Sample records for amapa brazil aplicacao

  1. Prevalence of anti-p: Falciparum sporozoite antibodies in adults in the amapa region of Brazil

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    Virgílio Do Rosario


    Full Text Available 17 of 20 adult sera from the Amapa region of Brazil were active in the inhibition of P. falciparum sporozoite invasion (ISI assay which has been correlated with protective antibodies. In contrast 11 sera were positive in IFA tests and 6 were positive in CSP tests. These results suggest that the ISI assay will be useful for evaluating naturally acquired protective anti-sporozoite antibodies in endemic areas, particularly during vaccine efficacy studies using sporozoite-based vaccines.

  2. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil; Aplicacao do metodo de ativacao neutronica a determinacao do mercurio total e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de solo e sedimento da Serra do Navio e Bacia do Rio Vila Nova, Amapa

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    Goncalves, Cristina


    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC){sub 3}) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing {sup 197}Hg and {sup 203}Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of {sup 75}Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of {sup 203}Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury

  3. Multielementar determination by neutron activation in sediment samples from Tartarugalzinho region, Amapa State, Brazil; Determinacao multielementar em amostras de sedimentos da regiao do Tartarugalzinho, Amapa, por ativacao neutronica

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    Neri, Maria C.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sonia M.B. de; Melfi, Adolfo J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Fostier, Anne H. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Analitica; Guimaraes, Jean R.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica; Forti, Maria C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    In the present work, sediment samples collected in the Tartarugalzinho region, State of Amapa, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of the elements As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr and the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb could be determined. Analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment (NIST SRM 2704) and Soil 7 (IAEA) showed the accuracy and precision of the method. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  4. Geochronology of the granitoid hosted Salamangone gold deposit, Lourenco district, Amapa State, Brazil

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    Nogueira, Sonia Aparecida Abissi [Secretaria de Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Geologico]. E-mail:; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica]. E-mail:; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail:


    The Salamangone deposit occurs in the Lourenco Gold District, Amapa. It is associated to Paleoproterozoic Metamorphosed supracrustal rocks and a calc-alkaline complex. The deposit lies within a metaluminous weakly peraluminous, calc-alkaline tonalitic-granodioritic pluton. The Au-mineralization consists on an epigenetic quartz-vein system, enriched in Au and As and structurally controlled by a ductile-brittle shear zone. U-Pb zircon analysis of tonalite gave a crystallization age of 2.16 {+-} 0.13 Ga, whereas Sm-Nd T{sub DM} model ages of tonalite and granodiorite range from 2.24 to 2.34 Ga. e{sub Nd} (T) vary from 2.88 to 3.02. Additional whole rock Rb-Sr isochron ages on granitoids yielded values in the range of 2.17 to 2.28 Ga, with {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr initial ratio of 0.702. The isotopic data and geochemical signature of granitoids suggest that the Lourenco region, as well as the neighboring areas in French Guyana, represents a vast area largely floored by accreted juvenile arc terranes without evidence of Archean crust contamination, being related to the development of a calc-alkaline magmatic arc, which was produced within the Maroni-Itacaiunas Province, during a major Paleoproterozoic orogenic event. (author)

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of deforestation in Rio Cajari Extrative Reserve, Amapa, Brazil.

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    Claudia Funi

    Full Text Available The Rio Cajarí Extractive Reserve (RCER is a sustainable use protected area located in Southern Amapá state, Brazil. This protected area is home to traditional agro-extractive families, but has been increasingly invaded by commercial agriculture producers. In this work, we test the hypothesis that the RCER implementation has distinctly affected spatial patterns of deforestation and rates of bare soil and secondary forest formation by the social groups occupying the protected area and its surrounding area. Detailed maps of vegetation cover and deforestation were elaborated, based on Landsat TM images from 1991, 1998, 2007 and 2008 and Linear Spectral Mixture Models. Based on an extensive fieldwork, patches were classified according to the agents causing deforestation and characterized with ten explanatory variables. A discriminant function analysis was used to identify homogeneous groups based on the data. Results show increased rates and distinct spatial patterns of deforestation by three groups: extractivists, non traditional commercial agriculture producers, and a less representative group constituted of miners, cattle and timber producers. In all analyzed dates, clearings by the extrativist community presented the highest total area and smaller average sizes and were located in close proximity to villages. Deforestation patches by the non-traditional group were exclusively associated with ombrophilous forests; these presented higher average sizes and proximity indexes, and showed increased aggregation and large cluster formation. No significant differences were observed in deforestation patterns by the three groups inside or outside the reserve.

  6. Yeast succession in the Amazon fruit Parahancornia amapa as resource partitioning among Drosophila spp.




    The succession of yeasts colonizing the fallen ripe amapa fruit, from Parahancornia. amapa, aas examined. The occupation of the substrate depended on both the competitive interactions of yeast species, such as the production of killer toxins, and the selective dispersion by the drosophilid guild of the amapa fruit. The yeast community associated with this Amazon fruit differed from those isolated from other fruits in the same forest. The physiological profile of these yeasts was mostly restri...

  7. Acyl-lupeol esters from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae)


    Carvalho,Mário G. de; Velloso,Carlos R. X.; Braz-Filho,Raimundo; Costa,William F. da


    From the roots of Parahancornia amapa, family Apocynaceae, the following compounds were isolated and identified nine new and ten known 3beta-O-acyl lupeol esters, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterone, the triterpenoids beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, lupeol and their acetyl derivatives. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C (HBBD and DEPT) NMR spectra. The methyl esters obtained by hydrolysis of acyl lupeol esters and methylation of ...

  8. Operation of the ELETRONORTE hydrothermal systems: Amazonas, Rondonia and Amapa States and Tucurui Hydroelectric Power Plant, focusing the El Nino phenomenon; Operacao dos sistemas hidrotermicos da ELETRONORTE: Amazonas, Rondonia, Amapa e Usina Hidroeletrica de Tucurui, enfocando o fenomeno El Nino

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    Costalonga, Isabela dos Reis; Ferreira, Vania Maria [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This work presents an analysis of the ELETRONORTE hydrothermal systems in the States of Amazonas, Rondonia and Amapa and the Tucurui HPP Interconnected System. The analysis ranges from the whole year of 1997 to September 1998, considering the strong influence of the El Nino phenomenon, initiated on April 1997, on the flows affluent to the reservoirs of Balbina, Samuel, Coaracy Nunes and Tucurui Hydroelectric Power Plants.

  9. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Marcio B. P. Lopes


    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  10. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

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    Oberling, Daniel Fontana


    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  11. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824); Esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) para aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril no Brasil

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    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)


    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

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    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  13. Challenges for environmental risk assessment application in offshore E and P activities in Brazil; Desafios para a aplicacao de analise de risco ecologico nas atividades de E e P offshore no Brasil

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    Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Chame, Luciana Moreira [DNV Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves [BP Brasil, SP (Brazil)


    Although the Brazilian Legislation does not clearly specify the requirements and the need to elaborate and apply the Environmental Risk Analysis, the Term of Reference to submit studies to Environmental Entities for E and P offshore activities has required the presentation of an {sup E}nvironment Risk Analysis{sup .} Nevertheless, the interactions or possible effects of these accidents as well as possible chronic discharges are not focused. The Environment Risk Analysis programs used world wide for offshore petroleum activities are very sophisticated and need intense research, specially by universities to be adequate and applicable in Brazil. The studies briefly described in this work, when developed may give the characteristics of Brazilian offshore, important information on the potential of the environment impact of the E and P activities, reducing significantly today's subjectivity on evaluation of impacts and environmental risks. (author)

  14. Application of {sup 222} Rn as a tracer of groundwater discharge at the coastal zone of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Aplicacao de {sup 222} Rn como tracador da descarga de aguas subterraneas na regiao costeira de Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

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    Oliveira, Joselene de; Farias, Luciana A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiometria Ambiental]. E-mail:; Burnett, William C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Saraiva, Elisabete de S.B. e; Furtado, Valdenir V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Quimica e Geologica


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and recycled seawater can provide chemical constituents to coastal zone, representing an important material flux pathway from land to sea in some areas. Geochemical tracers, like {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra, are advantageous for regional-scale assessment of SGD, because their signals represent values integrated through the water column that removes small-scale variations. These radionuclides are usually enriched in groundwater compared to seawater, can be measured at very low concentrations and are conservative. This work reports preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26{sup '}S and 23 deg 46{sup '}S and longitudes between 45 deg02{sup '}W and 45 deg 11{sup '}W. The main aims of this research were to set up an analytical method to assess {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra activities in seawater samples and to apply the excess {sup 222} Rn inventories obtained to estimate the submarine groundwater discharge. Measurements made during 2001/2002 included {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra in seawater, {sup 222} Rn in sediment, seawater and sediment physical properties. (author)

  15. Use of isotopologues as natural tracers of ground water application to Engenho Nogueira watershed, UFMG campus, Brazil; Uso de isotopologos como tracadores naturais das aguas subterraneas: aplicacao a bacia do corrego Engenho Nogueira, campus UFMG

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    Aguiar, Raquel Pazzini Scarpelli de


    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry is the ideal method to determine with high precision the ratio of stable isotopes of light elements. Due to this fact, it is used in environmental research, especially in hydrological studies, avoiding the need of injection. This work implanted a method for analysis of water isotopes ({sup 18}O and {sup 2}H) and validated the method for the measurement of δ{sup 18}O, in the Laboratory of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology. The performance of the method was evaluated according to the following criteria: stability, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. This method was applied to studies of groundwater in the watershed of the Engenho Nogueira Creek, located at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) campus, in the northern region of the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The watershed of the Engenho Nogueira Creek has been studied in several occasions in recent years for different purposes; however, the use of natural isotopes of water had never been applied to these studies. This technique can expand the diversity of data on the local aquifer, helping to fill gaps in its understanding, besides, it can confirm data previously obtained. The expansion of the academic and administrative units of the UFMG campus since 2000 implies in an incremented importance of the management of the local since the demand for water grows each year. (author)

  16. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

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    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  17. Brazil. (United States)


    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  18. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

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    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  19. Technical and economical analysis for the implementation of small scale GTL (Gas-to-liquids) technology to monetizing the associated remote offshore stranded natural gas in Brazil; Analise tecnica e economica da aplicacao da tecnologia GTL de pequena escala para a monetizacao do gas natural associado remoto offshore no Brasil

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    Castelo Branco, David Alves


    The volume of stranded natural gas global reserves is substantial and represents more than a third of the world's proven natural gas reserves. In Brazil, recent discoveries operated by PETROBRAS, with participation of other companies, show trend of stranded gas reserves incorporation, associated gas or not. This dissertation's main objective is to make a technical and economic analysis of the implementation of small-scale GTL technology for the exploitation of stranded associated natural gas offshore in Brazil. Thus, the dissertation held, initially, a survey of the processes of gasification and the manufacturers with technologies and projects based on these processes, for specific offshore applications. In a second stage, the conditions of the offshore environment were examined. After the confrontation of the technologies available and the operation conditions, a technological alternative has been chosen to be used in an illustrative economic analysis. The results show that GTL offshore option becomes viable at a minimum price of about US $ 40.00 / barrel. Although this value is greater than the robustness price adopted by PETROBRAS, there are prospects for the reduction of GTL technology costs. (author)

  20. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

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    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial


    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  1. Application of the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) for established of energy efficiency standards: refrigerators sold in Brazil; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise do custo do ciclo de vida (ACCV) para o estabelicimento de padroes de eficiencia energetica: refrigeradores comercializados no Brasil

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    Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Guilherme de Castilho [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens (CETEA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The goal of this paper is to present the work in the thesis developed by Silva Jr. (2005) who discusses the application of the methodologies of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) as a tool to propose energy efficiency standards, additional to the voluntary labels already existing in the one-door Brazilian refrigerators. Another objective is to study the role of these instruments (energy efficiency labels and standards and environmental labels) as means to supply technical subsidies for the establishment of maximum level of electric energy consumption and environmental quality impact for electrical equipment in Brazil. The LCCA methodology allows to evaluate the impacts of the energy efficiency increasing in electrical equipment, resulting in important saving (energy, financial, carbon dioxide emissions avoided etc.) for the country and its citizens. The results reached in this studies offer important data to subsidize deep discussions with manufacturers and the government to stipulate minimum energy efficiency standards for the Brazilian refrigerators. Thus, with increase of 28,1% on the energy efficiency of the one-door Brazilian refrigerators in 2008 to reach a values of savings that can be in order of 54,63 TWh (with respective reduction of demand power of 208 MW), of US$ 6,23 Billions of Dollar (R$ 17,2 Billions of Reais) of reduction in the account of electric energy for the population and of approximately 22 billions of tons of CO{sub 2} not emitted on the environment after 30 years of the implantation of standard. These values, that can not be despised by government, manufacturers and consumers. One other interest of this work is to start the discussion, the possibility of the creation of environmental labelling (e.g., Green Seal - USA, Eco-label - EU etc.) that is an additional program/methodology, which, it may be utilized as support for development of technologies and for the increase of energy and environmental efficiency of the electric equipment. These

  2. {sup 210}Pb and composition data of near-surface sediments and interstitial waters evidencing anthropogenic inputs in Amazon River mouth, Macapa, Brazil

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    Cardoso Nery, Jose Reinaldo, E-mail: jrnery@unifap.b [Universidade Federal do Amapa (UNIFAP), Campus Marco Zero, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, km 2, CEP 68902-280, Macapa, Amapa (Brazil); Marcos Bonotto, Daniel, E-mail: [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus de Rio Claro, Av. 24-A No.1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Activity profiles of excess {sup 210}Pb determined in three sediment cores from Amazon River mouth, Macapa city, Brazil, provided the evaluation of sedimentation rates, contributing to a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the site that is the capital of Amapa State and is drained by the waters of the huge Amazon River. Chemical data were also determined in the sediments, allowing identify signatures coupled to anthropogenic inputs held in the past in Amapa State. Significant direct relationships between LOI (loss on ignition) and organic matter were found for all sediments profiles. Silica was found to be inversely related to organic matter in the three profiles; its decrease accompanied an increase on the specific surface of the sediments. This relationship was confirmed by a great number of inverse significant correlations among silica and oxides Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO. It was possible to identify the role of organic matter on adsorption of several oxides in the core sediments profiles. Apparent sediment mass accumulation rates corresponding to values between 450 and 2510 mg cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} were obtained, and are compatible with the results of others studies. The {sup 210}Pb activities in one sampling point suggested the occurrence of anthropogenic inputs related to the initial period of the mining activities conducted in Serra do Navio, Amapa State, for the commercialization of Mn ores. This was reinforced by the abrupt fluctuations in chemical data obtained for the sediments and composition of the interstitial waters occurring there. The Atlantic hurricane activity also appeared to affect the sedimentation rates in the area, as two different values were recorded in each profile. - Highlights: {yields} New 210Pb and composition dataset at the Amazon River mouth. {yields} Chemical and 210Pb data revealed anthropogenic inputs in the area. {yields} Mining activities at

  3. Tax on the carbon: application test in Brazil; Taxa sobre o carbono: ensaio de aplicacao no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail:;


    The aim of the work is to introduce an environmental policy formulated on the basis in tax on carbon related to the fossil fuels consumption. In this context, the article presents a methodology to calculate the levies per fuels and per sector due to each ton of carbon dioxide emitted. The results are commented.

  4. The royalties application on President Kennedy city, Espirito Santo, Brazil; A aplicacao dos royalties em Presidente Kennedy, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaak, Fabricio Jose Bassetto; Cardia, Tarik Hajab [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais


    This work aims to assemble a study of implementation of royalty in the municipality of President Kennedy - the state of Espirito Santo, showing the disparity between the collection of royalties on oil and quality of infrastructure that the city offers. Based on data the prefecture of the municipality, PNUD and competent bodies, we will show how the money is being used comes from royalties on oil, and what policies the city council's adopting this to apply this feature. (author)

  5. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Rio do Janeiro (CCMN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Matematicas e da Natureza. Dept. de Geologia


    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  6. Spotlight: Brazil. (United States)

    Carter, M


    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  7. Prosopis jiliflora`s gum may have industrial applications; Goma de algaroba: substancia pode ter aplicacao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Isabel M.C. Baptista; Andrade, Cristina Tristao de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    This work presents and describes the chemical analysis of several parts of Algaroba tree (Prosopis juliflora) which even though not being original from Brazil adapted very well in the desert areas of Northeast Brazil. The chemical composition of several parts of the plant is presented. Several possible industrial applications are presented and discussed 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  8. Modelagem climática regional durante dois anos de extremos de precipitação sobre o estado do Amapá: teste de sensibilidade aos esquemas convectivos Regional climate modeling for two years of extreme precipitation over the state of Amapa: test of sensitivity to convective schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonçalves das Neves


    Full Text Available O presente estudo mostra uma avaliação da previsão sazonal do Modelo RegCM3 em dois eventos extremos de precipitação, nos anos 2006 e 2007. Na análise foi utilizada a resolução horizontal de 1° x 1° km e validado com 30 x 15 pontos de latitude x longitude para a região do Estado do Amapá. Os resultados apresentados são referentes à comparação entre precipitação sazonal simulada e observada para o trimestre (MAM. De maneira geral, os resultados mostraram que a utilização da técnica de redução de escala de previsão da precipitação sazonal, apresentou um bom desempenho em simular a variabilidade da chuva em escala regional. Porém, erros na quantidade e na posição de alguns máximos foram observados, quando comparado com os dados observados. O viés úmido foi predominante na região litorânea e o viés seco nas áreas sul-sudeste, oeste e centro com forte persistência na região sudeste. Não se observou regiões com valores estimados de precipitação próximos aos valores observados.This study shows an assessment of the seasonal forecast model RegCM3 in two extreme events of precipitation for the years 2006 and 2007. For the analysis a 1° x 1º km horizontal resolution was used and validated with 30 x 15 points of latitude x longitude for the region of the State of Amapa. The presented results are for the comparison between simulated and observed seasonal precipitation in the quarter (MAM. In general, the results showed that using the scale reduction technique to predict the seasonal rainfall, a good performance in simulating the variability of rainfall on a regional scale is obtained. However, errors in the precipitation amount and on some maximum position were observed when compared with the observed data. The wet bias was prevalent in the humid coastal region and the dry bias in the south-southeast, west and center with a strong persistence in the Southeast. Regions with precipitation values close to the

  9. Qualea amapaensis (Vochysiaceae), a new and phytogepgraphically interesting species from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Mori, Scott A


    Qualea amapaËnsis, the second species of sect. Polytrias Stafleu is described. It differs from its close relative, Q. cymulosa, principally in its entirely glabrous leaves and more profusely branched cymes. The two species add a new pair to the growing list of taxa disjunct between eastern Panama...

  10. The Application of PLC (Powerline Communications) in Brazil in the regulatory viewpoint; A aplicacao do PLC no Brasil do ponto de vista regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel; Silva Filho, Armando [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Regulacao dos Servicos de Distribuicao


    The Powerline Communications technology - PLC allows transmission of data, voice, image and access to high speed internet by the grid, so that a power plug can also be an access point to the network communication. Considering that the electric grid reaches the vast majority of households, there is great potential in using this technology as a tool to achieve the reality of digital inclusion in the country. However, its implementation must be accompanied by effective regulation, both through policies with respect to the conditions of use of radio frequencies, as in regulating the use of distribution networks of electricity as a means of transport for communication signal. In this context, the present article deals with the fundamental rules governing the application of PLC technology from the standpoint of the distributors and consumers of electricity, with attention to quality assurance of electrical energy and facility security.

  11. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  12. AAA application in diagnosis exams in a large public hospital, RS, Brazil; Aplicacao do AAA na realizacao de exames diagnosticos em um hospital publico de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar, A.; Ferret, A.A.; Vanni, S.; Galhardi, M.P.; Lykawka, R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Objective: the initiative AAA - Awareness , Appropriateness and Audit , promotes consciousness ( Awareness) , fitness ( Appropriateness ) and Audit ( Audit) . This paper analyzes the application of the concept in the AAA requests and justifications examinations using ionizing radiation within a large public hospital. Materials and methods: we collected and analyzed data between the years 2011 and 2012, concerning the number of exams performed with the use of radiation and their justifications. After, we sought to raise awareness of the clinical team through training on the risks and benefits of the various modalities of the radiology department and the need to justify the use of ionizing radiation on health. After the data were collected again of test requests for verification of the effectiveness of training. Results: the mean requests that need to be appropriate to the AAA in the last quarter of 2011 was 75 % lower than the average demands of the first quarter, matched against the last two months of 2012 increased by up to four times the number requests that require improvements in relation to the excellent results obtained in July 2012. Conclusion: it is shown in this paper the need of implementing this initiative AAA continuously added to the clinical staff awareness about the risk of the use of ionizing radiation, the appropriateness of the requests of these tests , as well as the control of this process in order to optimize use of ionizing radiation on health.

  13. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Assinatura geoquimica de columbita-tantalita e levantamento radiometrico de pegmatitos radioativos da regiao de Parelhas, RN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de


    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  14. Biochemical Education in Brazil. (United States)

    Vella, F.


    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  15. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola


    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  16. Manaus, Brazil (United States)


    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  17. Isoenzymatic variability of cassava accessions from different regions in Brazil Variabilidade isoenzimática de acessos de mandioca de diferentes regiões do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia Lúcia Rocha Cabral


    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, and is widely cultivated in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the isoenzymatic variability of 200 cassava accessions from the germplasm bank of Embrapa Amazonia Oriental. Seven groups were formed according to their origin: 1-Amazonas, 2-Amapa, 3-Bahia, 4-Para, 5-Rondonia, 6-Various, for accessions with a maximum of three individuals per place of origin, and 7 - Accessions of indefinite origin. The accessions were also evaluated as a whole. For the electrophoretic analyses, samples of young leaves were used in a 12% starch gel. Eight isoenzymatic systems were evaluated: acid phosphatase (ACP, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH, malic enzyme (ME, glutamate dehydrogenase (GTDH and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH. Analysis revealed a polymorphic locus for each system and high isoenzymatic variability among accessions. The average number of alleles per locus varied from 2.3 to 2.5. Average observed heterozigosity varied from 0.381 to 0.615 and the diversity index varied from 0.479 to 0.559. Genetic variability within groups was greater than among groups, suggesting a distribution pattern similar to what can be expected for natural populations of outcrossing plants.A mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz pertence à família Euphorbiaceae, gênero Manihot, cultivada em todo o país. É a única do gênero utilizada na alimentação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da variabilidade isoenzimática de 200 acessos de mandioca obtidos junto ao banco de germoplasma da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Os acessos foram agrupados de acordo com o local de origem, obtendo-se desta forma sete grupos: 1-Amazonas, 2-Amapa, 3-Bahia, 4-Para, 5-Rondonia, 6-Diversos, incluindo-se neste grupo os acessos que se apresentavam em pequena quantidade por local de origem (um ou no m

  18. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil


    World Bank


    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  19. Development and application of passive harmonic filters in distribution secondary circuits; Desenvolvimento e aplicacao de filtros harmonicos passivos em circuitos secundarios de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Junior, Jose Rubens [Empresa Energetica de Mato Grosso do Sul (ENERSUL), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)


    Considering that for the low and medium voltage distribution system passive filter installations does not exist for the harmonic control, this paper proposes a new solution in the Brazil for improvement of the quality levels in distribution secondary circuits.

