irradiated at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, and then the physical and chemical analysis were carried out: acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, refractive index, specific gravity, saponification value, coefficient specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm and color. Was possible to evidence that radiation promoted decrease in acidity of the oil 26.67%, 27.27% and 9.09%, respectively, at the doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, in relation to oil which has not gone through the process (standard). The values of specific gravity, refractive index and saponification value, have not changed, but the result of peroxides were significantly affected, increasing by 51.99%, 100.44% and 89.40% values relative to the standard. It was also observed a significant increase in K232 and K270 values, suggesting increased oxidation products, conjugated dienes and trienes. The oil color has been affected by the doses, generating a product with a more yellowish color and increased brightness. That way, from the analysis, it concluded that the use of gamma radiation at the doses used were not sufficient to make it, in the short term, unsafe for consumption, but changed substantially oil color. (author)

  20. ESTABLISHMENT AND IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF Luehea divaricata MART. et ZUCC.

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    Andressa Vasconcelos Flôres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata Mart. et  Zucc. (acoita-cavalo of the Malvaceae family, is a forest-tree species that has suffered great anthropic disturbance during the last decades. This fact has contributed to the reduction of natural populations and, consequently, of its genetic variability. This justifies studies related to the propagation of the species. As a means of vegetative propagation, micropropagation is an alternative for the regeneration of plants with difficult natural regeneration and a strategy for species conservation. The objectives of this study were to determine the most efficient type of explant and growth medium for in vitro establishment and verify the influence of different concentrations of BAP cytokinin in the multiplication of nodal segments of Luehea divaricata. The seeds used were collected and stored by the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária – FEPAGRO/Florestas (Agriculture and Cattle Research State Foundation – FEPAGRO/Forests, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, and the seedlings obtained in vitro were used as sources of the explants. In the selection of the explants and growth medium, the tips of stems and nodal segments grown in the MS and WMP nutritive media were tested. Different concentrations of BAP (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg L-1 were evaluated in the in vitro multiplication of the species. In the in vitro establishment of Luehea divaricata, both tips of stems and nodal segments can be used and also both growth media. To maximize the growth of the species, the WPM growth medium should be used due to its reduced cost. In the in vitro multiplication of the species, cytokinin BAP should not be added because, besides reducing the costs in the in vitro cultivation of Luehea divaricata, the best response for the majority of the characteristics evaluated was observed in the absence of this regulator,.

  1. Las Obras de Albeyteria de Martín Arredondo

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    Teixidó Gómez, Francisco

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the book Obras de Albeyteria by Martin Arredondo, probably the most important «veterinarian» in Spain in the 17th century and a manificent example of Galen’s medical applied to animals. The book is unbalanced in many aspects: classic and modern authors are quoted, philosophers, historians, physicians, veterinaians, there are passages of great scientific, philosophical, erudite interest which are explained in an easy or troublesome way, accurately or with out of place digressions, with or without scientific precision. In his work, biology and equine pathology, the history of veterinary and a great amount of cultural aspects of that time they are mixed with fantasies, mythology, superstitions, etc.

    En este trabajo analizamos las Obras de Albeyteria de Martín Arredondo, probablemente el albéitar más importante del siglo XVII español y auténtico exponente del galenismo aplicado a la medicina animal. El texto estudiado es desigual en muchos aspectos, se dan cita autores clásicos y modernos ya sean filósofos, historiadores, médicos, albéitares, y hay pasajes de gran interés científico, filosófico, de erudición, etc., explicados de manera sencilla o engorrosa, con precisión o con digresiones que no hacen al caso, con rigurosidad científica o sin ella. En su obra, la biología y patología equinas, la historia de la albeitería y un gran número de facetas de la cultura de la época se entremezclan con fantasías, mitología, supersticiones, etc.

  2. Development of Clinical Data Mart of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor for Varied Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunah; Jeong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tong Min; Yang, So Jung; Baik, Sun Jung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Jae Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing use of electronic medical record (EMR) systems for documenting clinical medical data has led to EMR data being increasingly accessed for clinical trials. In this study, a database of patients who were prescribed statins for the first time was developed using EMR data. A clinical data mart (CDM) was developed for cohort study researchers. Methods Seoul St. Mary's Hospital implemented a clinical data warehouse (CDW) of data for ~2.8 million patients, 47 million prescription events, and laboratory results for 150 million cases. We developed a research database from a subset of the data on the basis of a study protocol. Data for patients who were prescribed a statin for the first time (between the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015), including personal data, laboratory data, diagnoses, and medications, were extracted. Results We extracted initial clinical data of statin from a CDW that was established to support clinical studies; the data was refined through a data quality management process. Data for 21,368 patients who were prescribed statins for the first time were extracted. We extracted data every 3 months for a period of 1 year. A total of 17 different statins were extracted. It was found that statins were first prescribed by the endocrinology department in most cases (69%, 14,865/21,368). Conclusion Study researchers can use our CDM for statins. Our EMR data for statins is useful for investigating the effectiveness of treatments and exploring new information on statins. Using EMR is advantageous for compiling an adequate study cohort in a short period. PMID:28256114

  3. Ozone profiles retrieval from SCIAMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scattered spectra using MART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZiJun; Chen, ShengBo; Jin, LiHua; Yang, ChunYan

