WorldWideScience

Sample records for alzheimer vaccines

  1. Active Vaccines for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C

    2016-09-01

    Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alzheimer's Abeta vaccination of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Sam; DeMattos, Ron B; Lemere, Cynthia A; Heppner, Frank L; Leverone, Jodi; Aguzzi, Adriano; Ershler, William B; Dai, Jinlu; Fraser, Paul; St George Hyslop, Peter; Holtzman, David M; Walker, Lary C; Keller, Evan T

    2004-02-01

    Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimer's Abeta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimer's disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-Abeta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated Abeta(1-42). Immunized monkeys developed anti-Abeta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma Abeta levels were 5-10-fold higher than the plasma Abeta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of non-human primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimer's Abeta.

  3. Developing therapeutic vaccines against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Drummond, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. It is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. In AD these normal proteins accumulate, leading to aggregation and a conformational change forming oligomeric and fibrillary species with a high β-sheet content. Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches result in dramatic reduction of Aβ pathology in AD animal models. However, there is much more limited evidence in human studies of significant clinical benefits from these strategies and it is becoming apparent that they may only be effective very early in AD. Vaccination targeting only tau pathology has shown benefits in some mouse studies but human studies are limited. Greater therapeutic efficacy for the next generation of vaccine approaches will likely benefit from specifically targeting the most toxic species of Aβ and tau, ideally simultaneously.

  4. Alzheimer A beta vaccination of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Sam; DeMattos, Ron B; Lemere, Cynthia A; Heppner, Frank L; Leverone, Jodi; Aguzzi, Adriano; Ershler, William B; Dai, Jinlu; Fraser, Paul; Hyslop, Peter St George; Holtzman, David M; Walker, Lary C; Keller, Evan T

    2004-01-01

    Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimer A beta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimer disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-A beta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated A beta 1-42. Immunized monkeys developed anti-A beta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma A beta levels were 5- to 10-fold higher than the plasma A beta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of nonhuman primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimer A beta.

  5. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.P.S.; Yang, M.J.; Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility

  6. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.P.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yang, M.J. [Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Genética, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Genética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility.

  7. Probabilistic Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccination for Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have increasingly gained attention since 1990s. However, there are pros (preventing of AD) and cons (incurred cost and side effects) regarding the administration of immunotherapy. Up to date, there has been lacking of economic evaluation for immunotherapy of AD. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccination for AD. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials after systemic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine. A Markov decision model was constructed and applied to a 120,000-Taiwanese cohort aged ≥65 years. Person years and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were computed between the vaccinated group and the the unvaccinated group. Economic evaluation was performed to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). Vaccinated group gained an additional 0.84 life years and 0.56 QALYs over 10-years and an additional 0.35 life years and 0.282 QALYs over 5-years of follow-up. The vaccinated group dominated the unvaccinated group by ICER over 5-years of follow-up. The ICERs of 10-year follow-up for the vaccinated group against the unvaccinated group were $13,850 per QALY and $9,038 per life year gained. Given the threshold of $20,000 of willingness to pay (WTP), the CEAC showed the probability of being cost-effective for vaccination with QALY was 70.7% and 92% for life years gained after 10-years of follow-up. The corresponding figures were 87.3% for QALY and 93.5% for life years gained over 5-years follow-up. The vaccination for AD was cost-effective in gaining QALY and life years compared with no vaccination, under the condition of a reasonable threshold of WTP.

  8. Cucumber mosaic virus as the expression system for a potential vaccine against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, A; Piazzolla, G; Condelli, V; Nuzzaci, M; Lanorte, M T; Boscia, D; De Stradis, A; Antonaci, S; Piazzolla, P; Tortorella, C

    2010-11-01

    A primary therapeutic goal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is to reduce the quantity of amyloid β protein (Aβ) present in the brain. To develop an effective, safe system for vaccination against Alzheimer's disease, the plant virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was engineered genetically to express Aβ-derived fragments that stimulate mainly humoral immune responses. Six chimeric constructs, bearing the Aβ1-15 or the Aβ4-15 sequence in positions 248, 392 or 529 of the CMV coat protein (CP) gene, were created. Viral products proved to be able to replicate in their natural host. However, only chimeric Aβ1-15-CMVs were detected by Aβ1-42 antiserum in Western blot analysis. Experimental evidence of Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a complete decoration of Aβ1-15-CMV(248) and Aβ1-15-CMV(392) following incubation with either anti-Aβ1-15 or anti-Aβ1-42 polyclonal antibodies. These two chimeric CMVs appear to be endowed with features making them possible candidates for vaccination against Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT; Dementia - Alzheimer ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to Alzheimer disease. You are more likely ...

  10. Alzheimer's Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not share your information. * Required. View archives. Alzheimer's impact is growing Alzheimer's disease is the sixth- ... Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association advances research ...

  11. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not work well for all pets. Your veterinarian will determine a vaccination schedule most appropriate for ... programs, but in some instances may help your veterinarian determine if your pet has a reasonable expectation ...