  20. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now (United States)

    ... Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  1. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil


    World Bank


    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  2. [A better Brazil]. (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey


    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  3. Scientific integrity in Brazil. (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins


    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  4. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)


    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  5. English Teaching Profile: Brazil. (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  6. Adult Education in Brazil. (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  7. IHY activities in Brazil (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (, hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  8. Heliostat tailored to Brazil


    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel,Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L


    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  9. Innovation Policies of Brazil (United States)


    by the other BRIC countries, particularly China. 18 Discussions with experts. See the appendix. 19 Brazil can have a low actual tariff rate of...Cassiolato, J. E., M. G Podcameni, M. C. Couto Soares, M. Szapiro, P. Koeller, F. Stalivieri, and F. Geremia. 2010. “ BRICS Description and Dynamics of...the Future of Internation Order. Center for a New American Security. Koeller, P, and J. L. Gordon. 2010. “ BRICS the Role of the State in National

  10. Neuronal Adaptive Mechanisms Underlying Intelligent Information Processing (United States)


    Simposio: "Aplicacao de venenos das serpentes em Problemas de Farmacologia e Bioquimica cellular". Ribeirao Preto S.P. Brazil. AJ PAGE 33 Allon, N. and...F2,. "., Fn. A limitation of this classification algorithm is that only linear sepa- rations are performed optimally by this method. 2. Bayes ...may be different from the general probability of occurrence of event A. Bayes has systemnatized this relationship. If one thinks of B as the causal

  11. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid. (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  12. Application of finance project for leverage of small size hydroelectric enterprising; Aplicacao do project finance para alavancagem de empreendimentos hidreletricos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Silvana dos


    In the same way that the majority of the countries, project financing of substructure in Brazil, in project finance modality, depend on a skillful structure of guaranties and contracts to become possible. In the case of projects of centrals of generation of electrical energy, that financial engineering becomes still more complicated. In Brazil, due to particularities of the sectors of electricity, the arrangements of guaranties requested but creditors pass to present levels of complexity and exigency well elevated. The contractual appliances that give support to the project finance, originally projected to developed countries, request an extreme adaptation to these particularities. The development of Brazil is directly related to its capacity in expanding the offer of electric energy in the just measure of the national necessity. In this context, the small central hydroelectric (PCH's) represent, actually, an efficient and fast form to complete the offer of energy in such a way to supply the crescent demand the national market. For its characteristics, that type of undertaking can be developed by small manager, from among which are the owners of the areas in which on can find these hydraulic potentials which, however they do not dispose of capital to integral raising. These undertakings are tasks, normally, of low global cost, at the rate of US$ 1.000,00/k W, and of a smaller ambient impact, compared to the return that they give to the enterprise and to the Brazilian electric system as a whole, by having to receive special attention in the planned politics to the sector and to merit a series of incentives to become business still more attractive. By thinking in the found difficulty by small enterprises in rising undertakings of generation of electric energy of small port through the convectional mechanisms of financing is being proposed in that work a well-founded methodology in the concepts of the modality of financing project finance. (author)

  13. The German experience in energetic efficiency applied to the Brazilian small industries; Aplicacao da experiencia alema em eficiencia energetica nas pequenas empresas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Ricardo W. de; Santos, Myrthes M.F. dos [SEBRAE - Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); GTZ - Cooperacao Tecnica Alema, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    The present work approaches the best way for absorption of the acknowledge accumulated by the developed countries , considering the existent technological, economic and social barriers. Reports presented on the experience of some small entrepreneurs of the Rio de Janeiro State, BR, that, based on the German model, implemented technological modernization actions, points out the good results obtained by the bakery, red ceramics and tire recapping sectors. The paper also presents the German social, economic, energy supply and consumption characteristics, and the stage of energy efficiency at the small enterprises, and ecological efficiency alternative measurements which could be implemented in Brazil for reduction of energy consumption and increasing of the enterprises competitiveness.

  14. Characterization of Paraiba state, Brazil, clays used for clearing of oil of frying for application as bio fuel; Cacterizacao de argilas do estado da Paraiba, Brasil, utilizaadas para clareamento de oleos de fritura usados para aplicacao como biobombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail:


    The search for new sources of renewable energy order to minimize environmental impacts has led the scientists to develop new alternatives, such as the use of recycling of frying oils to produce biodiesel. The reuse of these oils has the advantage of obtaining a biofuel with the cost / benefit competitive. However, the conditions of post-consumer oils require treatment prior to its conversion the chemical (transesterification), removing solid particulate contaminants and adjusting its color using the clay of Paraiba. The use of biodiesel as fuel presents a reduction of levels of environmental pollution. This study aimed to characterize clay of Paraiba to be used in the clearing of frying oil. It was observed through the results of the Xray fluorescence (XRF) and infrared spectroscopy by Fourier Transform (FTIR), which the clays tested, have been effective in clearing of frying oils, making them similar to oil 'virgin'. (author)

  15. Energy choice for textile industry: application of multi-criteria methods to the case of Ceara state (Brazil); Escolha de insumo energetico para o setor da industria textil: aplicacao de modelo multicriterio ao caso do Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Clarice A.C.; Arruda, Joao Bosco F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transportes e Desenvolvimento


    Brazilian energy sector has faced a series of transformations that have influence on national industry. The trial of economy globalization and the new energy sources Also available and output techniques created a more competitive business environment, where not only financial aspects are considered in industrial practices. In such environment, the industry seek for more efficient production techniques and greater importance given to environmental issues are responsible for making the decision processes associated to industrial activities more complex. In this context, the energy utilized by industry represents an important aspect of business course, justified by governmental concerns on attending all existing thermal energy demand. This paper aim is to support the decision process concerned to the choice of the best energy source to be applied in the industry. In order to reach such goal, a decision model was built based on multi criteria techniques applied to the case of textile industry in Ceara State. This sector is also one of the biggest natural gas consumers in Ceara, which has influenced on its choice in order to attend to a second goal of this paper: to focus the natural gas applications and support a greater insertion of this fuel in the market. (author)

  16. Geostatistics: application of kriging and conditional simulation techniques in the reservoirs CPS-2 of the Carmopolis Field, Sergipe State, Brazil; Geoestatistica: Aplicacao das tecnicas de krigagem e simulacao condicional nos reservatorios CPS-2 do Campo de Carmopolis, Sergipe, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.J. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marcotte, D. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mineral


    Description of the parameters used to do an evaluation of wells oil production are discussed. The global estimate production of the CPS-2 (PETROBRAS oil well) on the Carmopolis Field, using geostatistical techniques and a comparative study of the oil production simulation using the kriging techniques are also presented. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs.

  17. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio


    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  18. Treatment of post-consumption oils from Paraiba state - Brazil - clays for application as bio fuel; Tratamento de oleos pos-consumo a partir de argilas da Paraiba para aplicacao como biocombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Silva, D.F. da; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail:


    The utilization of fuels of agricultural origin in the cycle diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce dependence on importation petroleum, since these fuels are a renewable source of energy. The utilization of biodiesel as biofuel is a contribution to the environment, reducing the qualitative and quantitative form levels of environmental pollution. The recycling of post-consumption oil helps reduce the uncontrolled disposal and environmentally dangerous, than to obtain fuel with a cost / benefit and offering a competitive alternative commercial advantage. However, these oils should go through a process of decontamination and clearing up the stage of chemical conversion which is used clay to lighten the oil. This work had as its objective to make a literature revision evaluating the potential of the clearing clay modified in Paraiba, used in post-consumption oils for application as biofuel. (author)

  19. Brazil-U.S. Relations (United States)


    and expanding ties with nontraditional partners, including India and China. Brazil-U.S. cooperation has increased during President Lula’s second...August 21, 2009. 40 Fernanda Odilla, Simone Iglesias & Johanna Nublat, “Brasil vai dobrar efetivo militar no Haiti,” Folha de São Paulo, January 21...defenderá mais regulação no G-20,” O Globo (Brazil), August 6, 2009. 53 Gaurav Singh, “China, India , Brazil Commit to Meet Copenhagen Accord Deadline

  20. Tungsten resources of Brazil (United States)

    White, Max Gregg


    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  1. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  2. CNG (Compressed natural gas) engine M366 G for electric power generation; Motor M 366 G movido a gas metano veicular versao industrial: aplicacao grupo gerador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, Wilson; Shiraiwa, Nilton Mitsuro [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Wladimir Tadeu [Woodward Governor Company, Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Daimler-Chrysler of Brazil developed the M 366 G engine, in the industrial version, using compressed natural gas. This product has the combustion with lambda 1.0, it is a 6-cylinder engine in line with displacement compressor of 5.958 cm{sup 3} , power of 65 kW @ 1800 min{sup 1} (60Hz) and power of 55 kW @ 1500 min{sup 1} (50Hz). The equipment for rotation control, ignition, reducing gas and stabilizer were specially developed for industrial motors with CNG supply for the Fca Woodward. This paper presents the results of tests made on bank of evidence and test field, which showed the good performance of the product. (author)

  3. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  4. Policing violence in Brazil. (United States)

    Sena, E


    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  5. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan


    Full Text Available At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department, creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European Union. Apart from Metropolitan France, the country contains overseas territories, remnants of its colonial past. Over the centuries, France has known several political systems, from Ancient History to the current Republic. According to Ernest Renan, the French nation is more an ideology than a reality, primarily based on “the desire of living together and the wish to highlight our legacy”(1. The tragic attacks of November 2015 and all the reactions over the next days illustrate this. Brazil, discovered by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares during the 16th century, is established on half of South America and is about 16 times bigger than France. This giant does not look to the past but is always moving forward. The concept of nation is really strong throughout the country, as shown by the enthusiasm of soccer players wearing the national auriverde jersey and the National Team supporters. Furthermore, they possess a strong culture of entrepreneurship defined by Stefan Zweig as the legacy of the early colonial era(2. Biomedical research is a human activity which aims to give expected solutions, and sometimes unexpected ones too, to a major and insoluble problem at a given time. This research is based on knowledge and will question it with a scientific approach, spread between what is known today and what will be known tomorrow. Ideally, the point of getting new knowledge is to improve a group of people or the entire population’s health. The researcher is a

  6. Analysis of implementation of energy efficiency labeling of buildings in hotel developments; Analise da aplicacao da etiquetagem de eficiencia energetica de edificacoes em empreendimentos hoteleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Myrthes Marcele Farias dos; Faria, Ricardo Wargas de; Hamada, Luciana; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto Lopes do [Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia e Eficiencia Energetica


    Most Brazilian constructions have low performance in terms of energy, since they received little attention (or none) concerning the energy efficiency. One of the main aspects observed is the intense use of electric energy for climatization and lighting in order to provide comfortable conditions for the dwellers. In 2009, new perspectives to change this situation emerged, due to an initiative by the Federal Government, that established the necessary regulations for energy efficiency labelling in buildings, and broadened the Brazilian Labelling Program (PBE), which, up until then, encompassed only machinery and equipment. The purpose of this article is to analyze the compliance with the new regulations for energy efficiency of constructions in the hotel sector, where small businesses are predominant, aiming at highlighting the barriers and opportunities connected to the possibilities of labeling. Hotels have been targeted for large investments, since they have become the pillars of Brazil's project to welcome tourists during the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. Taking into consideration the need to develop specific methodologies for lodging possibilities, in addition to the scarce information on the use of energy in small businesses, this article is part of a series of researches carried out within the framework of the Sebrae/RJ - Procel Agreement. The outcome is a global analysis, from a business point of view, on the use of labels of energy efficiency in hotel buildings, organized upon two perspectives: the external environment (opportunities and threats) and the internal environment (strong and weak points). (author)

  7. Influence of limestone doses in the Manganese absorption by Brachiaria decumbens; Influencia da aplicacao de doses de calcario sobre a absorcao de manganes pela Brachiaria decumbens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Fulas, Paulo M.M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Primavesi, Odo; Primavesi, Ana C. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste (EMBRAPA/CPPSE)]. E-mail:


    To restore a degraded pasture of Brachiaria decumbens, located in Sao Carlos - SP, Southeastern Brazil, under tropical climate, an experiment was carried out to study the influence of different methods of the limestone doses application on manganese absorption by the aboveground part of the forage, during 3 years of treatment. The experimental design was randomized block, with 6 replications and 8 treatments. The 100m{sup 2} blocks were established in the pasture. Each block received a sequence of limestone doses (0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 t/ha) applied on soil surface with NK and, 2 t/ha applied on soil surface with plus one annual application of 1t/ha and NK, 4t/ha buried in the soil with NK, 4t/ha applied on soil surface without NK. Forages samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine manganese content. The statistical analysis showed some significant variations of this element absorption by the plant with regard to the treatments, but anything that could compromise the mineral nutrition of forage. Moreover, the quality of forage for the animal feeding showed suitable agreement to manganese requirement. INAA showed that it can be an alternative option for agronomical researches that require the knowledge of the manganese concentration. (author)

  8. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao para a determinacao de alguns elementos em amostras de cassiterita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre


    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  9. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque


    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  10. Brazil: Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change


    Carlos E. Ludeña; Maria Netto


    In order to understand the implications of GHG emissions reduction targets in the Brazilian economy it is important to understand the sector composition of these emissions in Brazil. According to the 2010 Second National Communications of Brazil to the UNFCCC, in 2005, the majority of Brazil's emissions (87.2%) corresponded to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  11. Country watch: Brazil. (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C


    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  12. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil. (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano


    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  13. Phosphogypsum applications in the cerrado agriculture and his radiological implications; Aplicacao do fosfogesso na agricultura do cerrado e suas implicacoes radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de


    The rate of generation of phosphogypsum is approximately 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. The annual world production can be estimated at 150 million of tons. It is classified as NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), in other words, it is a solid waste that contains radioactive elements of natural occurrence from the source rock. The large amount of phosphogypsum produced has been attracting attention of radiological protection institutions and environmental protection agencies in the world, given its high potential for contamination of the environment. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. In this case, the phosphogypsum is used as a source of calcium and sulfur, as conditioner, and for correction of subsurface soil saturated with sodium, potassium and aluminum. Due to the presence of radionuclides in phosphogypsum, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for transferring of natural radionuclides in the system soil/plant and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to the natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and loamy) fertilized with four different amounts of of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were analyzed being determined the radionuclides of interest ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 2}'1'0Pb and {sup 210}Po). {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th have been carried out by neutron activation analysis, Ra, Ra and Pb by gamma spectrometry and Po by alpha spectrometry techniques. Finally, Transfer Factor of soil-plant was calculated and the annual contribution to the effective dose committed due to the ingestion of lettuces of the experiment. Analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of soil and phosphogypsum samples were also accomplished. The

  14. Oral health policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior


    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  15. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva


    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  16. [Nuptiality among Brazil's black population]. (United States)

    Berquo, E


    Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.

  17. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia


    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  18. Brazils Rise to Global Power (United States)


    Família, Real Plan, BRIC , Export Oriented Growth, Import Substitution Industrialization, South-South cooperation. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 113 16...61 F. CAPABILITIES COMPARED TO BRIC ..................................................62 1. India...Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China EU European Union FTA Free Trade Agreement G8 Group of Eight G20 Group of Twenty GNP

  19. Application of oil spill environmental vulnerability analysis to Brazilian road networks for hazardous cargo transportation; Aplicacao do indice de vulnerabilidade rodoviario para transporte de cargas perigosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, M. Beatriz da Costa; Silva Junior, Carlos Leandro da; Almeida, Ana Flavia Oliveira de [Ambipetro Consultoria em Meio Ambiente e Petroleo Ltda., Natal, RN (Brazil)


    Roads provide the main means of transportation in Brazil. According to data from the Brazilian Department of Infrastructure and Transport, 96.2% of the passenger transportation and 61.8% of the cargo transportation are based on road infrastructure. However, three quarters of the Brazilian roads are in terrible, unsatisfactory or generally inadequate condition. Poor road conditions are responsible for a great number of accidents with severe consequences for the population and the environment. Given the importance of this matter, there is a need to develop an intelligent system for automatic classification of social and environmental sensitivity maps in order to support actions that respond to emergencies and to help in transportation planning, especially considering the heavy movement of hazardous cargoes such as petroleum and its derivates. For this, tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS) allow social-environmental and traffic engineering characterization maps to be analyzed on a unified, geo referenced digital base. This way, administrators can estimate which stretches of the network are more environmentally sensitive and which pose greater risks, and therefore draw inferences on the most socially and environmentally vulnerable. Social and environmental vulnerability data not only help in the classification of the areas which pose the greater risks, but also make it possible to decide on emergency support points, creating a culture of prevention in the area of hazardous cargo transportation. The case study on the state of Rio Grande do Norte provides a measure of the importance of such work. The city of Natal - the state capital - and the Guamare petrochemical facility are interconnected by 180 Km Road, on which more than 100 tanker trucks loaded with diesel and its derivates travel every day. This road is classified as in poor conditions and, according to the Brazilian Roads Police, it is one of the most dangerous. The relevance of this work is to show

  20. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?


    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge


    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  1. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights


    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Souzas, Raquel; Universidade Federal da Bahia; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia


    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  2. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group


    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  3. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)


    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  4. National epilepsy movement in Brazil


    P T Fernandes; Noronha, A. L. A.; Sander, J. W.; L. M. Li


    Purpose: To establish a social network of epilepsy lay organization in Brazil to provide advocacy for people with epilepsy and eventually forma powerful National Epilepsy movement. Method.-We actively searched for any associations, support groups or organizations related to epilepsy in the country by personal contacts, internet search and by telephone search. Contact was then established with any entity found. Results: The first meeting was held in Campinas in March 2003, and was attended by ...

  5. Brazil-U.S. Relations (United States)


    Currently at least ten bilateral mechanisms are in place through which U.S. and Brazilian government and business leaders interface on issues of...base, 430 kilograms of crack cocaine, 182 metric tons of marijuana, 12 kilograms of heroin, 125,706 dosage units of ecstasy , and 95,653 dosage units of...States continue to work together to address intellectual property issues, primarily through the U.S.-Brazil Bilateral Consultative Mechanism and the

  6. Brazil, A Potential World Power? (United States)


    inadequate transportation system. Much of the difficulty in exploiting the great natural wealth of the country has been the direct result of a poor ...exploding birth rate and high infant mortality; great wealth and degrading poverty . Much of the poverty and high mortality can be attributed to a of poverty creating ignorance and ignorance creating poverty . Brazil’s population is about 80 million and has been increas- ing at the rate of

  7. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  8. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni


    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  9. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon


    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  10. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization (United States)

    de Siqueira, Angela C.


    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  11. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima


    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  12. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd


    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  13. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  14. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.


    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  15. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series]. (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  16. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil. (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.


    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  17. US and Brazil: Prospective National Security Partners (United States)


    Chapter 5, “National Security,” data as of April 1997. Maxwell, Kenneth. “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” Article published by Council on Foreign...22. [22] Kenneth Maxwell, “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” article published by Council on Foreign Relations, 15 Dec 2000. (Hereafter referred

  18. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima


    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  19. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole


    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP,, responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  20. H3 internationalization to Brazil



    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics h3 is a Portuguese firm competing in the fast food market with a hamburger gourmet concept. The firm is now a strong player in Portugal (39 stores); Poland, Warsaw (1 store); Spain, Madrid (1 store) and Brazil, São Paulo (2 stores). As a result of their successes in the domestic market, internationalization was a natural step. One o...

  1. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis (United States)

    Rompala, John T.


    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  2. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  3. [Women and development in Brazil]. (United States)

    Cunha Neves, A


    This paper discusses the social, political and cultural status of women in Brazil. In 1976 only 29.6% of Brazilian women participated in economic activities; 54.3% of these were still employed as laborers in the countryside, while only 6% were employed in urban and industrial jobs. The greatest concentration of female labor is in the category of the very badly paid domestic employment. Man is traditionally the head of the family, even when he is not the breadwinner. Illiteracy has decreased in Brazil to 24.3%, but female analphabetism is 26.5% versus 21.9% male analphabetism. Schools are open to males and females at all levels, but the traditional and cultural structure of Brazilian society considers the home, not the school, as the only proper place for young girls, and maternity is still the primary social function of women. Politically Brazilian women have very little power, even if they make up 44% of the electoral body. Sex education does not exist in the school or in the home, and any sexuality exercised outside the bonds of marriage is considered as deviant.

  4. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil. (United States)

    Uziel, A P


    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  5. Lymnaea columella in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available The occurrence of a mollusc of the family Lymnaeidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil north of parallel 15ºS, as a result of the finding of Lymnaea columella in Manus and Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas. A description is given of its shell, renal organ, genital system and radula, pointing to the morphological characteristics of diagnostic value to separate it from two other species previously studied by the author, Lymnaea viatrix and L. rupestris, which also occur in Brazil.Pela primeira vez é verificada a ocorrência de um molusco da família Lymnaeidae ao norte do paralelo 15ºS no Brasil, como resultado do encontro da lYmnaea columella em Manus e Benjamin Constant, Estado do Amazonas. É apresentada uma descrição da concha, do órgão renal, do sistema genital e da rádula, sendo indicados os caracteres morfológicos que permitem distinguir a Lymnaea columella de outras espécies que também ocorrem no Brasil, previamente estudadas pelo autor, L. viatrix e L. rupestris.

  6. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)


    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  7. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  8. The Significance of 2010 Iran-Turkey-Brazil Nuclear Deal for Turkey and Brazil (United States)


    xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AKP Justice and Development Party AP Justice Party BASIC Brazil, South Africa, India, China BRICS ...of new international agencies such as BRIC , IBSA, and G20.233 Different from Cardozo, Lula prioritized cooperation with Asian and African states, in...multi-lateral networks such as: BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa), an economic group; IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa,) an

  9. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014 (United States)


    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  10. Rational use of electric energy in public water supply systems - a case study in Macapa - Brazil; Uso racional de energia eletrica em sistemas publicos de abastecimento de agua, um estudo de caso em Macapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia S.; Correia, Paulo de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia


    The rational use of energy is becoming a matter of great importance and interest on every sectors of society. Optimization techniques are efficient tools to get rational operations of energy. This paper presents an optimization model applied to a part of the CAESA public system water supply in Macapa, considering a daily programming horizon. CAESA is the company of water and drain of Amapa. The results achieve show a reduction potential up to 25% in actual electrical energy use of the studied system. (author) 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.; e-mail: cynthia e correia at

  11. Stability and growth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enestor Dos Santos


    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, Brazil has succeeded in implementing and developing an economic model based on an inflation target model to keep domestic prices under control, a flexible exchange rate and a commitment to ensuring the solvency of the public sector. This model was initially adopted during Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s second term as president, and subsequently maintained and refined during Luis Inácio Lula da Silva’s two terms. Its development will certainly continue under the presidency of Dilma Rousseff. The consensus on this economic model and the relative dissociation of political and economic cycles have facilitated the stabilisation of the domestic environment and the acceleration of economic growth.

  12. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi


    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  13. Community Development in Brazil: Two Experiences. (United States)

    O'Gorman, Frances; Speyer, Anne Marie; Tedrus, Maria Aparecida L.