    2011-02-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, measures the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries: nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements are used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIAMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. The study employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. This technique is outstanding in that more than one measurement vector element can be used to retrieve the ozone density at any altitude. Furthermore, it is straightforward to understand, easy to implement and likely to produce stable results. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, and the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since their impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIAMACHY products at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  4. Martí, su presencia en la Universidad Médica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandry Martínez Guevara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hace más de una década el Ministerio de Educación Superior puso como meta para la Universidad Cubana, la formación de profesionales más integrales, humanistas y capaces de cumplir conscientemente su función social. A primera vista el desafío parecía solucionable desde nuestras aulas en algunos años, el tesón y la calidad de nuestros profesores se convertía entonces en el arma protagónica de aquella lucha. La verdad fue que cada aula se convirtió en un campo de batalla. Las Universidades de Ciencias Médicas tuvieron el reto particular de que la formación de sus educandos debía responder no solo a las necesidades de nuestra sociedad, sino también a las sociedades latinoamericanas, africanas y luego, a los de cualquier parte del mundo donde fueran necesarios sus empeños. Ese médico que hoy viste celosamente su bata, es el resultado de miles de horas hombre entre docentes y personal asistencial de la salud para formar a un profesional capaz y responsable, pero sobre todo embajador de lo mejor de nuestras costumbres y nuestra identidad. No es solo un profesional bien preparado en su especialidad. Es digno representante de lo que Martí llamó “hombres de luz”, capaces de poner esperanza y seguridad allí donde otros sólo habían dejado lágrimas. Durante los últimos cinco años, nuestra salud pública enfrenta la peor fuga de cerebros de las últimas cuatro décadas; lo que pudiera representar una crisis en cualquier sociedad occidental que pondría en jaque la estabilidad sistémica, en nuestro país se enfrenta con inteligencia. No dejan de ser cubanos aquellos que por mejores condiciones de vida abandonan a los suyos, o los que por perseguir el sueño estrellado terminan puliendo pisos o de jardineros en las grandes capitales del mundo. La solución está en nuestras aulas, en poner en manos de los estudiantes las herramientas que le permitan ponerse del lado de los que menos tienen y aprendan a amar su profesión por

  5. Notas sobre «literatura asnal». Un curioso libro de Primo Feliciano Martínez (1)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    En el último tercio del siglo XVIII vio la luz una curiosa obra burlesca, que se presentaba bajo el título de Memorias de la insigne Academia Asnal, por el Doctor de Ballesteros, tomo primero, en BiTonto, en la imprenta de Blas Antón, el año 3192 de la era asnal. Y se hallará en Bayona de Francia'. El seudónimo Doctor de Ballesteros encubre al escritor Primo Feliciano Martínez, creador de esta obra irónica relacionada con otras composiciones de la época, como la de 'Los eruditos a la violeta'...

  6. The Studies on Diurnal Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Terzioğlu Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zobar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine lepidopteran species on Terzioğlu Campus during March 2005–April 2007. We surveyed Rhopalocera butterflies in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Terzioğlu Campus, in Çanakkale, Turkey. In this study, total of 44 species belonging to to Papilionidae (4, Nymphalidae (23, Pieridae (8, Lycaenidae (4 and Hesperiidae (5, were identified. The most abundant species throughout the campus are Pieris brassicae, P. rapae, P. napi, Colias crocea, Iphiclides podalirius, and Melanargia larissa.

  7. Perfil fitoquímico e ensaio microbiológico dos extratos da entrecasca de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Estevam; Cavalcanti,Amaro M.; Cambui,Érica Verena F.; Araújo Neto,Vítor; Paulo T. G. Leopoldo; Roberta P. M. Fernandes; Araujo,Brancilene S.; Porfírio,Zenaldo; Antonio Euzébio G. Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae), conhecida por "Bom-homem", "Bom-nome", "Cabelo-de-negro", "Casca-grossa" e "Pau-de-colher", é uma arvore de pequeno porte. A entrecasca do caule é empregada popularmente no Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores em geral, infecções e inflamações. O presente trabalho avaliou tanto o perfil fitoquímico de M. rigida por meio de um roteiro analítico, quanto à atividade antibiótica dos extratos pelo método de Kirby-Bauer modificado. Os resultados demonstrar...

  8. Morfoanatomia de folhas de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae); uma espécie utilizada como medicinal no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Soares da Rocha, Cristiano; Magalhaes de Mendoça Pimentel, Rejane; Perrelli Randau, Karina; Xavier,Haroudo Satiro

    2004-01-01

    A descrição morfoanatômica das folhas de Maytenus rigida Mart. é de extrema importância para uma eficiente aplicabilidade desta planta à Farmacognosia. Os estudos da anatomia da folha de M. rigida foram realizadas em cortes paradérmicos e transversais de material fresco à mão livre, corados com safranina e azul de astra. As análises foram feitas em imagens digitais sob microscópio ótico pré-calibrado. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo apontam caracteres anatômicos de valor diagnó...

  9. Processo grupal e a questão do poder em Martín-Baró

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Sueli Terezinha Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da concepção de processo grupal e poder social enfocada por Martín-Baró.¹ O autor retoma a concepção de grupo presente no trabalho de Sílvia Lane, quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. Na perspectiva da psicologia social, segundo o autor, é muito mais relevante a análise do papel do poder na vida cotidiana, no dia-a-dia das pessoas, do que se centrar nos acontecimento...

  10. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  11. El destino echado al viento. Los indígenas mexicanos en la obra de José Martí (1875)

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    El artículo explora la respuesta de una pregunta: ¿Fue Martí indigenista? El indigenismo de Martí quería redimir a la cultura indígena, o mejor dicho, quería que se redimiera por sí misma ya que era una cultura como las demás: que tenía una capacidad de autorredención a través de la inteligencia, del esfuerzo y del trabajo.

  12. Estudo físico-químico, químico e biológico de extrato das cascas de Stryphnodendron polyphyllum Mart. (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flavan-3-ols and one proanthocyanidins have been isolated from the stem bark of Stryphnodendron polyphyllum Mart., which is traditionally used in Brazil against various diseases. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data including 1-D (¹H, 13C and 2-D NMR (¹H/¹H COSY and MS. The antibacterial activities of an acetone:water and semipurified extracts from the stem bark of Stryphnodendron polyphyllum Mart. were evaluated. Both the crude and semipurified extracts showed activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Quality control was determined using several pharmacopoeial assay.

  13. Mateo López y la planta de la iglesia monástica de San Martín Pinario de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente López, Simón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An in depth study of the plan of the church of San Martín Pinario in Santiago de Compostela, attributed to the Portuguese architect Mateo López, according to the Catholic Reformation doctrines concerning the Eucharist.Se profundiza en la lectura de la planta de la iglesia monástica San Martín Pinario de Santiago, atribuida al arquitecto portugués Mateo López, de acuerdo con las consignas de la Reforma Católica en torno a la Eucaristía.