  12. Alzheimer's Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home. Myth 3: Only older people can get Alzheimer's Reality: Alzheimer's can strike people in their 30s, ... Myth 7: Silver dental fillings increase risk of Alzheimer's disease Reality: According to the best available scientific ...

  13. Alzheimer's: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Caregiver Depression Relationship Changes Grief & Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses Start Here What You Need to Know ... Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First name: Last name: Email: * ...

  14. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  15. A dual vaccine against influenza & Alzheimer's disease failed to enhance anti-β-amyloid antibody responses in mice with pre-existing virus specific memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Hayk; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Hovakimyan, Armine; Davtyan, Arpine; Cadagan, Richard; Marleau, Annette M; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-12-15

    Novel dual vaccine, WSN-Aβ(1-10), based on the recombinant influenza virus, expressing immunodominant B-cell epitope of β-amyloid, simultaneously induced therapeutically potent anti-Aβ and anti-influenza antibodies. In this study we showed that boosting of WSN-WT primed mice with WSN-Aβ(1-10) enhances anti-viral, but fails to induce anti-Aβ antibody responses. This inhibition is associated with expression of Aβ(1-10) within the context of an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. These results demonstrate that the use of an inactivated influenza virus as a carrier for AD vaccine may not be applicable due to the possible inhibition of anti-Aβ antibody response in individuals previously vaccinated or infected with influenza. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  17. Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Breteler, Monique M B; de Strooper, Bart; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Salloway, Stephen; Van der Flier, Wiesje Maria

    2016-07-30

    Although the prevalence of dementia continues to increase worldwide, incidence in the western world might have decreased as a result of better vascular care and improved brain health. Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent cause of dementia, is still defined by the combined presence of amyloid and tau, but researchers are gradually moving away from the simple assumption of linear causality as proposed in the original amyloid hypothesis. Age-related, protective, and disease-promoting factors probably interact with the core mechanisms of the disease. Amyloid β42, and tau proteins are established core cerebrospinal biomarkers; novel candidate biomarkers include amyloid β oligomers and synaptic markers. MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET are established imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid PET is gaining traction in the clinical arena, but validity and cost-effectiveness remain to be established. Tau PET might offer new insights and be of great help in differential diagnosis and selection of patients for trials. In the search for understanding the disease mechanism and keys to treatment, research is moving increasingly into the earliest phase of disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease is defined as biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's pathological changes in cognitively healthy individuals. Patients with subjective cognitive decline have been identified as a useful population in whom to look for preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Moderately positive results for interventions targeting several lifestyle factors in non-demented elderly patients and moderately positive interim results for lowering amyloid in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease suggest that, ultimately, there will be a future in which specific anti-Alzheimer's therapy will be combined with lifestyle interventions targeting general brain health to jointly combat the disease. In this Seminar, we discuss the main developments in Alzheimer's research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Immunocytochemical Characterization of Alzheimer Disease Hallmarks in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Treated with a New Anti-Amyloid-β Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available APP/PS1 double-transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which overexpress mutated forms of the gene for human amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin 1 (PS1, have provided robust neuropathological hallmarks of AD-like pattern at early ages. This study characterizes immunocytochemical patterns of AD mouse brain as a model for human AD treated with the EB101 vaccine. In this novel vaccine, a new approach has been taken to circumvent past failures by judiciously selecting an adjuvant consisting of a physiological matrix embedded in liposomes, composed of naturally occurring phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cholesterol. Our findings showed that administration of amyloid-β1−42 (Aβ and sphingosine-1-phosphate emulsified in liposome complex (EB101 to APP/PS1 mice before onset of Aβ deposition (7 weeks of age and/or at an older age (35 weeks of age is effective in halting the progression and clearing the AD-like neuropathological hallmarks. Passive immunization with EB101 did not activate inflammatory responses from the immune system and astrocytes. Consistent with a decreased inflammatory background, the basal immunological interaction between the T cells and the affected areas (hippocampus in the brain of treated mice was notably reduced. These results demonstrate that immunization with EB101 vaccine prevents and attenuates AD neuropathology in this type of double-transgenic mice.

  19. Alzheimers sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with insidious onset and slow progression. Prevalence is increasing, although not as fast as previously believed. The clinical diagnosis may be difficult, but diagnostic methods have been introduced and proven to be accurate in supporting...

  20. Meeting report on the Alzheimer?s Drug Discovery Foundation 14th International Conference on Alzheimer?s Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Lauren G; Price, Katherine; Lane, Rachel F; Carman, Aaron J; Dacks, Penny A; Shineman, Diana W; Fillit, Howard M

    2014-01-01

    The Alzheimer?s Drug Discovery Foundation?s 14th International Conference on Alzheimer?s Drug Discovery was held on 9 and 10 September in Jersey City, NJ, USA. This annual meeting highlights novel therapeutic approaches supported by the Alzheimer?s Drug Discovery Foundation in development for Alzheimer?s disease and related dementias.

  1. Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... How many Americans over age 65 may have Alzheimer's disease? as many as 5 million as many ...

  2. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Caregivers × What research is being done? The National Institute ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Caregivers See More About Research The National Institute of ...