    O'Gorman provides "Five Points for Reflection" on nongovernmental and community organizations in Brazil. Speyer and Tedrus discuss "Community Libraries: An Experience in Community Development in the Periphery of Sao Paulo." (SK)

  14. Queer Counterpublics in Australia, Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyja Noack-Lundberg


    Full Text Available A review of Rafaael de la Dehesa, Queering the Public Sphere in Mexico and Brazil: Sexual Rights Movements in Emerging Democracies (Duke, 2010 and Kane Race, Pleasure Consuming Medicine (Duke, 2009.

  15. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited


    Szybisz, M A; Szybisz, L.


    The aim of this work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimes in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent $\\beta>0$. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite ...

  16. Brazil : Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pernambuco


    World Bank


    Despite its origin as one of the pioneering and richest states of Brazil, Pernambuco today has a history of slower economic growth than Brazil as a whole. Pernambuco began as a sugar producing state and the expansion of sugar production led its economic development until the mid 1600s. Then Pernambuco declined, as sugar production became more profitable elsewhere in the world. It is estima...

  17. Huge Business Potential in China and Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ Brazil has the largest economy in Latin America, and the world's tenth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. In recent years. Brazil has become a well developed nation and its exports are increasing, with major export industries that include aircraft, coffee, automobiles, soybean, steel, textiles, and electronics. Its biggest investment boom in history is still under way as it continues to focus on attracting investment from foreign countries.

  18. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria


    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  19. Study of parametric methods for identification of mathematical models and Sundaresam method application in a steam boiler; Estudo dos metodos parametricos de identificacao de modelos matematicos e aplicacao do metodo de Sundaresam em uma caldeira a vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuttenberg, Rose Mary Cosso [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Controle de Processos


    Some identification techniques are discussed and the required data for application to the Sundaresam's identification method are obtained by connecting a microcomputer to the Spiraflo, an instrument available at the CEFET/MG - Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Brazil - steam boiler. All the graphical output, by an specified test, for the temperature, steam's flow and pressure are shown and analyzed. Through picked up data and Sundaresan's method, the transfer function between the pressure of the CEFET-MG's steam boiler and the flow is identified. (author)

  20. Optical fibre-lightning arrester cable appliances. Its repercussion in concrete unconventional power transmission lines projects; Aplicacao de cabo para-raios composto com fibra optica. Sua repercursao em projetos de LT`s concreto nao convencionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Ramon Sade [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    With the adoption of lightning rod cables made of Optical Fibre, (in systems over Europe, Japan and North America), these became very popular in Countries capable of installing the system. The Brazilian electrical party was then challenged by a new technological experience: the lightning rod cable for lines of transmission has specific characteristics. The particularity of the electrical system in Brazil in relation to the diversity of the parameters involved, and the necessity to clarifying the concepts, take us to new strategies in planning and measuring our Power Transmission Lines 4 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Reliability increasing of the Cubatao refinery mechanical equipment yard. An application of the reliability engineering concepts; Aumento da confiabilidade do parque de equipamentos mecanicos da Refinaria de Cubatao. Uma aplicacao dos conceitos da engenharia de confiabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Luiz Otavio Amaral [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia


    This paper reports the history of the reliability engineering applied to the reduction of failures quantity in mechanic equipment at the Cubatao, Brazil, refinery. The work describes the work system used for obtaining a 68 per cent reduction in the number of failures on the 1500 machines installed in a period of approximately seven years. Includes a brief description of the data bank or failure analysis in mechanic equipment (MICRO-SAFE), presently containing 5500 records, used to obtain statistical data on the equipment failures.

  2. [The health system of Brazil]. (United States)

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana


    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  3. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil (United States)

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino


    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.

  4. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil. (United States)

    Agapejev, S


    A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100%) was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67%) between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%). In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62%) and of the female sex (53-75%). The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 +/- 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92%) and intracranial hypertension (19-89%). Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical series and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.

  5. Development of Biosimilars in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Braz Pereira Gomes


    Full Text Available This article presents a brief overview of the biosimilar industry in Brazil and in the world. Biosimilars are drugs originating from therapeutic or biological proteins, whose patents are expired or are going to expire. Similarly to the generic pharmaceutical industry, the expiration of patents for biologics allows the emergence of a new segment in the pharmaceutical companies. The advent of biosimilars enables to overcome of several barriers, not limited to regulatory aspects of intellectual property, but also issues related to process and technological expertise. At this level of complexity, the biosimilar manufacturers need to have the same expertise or capabilities compared to originator drug companies or holders of the patents. The importance of biosimilars is due to public health context and high costs of originator biologics. Due to an aging population, the incidence of chronic degenerative disease will increase and will have a major impact in healthcare system, in this way the emergence of biosimilars will result in substantial cost reductions.

  6. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  7. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card. (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T


    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  8. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil. (United States)

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu


    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  9. Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 2. Detailed Report


    World Bank


    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is tha...

  10. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott


    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  11. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    CERN Document Server

    Segawa, Hugo


    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  12. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter


    for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI......  The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns...

  13. Air-driven Brazil nut effect (United States)

    Naylor, M.; Swift, Michael; King, P.


    A large heavy object may rise to the top of a bed of smaller particles under the influence of vertical vibration, the “Brazil nut effect.” Recently it has been noted that interstitial air can influence the Brazil nut rise time. Here we report that the air movement induced by vertical vibration produces a very strong Brazil nut effect for fine granular beds. We use a porous-bottomed box to investigate the mechanism responsible for this effect and to demonstrate that it is related to the piling of fine beds, first reported by Chladni and studied by Faraday. Both effects are due to the strong interaction of the fine particles with the air, as it is forced through the bed by the vibration.

  14. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  15. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  16. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle C. G. Fares


    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4 and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  17. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  18. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences]. (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R


    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  19. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent


    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  20. New records of marine tardigrades from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Márcia Cavalcanti Da Rocha


    Full Text Available In studies developed in the mid- and infralittoral of Cupe Beach (Pernambuco, in the shallow infralittoral of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and in the continental shelf of northeastern Brazil, we recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters specimens of Archechiniscus marci, Batillipes lesteri, Florarctus hulingsi, Halechiniscus tuleari, Angursa lingua, Raiarctus aureolatus, Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus, Tanarctus dendriticus, Tanarctus velatus, Neoarctus sp. and Neostygarctus sp., as well as six other species that had been previously recorded in the region. Hence, the number of marine tardigrade taxa recorded in Brazil was increased to twenty-seven.

  1. Policy Dilemmas in Brazil-Africa Relations, (United States)


    dirloiratic planner and spokesman is founc In Pona:Jc Sardenberz, "A politica externa do Brasil nas duas ultimas decadas," Re’.ista d Servicc 1u0ico 0 1...the cunntrv. Even though political interests may eventua!!1Y accrue with the development of comercial involvement in Africa, Brazil resists engagement...34Brazil’s Arms find Willing Buyers in the Third World," New York Times (August ?, 1?81), p. E-3; "Armas: Brasil invade o mercado mundial," Senhor (February


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva


    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  3. Family therapy in Brazil: current status. (United States)

    Picon, Felipe


    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  4. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.


    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial beta-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (=ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228)....

  5. Metátese de olefinas no Brasil: "Brazil is romping it!" Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Milton E. Matos


    Full Text Available Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts. In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community.

  6. Chemical modification of HTPB for application as polymeric additives for diesel fuel. 1 - phenyl ethers; Modificacao quimicado PBLH para aplicacao como aditivos polimericos para oleo diesel. 1. eteres fenilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Agne R.; Prezibella, Alysson M.; Ferraz, Fernando A.; Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos


    The petroleum industry faces several problems related to the crystallization of paraffins, in petroleum and its derivatives, with the reduction of the service temperature. To solve this problem polymeric additives are used, of which the esters have been enough studied in several areas of the world, except in Brazil. In this work, this class of pour point depressant additives it was obtained through the chemical modification of Hydroxyl Terminate Polybutadiene (HTPB) that present a hydrocarbon chemical structure containing one double bound in each repetitive unit and hydroxyl groups of the primary and secondary allylic types - functional groups potentially reactive. The obtained products were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, and they are being tested as additive for the pour point reduction of a diesel oil samples (REPAR-PETROBRAS). (author)

  7. Repair in Mourao power plant spillway: application of recycled material concrete admixtures - stage one; Reparos no vertedouro da UHE Mourao: aplicacao de concretos com adicao de material reciclado - 1a. parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Jose Carlos Alves; Portella, Kleber Franke; Joukoski, Alex; Mendes, Roberto [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails:,,;; Ferreira, Elizeu Santos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Email:


    The Mourao hydroelectric power plant located in the city of Campo Mourao, in the state of Parana, southern region of Brazil, was inaugurated in 1964, with 7500 kW of installed power. Defects in the spillway surface of the dam had been identified throughout the time. With the purpose of recovering the concrete hydraulic surface, repair materials were proposed in this paper, considering technology development and environment conservation. Concrete mixtures containing recycled materials - low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and waste tires - had its performance tested in laboratory. Mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength and adherence were evaluated using cylindrical concrete specimens. Results were appraised and the best compositions were selected to be tested on spillway surface of Mourao dam. (author)

  8. Implementation of the robustness analysis methodology for decenal planning in the expansion of electric sector; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise de robustez ao planejamento decenal de expansao do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata de Azevedo Moreira da


    The objective of this dissertation is to develop an application from one of the techniques of 'soft' operational research, the Robustness Analysis, to the problem of decision making under uncertainty, as part of the planning of the electricity expansion planning process in Brazil. Initially are shown desirable characteristics of a methodology that will complement the traditional methods used in determining the expansion of the sector. Departing from the Decenal Plan for Power Expansion (2007/2016), an analysis of the different trends that can occur during the planning process is presented, so as to facilitate the visualization of the consequences of uncertainties that may change the schedule of the planned expansion and also help the interaction between actors working in the expansion planning of electricity generation. (author)

  9. Determining internal movement costs at a warehouse using activity-based costing: offshore petroleum production application; Determinacao dos custos de movimentacao interna de um deposito utilizando a metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades: aplicacao a producao de petroleo offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Italo Ricardo Moreira de [Brasil Supply S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)


    As from the flexibilization of the petroleum monopoly, which took place in the second half of the 1990's, the petroleum and gas sector in Brazil has undergone a series of changes that have directly impacted the commercial relations among the companies in the sector. The increases in operational efficiency and reduction of costs have become basic factors for the companies wishing to compete in this market. This paper presents a study whose objective is to map, model, and determine the costs involved in the process for internal movement in a warehouse used as logistics support to offshore petroleum production. Based on the description of the internal movement process for product storage, the main resources are identified. Then, a mathematical model based on Activity-Based Costing is draw up, in which the results generated comprise the values for internal movement costs for each type of product moved in the warehouse. (author)

  10. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene


    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  11. "Almost invisible scars": medical tourism to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.


    Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources, o

  12. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options. (United States)

    Guedes, A C


    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  13. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.;


    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  14. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G Schatzmayr


    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and SouthAmerican countries and in the Caribbean region, due to the weaning of the vector control programs in these countries. High demographic densities and poor housing conditions in large urban communities, made the ideal conditions for vector spreading. All four dengue types are circulating in the continent and there is a high risk of the introduction in the country of the other two dengue types in Brazil, with the development of large epidemics. After the Cuban episode in 1981, when by the first time a large epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome have been described in the Americas, both clinical presentations are observed, specially in the countries like Brazil, with circulation of more than one dengue virus type. A tetravalent potent vaccine seems to be the only possible way to control the disease in the future, besides rapid clinical and laboratory diagnosis, in order to offer supportive treatment to the more severe clinical infections.

  15. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo


    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  16. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil (United States)


    ... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  17. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil (United States)

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.


    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  18. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn; Brownstein, John S.; Marinho, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre F.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.


    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year. PMID:27618573

  19. Climatic change in northeastern Brazil: paleoparasitological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo


    Full Text Available Trichuris eggs were observed in Kerodon rupestris coprolites dated 9,000 years before present, collected in archeological sites of São Raimundo Nonato, northeastern Brazil. However, present day local rodents seem not to be infected by the parasite, suggesting its disappearence due to climatic changes.

  20. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)


    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Brazil--On the Road to Greatness. (United States)


    plenty. fAn unforeseen blessing is the unemployment rates now being experienced in the large cities on the East Coast. They make a ready pool of labor...Brazil and in the Amazona delta, but nothing that would cause them to think their- worries are over. Purchases of oil have been cut back in the past

  2. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil. (United States)

    Academe, 1990


    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  3. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization (United States)

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy


    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  4. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Verona


    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  5. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil (United States)


    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  6. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil (United States)

    Stivers, Richard


    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  7. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda


    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  8. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory (United States)


    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  9. Ehrlichiosis in Brazil Erliquiose no Brasil

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    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira


    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by rickettsial organisms belonging to the genus Ehrlichia. In Brazil, molecular and serological studies have evaluated the occurrence of Ehrlichia species in dogs, cats, wild animals and humans. Ehrlichia canis is the main species found in dogs in Brazil, although E. ewingii infection has been recently suspected in five dogs. Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA has been detected and characterized in mash deer, whereas E. muris and E. ruminantium have not yet been identified in Brazil. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by E. canis appears to be highly endemic in several regions of Brazil, however prevalence data are not available for several regions. Ehrlichia canis DNA also has been detected and molecularly characterized in three domestic cats, and antibodies against E. canis were detected in free-ranging Neotropical felids. There is serological evidence suggesting the occurrence of human ehrlichiosis in Brazil but its etiologic agent has not yet been established. Improved molecular diagnostic resources for laboratory testing will allow better identification and characterization of ehrlichial organisms associated with human ehrlichiosis in Brazil.Erliquiose é uma doença causada por rickettsias pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia. No Brasil, estudos sorológicos e moleculares têm avaliado a ocorrência de espécies de Ehrlichia em cães, gatos, animais selvagens e seres humanos. Ehrlichia canis é a principal espécie em cães no Brasil, embora a infecção por E. ewingii tenha, recentemente, despertado suspeita em cinco cães. O DNA de E. chaffeensis foi detectado e caracterizado em cervo-do-pantanal, enquanto que E. muris e E. ruminantium ainda não foram identificadas no Brasil. A erliquiose monocítica canina causada pela E. canis parece ser altamente endêmica em muitas regiões do Brasil, embora dados de prevalência não estejam disponíveis em muitas delas. O DNA de E. canis também foi detectado e caracterizado

  10. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements in soil with application of carbonatite and agricultural fertilizers in Distrito Federal; Radiacao gama e resistividade eletrica em solo com aplicacao de carbonatito e fertilizantes agricolas no Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Carvalho do; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Pires, Augusto Cesar Bittencourt, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade, Leide Rovenia Miranda de, E-mail: [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados, Planaltina, DF (Brazil)


    EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and Brasilia University developed a research project about the viability of carbonatite rock as agricultural fertilizer. As an initial experiment, several mixtures of carbonatite, limestone, phosphorous and potassium compounds were added as fertilizers in an oxisol area (red-latosol, according with Brazilian System of Soil Classification), in Distrito Federal, central Brazil. The experiment area was divided in 56 plots (4 x 7m) and each plot received a fertilizer mixture. The purpose of this work was to verify if the addition of fertilizer mixture to the soil modified its radiometric and resistivity properties and if it is possible to identify this change. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements were obtained in an experimental area and in a natural savannah type vegetation area. The results showed that the fertilizer addition modified soil natural properties causing a small increase in K, U, Th levels and decreasing ten times electrical resistivity. A low contrast of radiation was observed between plots, and then it was not possible to differentiate the several treatments in base of gamma-ray measurements. Electrical resistivity was efficient to identify three groups of plots related to mixtures characteristics, respectively with phosphorous, potassium and limestone / carbonatite predominance. (author)

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de ovos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10{sup 12} cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  12. Application of neutron activation analysis method in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant; Aplicacao do metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons na analise de folhas da planta medicinal Casearia obliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina I.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;; Sertie, Jaime A.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas


    The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been related to the presence of organic compounds, however elements are also known to have an important participation in the active compounds constitution process. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine elements in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant collected at two different locations in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, SP. Soil samples collected from where this plant was grown were also analyzed in order to verify if there is a correlation between the elements present in soils and plant leaves. Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined in C. obliqua leaves and the elements As, Ca, Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U and Zn in soils. Soil samples collected from two different locations presented similar concentrations for most elements. Likewise, C. obliqua leaves collected from the two locations presented similar elemental contents. These results suggest that analysis of extracts from these leaf samples and the evaluation of their pharmacological activities should be carried out. Certified reference materials IAEA-Soil-7, USGS W-1, NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves and NIST 1515 Apple Leaves were analyzed and the quality of the obtained results was assured. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de ferro em forrageiras usadas no sistema intensivo de producao de bovinos de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Primavesi, Odo [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste


    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  14. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

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    José Adriano Giorgi


    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  15. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

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    Dantas-Torres Filipe


    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  16. The legacy of monazite processing in Brazil. (United States)

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R


    The exploitation of natural resources containing naturally occurring radionuclides may lead to enhanced levels of radioactive isotope and enhanced potential for exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in products, by-products, residues or wastes. Such resources include, for instance, monazite, the processing of which, in Brazil, generated a great amount of radioactive residues, being stored in buried concrete tanks, in temporary storage buildings and in sealed trenches. In addition, during the 1980s there were no radiological protection rules concerning the storage and transportation of these kinds of residues. Mineral radioactive residues were used as landfills and the residues of chemical processes contaminated floors and buildings. The decommissioning process and cleaning of old plants have generated tons of wastes that has been added to previously produced wastes. This paper reports and discusses the cycle of monazite in Brazil and its consequences in terms of site remediation and amount of wastes and residues generated and stored.

  17. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil]. (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro


    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  18. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil]. (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó


    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  19. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd


    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  20. Selaginella P. Beauv. from Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Gustavo Heringer


    Full Text Available Selaginella P. Beauv. is the only genus in the family Selaginellaceae Willk. The genus is monophyletic, has a cosmopolitan distribution, contains about 750 species and can be characterized by the presence of rhizophores, leaves, a ligule, heterospory and adaxial, reniform sporangia. Twenty species were found in the study area: Selaginella alstonii, S. contigua, S. convoluta, S. decomposita, S. erectifolia, S. erythropus, S. flexuosa, S. jungermannioides, S. macrostachya, S. marginata, S. microphylla, S. muscosa, S. producta, S. sellowii, S. sematophylla, S. suavis, S. sulcata, S. tenella, S. tenuissima and S. vestiens. Two new species records for the state are presented (S. jungermannioides and S. tenella. We present descriptions of the genus and species, an identification key, the synonyms pertaining to Brazil, illustrations, and comments about the taxonomy and distribution of species in Brazil.

  1. Adequacy of public maternal care services in Brazil



    Abstract Background In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. Methods Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study “Birth in Brazil: national survey i...

  2. Developments in Latin America: The Temporary Staffing Industry in Brazil


    Jennifer Watts


    While many countries are still struggling to escape the effects of the financial crisis, Brazil has experienced strong economic growth, providing a stimulus for further investment and temporary staffing agency expansion. This Working Brief aims to outline some of the developments that have occurred in the temporary staffing industry in Brazil. I briefly outline the regulatory context for temporary staffing in Brazil before highlighting the characteristics of the industry and detailing the eme...

  3. Restoring the Unwritten Alliance: Brazil-U.S. Relations (United States)


    Brazil will be a huge opportunity lost for substantial economic trade and growth. Already Brazil has concluded Common Market of the South ( MERCOSUR ...similar. Another regional South American organization not mentioned in the NMS is MERCOSUR , in which Brazil has become the natural leader due to its...proactively working to solve problems. UNASUR, MERCOSUR , and even the Community of Latin American and Carib- bean States are potential U.S. partners

  4. Record of Diglyphus walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species in Brazil. (United States)

    Carvalho, A R; Bueno, V H P; Silva, D B; Costa, V A


    Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  5. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil


    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela


    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  6. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil. (United States)

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni


    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  7. Carbonatite complexes from Brazil: A review (United States)

    Gomes, C. B.; Ruperti, E.; Morbidelli, L.

    This paper reviews general aspects regarding the occurrences of alkaline rocks associated with carbonatites in Brazil. Currently twenty-two complexes are listed in the literature, but only a few have been thoroughly studied. Special attention is given to the geological association and geochronology of such rocks, and petrological problems are only briefly discussed as a consequence of insufficient information. Data on mineral resources are also provided for some complexes. Eight occurrence are being mined, particularly for phosphate and niobium.

  8. Physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review


    Dumith,Samuel C


    The purpose of this study, based on a systematic literature review, was to describe the prevalence of physical activity (or inactivity) in the Brazilian population. The databases consulted were: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal. The terms "physical activity", "physical exercise", "physical inactivity", "sedentary" "Brazil", and "Brazilian" were used in the search. Overall, 47 studies (all cross-sectional) with random samples were found, and in 26 studies ...

  9. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir


    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos


    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  10. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil* (United States)

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios


    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  11. Coal prep in Brazil: the Polish approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilli, C.B.


    With one exception, all coal mined in Brazil is washed at the pit head because of its high dirt content. Since the early 1970s five complete coal preparation plants have been designed and constructed by a consortium, using Polish technology. Among the changes effected by the Polish engineers was the introduction of Polish designed equipment. These have led to several small modifications on the usual flowsheet design, which have increased recoveries. 4 figs.

  12. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic (United States)


    Brasileiro, Conferencia Mundial de Energia. Recursos Fnergeticos do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Maio, 1970. Carvalho Filho, Milton X. As Con ferencios...Weekly, p. 42-45 London 7 April 1984 Dzidzienyo, Anani. Relaciones Africanas y Latino Americanos Contemnporaneas: Problemas y Perspectivas. Brown...un problema que se vislumbra. The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced lnternatio~ial Studies. Washington, DC. 14 March 1978 Herzberg, Robert

  13. Quidgest internationalization strategic plan to Brazil


    Ramos, Maria do Rosário Pinto de Mesquita Ortigão


    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics An International Strategic Plan to Brazil is the subject of this work project. The author studies the prospect of the Portuguese company Quidgest increasing its international presence. Quidgest is a software consultant that develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. After an extensive analysis focused on Brazil’s economy, business ...

  14. Frontier Security: The Case of Brazil (United States)


    for Strategic Research ( CSR ), Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS), at the National Defense Univeristy. He is a specialist on Western...Case of Brazil, CSR Strategic Perspective 20 (NDU Press, July 2016), is the fourth essay in the series. Mr. Cope also guided to publication Hal...Klepak’s Reflections on U.S.-Cuba Military-to-Military Contacts, Strategic Fo- rum 295 (NDU Press, July 2016). Mr. Cope has numerous CSR Event Reports from


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Cordeiro


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  16. Solidarity Economy Networks: the Case of Brazil


    Castilla-Carrascal, Ivette Tatiana


    This article presents reflections (resulting from a Master’s dissertation in sociology) about diversecontributions by the solidarity economy networks in the construction of a solidarity market in Brazil.The first part of the article is a discussion about the different characteristics of the networks in terms ofmore general social theories, such as networks in the field of the solidarity economy. The second partbriefly characterizes the Redes Bodega, acs Amazonia, Rede Ecovida, Central do Cerr...

  17. Potential Intake Of Intense Sweeteners In Brazil.


    Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H


    A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities...