  14. Transcriptome analysis by Illumina high-throughout paired-end sequencing reveals the complexity of differential gene expression during in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Amaranthus tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcai Liu

    Full Text Available Amaranthus tricolor L. is a C4 plant, which is consumed as a major leafy vegetable in some tropical countries. Under conditions of high temperature and short daylight, Am. tricolor readily bolts and blooms, degrading leaf quality. A preliminary in vitro flowering study demonstrated that the flowering control pathway in Am. tricolor may differ from that of Arabidopsis. Nevertheless, no transcriptome analysis of the flowering process in Amaranthus has been conducted. To study Am. tricolor floral regulatory mechanisms, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome analysis--based on Illumina HiSeq sequencing of cDNA libraries generated from Am. tricolor at young seedling (YSS, adult seedling (ASS, flower bud (FBS, and flowering (FS stages. A total of 99,312 unigenes were obtained. Using BLASTX, 43,088 unigenes (43.39% were found to have significant similarity with accessions in Nr, Nt, and Swiss-Prot databases. Of these unigenes, 11,291 were mapped to 266 KEGG pathways. Further analysis of the four digital transcriptomes revealed that 735, 17,184, 274, and 206 unigenes were specifically expressed during YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS, respectively, with 59,517 unigenes expressed throughout the four stages. These unigenes were involved in many metabolic pathways related to in vitro flowering. Among these pathways, 259 unigenes were associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, indicating its importance for in vitro flowering in Am. tricolor. Other pathways, such as circadian rhythm and cell cycle, also had important roles. Finally, 26 unigenes were validated by qRT-PCR in samples from Am. tricolor at YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS; their differential expressions at the various stages indicate their possible roles in Am. tricolor growth and development, but the results were somewhat similar to Arabidopsis. Because unigenes involved in many metabolic pathways or of unknown function were revealed to regulate in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Am. tricolor, the

  15. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  16. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  17. In Vitro Pollen Germination of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms: An Insight into its Preferred Mode of Clonal Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath BHOWMIK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms is an aquatic invasive weed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant rarely produces any fruit under natural condition In order to understand the causes of failure of seed set in this plant various aspect of pollen biology were studied. Pollen fertility and pollen viability was assessed using Muntzing� s mixture and in acetic orcein and TTZ, while pollen germination was assessed with different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with boric acid and Ca and Mg salts. The aim of present study was to find out the cause of sexual incompatibility of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. In spite of high pollen fertility, pollen viability and pollen germination the species show hardly any fruit set under natural condition. The abnormal pollen germination like curling of pollen tubes, shrinkage of pollen tube tips and bending of pollen tube might be reasons of sexual incompatibility of this species. It is observed that the taxa required comparatively low sucrose concentration (5% for their optimal in vitro pollen germination (54.08%. Boric acid to certain extent also influences the in vitro pollen germination (56.2%. In the present investigation the nature of substrate in association with the effect of Boric acid, CaCO3, MgSO4 on the in vitro pollen germination of Eichhornia crassipes is also worked out. However the tested salts show no significant effect on pollen germination in the present study.

  18. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M. (Notre)

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  19. 硫酸铜对苋菜生长及食用安全性的影响%Growth and safety of Amaranthus mangostanus in response to bluestone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚莉; 杜建梅; 杨颜颜; 孙林华; 葛峰; 陆长梅

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of copper agents on the yield and quality of vegetables, Amaranthus mangostanus was selected as materials to analyze the changes of seed germination, seedling growth, and quality with bluestone ( CuSO4 ) treatment. 0. 05-1. 50 mmol/L CuSO4 had no significant effect on the seed germination rate, but inhibited the radicle and hypocotyl elongations of A. mangostanus germinating seeds, and the seed vigor index dropped sharply. Seedlings under 1. 00-15. 00 mmol/L CuSO4 treatment showed no obvious toxic symptoms, but their heights, leaf areas, biomass, root ac-tivities, photosynthetic pigment contents, maximal fluorescence, maximal fluorescence efficiencies and PSⅡ potential ac-tivities decreased with the increase of CuSO4 concentration, and copper contents in different organs and malondialdehyde contents, electrical conductivities, O2·- contents, H2 O2 contents, nitrate contents and nitrate reductase activities in leaves increased with the increase of CuSO4 concentration.%为了研究铜制剂是否会对蔬菜产量和品质产生影响,本研究以苋菜为材料,分析硫酸铜处理下苋菜种子萌发及幼苗生长和品质的变化。结果显示,硫酸铜的大量使用导致基质铜积累大幅提高。0.05~1.50 mmol/L硫酸铜处理对苋菜种子发芽率无显著影响,但其胚根和下胚轴的伸长受到了抑制,种子活力指数急剧下降。1.00~15.00 mmol/L硫酸铜处理下,苋菜幼苗没有表现出明显的毒性症状,但幼苗株高、叶面积、生物量、根系活力、光合色素含量、最大荧光、最大光化学效率和PSⅡ潜在活性均随着处理浓度的增加而降低;幼苗各器官铜含量及叶片丙二醛含量、电导率、O2·-含量、H2 O2含量、硝态氮含量和硝酸还原酶活性则是随着硫酸铜处理浓度的升高而升高。

  20. Estudo etnofarmacológico e etnobotânico de Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel (janaguba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel, janaguba, produz um látex em seu caule que é usado para o tratamento de alguns tipos de câncer, vermes intestinais, febre, menstruações irregulares, infertilidade feminina e úlceras gástricas. Estudos fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de acetato de lupeol e proteínas; e estudos farmacológicos, os efeitos antiúlcera, antitumoral, imunomodulador, analgésico e anti-inflamatório. O presente trabalho objetivou realizar levantamento etnobotânico e etnofarmacológico sobre H. drasticus como contribuição ao conhecimento científico da referida espécie. Foi elaborado um questionário, que foi aplicado em entrevista a 21 raizeiros nos mercados das cidades de Crato, Fortaleza e Pacajus do estado do Ceará (CE. Observou-se que 38,1% dos raizeiros têm mais de 10 anos de serviço e 47,6%, estão na faixa etária de 40 a 59 anos, o que representa um fator positivo quanto à experiência com plantas medicinais. Aproximadamente 85,7% dos raizeiros relataram o uso do látex da H. drasticus para tratamento de úlcera; 66,7% para inflamação; 66,7% para câncer. Verificou-se que as principais indicações terapêuticas relatadas pelos raizeiros sobre esta espécie estão de acordo com as informações científicas. Os levantamentos etnobotânicos e etnofarmacológicos exercem um papel primordial no resgate do conhecimento tradicional, nos meios rurais e urbanos, tanto por seu valor histórico-cultural, como também pela necessidade de confirmação das indicações de uso.

  1. Using remote sensing to monitor herbicide injury and biomass of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Wilfredo

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the ecological interactions and processes within a water body. However, the presence of the invasive exotic aquatic plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms], negatively affects those interactions as well as interfering with water use for recreation and navigation. An implemented management plan for waterhyacinth control relies on the use of herbicides. Efficacy is commonly assessed using visual injury and control ratings as well as estimating biomass. The problem is that those approaches are labor intensive only assessing single points throughout the entire water body. Therefore, technology like remote sensing, which is the focus of this research, is recommended as an additional tool to assess implemented management plans. Studies were conducted in a mesocosm research facility to evaluate the relationship between simulated spectral bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 Landsat 5 TM and waterhyacinth treated with the herbicides imazapyr and glyphosate. Results indicate that injury is better detected and predicted with band 4 and that relationship is negative when either herbicide was used. However, prediction is better when plants have developed sufficient injury to influence the spectral response of band 4. In the second study, the biomass of waterhyacinth was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using simulated data from Landsat 5 TM. This study was conducted over natural populations of waterhyacinth in Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen, MS over two growing seasons. Results indicate that the use of NDVI alone is a weak predictor of biomass; however, its combination with morphometric parameters like leaf area index enhanced predictive capabilities. In order to assess field herbicide treatments for waterhyacinth control and its consequent impact on native aquatic vegetation, lake-wide surveys were performed in Lake Columbus, MS using a point-intercept method. The herbicide assessed was 2

  2. Kas euro toob meile pensioni 1700 eurot nagu Kreekas? / Kärt Anvelt ; kommenteerinud Hanno Pevkur, Mart Siilivask, Ingvar Bärenklau ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Sotsiaalminister Hanno Pevkur, Swedbanki pressiesindaja Mart Siilivask, rahandusministeeriumi eurospetsialist Ingvar Bärenklau, Tartu Ülikooli pressiesindaja Mehis Tuisk, Eesti Panga juhtivspetsialist Viljar Rääsk, Politsei- ja piirivalveameti pressiesindaja Harrys Puusepp ning Kaupmeeste Liidu tegevdirektor Marika Merilai kommenteerivad seoses euro tulekuga tekkinud küsimusi

  3. La modernización de Nuestra América en La Edad de Oro de José Martí

    OpenAIRE

    Almenas, Egberto

    2011-01-01

    El texto presenta un análisis de la obra de José Martí titulada: “La edad de oro”. En él, sobresale el manejo técnico del discurso, que retiene sin contradecirse el ―barroquismo‖ también ―necesario‖ que comúnmente se le atribuye a la obra martiana.

  4. Mart Susi müüb Concordia ülikooli hüvanguks Kolu mõisa / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2003-01-01

    Concordia ülikooli rektor Mart Susi pani müüki endale kuuluva Kolu mõisa, et sellest saadava rahaga katta ülikooli vajadusi. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool on Concordia ostmisest huvitatud. Concordia ülikooli tudengid on teinud üleskutse ühinemiseks, et kooli tuleviku suhtes kaasa rääkida

  5. Small parts: Crisóstomo Martínez (1638-1694), bone histology, and the visual making of body wholeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Nuria

    2009-09-01

    The Valencian engraver Crisóstomo Martínez (ca. 1638-1694) arrived in Paris in July 1687, commissioned to create an anatomical atlas. Impressed by Govard Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis (1685), Martínez decided to make a comparable work on osteology. His unpublished atlas of anatomy was exceptional in its choice of topic, its quality, and its overall visual approach. Martínez's work revolves around the dissolving effects of microscopic study on the traditional understanding of the connections between parts and whole. Underlying his investigation into the most effective composition of an anatomical atlas was the idea of the self-organizing and complex nature of the body as itself a composition, an idea rooted in the way observation and judgment, the seen and the unseen, and notions about collections and communities were connected in the vanitas culture. This essay explores the links between Martínez's work and the cultures of a time in which observation and interpretation of the processes of death, decay, and fragmentation played a primary role in defining a common human nature around which notions of destiny could be articulated.

  6. Inventario de bienes de Juan Martínez, escribano público de Jerez de la Frontera en la primera mitad del siglo XV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Belén Piqueras García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is centered in the analysis of the Inventory of valuable objects of Juan Martínez, Jerez de la Frontera notary public during the first half of 15th century; Persecuting to bring to light this document from notarial type, until now unpublished, that approached its content and diplomatic analysis.

  7. Eesti majanduskriisi dilemma: stimuleerida või lasta kõigil kannatada? / Mikk Salu ; kommenteerinud Ülo Kaasik ja Mart Laar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, mida teevad praegu maailma riikide keskpangad ja valitsused, et kriisist välja tulla, ning avaldab arvamust, et eelarvepoliitika on enam-vähem ainus vahend, mida Eesti valitsus saab kasutada. Küsimusest, kas Eesti peaks laenama või kasutama reserve. Kommenteerivad Ülo Kaasik ja Mart Laar

  8. Literatura y esquizofrenia: en torno a Las Rubáiyátas de Horacio Martín de Félix Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Contreras, Francisco Javier

    2000-01-01

    Artículo que analiza las conexiones entre la creatividad y la esquizofrenia en el marco de la poesía autobiográfica y, más concretamente, sobre Las Rubáyatas de Horacio Martín, de Félix Grande.

  9. Gratulatoria del Rector José Ramón Alonso Peña. Solemne investidura como Doctor "Honoris Causa" de Basilio Martín Patino

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Peña, José-Ramón

    2007-01-01

    Gratulatoria del Rector de la Universidad de Salamanca, José Ramón Alonso Peña con motivo de la investidura como Doctor Honoris Causa de Basilio Martín Patino, celebrada en Salamanca el 28 de noviembre de 2007.

  10. Longitudinal immune monitoring of patients receiving intratumoral injection of a MART-1 T-cell receptor-transduced cell line (C-Cure 709)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køllgaard, Tania; Duval, Lone; Schmidt, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    analyzed in peripheral blood by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) before and after intratumoral injection of C-Cure 709. RESULTS: No treatment-induced increase in Ag-specific T-cell frequencies was observed in peripheral blood, and the phenotype of MART-1-specific T cells was very stable during...