  18. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

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    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  19. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil. (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini


    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  20. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates. (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo


    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  1. The genesis of collective health in Brazil. (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice


    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil.

  2. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. (United States)

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant.

  3. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M


    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  4. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek


    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the "so called" Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  5. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil. (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François


    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  6. "Health for All" in England and Brazil? (United States)

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar


    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care.

  7. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro FIASCHI; José R. PIRANI


    Molecular phylogenetic studies have become a major area of interest in plant systematics, and their impacts on historical biogeographic hypotheses are not to be disregarded. In Brazil, most historical biogeographic studies have relied on animal phylogenies, whereas plant biogeographic studies have largely lacked a phylogenetic component, having a limited utility for historical biogeography. That country, however, is of great importance for most biogeographic studies of lowland tropical South America, and it includes areas from a number of biogeographic regions of the continent. Important biogeographic reports have been published as part of phylogenetic studies, taxonomic monographs, and regional accounts for small areas or phytogeographic domains, hut the available information is subsequently scattered and sometimes hard to find. In this paper we review some relevant angiosperm biogeographic studies in Brazil. Initially we briefly discuss the importance of other continents as source areas for the South American flora. Then we present a subdivision of Brazil into phytogeographic domains, and we cite studies that have explored the detection of biogeographic units (areas of endemism) and how they are historically related among those domains. Examples of plant taxa that could be used to test some biogeographic hypotheses are provided throughout, as well as taxa that exemplify several patterns of endemism and disjunction in the Brazilian angiosperm flora.

  8. PCATool-ADULT-BRAZIL: a reduced version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Celestina de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The reorganization of the Brazilian health system brings the need for on-going evaluation of the services offered to the population. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil version for adult users, validated for the Brazilian context, adequately measures the presence and extent of attributes of primary health care (PHC services. A reduced version of this instrument is required to optimize the process of implementation and use of the results in strategic actions. This article aims to present a reduced version of the PCATool-Brazil for adult users and analyze its suitability. The instrument was applied to 2404 adult residents of areas covered by primary health care (PHC units in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state. By the two-parameter logistic model of Item Response Theory (ML-2, 23 items that presented discrimination classified as moderate to strong, contemplating the seven attributes of PHC, were selected. As a measure of consistency, the results obtained with this version were compared with the complete version, revealing consistent PHC scores. These findings indicate that the PCATool-Brazil reduced version for adult users presents adequate validity and reliability, and it can be adopted as a rapid assessment tool to evaluate PHC in Brazilian services, permitting decision making guided by evidence in the development of actions to improve the quality of care offered to the population.

  9. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva


    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  10. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  11. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli


    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  12. The problems of nutrition in Brazil. (United States)

    Sanders, T G


    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  13. Stratigraphy sequence analysis application for multi scalar characterization of paralic reservoirs - an example in the Guata group (E O-Permian) of the Parana Basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Aplicacao da estratigrafia de sequencias para caracterizacao multiescalar de reservatorios paralicos - um exemplo no Grupo Guata (EO-Permiano) da Bacia do Parana, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechle, Juliano [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geociencias]. E-mail:; Holz, Michael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Early Permian Rio Bonito and Palermo Formations of the Parana Basin in the region of Sao Gabriel County has been used for a study on reservoir characterization of paralic sandstones. Two main depositional systems were recognized, a fluvial-dominated delta system and a wave-dominated barrier island system. The succession is divided in two third-order depositional sequences, enclosing thirteen fourth-order para sequences. This high-resolution stratigraphic framework was the base for a multi scale approach on reservoir characterization of the sandstone bodies. Reservoir heterogeneities are discussed, staring from the scale of depositional sequence (heterogeneity level 1), passing down to heterogeneity at the scale of systems tracts (heterogeneity level 2) and finalizing with an approach at para sequence scale (heterogeneity level 3). Main control on heterogeneity at the first level is base-level variation as generating mechanism for un conformities at the sediment type and rate. At the second level, the reservoir heterogeneity is controlled by the lateral and vertical variations in thickness of particular systems within the different systems tracts, and at the third level, the heterogeneity occurs controlling reservoir continuity and connectivities between reservoirs. The study supplies a model which is useful as a predictive tool for similar geologic settings in producing oil fields. (author)

  14. U-Th-Pb age in hydrothermal monazite applied in geochronological tin mineralization from Greisen zone of the Palanqueta granitic system, Bom Futuro deposit, Rondonia, Brazil; Datacao U-Th-Pb de monazita hidrotermal e sua aplicacao na geocronologia da mineralizacao de estanho em zonas de Greisen do sistema granitico Palanqueta, deposito do Bom Futuro, RO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Valmir da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Teixeira, Luciana Miyahara [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini [Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The ages of hydrothermal events responsible for tin mineralization in the granitic systems from the Rondonia Tin Province are poorly defined so far. Available K-Ar dating in Li-micas of greisens and veins yielded values around 965 Ma, younger than the late mineralized granites ages, around 990 Ma. Electron microprobe U, Th and Pb dating of hydrothermal monazite from the greisen zones of the Palanqueta plutonic system, Bom Futuro tin deposit, yielded an age of 997{+-}48 Ma. Considering that: the K-Ar method is influenced by increasing temperature; critical temperature of Ar retention in micas is 300 deg C; and fluid inclusions and ae {sup 18}O studies indicate, respectively, trapping temperature above 300 deg C and cassiterite crystallization temperature above 400 deg C, we suggest that the K-Ar dating in micas from Rondonia tin deposits are indicative of cooling and closure of the hydrothermal systems. Therefore, ages obtained from U-Th-Pb data in hydrothermal monazite from greisen can be considered a good reference for the tin ore formation in the Bom Futuro deposit, associated with late to post-magmatic processes, and coeval with the end of crystallization of albite granite in the Palanqueta granitic system. (author)

  15. Application of reliability centered maintenance (RCM) to the gas compression system of the platforms P-09 and P-19 (E and P from Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brazil); Aplicacao de manutencao centrada em confiabilidaade (MCC) ao sistema de compressao de gas das plataformas P-09 e P-19 (E e P da Bacia de Campos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Flavio L.B.; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. de [DNV Principia Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Frydmana, Bernardo; Okada, Ricardo Okada [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Logistica


    In this paper, the main results of the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to the gas compression systems of Platforms P-09 (Turbine Taurus 60) and P-19 (Turbine Mars 90) are presented. RCM is a method whose central paradigm is to preserve systems' functions, unlike traditional maintenance, which focus on equipment maintenance, without care about systems' functions and the allocation of maintenance resources. A total of 654 components were analyzed at P-19 and 551 at P-09, and about 650 maintenance tasks were established. Besides the results, this paper presents details of the method and some comments about its applicability in other systems. (author)

  16. Optimization of surface network and platform location using a next generation reservoir simulator coupled with an integrated asset optimizer application to an offshore deep water oil field in Brazil; Otimizacao de redes de superficie e locacao da plataforma atraves do acoplamento de um simulador de reservatorios de nova geracao e um otmizador global de ativo: aplicacao em um campo offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campozana, Fernando P.; Almeida, Renato L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Madeira, Marcelo G.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Spinola, Marcio [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    To design, modify, and expand surface facilities is a multidisciplinary task which involves substantial financial resources. It can take months or years to complete, depending on the size and level of detail of the project. Nowadays, the use of Next Generation Reservoir Simulators (NGRS) is the most sophisticated and reliable way of obtaining field performance evaluation since they can couple surface and subsurface equations, thus eliminating the need of lengthy multiphase flow tables. Furthermore, coupling a NGRS with an optimizer is the best way to accomplish a large number of simulation runs on the search for optimized solutions when facilities are being modified and/or expanded. The suggested workflow is applied to a synthetic field which reproduces typical Brazilian offshore deep water scenarios. Hundreds of coupled simulation runs were performed and the results show that it is possible to find optimal diameters for the production lines as well as the ideal location for the production / injection platform. (author)

  17. Application of the mechanism of clean development - MDL to the projects of PCHs operating in isolated system in Brazil; A aplicacao dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo - MDL - em projetos de implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas - PCHs em sistemas isolados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Camila Fernandes


    The present work considered to analyze the potential of application of the Mechanism of Clean Development - MDL to the projects of PCHs operating in isolated system. For in such a way, the emissions of gases of effect had been entered greenhouse - GEEs proceeding from a thermoelectric plant operating with diverse types of fuels: oil diesel, combustible oil, natural gas and coal and the emissions of one hydropower plant - a PCH. For comparison effect two scenes of performance of a PCH had been considered standard of 15MW: the first one corresponding to an area flooded of 3km{sup 2} and according to an area of 13km{sup 2}. Had the absence of data of emissions of GEEs for PCHs, a correlation with data of available CO{sub 2} emission of the UHE Curua-Una was established (chosen for the availability of referring data the measurements C-CO{sub 2} emission). The values calculated for the method of chamber of diffusion, which had most of the carbon emissions proceeding from hydropower reservoirs had been used to be proceeding from the diffusion of CO{sub 2} in the surface. The gotten results had demonstrated that it is possible if to credit of the benefits of the MDL through the implantation of PCHs operating in isolated systems in substitution the thermal plants. (author)

  18. Analysis of the feasibility of applying the theory of the supply chain nanagement for the electric energy chain services of the Bahia state, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade de aplicacao da teoria da gestao da cadeia de suprimentos para a cadeia de servicos de energia eletrica do estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Lydiane Abdon [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail:; Carvalho, Claudio Bezerra de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Petroleo e Gas], e-mail:


    This article aims to analyze the potential application of integrated management, through concepts of SCM (Supply Chain Management), in the chain of the energy industry, which is characterized by a chain of services. The prospect of incorporating new integrated management practices, through the selection of concepts and tools for supply chain management took the possibility of promoting systemic approach that includes the major components (physical, regulatory and commercial) the market of electric energy, investigating possibilities of reorganization of this important segment of the industry production chain. The proposal aims to provide a tool for planning indicative of great potential, to identify a theoretical reference in this important productive sector. The work includes qualitative analyses, which aim to map, understand and systematize the changes undertaken, with emphasis on Brazilian electric sector. It is described, in general, the characterization of the energy industry in Bahia state as a possible case study in implementing the proposed methodology. Thus, the work seeks to help the staff decision to purchase a minimum of integrated vision of possible decisions, including the dynamic interactions between market supply and demand. (author)

  19. Characterization of jade and silicates of the jade family for application in radiation dosimetry; Caracterizacao do jade e dos silicatos da familia do jade para aplicacao em dosimetria das radiacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Adeilson Pessoa de


    The main dosimetric properties of jade and of Brazilian silicates of the jade family were studied for application in radiation dosimetry of high doses. Jade is a common denomination of two different silicates: jadeite, Na Al(Si{sub 2}O{sub 6}), and nephrite, Ca{sub 2}(Mg, Fe){sub 5}(Si{sub 4}O{sub 11}){sub 2} (OH){sub 2}, that belong to the subclasses of the pyroxenes and amphiboles respectively. The jade samples studied in this work were from: Austria, New Zealand, United States and Brazil. The Brazilian silicates of the jade family studied in this work were the amphiboles: tremolite,Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 5}(Si{sub 4}O{sub 11}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2} e actinolite, Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 5}(Si{sub 4}O{sub 11}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}; and the pyroxenes: rhodonite, MnSiO{sub 3} and diopside, Ca Mg(Si{sub 2}O{sub 6}). The mineralogical and chemical composition of these materials were obtained using the neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. The main dosimetric properties (emission curves, calibration curves, reproducibility, lower detection limits, angular and energy dependence, etc) were studied using the thermoluminescent (T L), thermally stimulated exo-emission (TSEE) and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The jade-Teflon and the silicate-Teflon samples present two T L peaks around 115 deg C (peak 1) and 210 deg C (peak 2). The calibration curves of the studied materials present a linear behaviour between 0.5 Gy and 1 kGy. The TSEE emission peak occurs at 240 deg C for all samples, and the calibration curves present a sub linear behaviour between 100 Gy and 20 kGy. In the case of the EPR technique, only jade USA has a potential application for radiation dosimetry. A static computational simulation of the most probable intrinsic and extrinsic defects in rhodonite was also realized. Among the basic defects, the Schottky defects of rhodonite are the most probable to occur and, among the extrinsic defects, the divalent and trivalent dopants present the

  20. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25 (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007


    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  1. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N.


    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  2. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L; Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Tauro, Laura B; Faria, Nuno R; Pybus, Oliver G; Chiu, Charles Y


    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia's capital city, since mid-2014.

  3. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Pititto B


    Full Text Available Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4CPClin Clinical Research Center, 5Albert Einstein Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Brazil, epidemiology, management

  4. Brazil - Improving Fiscal Circumstances for Growth : Volume 2. Main Report


    World Bank


    This document is part of a series of reports by the World Bank on Brazil's potential to foment more robust economic growth and reduce poverty and inequality. The main focus of this report is on the interrelated fiscal circumstances facing Brazil, with an emphasis on public sector spending. The report is divided into two volumes. This first volume distills the essential stylized facts (that...

  5. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina. (United States)

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  6. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah


    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  7. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N.; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I.; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Campos, Gubio S.; Tauro, Laura B.; Faria, Nuno R.; Pybus, Oliver G.


    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014. PMID:27448188

  8. Organic carbon stocks in the soils of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.


    Soil organic carbon stocks to 1 m for Brazil, calculated using an updated Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database and simulation of phenoforms, are 65.9-67.5 Pg C, of which 65% is in the Amazonian region of Brazil. Other researchers have obtained similar gross results, despite very different spatial patte

  9. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report (United States)

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko


    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  10. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil. (United States)

    Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B


    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36.

  11. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

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    Inês Dourado


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  12. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

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    Luciano A. Favorito


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  13. Nasal mites of Tyrannidae (Aves in Brazil

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    MM. Mendes

    Full Text Available A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 (Great kiscadee, and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819 (Cattle tyrant, for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960 and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961 (Rhinonyssidae. This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  14. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case. (United States)

    Diniz, Debora


    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  15. The Costs of Displacement in Brazil


    Naercio Menezes-Filho


    This paper uses new data that combines information on workers’ education and earnings trajectories with information about their firms to estimate the costs of job displacement in Brazil. We find that high-tenure workers displaced from their firms during mass lay-offs suffer a long-term loss in monthly wages of about 20% per year. We show that this result is robust to different treatment of workers that leave the formal sector of the economy and is driven by the losses suffered by more educa...

  16. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

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    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira


    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  17. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

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    Thais Almeida


    Full Text Available Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa, two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia, one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii, one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii. Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  18. Jean-Baptiste Charcot and Brazil. (United States)

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Lima, Carlos Frederico Leite de Souza; Lima, Plínio Marcos Garcia de; Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Munhoz, Renato Puppi


    Jean-Baptiste Charcot, a neurologist from the famous Salpêtrière school and a renowned maritime explorer, visited Brazil twice. The first visit was in 1903, when the first French Antarctic expedition, traveling aboard the ship Français, made a very short stopover in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. The second took place in 1908, during the famous voyage of the Pourquoi Pas? to the Antarctic, when Charcot and his crew stayed in the city of Rio de Janeiro for eight days.

  19. Jean-Baptiste Charcot and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive


    Full Text Available Jean-Baptiste Charcot, a neurologist from the famous Salpêtrière school and a renowned maritime explorer, visited Brazil twice. The first visit was in 1903, when the first French Antarctic expedition, traveling aboard the ship Français, made a very short stopover in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. The second took place in 1908, during the famous voyage of the Pourquoi Pas? to the Antarctic, when Charcot and his crew stayed in the city of Rio de Janeiro for eight days.

  20. The "hot money" phenomenon in Brazil

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    Mylène Gaulard


    Full Text Available Because of its high interest rates, Brazil attracts more and more speculative capital flows, called "hot money", under the form of foreign loans, direct or portfolio investments. Actually, the country is directly involved in a carry-trade strategy that tends to appreciate the real, what penalizes the Brazilian exportations of manufactured products. Moreover, capital inflows are extremely volatile, and their departure, causing a fall in loans granted to the Brazilian private banks, could provoke a dangerous burst of the speculative bubble they have contributed to form in the Brazilian real estate sector.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses in Brazil

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    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira


    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DEN are found as four antigenically distinct serotypes designated DEN-1, 2, 3, and 4. Laboratory evidence that strain-intratypical variation occurs among DEN viruses has been demonstrated since the 1970s, although only with the advances in molecular technologies has it been possible to determine the genetic variability of each serotype. Genotypical identification has proven to be a useful tool for determining the origin and spread of epidemics and to correlate virulence of strains. In this report we present the results of molecular epidemiological studies with the DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses that caused dengue epidemics in Brazil during the last decade.

  2. Hashtags Functions in the Protests Across Brazil

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    Raquel Recuero


    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the communicative functions of hashtags during a period of major social protests in Brazil. Drawing from a theoretical background of the use of Twitter and hashtags in protests and the functions of language, we extracted a sample of 46,090 hashtags from 2,321,249 tweets related to Brazilian protests in June 2013. We analyzed the hashtags through content analysis, focusing on functions, and co-occurrences. We also qualitatively analyzed a group of 500 most retweeted tweets to understand the users’ tagging behavior. Our results show how users appropriate tags to accomplish different effects on the narrative of the protests.

  3. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil. (United States)

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A


    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  4. Botulism in non-ruminants in Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins secreted by Clostridium botulinum and characterized by progressive flaccid symmetrical paralysis. Among non-ruminant animals, avian species and dogs are the most commonly affected by botulism, while horses and pigs are less-commonly diagnosed with the disease. Despite the importance of this disease in animals, the Brazilian literature only includes case studies and outbreak descriptions. The aim of this study was to review the main features and to provide recent data on the occurrence of botulism in non-ruminants in Brazil.

  5. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.


    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  6. Catholic populism and education in Brazil (United States)

    Paiva, Vanilda


    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  7. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price


    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  8. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China... (United States)


    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the...

  9. Chemometrics application in fuel's MTR type chemical characterization by X-ray fluorescence; Aplicacao da quimiometria para caracterizacao quimica de combustiveis tipo MTR por fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clayton Pereira da


    In Brazil and worldwide the nuclear power has occupied a prominent position with many applications in industry, power generation, environment and medicine, improving the quality of tests and treatments, therefore people's lives. Uranium is the main element used in nuclear facilities and it s employed as base material to generation of electricity in the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In the '50s, during the Cold War, the then newly created International Atomic Energy Agency proposed to oversee nuclear facilities and encourage the manufacture of nuclear fuels with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel came then type Material Test Reactor (MTR), manufactured initially in U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} later, both dispersed in aluminum. The use of this technology requires a constant improvement of all processes involving the manufacture of MTR subject to several international protocols, which seek to ensure the reliability of the fuel from the standpoint of practical and environmental. In this context, the control of impurities, from the point of view of neutron economy, directly affects the quality of any nuclear fuel, so strict control is necessary. The literature has reported procedures which, beyond generating residues, are lengthy and costly, they need calibration curve and consequently reference materials. The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis, low cost and analysis time, as well as minimize the generation of waste, for multielement determination of major constituents (Utotal and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd and others) present in U3O8 and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, meeting the needs of nuclear reactors in the nuclear fuel qualification type MTR. For that purposes, will be applied the X-ray fluorescence technique which allows fast chemical and nondestructive analysis, aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous

  10. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

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    MARTINS Marilena dos Anjos


    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25° C and 30° C showed growth of white and cottony aerial micelium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution

  11. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil. (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J


    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  12. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences. (United States)

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco


    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  13. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil]. (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson


    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  14. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System. (United States)

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria


    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  15. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

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    Wzorek LF


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results: A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  16. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

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    Samuel Rezende Paiva


    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil. (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S


    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  18. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil]. (United States)

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José


    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  19. Decentralising the health sector: issues in Brazil. (United States)

    Collins, C; Araujo, J; Barbosa, J


    The health sector in Brazil has undergone important changes, particularly with the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). Decentralisation is an important principle of SUS and advances have been made in transferring responsibilities and resources to the local government units, known as municipios. This article describes the changes introduced, focusing on the system of municipio classification and the funding mechanisms introduced through the basic operating rule (BOR) of 1996. The paper then moves on to analysing three key issues of decentralisation in Brazil that are related to the policy process, the system of decentralisation and the output of decentralisation. Firstly, the formal process by which decisions on health sector reform are made is discussed with particular attention being paid to the negotiated and relatively open policy space. Secondly, the role of the states is discussed within the decentralised system. Thirdly, the impact of decentralisation on equity is discussed with particular reference to the resourcing of the Municipal Health Funds. The article concludes by emphasising the political nature of health sector decentralisation and the need to develop the conditions for effectiveness in decentralisation programmes.

  20. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.


    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  1. Paragonimiasis: first case reported in Brazil

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    Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos


    Full Text Available The authors present a case from a 59 years old white female Brazilian patient, based in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil's northeastern side area, who experienced irritative cough and progressive dyspnea, and, after 18 months, was admitted to a hospital with respiratory insufficiency. The physical exam showed diffuse rales in both hemithoraces. Initial leukogram showed 14,400 cells/mL with 14% of eosinophils and chest X-ray showed peribronchovascular infiltrate, predominating in the lower half of the lung fields, and small opaque nodules. The high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest (HRCT presented compatible pattern with airways disease, especially from the small airways, with air trapping, tree sprouting images, central lobular nodules and bronchiectasis, making the results compatible with bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. The transbroncho biopsy unveiled granulomatous lesion with necrosis, where was noticed a structure compatible to a parasitic case, and the research of the parasite eggs in the sputum was positive to paragonimus. After the praziquantel use, the patient presented a thick ferruginous expectoration and the result for BAAR examination was positive. The PCR exam and the sputum culture confirmed M. tuberculosis, and then the treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated. The authors warn that this infection may have been a consequence of economics globalization process, where the importation of parasitized crustaceans might be the cause. However, there is the need of an accurate examination for the possibility of paragonimus specimens in this area of Brazil.

  2. Multidecadal Variability of the North Brazil Current (United States)

    Zhang, D.; McPhaden, M.


    The North Brazil Current (NBC) flowing northward in the tropical south Atlantic is one of the strongest western boundary currents in the world ocean. It's unique location, straddling the tropical Atlantic where currents are predominately zonal, suggests that it is a major component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Fritz Schott was one of the first to suggest using the NBC as an index for AMOC transport, which is difficult to simulate accurately in models and data assimilation systems due to a lack of observational constraints. Here, we calculate an NBC transport time series based on five decades of historical ocean observations near the western boundary off the coast of Brazil between 6° and 11°S. Results reveal a large magnitude NBC variation on multidecadal time scales that is coherent with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in sea surface temperature, multidecadal swings in Sahel Drought and Atlantic hurricane activity, as well as the subtropical and subpolar upper ocean salinity anomalies. All of these multidecadal variations have been linked to the AMOC in a number of modelling studies, suggesting that our observed multidecadal NBC variability is an useful indicator of the AMOC. Concerning the possible slowdown of AMOC under global warming and the debate about whether a slowdown has already occurred, our NBC transport time series shows no significant trend over the last half century. The results provide important constraints on climate models used for climate change projections and decadal time scale climate predictions.

  3. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    compatibility with existing LCIA methods the effect factors were developed using the framework adopted by LC-Impact and Impact World+ methods. Soil pH was used as an indicator of soil acidity to predict plant occurrences. From the number of plant species occuring at each 0.1 pH unit response relationships...... of species richness and soil pH were developed. The species richness in each ecoregion were transformed into an empirical potentially not occurring fraction, which is a zero-to-one measure used to represent the presence or absence of species. The set of data consists of 976345 records of plants occurrences...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  4. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil (United States)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.


    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  5. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias


    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  6. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

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    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  7. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil. (United States)

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M


    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  8. The changing face of autism in Brazil. (United States)

    Rios, Clarice; Costa Andrada, Barbara


    At the end of 2012, after intensive lobbying by parent activist associations, a federal law recognized autism as a "disability for all legal purposes" in Brazil. Defining autism as a disability was more than a change of legal status to guarantee social benefits. It was also a political maneuver, orchestrated by parent associations, aimed to take the responsibility for treatment away from the public mental health network of services. This article examines the controversies that have set parent associations in direct antagonism with mental health professionals in the public health system. We draw from ethnographic data and theoretical discussions in the field of disability studies to situate these controversies within the context of a larger debate on the relationship between health, rights, and citizenship. We found similarities between the ethical and political goals of parent activists and mental health professionals in Brazil, but we argue that the main cause of dissent is the role that each of these social actors assigns to identity politics in their clinical and political projects.

  9. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, O.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  10. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil (United States)

    Morellato, L. P. C.


    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by

  11. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

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    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes


    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  12. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil. (United States)

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S


    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.

  13. 77 FR 13560 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30... (United States)


    ..., engineering and mathematics. Students then return to Brazil to complete their degrees. \\1\\ Bureau of Western... Information U.S. Commercial Service in Brazil Patricia S. Marega, Business Development Specialist, S o...

  14. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

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    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  15. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  16. ITMF’s Annual Conference in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This year, the ITMF Annual Conference will take place in So Paulo/Brazil from October 17 – 19, 2010. China has a strong presence of important delegation organized by China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC) which successfully presented ITMF’s first annual gathering in this new member country last year. As agreed by Dr. Christian Schindler, Director General of ITMF, China Textile magazine reproduces some of the articles sent to our editor who has combined and compressed the following interviews into one report for page reason in this issue. For the full text of all the relevant articles is available with Dr. Schindler, please visit ITMF’s official website for more information about this annual conference.

  17. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil. (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria


    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  18. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil

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    Jose Manuel Santos de Varge Maldonado

    Full Text Available Abstract: Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil. (United States)

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi


    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  20. Sciences and races in Brazil ca. 1900

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    Sánchez Arteaga, Juan Manuel


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a general overview about the way in which Brazilian medicine and physical anthropology gave a naturalistic approach to the idea of race and to the «problem» posed by the mixture of races in the country during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the introduction of evolutionism in Brazil.

    El presente artículo trata de mostrar una visión panorámica sobre el modo en que la medicina y la antropología física brasileñas trataron la cuestión de las «razas» y el mestizaje durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX, a la vez que los principios evolucionistas pasaban a ser aceptados por la ciencia nacional.

  1. The Elusive New Middle Class in Brazil

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    Celia Lessa Kerstenetzky


    Full Text Available Against the background of the generalized reduction of poverty in the world, and particularly in Brazil, this article intends to gauge the socio-economic profile of Brazilian households that emerged from poverty and have been identified as integrating a "new middle class". Using indicators of standards of living from the 2008-2009 Survey on Family Budgets (POF/IBGE, we found out that, in contrast to what has been assumed on the basis of average income criteria, this social stratum is markedly heterogeneous, most of it being similar in their consumption patterns to the economically vulnerable or outright poor strata. So, we conclude that, from a sociological perspective that demands additional conditions besides income levels to identify social classes, it is a category mistake to call this social stratum a new middle class. We conjecture that this may be consequential in terms of policy priorities and choices.

  2. Radioactive characterization of phosphogypsum from Imbituba, Brazil. (United States)

    Borges, Renata Coura; Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araujo; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido


    This research aims to characterize the content of natural occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum stacks at Imbituba, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th were determined in PG, soils and sediment samples by gamma spectrometry using the hyper pure germanium detector and neutron activation. The migration of radionuclides in the phosphogypsum profile did not show the same behavior for all sampling sites. The mean activity concentration of (226)Ra was 95 Bq kg(-1), which is far below the limit recommended by the U.S. Environmental Agency (USEPA) for its application in agriculture (370 Bq kg(-1)) and the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy Resolution 113 that established a reference level of 1000 Bq kg(-1) of (226)Ra or (228)Ra for the use of PG in agriculture as well as building materials.

  3. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  4. Transferring ART research into education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART approach in Brazilian dental schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the followig subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. RESULTS: A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%, and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%. The majority (35.3% of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%. It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice, and the disciplines involved in its teaching. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil.

  5. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil. (United States)

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable.

  6. Tetrastichus giffardianus on pupae of Anastrepha in Brazil

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    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tetrastichus giffardianus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is recorded for the first time parasitizing Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae in fruits of umbu-cajazeira Spondias sp. (Anacardiaceae in Brazil.

  7. Tetrastichus giffardianus on pupae of Anastrepha in Brazil


    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo; Paulo Roberto Ramalho Silva; Ranyse Barbosa Querino Silva; Elizangela Pereira da Silva Sousa


    ABSTRACT: Tetrastichus giffardianus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is recorded for the first time parasitizing Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in fruits of umbu-cajazeira Spondias sp. (Anacardiaceae) in Brazil.

  8. Vocational Education and the Training of Industrial Labour in Brazil. (United States)

    Moura Castro, Claudio de


    Focusing on issues related to the training of industrial workers in Brazil, this article reports the findings of a study which evaluated the effectiveness of vocational training offered by the National Industrial Apprenticeship Service. (LRA)

  9. Danish Literature in Brazil: Notes on Translation and Criticism

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    Vitor Amaral


    Full Text Available This article aims to present and analyse some examples of translation and criticism of Danish literature in Brazil. It will demonstrate that the dialogue between Denmark and Brazil in the literary field has more eventful a history than one can imagine at first. Translation and criticism are regarded as two complementary ways to disseminate a literature in foreign places. To the reader who knows little or nothing about the reception of Danish literature in Brazil, this article can provide the initial elements for a further research. There is not any attempt towards comprehensiveness, and this article remains a discrete look of its author’s over the reception of Danish literature in Brazil.

  10. Helminths parasitizing Columbina picui (Columbiformes: Columbidae) in Brazil. (United States)

    Coimbra, Marco A A; Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Krüger, Cristiane; Muller, Gertrud


    Columbina picui (picui ground-dove) is a small, diurnal columbid bird that lives, in couples or flocks, in open areas in the countryside and urban centers. The species occurs in Brazil and other countries in South America. The aim of this study was to identify the helminths that parasitize C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Thirty-four specimens were necropsied; in each case, the organs were isolated and examined separately. The nematodes and their prevalences were: Ascaridia columbae (26.5%) and Ornithostrongylus iheringi (11.8%) in the small intestine; Dispharynx nasuta in the proventriculus (5.9%) and gizzard (2.9%); and a Dispharynx sp. (2.9%) in the proventriculus. This is the first report of D. nasuta parasitizing C. picui in Brazil and the first record of A. columbae and O. iheringi infecting C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  11. Distribution patterns of riodinid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from southern Brazil


    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Iserhard,Cristiano Agra; Romanowski, Helena Piccoli; Callaghan,Curtis J.; Moser, Alfred


    Background: The aim of this study was to synthesize the knowledge of Riodinidae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), southern Brazil, evaluating the role of climatic, topographic, and vegetational variables on the observed patterns of occurrence and distribution of these butterflies in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. The records of riodinid butterflies in RS were collected from published studies and the examination of museum collections in Brazil. Re...

  12. Competitiveness of Brazil in the wood international market

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    Naisy Silva Soares


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Brazilian lumber on the international market in the period 2000 to 2007. The methodological tools used to compare the competitiveness of Brazil with its main competitors were the rates of Relative Position Marketing (PRM and Revealed Comparative Advantage (VCR. The results point out to the fact that, although Brazil has proved competitive, it is necessary to use marketing strategies aimed at increasing the country’s competitiveness in this sector.

  13. Euplectrus furnius parasitizing Spodoptera frugiperda in maize in Brazil

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    Vinícius Soares Sturza


    Full Text Available Brazil is among the world's biggest maize producers and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is the main insect pest on this crop in the country. Despite the importance of its natural enemies, there still is a lack of information about parasitoids species that attack this insect-pest, such as larval parasitoids. This research reports Euplectrus furnius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae parasitizing S. fugiperda larvae on maize crop in Brazil.

  14. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

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    L. Zé-Zé


    Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  15. Taxonomy of Epyris (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae from Paraná, Brazil

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    Lucyane Moreira dos Santos


    Full Text Available Epyris rotundus sp. nov. and Epyris cochlear sp. nov., from southern Brazil, are described and illustrated. Epyris longus Corrêa & Azevedo, 2002, E. argentinicus Evans, 1969, E. angustatus Evans, 1969, E. perpolitus Evans, 1969, E. parallelus Evans, 1969, E. distinctus Corrêa & Azevedo, 2002, E. variatus Corrêa & Azevedo, 2002, E. jugatus Evans, 1969, E. intermedius Evans, 1969 and E. depressigaster Evans, 1966 are recorded for the first time to Paraná, Brazil.

  16. Plasmodium vivax Landscape in Brazil: Scenario and Challenges


    Siqueira, Andre M.; Mesones-Lapouble, Oscar; Marchesini, Paola; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Brasil, Patricia; Tauil, Pedro L; Fontes, Cor Jesus; COSTA, Fabio T. M.; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Damasceno, Camila P.; Santelli, Ana Carolina S.


    Brazil is the largest country of Latin America, with a considerable portion of its territoritory within the malaria-endemic Amazon region in the North. Furthermore, a considerable portion of its territory is located within the Amazon region in the north. As a result, Brazil has reported half of the total malaria cases in the Americas in the last four decades. Recent progress in malaria control has been accompanied by an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, underscoring a need for a bett...

  17. Capillaria hepatica in Puma concolor: first report in Brazil. (United States)

    Quadros, Rosiléia M; Pilati, Célso; Marques, Sandra M T; Mazzolli, Marcelo; Benedet, Rodrigo C


    Capillaria hepatica was detected by histopathologic diagnosis in two cougars that were shot in April 2008 in Painel, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Macroscopic analysis of their livers revealed the presence of diffuse granulomas, and the histopathologic analysis indicated the presence of C. hepatica eggs, surrounded by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate, small foci of necrosis, and mild-to-moderate fibrosis. This is the first report of C. hepatica in cougars (Puma concolor) in Brazil.

  18. The sharing economy in Brazil: the case of gastronomy


    Štěrbová, Denisa


    After years of boom, Brazil will experience a recession this year. There was a significant imbalance in recent years from a budgetary point of view, inflation and foreign exchange. Protectionist Brazilian policy don't support foreign trade. Therefore consumers in the current recessive market environment are more willing to work with so-called collaborative consumption, even though Brazil is a country with one of the highest crime rate and the level of trust of consumers is lower than in other...




    Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in pu...

  20. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil (United States)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.


    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  1. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

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    B. Riet-Correa


    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  2. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Álvaro José Back


    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  3. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

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    Tony Picoli


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  4. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto


    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  5. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)


    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  6. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.


    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  7. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas


    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  8. Assessing vaccine data recording in Brazil

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    Mario Lucio de Oliveira Novaes


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objectives: Vaccines represent an important advancement for improving the general health of a population. The effective recording of vaccine data is a factor for the definition of its supply chain. This study investigated vaccine data recording relatively to data collected from vaccination rooms and data obtained from a government-developed Internet platform. Methods: The monthly recorded total number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (alone or in combination with the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine doses administered in a medium-sized city of the Southeast region of Brazil was collected for the period January/2006 through December/2010 from two sources: City level (directly from vaccination rooms, the study "gold standard", and Federal level (from an Internet platform developed by the country government. Data from these sources were compared using descriptive statistics and the Percentage error. Results: The data values made available by the Internet platform differed from those obtained from the vaccination rooms, with a Percentage error relatively to the actual values in the range [-0.48; 0.39]. Concordant values were observed only in one among the sixty analyzed months (1.66%. Conclusions: A frequent and large difference between the number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine doses administered in the two levels was detected.

  9. The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil. (United States)

    Rossi, Flávia


    Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.

  10. Application of Multiple Evaluation Models in Brazil

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    Rafael Victal Saliba


    Full Text Available Based on two different samples, this article tests the performance of a number of Value Drivers commonly used for evaluating companies by finance practitioners, through simple regression models of cross-section type which estimate the parameters associated to each Value Driver, denominated Market Multiples. We are able to diagnose the behavior of several multiples in the period 1994-2004, with an outlook also on the particularities of the economic activities performed by the sample companies (and their impacts on the performance through a subsequent analysis with segregation of companies in the sample by sectors. Extrapolating simple multiples evaluation standards from analysts of the main financial institutions in Brazil, we find that adjusting the ratio formulation to allow for an intercept does not provide satisfactory results in terms of pricing errors reduction. Results found, in spite of evidencing certain relative and absolute superiority among the multiples, may not be generically representative, given samples limitation.

  11. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

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    Luís A. B. Cortez


    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  12. Translated Poetry in Brazil 1965-2004

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    John Milton


    Full Text Available Through a quantitative survey, this paper will examine the translation of poetry in Brazil in the last forty years, comparing poetry translated from English with poetry translated from other languages, showing the considerable growth in this area, and demonstrating that translated poetry can be considered a new genre in Brazilian literature. In order to do this, I attempted to discover translations of poetry published between 1965 and 2004, including reeditions of previously published works.Por meio de uma pesquisa quantitativa, este artigo analisa a tradução de poesia publicada no Brasil entre 1965 e 2004, enfatizando o grande interesse por parte de editoras e do público na sua publicação e demonstrando que São Paulo é a cidade onde mais se traduz poesia. Também mostra que o mercado concentra-se em obras clássicas, especialmente as de língua inglesa, e que a tradução de poesia é essencialmente uma atividade praticada por homens.

  13. The biomass in the world and in the Brazil; Biomassa no mundo e no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingham, John McNeill [BG Technologies LLC, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents the status of the biomass utilization in Brazil. The paper considers the subjects as follows: general aspects of biomass utilization, electric power generation, present situation in the Brazil and in the world, and typical applications.

  14. Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it{exclamation_point}; Metatese de olefinas no Brasil: 'Brazil is romping it{exclamation_point}'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Jose Milton E.; Batista, Nouga C.; Carvalho, Rogerio M.; Santana, Sirlane A. A.; Puzzi, Paula N.; Sanches, Mario; Lima-Neto, Benedito S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts). In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community. (author)

  15. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo


    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  16. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  17. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities. (United States)

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L


    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto


    Full Text Available The application of cleaner production (CP practices in companies is not commonplace in Brazil. Moreover, there are significant difficulties in establishing partnerships among universities, companies, and the government. However, an increase in the number of companies concerned about the impacts of industrial activities on the environment has enabled the development of CP research. Hence, using a literature review and a bibliometric analysis to quantify the scientific production of CP, published in a congress promoted by the Journal of Cleaner Production in Brazil, and an analysis of social networks using UCINET-Draw, this study contributes to the current state of CP research in Brazil. Despite remarkable developments, shareholders and entrepreneurs still lack knowledge about the subsidies/funds to implement CP made available by the government, which would improve the implementation of CP practices. Moreover, university research programs may help companies to generate innovations in this field. This study is one of the first to review CP practices in Brazil, and proposes a framework to promote CP practices in Brazil.

  19. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  20. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil. (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito


    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  1. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

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    Thiago Hérick de Sá


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey, we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making

  2. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications. (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C


    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  3. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  4. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  5. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  6. First report on the entomopathogenic genus Neozygites (Entomophthoromycota) and Neozygites osornensis on aphids in Brazil (United States)

    The genus Neozygites has been known in Brazil until now only on mites, and this is its first report on aphids in Brazil. Tree-dwelling aphids (Cinara sp.) on a cypress tree were regularly monitored for entomopathogenic fungi in the city of Terezópolis de Goiás in Central Brazil between July 2014 and...

  7. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil (United States)


    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  8. A new species of the genus Xanthomicrogaster Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Shimabukuro, P.H.F.; Achterberg, van C.


    One new Xanthomicrogaster species from Brazil is described, and X. fortipes Cameron, 1911, is redescribed and reported from Brazil and Suriname for the first time. A key to the species is presented as well as data about the geographical distribution in Brazil.

  9. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review (United States)


    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  10. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program (United States)


    ... Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program AGENCY: Office of... Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education... institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in Latin America (in addition to Brazil) to create...

  11. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  12. 75 FR 49900 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... (United States)


    ... Sales at Less than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910..., and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 55035, 55036 (September 24, 2008) (Final Determination). The Department... Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 24560 (May...

  13. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  14. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  15. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  16. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program (United States)

    Du, Yangbo


    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  17. 75 FR 23295 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China (United States)


    ... castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on ``heavy'' iron construction castings from Canada, and the antidumping duty orders on iron construction castings from Brazil and China. SUMMARY: The... ``heavy'' iron construction castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on ``heavy''...

  18. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... were the orders to be revoked. See Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and...

  19. Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil. (United States)

    Sujii, P S; Fernandes, E T M B; Azevedo, V C R; Ciampi, A Y; Martins, K; de O Wadt, L H


    In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined the reliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size, and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them.


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    Talita de Cássia Marine


    Full Text Available One of the barriers in teaching Portuguese as mother tongue is the treatment of linguistic variation and fundamentally grammatical knowledge permeated by different linguistic norms. So in this article, we propose some reflections on the current situation of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazil, presenting a literature review on the topic, especially about the concepts of belief and linguistic attitudes studies sociolinguistic and documents the Brazilian government. Still we gather some results of previous studies on language attitudes and beliefs and we quote three factors that show that the Portuguese-speaking education in Brazil is still far from a reflective teaching and culturally sensitive pedagogy. To prove such factors mentioned, we mentioned examples of speeches and activities of students of primary and secondary schools as well as letters of course students. Thus, in this article, we point out how it is still challenging to think of a sociolinguistic conception of Portuguese language teaching in Brazil.

  1. Medical and agricultural entomology in Brazil: a historical approach. (United States)

    Benchimol, J L


    Medical Entomology emerged in Brazil in the late nineteenth century, through the initiative of a group of physicians dedicated to researching microorganisms related to diseases of public health importance, especially yellow fever and malaria. They led the institutionalization of Bacteriology and Tropical Medicine in southeast Brazil and the sanitation of coastal cities and, subsequently, rural areas. Medical Entomology provided the professionals who would undertake campaigns against agricultural plagues, as well as the institutionalization of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine. In the present article, I intend to show how relations between the professionals who gave life to Medical Entomology in Brazil were interwoven and to illustrate their relations with entomologists in other countries. I will also present an overview of the research problems faced by Brazilian entomologists at the turn of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth.

  2. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

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    Lamarão Leticia Martins


    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  3. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain. (United States)

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana


    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  4. Three distinct begomoviruses associated with soybean in central Brazil. (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda R; Cruz, A R R; Faria, J C; Zerbini, F M; Aragão, Francisco J L


    We report the complete nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Begomovirus infecting soybean (Glycine max) in central Brazil. Samples obtained from soybean plants collected at Santo Antonio de Goiás, Goiás State, showing typical symptoms of viral infection, were analyzed. Infection was confirmed by PCR-based amplification of a DNA-A fragment with universal begomovirus primers. Total DNA from infected plants was then subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and 2.6-kb molecules were cloned into plasmid vectors. Sequencing of the three DNA-A and two DNA-B clones thus obtained confirmed infection by three distinct begomoviruses: bean golden mosaic virus, Sida micrantha mosaic virus and okra mottle virus, the last of which was reported recently to be a novel virus infecting okra plants in Brazil. Begomovirus infection of soybean plants has been reported sporadically in Brazil and has generally not been considered to be of economic relevance.

  5. Anthropology of health in Brazil: a border discourse. (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Follér, Maj-Lis


    This article traces the development of anthropological research on health in Brazil in light of discussions on modernity/coloniality and world anthropologies. Originating in the 1970s, stimulated by external and internal pressures for scientific production and along with the expansion of graduate programs, a network of anthropologists has consolidated and multiplied in Brazil. We describe the development of research groups, meetings, and publications in order to characterize Brazilian anthropology of health as a research program that distinguishes itself from North Atlantic medical anthropology. We examine the visibility and circulation of references in academic publications to explore the participation of Brazilians in the global discourse and, more specifically, in the North-South dialogue. From a comparative perspective, we argue that anthropological investigations of health reflect a perspective and ethos distinctive to Brazil and its historical and political processes.

  6. Corynebacterium ulcerans diphtheria: an emerging zoonosis in Brazil and worldwide. (United States)

    Dias, Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira; Santos, Louisy Sanchez; Sabbadini, Priscila Soares; Santos, Cíntia Silva; Silva Junior, Feliciano Correa; Napoleão, Fátima; Nagao, Prescilla Emy; Villas-Bôas, Maria Helena Simões; Hirata Junior, Raphael; Guaraldi, Ana Luíza Mattos


    The article is a literature review on the emergence of human infections caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in many countries including Brazil. Articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases published between 1926 and 2011 were reviewed, as well as articles and reports of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. It is presented a fast, cost-effective and easy to perform screening test for the presumptive diagnosis of C. ulcerans and C. diphtheriae infections in most Brazilian public and private laboratories. C. ulcerans spread in many countries and recent isolation of this pathogen in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, is a warning to clinicians, veterinarians, and microbiologists on the occurrence of zoonotic diphtheria and C. ulcerans dissemination in urban and rural areas of Brazil and/or Latin America.

  7. Reforming Institutions from Inside: Federalism and Inequality in Brazil

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    Gabriel Cepaluni


    Full Text Available Some authors argue that the federal system in Brazil leads to economic inequality. Nevertheless, there are federations with low levels of inequality, such as Canada, Australia and Germany. Using the Brazilian case as an example, we argue that this can be partly explained by the rules of intergovernmental transfers and taxation of the federation. I propose a typological theory of inter-jurisdictional transfers: inequality reducing transfers; transfers that maintain the status quo or are ambiguous; and inequality producing transfers. Gradual changes in these federal rules allowed Brazil to cease being the country of growing levels of inequality of the 60s and 70s and to become a country that drastically reduced inequality in the 2000s. I emphasize that many intergovernmental transfer reforms, especially regarding taxation, are in need to keep Brazil on the same path.

  8. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

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    Marcelo Knoff


    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  9. [Generic drugs in Brazil: historical overview and legislation]. (United States)

    Araújo, Lorena Ulhôa; Albuquerque, Kemile Toledo de; Kato, Kelly Cristina; Silveira, Gleiciely Santos; Maciel, Náira Rezende; Spósito, Pollyanna Álvaro; Barcellos, Neila Márcia Silva; Souza, Jacqueline de; Bueno, Márcia; Storpirtis, Sílvia


    The Brazilian generic drugs policy was implemented in 1999 with the aim of stimulating competition in the market, improve the quality of drugs and improve the access of the population to drug treatment. The process of implementing this policy allowed the introduction and discussion of concepts that had never before been used in the context of drug registration in Brazil: bioavailability, bioequivalence, pharmaceutical equivalence, generic drugs, biopharmaceutical classification system, biowaiver. The present article provides definitions for these concepts in the context of Brazilian legislation as well as a historical and chronological description of the implementation of the generic drugs policy in Brazil, including a list of current generic drug legislation. This article contributes to the understanding of the Brazilian generic drugs policy and facilitates the search for information concerning the legal requirements for registration of drugs in Brazil.