  11. A new Oligonychus and description of the female allotype of Oligonychus psidium Estebanes & Baker (Acari, Tetranychidae from Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae in northwestern São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo J.F. Feres

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligonychus longipenis, sp.n. and the female allotype of O. psidium Estebanes & Baker, 1968 from Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae is described. The male of O. psidium is redescribed in Northwestern São Paulo (Brazil. This is the first record for 0. psidium in Brazil.

  12. Agnets Bozhi v Tserkvi Sv. Katarinõ : V. Martõnov, J. Ljubimov i A. Mustonen sozdali Apokalipsis / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2001-01-01

    15. ja 16. aprillil esietendus Katariina kirikus "Apokalypsis", eesti-vene ühisprojekt. Müsteeriumi lavastaja Juri Ljubimov, helilooja Vladimir Martõnov, dirigent Andres Mustonen (kaastegevad Eesti meestelaulu Seltsi poistekoor ja Tallinna poistekoor ning Rahvusmeeskoor), kunstnik Pille Jänes

  13. El urbanismo de Santiago de Compostela : un plano con las plazuelas de San Martín y de San Miguel de 1709

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Taín Guzmán

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dedicado al estudio de un plano inédito de 1709 donde se representan las plazuelas de San Martín y de San Miguel, en el barrio intramuros de la Puerta de la Peña de Santiago de Compostela. Gracias al referido dibujo, analizo al detalle el entramado urbano de ambos espacios públicos y los edificios que los delimitan, particularmente la iglesia de San Martín Pinario, el desaparecido Palacio del Tribunal de la Santa Inquisición y la iglesia parroquial de San Miguel dos Agros.The article focuses on the study of a 1709 inpublished street plan of two squares —San Martín and San Miguel— in the Puerta de la Peña quarter (Santiago de Compostela. This oíd drawing shows the urban framework of both public spaces and also the buildings around: San Martín Pinario, the lost Palacio del Tribunal de la Santa Inquisición and the paroquial church of San Miguel de los Agros.

  14. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier Barona Carmen Elena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  15. Food habits of the stone marten (Martes foina in the upper Aveto Valley (Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied analysing 63 faeces collected from February 1990 to December 1991. The results were expressed as relative percentage of frequency (Fr% and as percentage of mean bulk (Vm%. Mammals, mainly rodents, were the staple in the diet (annual Vm% = 62.9 and reached a maximum peak in winter (Vm% = 79.4. Vegetables were mostly represented by Rosaceae fruits (annual Vm% = 22.3 and were consumed during all year round. Insects, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera, were fairly frequently eaten, although their volume was not remarkable (annual Vm% = 4.1. Birds and garbage were scarcely used. The trophic niche breadth of the stone marten, evaluated using the Levin's index (B, varied from 2.49 in winter to 4.8 in summer. In the same study area the diet of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes was studied. The niche overlap between this canid and the stone marten was not extensive (Op = 0.52; Os = 0.51. Riassunto Indagine sul comportamento trofico della faina (Martes foina in alta Val d'Aveto (Appennino Ligure-Emiliano - La dieta della Faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 63 feci raccolte dal febbraio 1990 al dicembre 1991. I dati ottenuti, espressi come frequenza relativa percentuale (Fr% e come volume medio percentuale (Vm%, evidenziano che i Mammiferi, in particolare i Roditori, sono la componente alimentare principale (Vm% annuale = 62,9, con maggior consumo durante il periodo invernale (Vm% = 79,4. I vegetali, rappresentati per la maggior parte dai frutti delle Rosacee (Vm% annuale = 22,3, sono la seconda categoria trofica per importanza e compaiono per tutto l'arco dell'anno. Gli Insetti, quasi esclusivamente Coleotteri ed Ortotteri, presentano una discreta percentuale di utilizzo (Fr% annuale = 21,2 pur non avendo un'incidenza volumetricamente importante (Vm% annuale = 4,1. Gli Uccelli costituiscono una fonte

  16. Preparation and characterization of high density polyethylene and residual fibre of Attalea funifera Mart (piacava) composites; Preparacao e caracterizacao de compositos de polietileno de alta densidade com residuos de fibras de piacava da especie Attalea funifera Mart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrela, Sara P.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Jose, Nadia M., E-mail: saraagrela@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais; Carvalho, Gleidson G.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Producao Animal; Carvalho, Ricardo F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Ambiental Urbana

    2009-07-01

    The use of natural fiber reinforcement thermoplastic polymer is continuously increasing. This fact is manly due to its advantages as low cost, availability, recyclability, low energy demand and then environmental appeal if compared to synthetics fibers. The composites were prepared in different fiber volume ratios (5%, 10% and 20%) mixed with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and heated at 190 deg C. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate thermal stability. The composites structure was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry. Fiber and residue of piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) chemical composition were determined by Van Soest Method. The results indicate that thermo stability of the composites of HDPE prepared with fiber volume ratios up to 20% is only slightly lowered. (author)

  17. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  18. Infancia y modernidad. José Martí y La Exposición de París

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío García Rey

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo toma como eje “La Exposición de París”, texto escrito por José Martí y publicado en el periódico infantil La Edad de Oro, en 1889. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar cómo el autor, sostenido en un pensamiento utópico, presentó en un escrito para niños su visión del devenir histórico en el cual Latinoamérica y su infancia eran parte del alter mundis. Exponemos que, como parte de los avatares de la modernidad, según el poeta, podría ser construido un nuevo orden político y cultural...

  19. De Martí a Fidel: a revolução cubana e a América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Bernardo Pericás

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Livro que já se tornou referência nos meios diplomático e acadêmico, De Martí a Fidel: a revolução cubana e a América Latina, do historiador e cientista político Luiz Alberto Moniz Bandeira, ganha agora uma nova edição, revisada e ampliada.

  20. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana: Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Spriggs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The American marten (Martes americana was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  1. Francisco Martínez de la Rosa and church-state controversial relation in Spain (1834-1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Vilar García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide and analyze Francisco Martínez de la Rosa’s unpublished correspondence during his term as President of the Spanish Government in the 1834-1835 biennium, maintained with Amat di San Filippo Luigi, nuncio in Spain, and kept in the Vatican Secret Archives. Such correspondence consists of three letters with official mail format, although they could be considered rather confidential for their content. In these documents, the Spanish government strives, albeit unsuccessfully, to achieve recognition by Rome of Elizabeth II of Spain and his liberal regime. And last but not least, in this paper, it is also noteworthy to highlight the urgent need to fill the many vacant Dioceses in Spain.

  2. El filólogo Pedro Martínez López: un libelista liberal imaginativo

    OpenAIRE

    Vauchelle-Haquet, Aline

    2006-01-01

    En 1830, el filólogo Pedro Martínez López tuvo que exiliarse a Francia por motivos políticos. En 1832, sacó a luz en Burdeos una Representación a Fernando VII, rey de España, panfleto en el que espetaba toda una sarta de acusaciones contra el tirano. A finales del año siguiente, publicó La España en 1833, al expirar Fernando VII, otro libelo en que responsabilizaba al despotismo de la desastrosa situación de su país y afirmaba que sólo se podrían remediar tantos atropellos e ...

  3. Martín Malharro y la enseñanza del dibujo en la escuela primaria argentina (1904 - 1909)

    OpenAIRE

    Welti, María Elisa

    2011-01-01

    El pintor argentino Martín Malharro ocupó la Inspección Técnica de Dibujo del Consejo Nacional de Educación (en adelante CNE) entre 1904 y 1909. Desde este cargo, Malharro impulsó una reforma en la enseñanza del dibujo en las escuelas implementando el “método Malharro” o el “método natural”. Este método - que sintetiza las propuestas de Malharro acerca de la enseñanza del dibujo en las escuelas y que conjuga las ideas pedagógicas de Rousseau, Pestalozzi y Spencer, entre otros, con las nuevas ...

  4. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  5. Peptides derived from self-proteins as partial agonists and antagonists of human CD8+ T-cell clones reactive to melanoma/melanocyte epitope MART1(27-35)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftus, D J; Squarcina, P; Nielsen, M B

    1998-01-01

    The self-peptide MART1(27-35) derives from the melanocyte/melanoma protein Melan A/MART1 and is a target epitope of CD8+ T cells, commonly recovered from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of HLA-A2.1+ melanoma patients. Despite their prevalence in such patients, these CTLs generally appear to be ine......The self-peptide MART1(27-35) derives from the melanocyte/melanoma protein Melan A/MART1 and is a target epitope of CD8+ T cells, commonly recovered from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of HLA-A2.1+ melanoma patients. Despite their prevalence in such patients, these CTLs generally appear...

  6. Mart Humal, "Uuringuid tonaalstruktuuridest. Sissejuhatus ja neliteist analüütilist etüüdi" : (Töid muusikateooria alalt III; Tallinn : Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia, 2007) / Kerri Kotta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotta, Kerri

    2007-01-01

    Rets. rmt. : Humal, Mart. Uuringuid tonaalstruktuuridest : sissejuhatus ja neliteist analüütilist etüüdi = Studies on tonal structures : introduction and fourteen analytical studies. Tallinn : Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia, 2007. - Töid muusikateooria alalt ; 3

  7. José Martí e los indios de Norteamérica: mediazione culturale e «scontro di civiltà». Una rilettura critica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Badella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban poet José Martí, “Master of the Americas” as pointed out by a famous Italian study by Carlo Batà, was probably the most important South American thinker of the two last decades of the Nineteenth century. This essay deals with the importance of “civilization clash” between US positivism - or WASP-ism - and the last resistances of Native Americans' cultural heritage during his personal experience as an exile in the United States. Martí, in this racial struggle and racist instincts, experienced a dual vision about the “Indian problem” in the Americas. In his first essays he focused on the positivistic view, really common among Latin American cultural élites (from Alberdi to Sarmiento, which depicted the Indian people as the burden of creole and white race in the path toward progress.On the other hand, as appeared clearly in Escenas americanas, the Cuban analysed more precisely the American struggle between civilization and savagery. In the cultural massacre inflicted to Indian tribes, he saw the real savagery in American civilization. So, this reflection paved the way to a new approach in considering the possibility of importing the Anglo-saxon model of civilization and political structures to the liberated Cuba after the independence (but also to continental Latin America.This relationship let us understand some interesting features in Martí's huge cultural production. We are introduced to the very essence of his cultural mediation between those two different lifestyles and models of civilization. This mediation would have represented a new way of intending North vs South America struggles or even Western way of life vs different ones, considered “barbarous” from the first.In our modern times, in which the terms “exporting values” or “civilization clash” seem to be very common in usage, it is really stimulating discover that the same problem was posed by Martí more than one century ago. Even if he did not

  8. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-10-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 μL L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  9. Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico; Datos bionomicos y descripcion de los inmaduros de Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), plaga de la Palma Aceitera (Elaeis guineensis J.) y de la Palma Camedor (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) en Tabasco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordova-Ballona, Leonides [Universidad Popular de la Chontalpa, Tabasco (Mexico); Sanchez-Soto, Saul [Colegio de Postgraduados, Tabasco (Mexico). Campus Tabasco

    2008-11-15

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

  10. José Martí y la Pedagogía. A propósito del aniversario de su nacimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luz Rodríguez Moreno

    2014-01-01

    José Julián Martí Pérez, Héroe Nacional de Cuba, nació el 28 de enero de 1853. Su ideario pedagógico lo encontramos presente en muchas de sus publicaciones, como son: crónicas periodísticas, cartas y la Revista La Edad de Oro. Martí recogió una valiosa herencia pedagógica de avanzada, representada en Félix Varela, José de la Luz y Caballero, Rafael María de Mendive y otros destacados maestros a los que, incluso, dedicó algunas de sus crónicas. Su ideario está presente en nuestra gran obra ...

  11. Critical amino acid residues in proteins: a BioMart integration of Reactome protein annotations with PRIDE mass spectrometry data and COSMIC somatic mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, R. G.; Croft, D.; D'Eustachio, P.; D'Eustachio, P; Hermjakob, H.; Ndegwa, N.; Ovelleiro, D.; Vizcaino, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine hydroxyl groups is an especially prominent form of post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins. It plays critical roles in the regulation of diverse processes, and mutations that directly or indirectly affect these phosphorylation events have been associated with many cancers and other pathologies. Here, we describe the development of a new BioMart tool that gathers data from three different biological resources to provide...