  10. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S


    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  11. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

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    Mary-Louise Penrith


    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  12. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil. (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter


    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  13. The epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in Brazil

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    Victor Wünsch

    Full Text Available The city of São Paulo exhibits one of the highest incidences of laryngeal cancer in world and Brazil presents remarkable occurrence, compared with other Latin American countries. Around 8,000 new cases and 3,000 deaths by laryngeal cancer occur annually in the Brazilian population. In the city of São Paulo, incidence rates for laryngeal cancer among males have been decreasing since the late 1980s while, among females, the rates have shown a stable trend. This phenomenon is probably the expression of changes in gender behavior related to tobacco smoking. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of laryngeal cancer. The most important are tobacco smoking and alcohol intake, but occupational hazards have also been associated with the disease, such as asbestos, strong inorganic acids, cement dust and free crystalline silica. Additionally, salted meat and total fat intake have been linked to elevated risk of laryngeal cancer. Conversely, several studies have confirmed that fruits, raw leaf vegetables and legumes protect against this cancer. Some researchers have postulated a possible association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and human papilloma virus (HPV, but this is not universally accepted. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is weakly, but consistently correlated with laryngeal cancer. Familial cancer clusters, particularly of head and neck tumors, seem to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Some genetic polymorphisms, such as of genes that code for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, have shown elevated risk for laryngeal cancer according to recent studies. Public health policies regarding the control of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, and also surveillance of carcinogen exposure in occupational settings, could have an impact on laryngeal cancer. No proposals for screening have been recommended for laryngeal cancer, but one diagnostic goal should be to avoid treatment delay when suspected symptoms have been observed.

  14. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

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    Pavão Ana Luiza B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.


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    Cristiano Poleto


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  17. Public bureaucracy and ruling classes in Brazil

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    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira


    Full Text Available Brazil underwent industrialization and major economic development during the period that spanned 1930 to 1980 This is the period of strategic national development initiated by Getulio Vargas and taken up again after the crisis of the 1960s by the military regime that was in power. Throughout the entire period, public bureaucracy played a key role, always in consort with the industrial bourgeoisie. These two classes emerged as actors in political life as of the 1930s and - together with the workers who were minor partners - promoted the Brazilian industrial revolution. During the 1960s the radicalization of the Left and the right-wing alarmism which were both to a large extent stimulated by the Cuban revolution led to a military coup in which the bourgeoisie and the military joined interests with the United States. Nonetheless, both the bourgeoisie and public bureaucracy returned to a nationalist and developmentalist policy during the years that followed. Yet the major foreign debt crisis that took place during the 1980s led to the breaking apart of these alliances, and over the course of the decade, to the surrender to neo-liberalism coming from the North. At that moment, a disoriented public bureaucracy attempted to defend its own corporate interests. As of the 1990s, however, the sector involved itself in the State Administrative Reform of 1995; furthermore, neoliberalism, which then became the dominant current, went on to lose its hegemony over the following decade due to failure in promoting economic development. These two facts work, on the one hand, to re-establish new republican perspectives for public bureaucracy and, on the other, suggest that the renewed alliance of public bureaucracy and industrial bourgeoisie may again be turning into the nation's route to re-establishing economic development.

  18. Wind power in Brazil : a sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira da Silva, R. [Federal Univ. of Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, KTH Royal Inst. of Technology (Sweden); Queirs, J.R. [Federal Univ. of Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)


    Energy sources can be categorized as either renewable or non-renewable sources. Non-renewable sources, such fossil fuels provide energy services with emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases and are not seen as environmentally friendly. Rising fossil fuel prices, environmental degradation and the limited availability of the main sources has led to the world's interest in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass and geothermal. Wind energy is considered to be environmentally sustainable. It is one of the fastest growing energy systems in the world. Towards the end of the 20th century, worldwide wind capacity was doubling about every 3 years. This paper discussed wind power as a renewable energy source. The advantages and disadvantages of its use in Brazil were discussed. The paper also discussed prospects for its growth in use and experiences with wind power from the following countries: Germany; Spain, Italy; Denmark; Turkey; United States; Canada; China; India; Pakistan; Tunisia; Algeria; Nigeria; Australia; New Zealand; and Ethiopia. The benefits of using wind power include employment opportunities and income growth; environmental benefits; possible combination with other energy sources; and energy decentralization. The need for appropriate policies was also discussed. It was concluded that despite many difficulties today, the Brazilian government has begun to take more consistent actions to promote the development of the promising wind sector. There are many unresolved regulatory issues and problems with supply chain and economic leverage that are limiting a greater use of wind energy in the country. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Catastrophic expenditure on medicines in Brazil (United States)

    Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso


    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the magnitude of the expenditure on medicines in Brazil according to region, household size and composition in terms of residents in a situation of dependency. METHODS Population-based data from the national household survey were used, with probabilistic sample, applied between September 2013 and February 2014 in urban households. The expenditure on medicines was the main outcome of interest. The prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) of the outcomes were stratified according to socioeconomic classification and calculated according to the region, the number of residents dependent on income, the presence of children under five years and residents in a situation of dependency by age. RESULTS In about one of every 17 households (5.3%) catastrophic health expenditure was reported and, in 3.2%, the medicines were reported as one of the items responsible for this situation. The presence of three or more residents (3.6%) and resident in a situation of dependency (3.6%) were the ones that most reported expenditure on medicines. Southeast was the region with the lowest prevalence of expenditure on medicines. The prevalence of households with catastrophic health expenditure and on medicines in relation to the total of households showed a regressive tendency for economic classes. CONCLUSIONS Catastrophic health expenditure was present in 5.3%, and catastrophic expenditure on medicines in 3.2% of the households. Multi-person households, presence of residents in a situation of economic dependency and belonging to the class D or E had the highest proportion of catastrophic expenditure on medicines. Although the problem is important, permeated by aspects of iniquity, Brazilian policies seem to be protecting families from catastrophic expenditure on health and on medicine. PMID:27982383

  20. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil. (United States)

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C


    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.

  1. Paleoparasitologia no Brasil Paleoparasitology in Brazil

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    Marcelo L. C. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Neste artigo faz-se uma revisão sobre o início da paleoparasitologia no Brasil e seu desenvolvimento. A pesquisa de parasitos em vestígios humanos pode trazer informações sobre questões tais como a origem e antiguidade da relação parasito-hospedeiro, distribuição de parasitos através do tempo e migrações humanas pré-históricas. O estudo de seqüências de ADN de parasitos encontrados em tecidos mumificados e coprólitos pode ser uma importante fonte de informação para filogenia e co-evolução parasito-hospedeiro. A análise de ácidos nucléicos de parasitos encontrados em material arqueológico (paleoparasitologia molecular abre novas perspectivas para estudos sobre evolução ao nível molecular.We review the beggining of paleoparasitology and its development in Brazil. The search of parasites in ancient human remains can throw light on such questions as origin and antiquity of parasite-host relationship, general distribution of parasites through time and prehistoric human migrations. The study of parasite DNA sequences found in mummified tissues and coprolites can be an important source of information for phylogenetic and host-parasite coevolution. The nucleic acid based techniques (molecular paleoparasitology open a new perspective to evolution at a molecular level.

  2. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

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    Maria de Lourdes Adrien


    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  3. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil Arboviroses emergentes no Brasil


    Luiz Tadeu de Moraes Figueiredo


    Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215km²) with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophili...

  4. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management


    Almeida-Pititto B; Dias ML; Moraes ACF; Ferreira SRG; Franco DR; Eliaschewitz FG


    Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São...

  5. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil

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    Camila Zanluca


    Full Text Available In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.

  6. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas


    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  7. Measuring inflation persistence in Brazil using a multivariate model

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    Vicente da Gama Machado


    Full Text Available We estimate inflation persistence in Brazil in a multivariate framework of unobserved components, accounting for the following sources affecting inflation persistence: Deviations of expectations from the actual policy target; persistence of the factors driving inflation; and the usual intrinsic measure of persistence, evaluated through lagged inflation terms. Data on inflation, output and interest rates are decomposed into unobserved components. To simplify the estimation of a great number of unknown variables, we employ Bayesian analysis. Our results indicate that expectations-based persistence matters considerably for inflation persistence in Brazil.

  8. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil. (United States)

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato


    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  9. Brazil: U.S. Strategy for the Year 2000 (United States)


    and Brazil’s SID computer firm. I0 Another issue concerns Brazil’s space program and the scheduled launch of the Sonda IV missile. The launch...American Weekly Report (London), 10 November 1988, p. 4. 11. " Sonda IV’s Launch is Called Off,’ Latin American Weekly Report (London), 8 December 1988...p. 14. 48 32. " Sonda IV’s Launch is Called Off." Latin American Weekly Report (London), 8 December 1988, p. 5. 33. Stepan, Alfred. Rethinking Military


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    João Quartim de Moraes


    Full Text Available For Marx & Engels, communism is not a project, but a real movement of which the presupposition is the development of capitalism. The Brazilian Communist Party (PCB, as far back as 1924, offered an original contribution to the analysis of Brazilian society. The meeting of positivism and communism in the late 1920´s is the most advanced expression of Brazil´s leftist political culture. In the following decades, most communist intellectuals were leading figures in the elaboration of the national-democratic program of Brazil´s social revolution.

  11. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in a Zebu cow in Brazil

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    Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires


    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type A has been incriminated as the etiologic agent in jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS, which is a disease that affects dairy cattle. Although this microorganism is considered an important enteropathogen the pathogenesis of JHS is still not clear, and there have been no reports of its occurrence in Brazil so far. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of JHS by infection with a C. perfringens type A strain carrying the beta-2 toxin gene in a zebu cow in Brazil, for the first time.

  12. A harder edge: reframing Brazil's power relation with Africa

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    Pedro Seabra


    Full Text Available Brazil's rapprochement with Africa during the last decade has been mostly explained as an attempt to improve political dialogue, raise economic interactions, and provide technical cooperation assistance. This article, however, argues that such framework does not sufficiently account for the use of Brazilian material resources in order to attain harder strategic goals towards the continent. By focusing on defense cooperation ties, it highlights an important niche in South-South relations that has also grown exponentially, with important consequences on how Brazil exerts power across the Atlantic.

  13. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil. (United States)

    Zanluca, Camila; Melo, Vanessa Campos Andrade de; Mosimann, Ana Luiza Pamplona; Santos, Glauco Igor Viana Dos; Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos; Luz, Kleber


    In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.

  14. Cancer research in Brazil - stuck in second gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lepique


    Full Text Available This article describes the main issues regarding clinical cancer research in Brazil, including both the opportunities and the hurdles. Scientists and clinicians in this field had the opportunity to talk to regulatory agencies and to the Health Ministry representative at a meeting held in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2014. Our conclusions are that we do indeed have opportunities; however, we need to move forward regarding partnerships between academia and industry, increase the availability of funding, and provide easier navigation through the regulatory processes.

  15. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  16. A New capitalism in Brazil? Fusions & acquisitions on Lula government

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    José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior


    Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.

  17. 78 FR 15346 - Secretarial Infrastructure Business Development Mission to Brazil, Colombia and Panama; May 12-18... (United States)


    ... Appointments. Amcham or other Luncheon Speech. Panama City, Panama Commercial Opportunity Overview. Panama.... Commercial Setting Brazil The Federative Republic of Brazil is Latin America's biggest economy and is the..., Business development mission Orientation. Brazil. U.S Government Trade Finance Briefing. Brazil...

  18. Ten years of unitization in Brazil; Dez anos de unitizacoes no Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonolo, Daniel Dellamora; Almeida, Mateus Passeri de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The unitization concept, as used by the oil industry, was established in Brazil through Art 27 of the Law 9.478/97, also known as the Petroleum Law, and the first process was initiated in 2002. Within these 10 years, four processes were started and finalized, approved by ANP. These processes were developed in a maturing regulatory environment, which was improved in 2010. This article deals with the peculiarities of these processes, putting in context the regulatory framework and doubts at the time. We also verse about the regulatory scene after 2010, pointing out the main enhancements made. It is concluded that, although essential, an elaborated regulation is not the only important factor for the success of a unitization agreement, but also the agreement between parties, which has been encouraged by ANP.(author)

  19. Payroll tax reduction in Brazil : Effects on employment and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R. Scherer (Clóvis)


    textabstractThis paper evaluates the effects of the elimination of a payroll tax on employment and wages in four manufacturing and service sectors in Brazil in early 2012. This tax, which accounted for 20 percent of the wage bill, was levied on employers and financed social security programmes. This

  20. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

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    Renato L. Santos


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  1. Three Essays on the Labor Market and Education in Brazil (United States)

    Botelho, Fernando Balbino


    The first chapter studies the effects of a teacher performance bonus program implemented in Brazil in 2008. The program covered all schools directly managed by the State of Sao Paulo government, and was based on a standardized test run by the state education authority. I use high-school exit exams organized by the federal government (ENEM) to…

  2. Brazil, the United States, and the Missile Technology Control Regime (United States)


    Pursues Dream in Space," Washington Post, 13 December 1984, lf, 4f. According to Defense News, "Brazil’s Andrade Gutierrez Quimica produces ammonium...Defense Intelligence Agency JSI-IC Washington, DC 22340 Gary Wynia Carleton College Northfield, MN 55057

  3. Did Liberalization Start A Retail Revolution In Brazil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Gaaitzen J. de


    In the 1990s, Brazil opened up its retail sector to foreign direct investment. It was expected that the entry and market expansion of retail chains would spur the development of a sector long characterized by small family-run stores. However, the effects on growth have been disappointing. Our result

  4. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques Da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano


    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E. grami...


    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 31- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH3- Federal Univers...

  6. Measuring Cognitive Achievement Gaps and Inequalities: The Case of Brazil (United States)

    Soares, Jose Francisco


    This paper introduces a new measure of educational inequalities based on cognitive achievement data, and uses it to examine achievement inequalities in mathematics between groups of students enrolled in basic education in Brazil. The groups of students are defined by their race, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and region of residence. The…

  7. "Soft Power", Educational Governance and Political Consensus in Brazil (United States)

    Rambla, Xavier


    This article analyses the "soft power" that the Federal Government of Brazil has gained by designing and implementing a very ambitious Plan for the Development of Education. It draws on fieldwork carried out in the country in 2009 and 2010 in order to conduct a discourse analysis of the strategy deployed by the key political agents. The results…

  8. The United States and Brazil: Opening a New Dialogue, (United States)


    pro- vided for the initial reforms, none of the changes were in effect until after he departed the presidency. President Geisel wanted to be succeeded...Listening System in the South Atlantic]," 0 Globo, 16 May 1982, p. 10. 15. "Brasil Desiste De Construir Base Naval Na Ilha De Trinidade *[Brazil Ceases

  9. European Direct Investment in Brazil, 1860 to the Present

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    Âmara Fuccio de Fraga e Silva


    Full Text Available

    European direct investment in Brazil dates back to the discovery of the country and has been since then either hegemonic or more important than a superficial observation can grasp, as this work aims at showing. During the 20

    th century, the United States has replaced Britain as the world’s economic superpower and the largest direct investor. US dominance in the world economy and geographical proximity to Brazil would suggest that US investments were by far the largest in the country during that century. Furthermore, as Japan had become the second largest economy in the world in the 1980s, we would expect that this would be reflected in the data of the largest multinationals in Brazil. However, as our investigation suggests, Western European direct investment has been as large (and in many occasions even larger as that of the USA and Japanese firms have never had a prominent presence among the largest firms in Brazil, at least until the late 1990s.

  10. European Direct Investment in Brazil, 1860 to the Present

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    Sérgio de Oliveira Birchal


    Full Text Available European direct investment in Brazil dates back to the discovery of the country and has been since then either hegemonic or more important than a superficial observation can grasp, as this work aims at showing. During the 20th century, the United States has replaced Britain as the world’s economic superpower and the largest direct investor. US dominance in the world economy and geographical proximity to Brazil would suggest that US investments were by far the largest in the country during that century. Furthermore, as Japan had become the second largest economy in the world in the 1980s, we would expect that this would be reflected in the data of the largest multinationals in Brazil. However, as our investigation suggests, Western European direct investment has been as large (and in many occasions even larger as that of the USA and Japanese firms have never had a prominent presence among the largest firms in Brazil, at least until the late 1990s.

  11. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

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    Uieda Wilson


    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Spofford XAVIER


    Full Text Available Departing from the polyvalent metaphor of the “clinic,” this article discusses the results of the first phase of an English teacher education project, part of the Teaching Initiation Scholarship Program (PIBID/CAPES at a federal university in Brazil. Given the effects of globalization on language teaching and learning, the English teacher certification program needs to incorporate critical and intercultural perspectives in the reflexive dimension of the teacher education curriculum. One possible approach is the study of global English, or Anglophone, literatures utilizing a cultural studies and postcolonial theoretical framework. In accordance with recent observations by Festino (2011 and Lourenço (2011 about the importance of literatures in English for education in Brazil, I propose a multimodal and critical approach to the study of Anglophone literatures connected to teaching in basic education that also stimulates teacher reflection. This approach also seeks to illuminatethe role of English in Brazil and clarify the notion of content in English classes, as it relates to narrative. My analysis involves a triptych of literary genres from different countries: Kendal Hippolyte (poetry – St. Lucia, Chinua Achebe (novel – Nigeria, and Jhumpa Lahiri (short story – United States and India. Some strategies for transposing literary studies to the middle school English classroom in Brazil are also outlined.

  13. Daytime School Guided Visits to an Astronomical Observatory in Brazil (United States)

    Colombo, Pedro Donizete, Jr.; Silva, Cibelle Celestino; Aroca, Silvia Calbo


    This article analyzes the activity "Daytime School Guided Visits" at an astronomical observatory in Brazil with pupils from primary school. The adopted research methodology relied on questionnaire applications and semistructured interviews. The objectives were to identify the influences of the visits on learning of astronomical concepts…

  14. Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990 (United States)

    Guimaraes, Selva


    The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…

  15. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.;

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  16. Conidiobolus macrosporus (Entomophthorales), a mosquito pathogen in Central Brazil (United States)

    A new fungal pathogen of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) adults, Conidiobolus macrosporus (Ancylistaceae), was detected and isolated during a survey of mosquito pathogens close to the city of Aruanã, Goiás State of Brazil, in December 2014. The morphological characteristics of C. macrosporus are pres...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  18. Orbivirus infections in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in southeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Galinari, Grazielle C F; Cortez, Adriana; Paula, Cátia D; Lobato, Zélia I P; Heinemann, Marcos B


    We surveyed 49 free-living collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) in Brazil for antibodies against bluetongue virus (BTV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Antibodies against BTV were detected in 19/49 (39%) samples. All samples were negative for PCV2. The importance of antibodies to BTV in collared peccaries remains to be determined.

  19. Science Teacher Education in Brazil: 1950-2000 (United States)

    Villani, Alberto; de Almeida Pacca, Jesuina Lopes; de Freitas, Denise


    This paper analyzes the most significant events occurring in Brazil's educational, social and political areas over the last half century, viewed against a background of relevant worldwide events. The hypothesis presented here is that the relations between the country's educational policies, the demands of the various segments of academia, and the…

  20. Serratia marcescens harboring SME-4 in Brazil: A silent threat. (United States)

    Cayô, Rodrigo; Leme, Rodrigo Cuiabano Paes; Streling, Ana Paula; Matos, Adriana Pereira; Nodari, Carolina Silva; Chaves, Jessica Reis Esteves; Brandão, Jorge Luiz Ferreira; de Almeida, Maíra Fernandes; Carrareto, Valério; de Castro Pereira, Marco Aurélio; de Almeida, Jean Pierre Aquino; Ferreira, Demian Candido; Gales, Ana Cristina


    The intrinsic polymyxin resistance displayed by Serratia marcescens makes the acquisition of carbapenemase encoding genes a worrisome event. This study report a SME-4-producing S. marcescens isolate causing septic shock in Brazil. The insertion of novel resistance determinants and their consequent spread in our territory is noteworthy.

  1. Brazil: Education in an Expanding Economy. Bulletin, 1959, No. 13 (United States)

    Faust, Augustus F.


    Studies on education in other countries have long been a responsibility of the Office of Education. This present study is another contribution in the series. It is based on background information acquired by the author during 4 visits totaling 3 years of residence in Brazil, with a 1957 visit to obtain current first-hand data. The purpose of the…

  2. A regional-scale Ocean Health Index for Brazil. (United States)

    Elfes, Cristiane T; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hardy, Darren; Scarborough, Courtney; Best, Benjamin D; Pinheiro, Tiago; Dutra, Guilherme F


    Brazil has one of the largest and fastest growing economies and one of the largest coastlines in the world, making human use and enjoyment of coastal and marine resources of fundamental importance to the country. Integrated assessments of ocean health are needed to understand the condition of a range of benefits that humans derive from marine systems and to evaluate where attention should be focused to improve the health of these systems. Here we describe the first such assessment for Brazil at both national and state levels. We applied the Ocean Health Index framework, which evaluates ten public goals for healthy oceans. Despite refinements of input data and model formulations, the national score of 60 (out of 100) was highly congruent with the previous global assessment for Brazil of 62. Variability in scores among coastal states was most striking for goals related to mariculture, protected areas, tourism, and clean waters. Extractive goals, including Food Provision, received low scores relative to habitat-related goals, such as Biodiversity. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Ocean Health Index at a regional scale, and its usefulness in highlighting existing data and knowledge gaps and identifying key policy and management recommendations. To improve Brazil's ocean health, this study suggests that future actions should focus on: enhancing fisheries management, expanding marine protected areas, and monitoring coastal habitats.

  3. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil (United States)

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.


    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  4. Electricity end-uses in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisi, Enedir; Gosch, Samuel; Lamberts, Roberto [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering


    The residential energy consumption has been studied in many countries as it usually accounts for a large percentage of the total energy consumption. Energy end-uses have also been a matter of concern as they can assist energy system planning. The objective of this paper is to assess the actual scenario of electricity consumption and estimate electricity end-uses in the residential sector of Brazil for different bioclimatic zones. The analysis is based on a survey performed by 17 energy utilities enclosing a total of 17,643 houses or flats over 12 states in Brazil. The survey was performed to obtain electricity consumption data for all household appliances found in houses and flats. The electricity end-uses were estimated by performing weighted averages according to the location of the dwellings in each bioclimatic zone. Results indicate that the largest end-uses are for refrigerator and freezer together, which account for about 38-49% of the electricity consumption in dwellings in Brazil. Air-conditioning and electric shower are the end-uses that are more dependent on the climatic conditions. The main conclusion that can be made from the analysis is that air-conditioning should be a major concern in the residential sector of Brazil in the near future as its ownership is still low, but its electricity consumption is already significant mainly over summer. (author)

  5. [Rotavirus infection in Brazil: epidemiology and challenges for its control]. (United States)

    Linhares, A C


    Worldwide, rotaviruses account for 600,000 to 870,000 deaths per year among infants and young children. In Brazil, rotaviruses were first seen in 1976 by scanning electron microscopy of stool samples from diarrheic infants in Belém, Pará. Hospital-based studies have shown that rotaviruses are associated with 12-42% of cases of acute diarrhea. In addition, community-based studies yielded an average of 0.25 rotavirus-related diarrheal episodes per child per year. G types 1 to 4 account for about two-thirds of circulating strains, but the (unusual) P[8],G5 genotype has been claimed to cause over 10% of rotavirus diarrheal episodes. It has been shown that over 70% of children develop rotavirus antibodies by the age of 4-5 years. The tetravalent rhesus-human rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) conferred 35% protection according to a two-year follow-up study in Belém, Pará, Brazil, but reached an efficacy of 60% during the first year of life. RRV-TV was also shown to be 75% protective against very severe gastroenteritis in northern Brazil. Vaccination with RRV-TV has been suspended recently in the United States because of the detection of intussusception as a side effect. Therefore, further vaccine trials in Brazil will probably involve rotavirus candidate vaccines other than RRV-TV.