  12. Anne Oruaas ja Mart Laanpere saavad Valgetähe V klassi ordeni / Ülle Tamm, Külli Koppelmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle

    2017-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi president Kersti Kaljulaid annab Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi Tallinna Ülikooli Digitehnoloogiate instituudi haridustehnoloogia vanemteadurile Mart Laanperele, kes on märkimisväärselt panustanud digikultuuri edendamisse Eesti koolides ning emakeeleõpetajale ja kodukandi ajaloo uurimise ja jäädvustamisega tegeleva MTÜ Kehra Raudteejaam juhatuse liikmele Anne Oruaasale, kes on edendanud kohalikku elu Anija vallas ja eriti Kehras

  13. Aída Martínez y Silvia Galvis:Del documento al relato y de la ficción a la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available colombianas, la historiadora Aída Martínez y la novelista Silvia Galvis,a partir de los vínculos entre ficción e historia. Se parte de los planteamientosde Gérard Genette, quien considera que si los índices de"ficcionalidad" están también presentes en el

  14. A comparison of the ecophysiological responses of Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus to the exclusion of ultraviolet-A and UV-B radiation in the field and the glasshouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cann, J.C.; Miller, S.D.; Vogelmann, T.C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well two naturalized C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} weedy species, Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus, would respond to ultraviolet exclusion under field and glasshouse conditions. These plants were grown in: (1) a high elevation (2188m) field plot in Laramie, WY USA, during the summer of 1994 and (2) a glasshouse during the spring of 1995. Three types of plastic were used to exclude either UV-A, UV-B, or both UV-A and UV-B. During the summer of 1994, photosynthetically active radiation and UV-B fluence rates were measured daily. A total of seven biochemical and physiological parameters, such as chlorophyll, flavonoids, biomass, growth rate, stomatal density, and stomatal conductance were measured at bimonthly intervals. The results of the field experiment show almost no effects of excluding UV-A, UV-B, or both upon plant growth, pigment content, or photosynthetic response. Our results suggest that these plants, unlike some crop plants, may be physiologically pre-adapted to tolerate high ambient levels of ultraviolet radiation.

  15. MAR序列介导野苋菜凝集素基因在白菜中的表达%Expression of Amaranthus viridis L. Agglutinin Mediated by Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) Sequence in Transgenic Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓智年; 魏源文; 吕维莉; 李杨瑞

    2007-01-01

    以'丰顺'白菜带柄子叶为转化受体,用带有MAR(Matrix Attachment Region)和不带MAR的两种植物表达载体进行农杆菌介导转化野苋菜凝集素基因(Amaranthus viridis L. agglutinin,AVA)获得转基因的抗蚜小白菜.分析MAR序列介导对转基因表达的影响.表明利用MAR序列介导AVA基因表达,获得转基因植株的数量比对照提高29.63%;转AVA基因白菜对桃蚜(Myzus persicae)的群体发展有一定的抑制作用,平均抑制率为55.8%;MAR序列介导AVA基因表达的转基因植株中,该基因的表达水平比对照高,并且不同转基因单株间AVA基因表达差异比对照小.

  16. Análise fitoquímica e atividade antimicobacteriana de extratos metanólicos de Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae Phytochemical analysis and antimycobacterial activity of methanol extracts from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae

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    A.L.A. Arruda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., conhecida popularmente como "caroba", "jacarandá" ou "bolacheira", é utilizada medicinalmente para o tratamento da sífilis e da gonorréia. A atividade antimicobacteriana dessa espécie foi avaliada em ensaios in vitro com os extratos metanólicos das cascas e folhas, segundo o Método Analítico Alamar Blue (MABA. Os valores de concentração inibitória mínima para os extratos metanólicos das cascas e das folhas de J. cuspidifolia foram iguais a CIM = 250 μg mL-1 para ambos os extratos. A análise fitoquímica, por Cromatografia em Camada Delgada de gel de sílica, dos extratos metanólicos das cascas e folhas revelou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, terpenos, cumarinas e esteróides. A análise dos perfis dos extratos metanólicos por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência de Fase Reversa registrou a presença de compostos fenólicos derivados do verbascosídeo sugerindo a provável responsabilidade pela ação antimicobacteriana.Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., popularly known as "caroba", "jacaranda" or "bolacheira", is used as medicine for the treatment of syphilis and gonorrhea. The antimycobacterial activity of this species was assessed by means of in vitro assays with methanol extracts of barks and leaves according to the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA. The minimal inhibitory concentration values for methanol extracts of barks and leaves from J. cuspidifolia were MIC = 250 μg mL-1 for both extracts. Phytochemical analysis, by Thin Layer Chromatography on silica gel, of methanol extracts of barks and leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, cumarins and steroids. Analysis of the profiles of methanol extracts by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Reversed Phase recorded the presence of phenolic compounds derivatives of verbascoside, suggesting their probable responsibility for the antimycobacterial action.

  17. CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO CONHECIMENTO DA BIOLOGIA DO Pachymerus nucleorum Fabr., 1972 (Bruchidae – Coleoptera em Syagrus oleraceae Mart. (Palmae CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOLOGY KNOWLEDGE OF Pachymerus nucleorum FABR. 1792 (BRUCHIDAE-COLEOPTERA IN Syagrus oleraceae MART. (PALMAE

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    José Rodrigues Vieira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O bicho-do-coco, Pachymerus nucleorum Fabr., 1792 (Bruchidae-Coleoptera constitui um dos mais sérios problemas para o aproveitamento da amêndoa de várias espécies de palmeiras principalmente no nordeste do Brasil. A sua biologia foi estudada em cocos de guariroba Syagrus oleraceae Mart. (Palmae em ambiente de 1aboratório e de campo, utilizando-se cocos secos, maduros e verdes. O período médio de pré-oviposição foi de 13 dias, o de incubação de 15,56 dias, a fecundidade de 21,18, a fertilidade de 9,62 e o período larval de 23,88 dias. O menor índice de mortalidade deu-se no quarto instar e o maior no primeiro instar.

    This work is a contribution to the knowledgement of the biology of Pachymerus nucleorum Fabr., 1792 (Bruchidae-Coleoptera in coconuts of Syagrus oleraceae Mart. (Palmae. Among 16 couples species confined in laboratory from March 1977 to March 1978, we observed that each female made a maximum of three posture and the medium posture with 21.18 eggs. The medium period of pre-oviposition is 13 days and incubation period of 15.56 days. The pest presents five estages: larvae, pre-pupa, pupa and the adult forms, which were obtained in laboratory from 6 to 7 months. Mortality index of 33.12% was observed among larvae, pre-pupa, pupa and adult species. Also were developed observation in the eggs characteristics about fecundity, fertility, longevity of male and female and about pest habits.

  18. Caracterização química parcial da semente de jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. Partial chemical characterization of jatobá-do-cerrado seeds (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart.

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    Tatiana G. Matuda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização química parcial da semente de jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a fim de avaliar o potencial de aproveitamento desta espécie e contribuir para a preservação de espécies nativas do cerrado, através da valorização de seus recursos naturais. A semente apresentou alto teor de fibras (85,31%, 9,05% de proteínas e 5,30% de lipídios (base seca. A análise de aminoácidos mostrou que a proteína, como outras leguminosas, tem os aminoácidos sulfurados e a treonina como aminoácidos limitantes. A fração lipídica apresentou 75% de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo o ácido linoléico dominante (46,9%. Dentre os fatores antinutricionais estudados, os compostos fenólicos, com 48mg/g de farinha de jatobá desengordurada (base seca, mostraram teor acima do encontrado em outras leguminosas. A semente de jatobá mostrou-se pobre em macronutrinentes quando comparada a leguminosas utilizadas na alimentação, mas o alto teor de fibras, possivelmente constituídas de xiloglucanas e galactomananas, pode levar ao aproveitamento rentável destas sementes.The objective of this work was the partial chemical characterization of the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. seed in order to evaluate the potential value as a food and/or feed source and to contribute to the preservation of Brazilian native species from "cerrado" through valorization of its natural resources. Jatobá-do-cerrado seeds had a high crude fiber content (85.31%, 9.05% of crude protein and 5.30% of total lipids (dry basis. Amino acids analysis showed that protein was deficient in sulfur amino acids and treonin and high in other essential amino acids. Lipid fraction showed 75% of unsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid was dominant (46.9%. Amongst the studied antinutritional factors, total phenolics (48mg/Êg of defatted flour, dry basis was higher than in other leguminous seeds. However, despite the fact that

  19. Atividades biológicas e enzimáticas do extrato aquoso de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Leguminosae Biological and enzymatic activities of aqueous extract of seeds from Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Leguminosae

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    Mariana G. Cavalheiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (jucá ou pau-ferro é uma espécie da família Leguminosae cuja ocorrência estende-se da região Nordeste ao Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Trata-se de uma espécie bastante utilizada na medicina popular pelas suas inúmeras propriedades terapêuticas tais como antiinflamatória, analgésica, antimicrobiana e antitérmica as quais indicam a presença de compostos de interesse farmacológico. Contudo, muitos estudos em plantas também investigam a presença de compostos de interesse industrial. Com base nas propriedades terapêuticas e atividades já descritas para essa espécie, esse trabalho objetivou pesquisar atividades biológicas no extrato de sementes de C. ferrea na busca por compostos de interesse industrial e farmacológico. Os resultados indicaram a presença das atividades celulásica, amilásica, anticoagulante e larvicida contra A. aegypti no extrato aquoso das sementes de C. ferrea, entretanto, não foram observadas as atividades tóxica aguda, hemolítica, heparinásica, antibacteriana e antifúngica.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. is a species belonging to Leguminosae family commonly known in Brazil as "jucá" or "pau-ferro". It occurs in Brazil from the Northeast Region to the State of Rio de Janeiro and it is widely utilized in folk medicine due to its several therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antithermic, which indicate the presence of compounds of pharmacological interest. Besides, many studies with plants look for the presence of compounds with industrial applications. Based upon the therapeutic and bioactive properties described for this species so far, this work aimed to investigate several biological activities in the water extract of C. ferrea seeds. The results indicated the presence of the following activities: cellulase, amylase, anticoagulant and larvicide against A. aegypti in the water extract of C. ferrea seeds. Nevertheless, the extract did not show the

  20. Caracterização morfoanatômica de plântulas de Gomphrena elegans Mart. (Amaranthaceae = Characterization of seedlings’ morphology and anatomy of Gomphrena elegans Mart. (Amaranthaceae

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    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Para descrever a morfologia de plântulas e a anatomia de cotilédones e eofilos de Gomphrena elegans Mart., 100 sementes foram colocadas em germinador, a 25 ± 1ºC e 30 ± 1ºC, sob iluminação fluorescente branca contínua e outras 100 foram colocadas em sacos plásticos, contendo areia e terra adubada, mantidas em casa de vegetação sob condiçõesambiente, cobertas com sombrite 50% e regadas diariamente. O pecíolo e limbo cotiledonares e eofilares das plântulas foram seccionadas no terço mediano e bordo e analisadas em secções transversais e paradérmicas. A morfologia inicial da plântula é epigeofoliácea,a raiz axial, hipocótilo e epicótilo avermelhados. A venação é do tipo pinada, camptódroma e broquidódroma nos cotilédones e eofilos. A lâmina foliar e o pecíolo apresentam epiderme unisseriada com células de tamanho variável e estômatos anomocíticos. Ocorrem drusas de oxalato de cálcio nas lâminas foliares e pecíolos. O mesofilo dorsiventral apresenta uma camada de parênquima paliçádico e várias de lacunoso.Aiming to describe seedlings’ morphology and cotyledons and eophylls anatomy of Gomphrena elegans Mart., 100 seeds were put into plastic bags, with sand and fertilized soil (1:3, kept in the greenhouse under room conditions, with 50% shady and watered daily. Cotyledonous petiole and limb and seedlings eophylls were sectioned in median and border. They were then analyzed in transversal and paradermic sections. Seedlings initial morphology is epigeal-foliar, the rootis axial, and hypocotyls and epicotyl are reddish. Venation is of pinnate type, camptodrome and brochidrodome in cotyledons and eophylls. Petiole and leaf show uniseriated epidermis with cells of varied sizes and anomocytic stomata. Druses of calcium oxalate occurred in leaves and petiole. Dorsiventral mesophyll shows one palisade parenchyma layer and several lacunary ones.