  6. Cyanobacterial dominance in Brazil: Distribution and environmental preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, M.C.S.; Miranda, A.; Mello, M.M.; Roland, F.; Lurling, M.


    Based on a literature survey, we evaluated the periods of cyanobacterial dominance in Brazil. We hypothesized that variability of environmental forces along the country will promote or facilitate temporal and spatial mosaic in cyanobacterial dominance. The most striking outcomes are related to the d

  7. The parallel materialization of REDD+ implementation discourses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, R. van der; Rajão, R.; Leroy, P.; Boezeman, D.F.


    The concept of Reducing Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) dominates international debates on the role of forests in climate change mitigation, but concrete implementation remains a challenge. In contrast to this general trend, Brazil emerged as a noteworthy exception due to the widespread

  8. When Myth and Reality Meet: Reflections on ESP in Brazil (United States)

    Celani, Maria Antonieta Alba


    Within the broad background of English language education in Brazil, this paper intends to discuss two questions. Firstly, where and why a common misconception about ESP being identified as the teaching of reading only originated, and secondly, given the social role of English in the Brazilian context, whether an ESP approach can be seen as more…

  9. New species of Lessingianthus (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.


    Two new species of the genus Lessingianthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) from Brazil and Paraguay are described and illustrated. Lessingianthus cipoensis is characterized by the presence of solitary heads disposed in short branches and ovate to elliptical leaves. It has a certain resemblance to L. vesti

  10. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula


    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...

  11. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil? (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferreira, Jonatas B C; Santana, Daniella B; Cuba, César A Cuba


    Sylvatic triatomines of the genus Rhodnius commonly fly into houses in Latin America, maintaining the risk of Chagas disease transmission in spite of control efforts. In the recent past, adult bugs collected inside houses in central Brazil were identified as R. prolixus, a primary disease vector whose natural geographical range excludes this region. Three nearly sibling species (R. neglectus, R. nasutus, and R. robustus), secondary vectors with limited epidemiological significance, occur naturally south of the Brazilian Amazon. The specific status of Rhodnius specimens found inside houses in central Brazil is therefore an epidemiologically important (and still debated) issue. We used wing and head geometric morphometrics to investigate the taxonomic status of 230 adult specimens representing all four 'R. prolixus group' species (19 populations from palm trees, domiciles, and reference laboratory colonies). Discriminant analyses of shape variation allowed for an almost perfect reclassification of individuals to their putative species. Shape patterning revealed no consistent differences between most specimens collected inside houses in central Brazil and R. neglectus, and showed that R. robustus and R. neglectus occur sympatrically (and fly into houses) in southern Amazonia. Furthermore, all Brazilian specimens clearly differed from our reference R. prolixus population. Using geometric morphometrics, we confidently ascribed individual triatomines to their species within the problematic 'R. prolixus group', illustrating the potential value of this approach in entomological surveillance. Our results strongly support the idea that R. neglectus, and not R. prolixus, is the species invading houses in central Brazil.

  12. Participatory slum upgrading as a disjunctive process in Recife, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Pieter


    This article engages with the coproduction of urban space by focusing on a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil. It argues that the urban situation is essentially inconsistent, unpredictable and unstable. It documents the history of urban planning in Recife, paying special attention to the co


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos


    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  14. Transformative Learning through Music: Case Studies from Brazil (United States)

    Qi, Nan; Veblen, Kari K.


    In this study we consider meaningful, emancipatory, and affirming music-making in Brazil through the lens of five case studies. Each illustrates aspects of transformative theory through music-making in music education as advanced by Mezirow, Freire, and contemporary Brazilian music educators.

  15. China and Brazil: Economic Impacts of a Growing Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Jenkins


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the economic impacts of China’s re-emergence on Brazil, looking at both the direct effects of China on Brazil in terms of bilateral trade and investment flows and the indirect effects through increased competition in export markets for manufactured goods and higher world prices for primary commodities. Despite a surge in Chinese FDI in Brazil in 2010, the main driver of bilateral relations is trade. While bilateral trade has grown rapidly, the pattern that has emerged has given rise to concern because Brazil’s exports are concentrated in a small number of primary products while imports from China are almost entirely of manufactured goods that are becoming more technologically sophisticated over time. Brazil has benefitted in the short term from the high prices of primary commodities (partly caused by growing Chinese demand, but has lost export markets to China in manufactures, contributing to the “primarization” of the country’s export basket.

  16. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil. (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana


    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  17. An Approach to Undergraduate Course Design in Brazil. (United States)

    Bygate, Martin; And Others


    Describes a B.A. degree program in English at the Federal Univesity of Santa Catarina in Brazil. Discusses specific problems relating to the students, the materials, course objectives, timetable, and staffing. Identifies some continuing sources of difficulty and recent developments in the design of the program. (SED)

  18. Curriculum: The Contradictions in Theatre Education in Brazil (United States)

    Pompeo Nogueira, Marcia; de Medeiros Pereira, Diego


    The history of arts education in Brazil is summarised, based on its contradictions. Some aspects of the Brazilian educational system and the National Curriculum Parameters are presented, in order to identify the predominant approach to theatre education. Three situations of the theatre education landscape in the state of Santa Catarina, southern…

  19. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller


    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  20. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil. (United States)

    Diniz, Simone


    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors.

  1. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview. (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto


    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario.

  2. Psychosexual Characteristics of Male University Students in Brazil. (United States)

    Cerqueira Leite, Ruth M.; And Others


    Male freshmen (n=268) in Brazil responded to a questionnaire concerning aspects of their sexuality from the onset of adolescence, including physical changes and attitudes. The quality of the relationship established with parents and the possibilities for dialogue about sex in the family circle were also surveyed. (JPS)

  3. Psychosexual Characteristics of Female University Students in Brazil. (United States)

    Leite, Ruth M. C.; And Others


    Female college freshmen (n=240) in Brazil answered questions on sexuality. Most revealed satisfactory development in most of aspects surveyed and in their relationships with their parents except where sexual issues were concerned. Most students reported menstrual disturbances, and significant number of sexually active respondents reported…

  4. Semantic categories in the indigenous languages of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hengeveld; M.L. Braga; E. de Melo Barbosa; J. Silveira Coriolano; J. Jezuino da Costa; M. de Souza Martins; D. Leite de Oliveira; V. Maciel de Oliveira; L. Gomes Pereira; L. Santana; C.L. do Carmo Santos; V. dos Ramos Soares


    This article investigates which semantic categories, as defined in Functional Discourse Grammar, formally manifest themselves in a sample of native languages of Brazil, and the extent to which the distribution of these manifestations across categories can be described systematically in terms of impl

  5. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  6. The Climate Justice Discourse in Brazil: Potential and Perspective


    Bruno Milanez; Igor F. Fonseca


    Milanez and Fonseca (2011) argue that the climate justice discourse has not been adopted by the media, society or the communities affected by extreme climate events in Brazil. The climate justice discourse has been adapted from the concept of environmental justice and created from the idea that the impacts of climate change affect different social groups in various ways and intensities. (?)

  7. Brazil Nut Effect and CONCRETE: Entering Terra Incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; He, H.


    This paper presents some evidence of the impact of the Brazil nut effect (BNE) on concrete’s particulate structure on meso-level (aggregate) as well as on micro-level (cement paste). BNE is associated with long-range size segregation in particle mixtures due to vibration in slurry state of concrete,

  8. Three new species of Neodrassex (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott


    Full Text Available Three new species of Neodrassex Ott, 2012 are described from Brazil: N. cachimbo sp. nov. from state of Pará, N. nordeste sp. nov. from state of Piauí and N. ibirapuita sp. nov. from state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  9. [Women's rights in Brazil: focus on maternal health]. (United States)

    Leite, Ana Cristina da Nóbrega Marinho Torres; Paes, Neir Antunes


    Focusing on maternal health care, the article explores the path of women's health rights in Brazil since World War II. It presents a historical survey of broader government initiatives in this arena and of the introduction of actions to provide prenatal, birth, and postpartum care, encourage breastfeeding, and establish measures aimed at women during their reproductive lives.

  10. Brazil on the Rise: Implications on U.S. Policies (United States)


    USAID sponsored alternative crops such as bananas and pineapples, which require motorized transport that cannot access many areas. Smaller farmers... Sheet : U.S.-Brazil Strategic Energy Dialogue.‖ Press Release, 19 March 2011.

  11. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes


    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  12. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  13. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.


    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of eth...

  14. The Educational Role and Status of English in Brazil. (United States)

    Bohn, Hilario I.


    Discusses the teaching of English in Brazil. Explores historical and national scenarios that contribute to the status quo, considers the role of English in the Brazilian pedagogical and linguistic landscape, and puts forward proposals for language teaching professionals to consider when articulating a national foreign language education that does…

  15. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil. (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena


    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  16. Cryptococcus gattii-Induced Infections in Dogs from Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Costa, Thais Correa; da Silva, Elisangela Olegário; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Gomes, Lucas Alécio; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L


    Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide, with rare descriptions of this infection in domestic animals from Brazil. This study presents the findings associated with C. gattii in dogs from Londrina, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Two dogs, a 3-year-old, female German shepherd and a 6-year-old, male Boxer, were evaluated by a combination of pathological, mycological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Significant pathological alterations included cryptococcal lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, tonsillitis, and rhinitis with nasal cryptococcomas in the German shepherd dog, while cryptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia were observed in the Boxer; both dogs had pseudocystic cryptococcosis. The mucicarmine histochemical stain readily identified the intralesional cryptococcal budding organisms in all affected tissues. Mycological culture and isolation confirmed the yeasts as C. gattii due to positive reaction with the L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue agar. A PCR assay using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1 and ITS2 primers, which target the ITS1 and 2 regions including the 5.8S rRNA gene, amplified the desired amplicons; direct sequencing confirmed the isolate as C. gattii. ITS nucleotide differentiation demonstrated that the isolate forms part of the ITS type 4 Cryptococcus organisms which corresponds to the C. gattii VGII molecular subtype or the RAPD type 2 Cryptococcus organisms. Collectively, these findings confirmed the participation of C. gattii in the etiopathogenesis of the lesions observed in these dogs and expanded the epidemiological niche of this important mycotic agent to include Southern Brazil. It is noteworthy to mention that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis is more frequently diagnosed in Northern relative to Southern Brazil, so these findings might suggest an expansion of the distribution of this agent within continental

  17. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Gilberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997 call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region and Recife (Northeastern region were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast. Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country.

  18. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... (United States)


    ... multinational agribusiness firms and their effect on global food supply chains; 5. A description of the... requested, to the extent possible, the report will include-- 1. An overview of agricultural markets in Brazil, including recent trends in production, consumption, and trade; 2. An overview of U.S....

  19. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013 (United States)


    ... healthcare sector, the market should grow. Approximately 80% of all products used in hospitals have no..., the U.S. Commercial Service sees the market for home healthcare products growing dramatically during... largest medical equipment market in South America. The total market for medical equipment in Brazil...

  20. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  1. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Cephise Evans (Pyrginae, with descriptions of new species from Mexico and Brazil

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    George T. Austin


    Full Text Available The species of Cephise Evans, 1953 are divided in two groups: "cephise" group (hind wing without long tails and "procerus" group (hind wing with long tails. In the "cephise" group the following species are included: Cephise cephise (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869 with his synonyms Thymele hydarnes Mabille, syn.n., Eudamus zopyrus Plötz, 1881, Telennades injuncta Plötz, 1882, nom. nud., Eudamus maneros Mabille, 1883, syn.n., Nascus orima Schaus, 1902, syn.n., Nascus orita Schaus, 1902; Cephise impunctus sp.n. from Rondônia, Brazil; Cephise glarus (Mabille, 1888, sp. reval.; Cephise nuspesez Burns, 1996; Cephise malesedis sp.n. from Rondônia, Brazil; Cephise maculatus sp.n. from Rondônia, Brazil; Cephise burnsi sp.n. from Espírito Santo, Brazil; Cephise mexicanus sp.n. from Oaxaca and San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In the "procerus" group are included: Cephise procerus (Plötz, 1880; Cephise aelius (Plötz, 1880 sp. reval.. comb.n.. with its synonyms Eudamus auginulus Godman & Salvin, 1893, syn.n. and Eudamus callicina Schaus, 1902, syn.n.; Cephise callias (Mabille, 1888; and Cephise guatemalaensis (Freeman, 1977. Lectotypes are designated for Eudamus cephise Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Thymele hydarnes Mabille, 1877, Telegonus glarus Mabille, 1988, Eudamus callias Mabille, 1888, Goniurus procerus Plötz, 1888, and Goniurus aelius Plötz, 1880. Neotypes are designated for Eudamus zopyrus Plötz, 1881, and Thymele maneros Mabille, 1883. A pseudotype of Thymele hydarnes is identified, this is actually a female of Cephise impunctus sp.n. Six species of Cephise occur sympatrically in Rondônia, Brazil.

  2. Crucial differences between undergraduate biochemical education in Brazil and developed countries: history and perspectives - (Symposium SBBq Brazil

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    A. Bracht


    Full Text Available The crucial difference between the biochemical education in Brazil and more developed countries resides not in the highest degrees but inthe lowest ones: the bachelor degree in Biochemistry is still a rarity in Brazil. Whereas more than 600 institutions in the US offer the bachelor degree in biochemistry/molecularbiology, presently only 3 are offered in Brazil. This situation may be surprising, but ithas historical reasons among others. The field of Biochemistry in Brazil played a pioneering role in institutionalizing master’s and doctoral programs, thus reinforcing also research activities. Teachers and researchers involved in these programs, however, had in general little if any interest in implementing undergraduate biochemistry studies, except as a fundamental one year discipline to be taken by future biologists, pharmacists, medical students, etc. The second reason for the virtual absence of the biochemistry bachelor degree before 2005 in Brazil are the so called baccalaureates in “Pharmacy and Biochemistry” a strange denomination whose more correct name should be “Pharmacy and Clinical Analyses”. This situation generated the notion, within and outside academic circles, that there is a very especial relationship between Pharmacy and Biochemistry or even that they are one and the same thing. These and other erroneous notions have proven to be adverse for the brazilian biochemistry in both professionaland academic spheres, especially in more recent times when the master’s and doctoral programs ceased to offer the more basic disciplines. Many graduates with a master’s or even doctoral degree have a highly defficient background on physical and organic chemistry, or even on metabolic biochemistry and enzymology if the program is centered on molecular biology.

  3. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo... Brazil Patricia S. Marega, Business Development Specialist, S o Paulo, Tel: (55-11) 5186-7482,...

  4. Reflexions on oral health in Brazil

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    Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira


    Full Text Available In the last century, numerous advances in biomedical researches and technology in the dentistry field have been responsible for improvements in health and wellbeing of populations(1. However, despite major achievements in the context of oral health, many problems still remain, such as dental caries, the most common of oral diseases. The prevalence of dental caries showed a downward trend over the last three decades of the XX century and in early twenty-first century, especially in developed countries, however, it is still considered an important worldwide public health issue, affecting 60% to 90% of school children, besides the vast majority of the adults(2-4. In the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal do Ministério da Saúde – Projeto SB 2010(5 (National Survey of Oral Health of the Ministry of Health - SB Project 2010, improvements in the oral health status of Brazilians were observed, however, caries prevalence is still high. Among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, for example, the average of affected teeth was 4.25 - more than twice the mean number found at the age of 12. Among the elderly aged 65 to 74 years, the number of decayed, missing and filled (DMF teeth hardly changed, remaining at 27.5 in 2010, while the average was 27.8 in 2003. In international context, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health(5, a study by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2004 indicated that, on data from 188 countries, the average DMF at age 12 was 1.6, reaching the average of 2.8 in the Americas, while in Europe it was 1.6. In South America, only Venezuela had an average DMF at age 12 similar to the Brazilian (2.1. In other countries, the averages were higher, as in Argentina (3.4, Bolivia (4.7, Colombia (2.3, Paraguay (2.8 and Peru (3.7. The epidemiological findings on 2010 oral health in Brazil(5 showed that the country joined the group of those with low prevalence of caries at the age of 12. Although results have been encouraging in this regard

  5. Human bocavirus in acute gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. (United States)

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Silva Sampaio, Madina Lyve; Menezes, Aline Dorea Luz; Tigre, Dellane Martins; Moura Costa, Lilia Ferreira; Chinalia, Fabio Alexandre; Sardi, Silvia Ines


    Epidemiological surveillance for Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was conducted on 105 fecal specimens from children with acute gastroenteritis in Bahia, Brazil. Among of a total 105 stool samples, 44 samples were positive for HBoV as detected by nested-PCR. Of the 44 positive samples, co-infections with other enteric viruses (Norovirus, Adenovirus, and Rotavirus) were found in 12 pediatric patients. Mixed infections among HBoV with Norovirus were frequently observed in this population. The phylogenetic analysis identified the presence of HBoV-1, and HBoV 2A species. This study shows that HBoV is another viral pathogen in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Brazil.

  6. Coccidoxenoides perminutus parasitizing Planococcus citri on vine in Brazil

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    Maria Herlândia de Araújo Fernandes


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From those of the mealybug family, the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citriRisso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is frequently held responsible for various diseases occurring in vineyards. This is a first time report in Brazil, on the occurrence of a parasitoid controlling P. citri. In our search for the natural enemies of P. citri, bunches of grapes with the vine were collected every week for one month, in those regions where table grapes were produced, like Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. In these samples, among the natural pest infestations Coccidoxenoides perminutusGirault, 1915 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was the only natural enemy species reported. In this research, we attempted to study the potential of parasitism as well as the strategies that this natural agent uses in pest control.

  7. Perspective for the reproduction of antimalarial drugs in Brazil

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    Benjamin Gilbert


    Full Text Available The appears to be no chemical manufacture of antimalarial drugs is Brazil. Technology at laboratory process level has been developed for chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine and cycloquanil, but not perfected nor scaled-up, largely for economic reasons and market uncertainty. Development of primaquine has been contracted but it will run into the same difficulty. Manufacturing capacity for sulfadoxine was registred in the SDI by Roche. A project to produce artemisinine and its derivates is under way at UNICAMP-CPQBA but is hampered by low content in the plant. Proguanil could be produced easily, but apparently no attempt has been made to do so. Quinine is imported on a large scale mostly for softdrink production. Since malarial treatment falls largely within responsability of the Government health authorities, manufacture of drugs in Brazil will depend on an assured medium-term purchase order made to a potential local manufacturer, since competition in the world market is scarcelyviable at the present moment.

  8. [Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction]. (United States)

    Welch, James R


    This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State.

  9. Rate of development of forensically-important Dipterain southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo F. Krüger


    Full Text Available Dipteran larvae were collected from rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. carcasses during the four seasons in 2005 in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larvae were fed ground beef at ambient temperatures following collection from carcasses. The development of each species under these conditions was estimated. The most abundant species in the carcasses were Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Calliphoridae, and they were found in all seasons. The data were fitted to a linear model that describes the relationship between temperature and linear developmental rating. These two species are primary forensic indicators in southern Brazil. Other species such as Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani (Calliphoridae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, Muscina stabulans (Fallen (Muscidae, and Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Fanniidae were forensically less important because they only occurred in high frequency in certain seasons and during the first days of carcass decomposition.

  10. New species of Histiotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Feijó, Anderson; Da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Althoff, Sergio Luiz


    Histiotus are vespertilionid bats endemic to South America, easily recognized by its very long ears. During a twelve-month bat inventory in northeastern Brazil, eleven specimens of Histiotus were collected with a unique combination of characters that did not match those of any known species. In this paper, we describe these specimens as a new species. Histiotus sp. nov is distinguished from its congeners by its pale transparent wings and translucent ears, a triangular-shaped ear with a prominent lobe in the inner border connected by a band (~4 mm) across the forehead; its general golden-brownish body color and well-marked bicolor dorsal hairs. Its geographic distribution is unique among vespertilionids, arranged in a northeast-southwest diagonal across South America, includes the Caatinga and Cerrado of Brazil and Chaco of Bolivia. The available data suggest a seasonal reproductive pattern, with births occurring in the mid to late rainy season.

  11. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

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    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra


    Full Text Available The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  12. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)


    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  13. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)


    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  14. Access to vaccine technologies in developing countries: Brazil and India. (United States)

    Milstien, Julie B; Gaulé, Patrick; Kaddar, Miloud


    This study, conducted by visits, interviews, and literature search, analyzes how vaccine manufacturers in Brazil and India access technologies for innovative vaccines: through collaborations with academia and research institutions, technology transfer agreements with multinational corporations, public sector, or developing country organizations, or by importation and finishing of bulk products. Each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of speed, market, and ability to independently produce the product. Most manufacturers visited are very concerned about avoiding patent infringement, which might result in undeveloped or delayed products because of a lack of mastery of the patent landscape. Disregarding the patent picture could also threaten the market of a potential product. Although it is too soon to assess the effects of TRIPS on vaccine technology access in Brazil and India, a good understanding of intellectual property management will be useful. A case study on development of a new combination vaccine illustrates these findings.

  15. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil. (United States)

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes


    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats.

  16. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

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    Allan Silveira dos Santos


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  17. New Scenarios of Training in Psychology in Brazil

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    João Paulo Macedo


    Full Text Available The training in psychology in Brazil undergoes transformations with the expansion of the higher educational sector. On the one hand there is a growing number of courses in psychology at work in the interior regions of the country. On the other, there is a growing incorporation of educational institutions by foreign groups. Thus, the objective of this study reflects on the scenarios of internalization and internationalization of psychology courses, focusing on the challenges to the formation of the Brazilian psychologists. This is a descriptive exploratory study, in which the information for data analysis was recovered in official databases on higher education in Brazil. We believe that this context sets new scenarios and challenges for the training of psychologists, as it repositions the profession in our country, before centered in urban centers, and requires that curricula, including internationalized courses, meet local specificities (spatial, social and symbolic that permeate Brazilian reality.

  18. Local content in Brazil: conceptual framework and methodological implications

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    Tori Holmes


    Full Text Available This article presents work in progress from PhD research investigating the use of the internet in the favelas (shantytowns of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a particular focus on the internet content produced and shared by those who live there. The research proposes to apply the concept of local content beyond the scope of digital inclusion policy and projects, to content generated in everyday practices of internet use. The article presents an overview of internet access in Brazil and discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues raised by the interest in local content, understood as "the expression of the locally owned and adapted knowledge of a community - where the community is defined by its location, culture, language, or area of interest" according to a definition proposed by Ballantyne (2002.

  19. Gymnastics in Brazil: absence at school x rise at gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia de la Rocha Freitas


    Full Text Available As a manifestation of physical culture and essential content of physical education courses, Gymnastics has been extinguished from lessons of Physical Education in Brazil, and has been ascending in the gyms. This study aims to reflect about Gymnastics in schools and gyms, seeking explanations for these unwanted directions taken Brazil. It is worrying the fact that Physical Education in Brazilian schools have its lessons based mainly in sports, leaving aside other issues of body culture. It is also uncomfortable the bond of fitness center with the characteristic of the current consumption society. We realize the urgency of expanding the content of gymnastics in Physical Education undergraduate courses, enabling the incorporation of knowledge necessary to develop gymnastics content, regardless its place where it is developed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fanttini POLESE


    Full Text Available The Science of fish nutrition is an important issue and of great importance from the point of view of developing new diets with respect to the nutritional requirements of various fish species and the environment, with many published articles addressing the subject. The objective of this study was to make a bibliometric analysis to identify trends in publications worldwide and in Brazil. Took place during the month of December 2011, searches the Scopus base and recorded information related to the main countries, authors, publishing and institutions vehicles. The study revealed that Brazil, besides occupying Featured number of articles on the subject, including having a center of excellence in the subject, presented high growth rates of articles, compared to global rates. Further, it was found that most of the articles on the topic is concentrated in a few authors, institutions and journals.

  1. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

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    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  2. [Politics and power in gerontological nursing in Brazil]. (United States)

    Kletemberg, Denise Faucz; Padilha, Maria Itayra


    The objective of the present study was to identify the politic activities implemented by gerontological nursing in Brazil in the period spanning 1970 to 1996, which aimed at making it an effective specialty in elderly care. This descriptive-qualitative study was performed using a historical approach, using thematic oral history. Fourteen nurses, pioneers in the field, took part in the study. The following categories were identified: 1) Political organization of the field; and 2) Relationship between the field and the State. Results identified the following examples of political activities: traveling throughout Brazil, aimed at getting researchers interested in the theme; creating the Scientific Department of Gerontological Nursing; and assuming an effective participation in the creation of public policies in the country. The specialty is aware of the political relevance for its construction and has been making efforts to achieve recognition as a field of knowledge within the multidisciplinary team of elderly care.

  3. Plasmodium vivax Landscape in Brazil: Scenario and Challenges. (United States)

    Siqueira, Andre M; Mesones-Lapouble, Oscar; Marchesini, Paola; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Brasil, Patricia; Tauil, Pedro L; Fontes, Cor Jesus; Costa, Fabio T M; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Damasceno, Camila P; Santelli, Ana Carolina S


    Brazil is the largest country of Latin America, with a considerable portion of its territoritory within the malaria-endemic Amazon region in the North. Furthermore, a considerable portion of its territory is located within the Amazon region in the north. As a result, Brazil has reported half of the total malaria cases in the Americas in the last four decades. Recent progress in malaria control has been accompanied by an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, underscoring a need for a better understanding of management and control of this species and associated challenges. Among these challenges, the contribution of vivax malaria relapses, earlier production of gametocytes (compared with Plasmodium falciparum), inexistent methods to diagnose hypnozoite carriers, and decreasing efficacy of available antimalarials need to be addressed. Innovative tools, strategies, and technologies are needed to achieve further progress toward sustainable malaria elimination. Further difficulties also arise from dealing with the inherent socioeconomic and environmental particularities of the Amazon region and its dynamic changes.

  4. The hard choice for alternative biofuels to diesel in Brazil. (United States)

    Carioca, J O B; Hiluy Filho, J J; Leal, M R L V; Macambira, F S


    This paper selects biofuel scenarios to substitute diesel in Brazil based on oil reserves increase, diesel imports, CO(2) emissions, crops agronomic yields, byproducts marketing and social impacts. This hard task still considers that agricultural practices in developing countries have large social impacts. Brazil presents high consumption of diesel oil in transport; low agronomic yield of traditional vegetable oil crops, which demand large cultivation areas contrasting with microalgae and palm oils which present high productivity. Concerning technologies, thermal cracking and transesterification of vegetable oils present a difficult economic situation related to vegetable oils price, food competition and glycerin market; BTL technology, meaning thermal gasification of biomass to liquids, faces problems related to low density of biomaterials and low viscosity of synthetic biodiesel produced. Biorefinery algal integrated systems and co-solvent technology to introduce up to 8% of ethanol into diesel seem to be feasible routes to reduce diesel consumption.

  5. Zika virus infection in Brazil and human rights obligations. (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Gumieri, Sinara; Bevilacqua, Beatriz Galli; Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M


    The February 2016 WHO declaration that congenital Zika virus syndrome constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern reacted to the outbreak of the syndrome in Brazil. Public health emergencies can justify a spectrum of human rights responses, but in Brazil, the emergency exposed prevailing inequities in the national healthcare system. The government's urging to contain the syndrome, which is associated with microcephaly among newborns, is confounded by lack of reproductive health services. Women with low incomes in particular have little access to such health services. The emergency also illuminates the harm of restrictive abortion legislation, and the potential violation of human rights regarding women's health and under the UN Conventions on the Rights of the Child and on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Suggestions have been proposed by which the government can remedy the widespread healthcare inequities among the national population that are instructive for other countries where congenital Zika virus syndrome is prevalent.

  6. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009. (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto de; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan


    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  7. The situation of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Brazil today

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    Zilton A Andrade


    Full Text Available Specific chemotherapy against schistosomiasis together with environmental changes occurring in endemic areas of Brazil are causing a revolution in the clinico-pathological presentation of the disease when comparing to date from 10 to 15 years ago. To update the subject, an inquire was made among the most experienced Brazilian investigators in this field. They agree that a decrease of about 50 to 70% in prevalence, and an even higher decrease in incidence are taking place in Brazil today. The prevalence of schistosome-infection has decreased in some areas and increased in other, with spreading sometimes occurring to peri-urban regions, indicating that schistosomiasis control depends on the application of multiple measures. General clinical and pathological manifestations related to hepatosplenic disease, such as ascites, gastric hemorrhages, big-spleen syndrome, cor pulmonale, glomerulopathy, etc. are also less severe nowadays than they used to be in the past

  8. Chinese foreign direct investment in Brazil: motivations, challenges and prospects

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    Yanyi Wang


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify motivations presented as established by Chinese companies that perform foreign direct investment in Brazil, as well as the challenges encountered in this process and their future prospects. After a structured bibliography review of topics from foreign direct investment and Chinese investment in Latin America and Brazil, we conducted an empirical study on qualitative basis from the consultation to key informants, the methodological approach that has been used in international business studies that focus on containing China or with managers and / or Chinese managers as respondents. The procedures of data collection involved semi-structured interviews conducted, in person and by phone, in addition to questionnaires containing open questions, while processing the data followed the protocol of classical content analysis. The results of the empirical stage of the research highlight cultural and political issues that underlie strategic business decisions.


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    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether the SERVPERF model developed by Cronin andTaylor (1992 can be applied in the same industry (retail banks in two different countriesBrazil and UK. We find differences between the countries in the perception of the serviceprovided by retail banks. We also find differences between the countries in the relationshipbetween the service provided and (i the overall perception of service quality, (ii customersatisfaction and (iii future purchase intentions. Factor analysis of the data identified differentdimensional structures for Brazilian and British samples. The Brazilian sample presentsalmost the same structure of Parasuraman et alii (1988 SERVQUAL. The UK samplepresented a different three-factor dimensional structure which shows that the dimensionalstructure does not travel well into other cultures.Also, as this study stands, the differencesfound between the two samples cannot yet be attributed to cultural differences between UKand Brazil. These differences may be related to the service provided by the banks.

  10. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil

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    André Rinaldo Garraffoni


    Full Text Available Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, C. heideri, C. cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis: this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought.

  11. Networks of Corporate Social Responsibility in Brazil and Argentina

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    Luciana de Oliveira


    Full Text Available In research on CSR in Brazil and Argentina, we saw a huge disparity in the grass-roots of the theme in each country. The hypothesis, stemming from this article, is that the great success of the CSR movement in Brazil and its relatively weak development in Argentina is due to the presence of a hegemonic dispute - in observed dynamic communication - among some segments of business elites regarding the purpose of CSR, present in the Brazilian case and absent in Argentina. This article intends to discuss the concept of hegemonic dispute - highlighting conflict as a fundamental social relationship in the configuration of network topographies of movements to promote CSR in both countries. Such an understanding is essential for professionals and researchers working in the area of ​​organizational communication.


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    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign directinvestment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review andstatistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the businessenvironment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employmentand income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with highinnovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with somedegree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, andthe introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways ofmodernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign directinvestments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows thatinvestments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy forinvestment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil

  13. Understanding the low occurrence of Symbiosis Industrial in Brazil

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    Iara Tonissi Moroni Cutovoi


    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the understanding of the low occurrence of Industrial Symbiosis in Brazil. The importance of public policies in Brazil, the development of public policies is confirmed by the institution of the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS by Law No. 12,305 / 10. Note that companies seek symbiosis in response to regulatory pressure or to increase the efficiency of resource use, emissions reduction, or wastes. Further the importance of including social, cultural and business approaches in planning synergies between companies. Identifies environmental and cooperation regarding the responsibilities and capabilities of each aspect environmental management. Methodologically the study can be regarded as descriptive and exploratory purposes and in relation to the literature regarding methods. Finally, it will be possible barriers are raised on the relationship to the Industrial Symbiosis practices

  14. Highly visible science: a look at three decades of research from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Spain


    Jane M Russell; J. Antonio del Río; Cortés, Héctor D.


    Since the international visibility of scientific research is especially important for developing countries, the multidisciplinary journals Nature and Science were analyzed for the papers published from 1973 to 2005 by Latin America´s three most productive countries, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, and these compared with those from Spain. The total numbers of publications were: Spain, 696; Brazil, 411; Mexico, 227; and Argentina, 127. Both Spain and Brazil published over 65% of the total papers...

  15. Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to Europe from Brazil, March 2015. (United States)

    Zammarchi, L; Tappe, D; Fortuna, C; Remoli, M E; Günther, S; Venturi, G; Bartoloni, A; Schmidt-Chanasit, J


    We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

  16. Timeline and geographical distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Heliothinae) in Brazil


    Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Alexandre Specht; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V.; Adilson Lopes-Lima; Silvia A.C. Yano; Adriana Micheli; Morais,Elisangela G.F.; Paulo Gallo; Pereira,Paulo R.V.S.; José R. Salvadori; Marcos Botton; Maurício M. Zenker; Azevedo-Filho,Wilson S.


    ABSTRACT This study presents registers of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) occurrence to assess its spatial and temporal distribution in Brazil. We used data from collections, especially from the Southern Region, systematic collections in Rio Grande do Sul, occasional collections of caterpillars and adults in different regions of Brazil, as well as literature registers. We conclude that the introduction of H. armigera in Brazil probably occurred before October 2008. We also register that in Augu...

  17. The epidemiology and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a viewpoint from Brazil


    Baccaro LF; Conde DM; Costa-Paiva L.; Pinto-Neto AM


    Luiz Francisco Baccaro,1 Délio Marques Conde,2 Lúcia Costa-Paiva,1 Aarão Mendes Pinto-Neto11Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás, BrazilAbstract: Brazil has an aging population, with an associated increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is of particular ...

  18. Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Letícia Barros de Alencar


    Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.

  19. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil. (United States)

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García


    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  20. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil


    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Lúcia M. de Almeida; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes


    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  1. Retrospective study of prevalence of face fractures in southern Brazil


    Jefferson Viapiana Paes; Franciana Lima de Sá Paes; Renato Valiati; Marília G Oliveira; Rogério Miranda Pagnoncelli


    Context: Trauma has been an important public health problem worldwide. Facial injuries are among the most common types of trauma treated at emergency departments, associated or not with injuries in other anatomic sites. The patterns of facial fractures are usually affected by geography and socioeconomic conditions. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of facial fractures in Lages, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from September 2003 to August 2008. Settings and Design: Cross-se...

  2. Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil. (United States)

    Bernard, E; Penna, L A O; Araújo, E


    Protected areas (PAs) are key elements for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Brazil has the largest PA system in the world, covering approximately 220 million ha. This system expanded rapidly in the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Recent events in Brazil, however, have led to an increase in PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Does this reflect a shift in the country's PA policy? We analyzed the occurrence, frequency, magnitude, type, spatial distribution, and causes of changes in PA boundaries and categories in Brazil. We identified 93 PADDD events from 1981 to 2012. Such events increased in frequency since 2008 and were ascribed primarily to generation and transmission of electricity in Amazonia. In Brazilian parks and reserves, 7.3 million ha were affected by PADDD events, and of these, 5.2 million ha were affected by downsizing or degazetting. Moreover, projects being considered by the Federal Congress may degazette 2.1 million ha of PA in Amazonia alone. Relaxing the protection status of existing PAs is proving to be politically easy in Brazil, and the recent increase in frequency and extension of PADDD reflects a change in governmental policy. By taking advantage of chronic deficiencies in financial and personnel resources and surveillance, disputes over land tenure, and the slowness of the Brazilian justice, government agencies have been implementing PADDD without consultation of civil society. If parks and reserves are to maintain their integrity, there will need to be investments in Brazilian PAs and a better understanding of the benefits PAs provide.



    Beuren, Ilse Maria; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB; Guth, Sérgio Cavagnoli; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB


    The durability of business strategies is diminishing at the same rate as the rhythm of environmental changes is increasing, which implies the necessity for uninterrupted transformations and processes of restructuring within organizations. From this perspective, this work’s objective is to demonstrate the management tools that were, are or will be used in those automobile industries established in Brazil. To this purpose, an empirical descriptive study, in the form of a survey, was conducted e...

  4. Full Time School in Brazil: Policy, Curriculum and Pedagogic Challenges

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    Sandra Valéria Valéria


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the project of integral education and full time school which is under construction in Brazil, linking history and policy to thinking the curriculum and pedagogical work in schools for extended journey. The analyzes presented here are the resulted synthesis of two completed researches and another two ongoing, concerning policy and processes of teaching and learning in public full time schools.

  5. Nursing Doctorates in Brazil: research formation and theses production


    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi; Francine Lima Gelbcke; Márcia de Assunção Ferreira; Maria Alice Dias da Silva Lima; Katia Grillo Padilha; Nátali Artal Padovani; Denize Bouttelet Munari


    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the formation of nursing doctorates in Brazil, from theses production, disciplines and other strategies focusing on research offered by courses. METHOD: a descriptive and analytical study of the performance of 18 doctoral courses in nursing, running from 1982 to 2010, and defended their theses between 2010-2012. RESULTS: 502 theses were defended in this period, most linked to the online research process of health and nursing care. There are gaps in the knowledge of theor...

  6. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana Bertocco de Paiva Haddad; Tassia Cristina Decimoni; Jose Antonio Turri; Roseli Leandro; Patrícia Coelho de Soárez


    AIM: To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. METHODS: We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE(PubM ed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service(NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. RESULTS: We ide nt if ie d 535 he alt h e c onomic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23(57.5%) and 17(42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four costconsequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25(62.5%) evaluated medications; 7(17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3(7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most(55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most(63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible.

  7. Karyomegaly in Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae) from Amazonian Brazil. (United States)

    Paperna, I; Di Cave, D


    Vesicular karyomegaly of the liver hepatocytes is described from Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae), in 3 out of 7 fish, collected from Rio Xingu in central Amazonian (neutral water) Brazil and kept about 2 wk in a holding facility fed with acid water (pH 5.0 to 5.5). Altered cells also occurred in the gill epithelium. The vesicles in the liver were shown to contain a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive substance or residue.

  8. Education, Family Backgrounds and Racial Earnings Inequality in Brazil



    This study investigates the role of race, family background and education in earnings inequality between whites and the African descendent population in Brazil. It uses quantile Mincer earnings regressions to go beyond the usual decomposition of average earnings gaps. Differences in human capital, including parental education and education quality, and in its returns, account for most but not all of the racial earnings gaps. There appears to be greater pay discrimination at the higher salary ...



    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto; Fábio Ytoshi Shibao; Moacir Godinho Filho


    The application of cleaner production (CP) practices in companies is not commonplace in Brazil. Moreover, there are significant difficulties in establishing partnerships among universities, companies, and the government. However, an increase in the number of companies concerned about the impacts of industrial activities on the environment has enabled the development of CP research. Hence, using a literature review and a bibliometric analysis to quantify the scientific production o...

  10. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

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    Poul Alberg Østergaard


    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries and presented at The 1st International Congress on Energy & Environment ranging from electricity end-use analyses, electricity production analyses to socio-economic assessment and large-scale energy scenarios.

  11. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.


    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  12. The demography of inequality: considerations on black people in Brazil. (United States)

    Berquo, E


    The author examines the demographic characteristics of the self-declared black population in Brazil. "A...general conclusion is that there are three demographic profiles: that of Whites, of Blacks, and of mixed blood.... The analysis has shown that [blacks and mixed bloods] are subjected to changes in mortality, marriage, and fertility, though at differing times. Mixed bloods are increasingly coming closer to whites, certainly as a result of the different rhythms of social, economic and cultural changes."

  13. Estimate of evapotranspiration of reference on the northern Brazil

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    Fernando Mendes Sanches


    Full Text Available The aimed of this study was to evaluate the performance and the calibration methods contained in Sevap software for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET0 for the Northern region of Brazil. The methodologies tested were Hargreaves-Samani, Jensen-Haise, Linacre, Makkink, Priestley & Taylor and Thornthwaite. The meteorological data needed to perform this work were taken from normal climatic (1961-1990 of 47 localities in northern Brazil, provided by the National Institute of Meteorology. The method taken as the standard was the Penman-Monteith FAO-56 and were realized regression analysis between the values obtained with the tested methodologies and values estimated by Sevap software. The calibration equations were performed by using coefficients "a" and "b" of the respective simple linear regression. The comparison of the results was by the coefficient of determination (r2, the coefficients "a" and "b" of the linear regression equations, standard error of estimate (SEE, concordance index of Willmott (d, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r and confidence coefficient (c. Were analyzed the simple correlations between the values of ET0 obtained by the different methods and the measured climatic elements. It was found that the ET0 obtained by Penman-Monteith FAO-56, Jensen-Haise and Makkink were positively correlated with solar radiation. The Hargreaves-Samani and Priestley and Taylor were not showed correlated with any climatic element. The Linacre and Thornthwaite methods were positively correlated with the average and maximum air temperatures. After the calibration of the studied equations, the estimates of different methods were closer to ET0 values by Penman-Monteith. The method of Priestley & Taylor showed better performance than the other methods and can be used for reliable estimation of ET0 in northern Brazil. After being calibrated, the methodologies of Makkink and Jensen-Haise can be used in the estimation of ET0 on the Northern




    One of the requirements for a good Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is its capacity to adjust itself to the planned decision-making process. This paper presents recent experiences involving the application of SEA in Brazil in three different contexts. In the first case, an SEA was conducted to meet a request of the Ministry of Tourism for information to prepare the Development Plan for Sustainable Tourism in the North Coast. The second case is an initiative undertaken by the Secretary...

  15. The history of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in Brazil

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    Jose Antonio Livramento


    Full Text Available Analysis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in neurological diagnosis has always been considered to be a strong point among the main complementary examinations in Brazil. The present paper reviews the main events in the history of CSF in the neurological sciences, with emphasis on the founders of several CSF schools in our country from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time.

  16. Decapod crustaceans in fresh waters of southeastern Bahia, Brazil. (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Oliveira; Coelho, Petrônio Alves; Luz, Joaldo Rocha; dos Santos, José Tiago Almeida; Ferraz, Neyva Ribeiro


    A total of 117 species of freshwater decapod crustaceans are known from Brazil. Knowledge regarding the fauna of Decapoda from inland waters in the state of Bahia, northeast Brazil, is incipient. In spite of its wide territory and rich hydrographic net, only 13 species of limnetic decapods have been reported from that state. The objective of this contribution was to survey decapod crustaceans of some hydrographic basins in southeastern Bahia. The material described herein was obtained in samplings conducted between 1997 and 2005. Voucher specimens were deposited in the carcinological collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil, and Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. A total of 13 species was collected. The carideans were represented by the atyids Atya scabra (Leach, 1815) and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881) and the palaemonids Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. amazonicum (Heller, 1862), M. carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758), M. heterochirus (Wiegmann, 1836), M. jelskii (Miers, 1877), M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836), and Palaemon (Palaemon) pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871). The brachyurans were represented by the portunids Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 and C. sapidus Rathbun, 1895, the trichodactylid Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 and the panopeid Panopeus rugosus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Macrobrachium heterochirus represents a new record from Bahia, and M. amazonicum is reported for the first time in southeast Bahia. The occurrence of two extreme different forms of T. fluviatilis was observed. Form A is characterized by the frontal margin of carapace bordered by conspicuous granules, the anterolateral margin provided with developed teeth plus granules, and the posterolateral margin provided with granulation similar to that found on the front. In form B the frontal margin is smooth or has an inconspicuous granulation; the anterolateral margin is

  17. Evolution of the System of Franchising in Brazil


    Aloisio Soares Lima; Rosemar Martins Luna; Ana Rosa de Sousa


    In Brazil there currently has been an increasing interest in entrepreneur franchising and the control over any potential sources of conflict has become a relevant factor to sustain a good, long-term relationship between the two companies involved. The objectives of this paper are to verify the advantages of the franchising system, to examine the satisfaction levels of each entrepreneur in relation to such system, and to demonstrate the differences concerning licensing and franchising leg...

  18. Market Assessment of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Brazil in 2012




    Background Improved diagnostics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. However, test developers and investors require market size data to support new product development. This study assessed the served available market for TB diagnostics in Brazil in 2012 and the market segmentation in the public and private sectors. Methods Data were collected on test volumes done in the public and private sectors for the diagnosis of latent and active TB, drug susceptibility testing and...

  19. China-Brazil, Both Challenges and Opportunities for the Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Mann; Bret Rosen; Jing-Jing Weng


    @@ The strengthening trade and financial relations While the world focuses on European debt crisis and the weak, economy in the United States, another noticeable economic growth point between China and Brazil is developing fast and worthy of attentions.The development of Sino-Brazilian trade and economic cooperation in the past five years was amazing, making Asia-Latin America trade corridor the fast-growing trade corridor in the world, with Sino-Brazilian trade as the core.

  20. Nursing in Brazil a critical-holistic perspective. (United States)

    Wright, Maria da Gloria M; Da Silva, Jaqueline; Almeida, Maria Cecilia Puntel de; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; David, Helena M S Leal; Albuquerque, Gelson Luiz de


    Global and local insecurities influence the Brazilian health care system and the complexities of the healthcare workforce. Nursing in Brazil is shaped by socio-political and historical factors. This paper conceptualizes nursing as a social practice and uses Wright's (2000) "Critical-Holistic Paradigm for an Interdependent World" as a guide framework to analyze how nursing education and professional practice exist within the country's socio-economic and political reality while being constructed within the domains of science and technology.