  4. Enfermedad de Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Reyes, Carlos Daniel; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2001-01-01

    ¿Cuáles son las manifestaciones de la enfermedad de Alzheimer?/ Signos de alarma de la enfermedad de Alzheimer/ ¿Cómo se diagnostica la enfermedad?/ ¿Cómo se trata la enfermedad de Alzheimer?/ ¿Qué se está investigando sobre la enfermedad?/ ¿Qué otras enfermedades se parecen al Alzheimer?

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association is the world's leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research.

  6. Alzheimer disease: An interactome of many diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer Disease (AD is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases.

  7. The Alzheimer's Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Alzheimer's Project Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Alzheimer's Project A 4-Part Documentary Series Starting May ...

  8. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... component) of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by ...

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization. Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our ... Alzheimer's Association is the world's leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research.

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a rate twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 ... Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association ...

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health and long-term care costs. worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts ... Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a rate twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of ... Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In My Area | Alzheimer's & Dementia | Life with ALZ | Research | Professionals | We Can Help | Join the Cause alz. ... news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with Alzheimer's as well ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... irrevocable disability occurs. LEARN ABOUT OUR COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State ... news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with Alzheimer's as well ...

  15. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's & Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full ... all ages are living with Alzheimer's dementia in 2018. This number includes an estimated 5.5 million ...

  16. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: Download ... spending. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain ...

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  1. Vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  2. Alzheimer\\'s Disease: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Fadaei

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common and well - known cause of dementia, as a progressive, irreversible brain disorder that affects cognitive function, personality, thought, perception and behaviour. Alzheimer's disease is the fourth leading cause of death in western countries. Interesting to know that this disease was unknown in medical community till 100 years ago and had no name. Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist was the person who suspected the presence of this new illness and by succinct clinical, neuroanatomic, and neuropathologic examination of some cases; including the first known case of this disease- a woman named Auguste Deter- documented it. In further Emil Kraepe1inby knowing about the cases that Dr. Alzheimer reported, and another reports of this disease that were published in the first decade of the twentieth century, set the name of Alzbeimer on this new disease. Descriptions of Dr. Alzheimer and Kraepelin are the same as the present day descriptions of this disease. Electron microscopy, quantitative morphology and modem biochemistry emerging in the second half of the twentieth century opened a new era in dementia research with description of the ultra structure and biochemistry of senileplaques and neuronfibrillary tangles, the major disease markers of Alzheimer's disease. Basic research gave insight into the molecular genetics and pathophysiology of Alzheimers disease and based on the biochemical findings, new pharmacological treatment options were opened. The future attempts will probably be concentrated on the prevention of this disease. Oxidative stress, excessive transition metal ions, and misfolded / aggregated proteins and inflammation are among the probable causes of Alzheimer's disease and the future research will focus on their better understanding and prevention of their occurrence. As the last word, stem cells grafts that in animals have led to remarkable improvement of brain function may also be a

  3. Eye Movements in Alzheimer?s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Molitor, Robert J.; Ko, Philip C.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We d...

  4. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular pathogen for which the immune system has been primed (Arntzen, 1997). The release of vaccine is.

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... irrevocable disability occurs. LEARN ABOUT OUR COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's ... date on the latest news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with Alzheimer's as well ...

  6. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  7. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS) Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Polio Vaccine Polio Vaccine Share Print What is polio? Poliomyelitis (polio) is ... each year. Fortunately, the use of the polio vaccine has made the disease very rare in most ...

  8. Measles Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Measles Vaccination Pronounced (MEE-zills) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... also be up to date on their MMR vaccination. The MMR vaccine is very safe and effective. ...

  9. Current status of vaccines in psychiatry-A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Manohar, Harshini; Menon, Vikas

    2018-02-15

    Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses. Preliminary literature search using the electronic databases of MEDLINE and Google Scholar between May 1967 and May 2017 using the search terms "Vaccines" and "Psychiatry" was carried out and articles were found in the following areas of research: Substance use, Alzheimer Dementia, Autism, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Papilloma Virus Further, the refined search was done using combinations of search terms "Vaccine", "Nicotine", "Cocaine", "Opioid", "Alzheimer Dementia", "Autism", and "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" and peer - reviewed original articles published in English conducted among human subjects and published in English language were included for review. A total of 31 articles found eligible were organized into appropriate sections synthesizing the literature on role of vaccines in specific disorders such as Substance Use Disorders, Alzheimer Dementia and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The therapeutic potential of vaccines in Substance Use Disorders and Alzheimer Dementia was found to be limited in comparison to the results from animal studies. Safety profile of the immunogens and the adjuvants in humans is possibly the most important limitation. No causal association between Measles Mumps Rubella vaccine and Autism was found. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Main purposes of neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease have been moved from diagnosis of advanced Alzheimer's disease to diagnosis of very early Alzheimer's disease at a prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment, prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and differential diagnosis from other diseases causing dementia. Structural MRI studies and functional studies using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and brain perfusion SPECT are widely used in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Outstanding progress in diagnostic accuracy of these neuroimaging modalities has been obtained using statistical analysis on a voxel-by-voxel basis after spatial normalization of individual scans to a standardized brain-volume template instead of visual inspection or a conventional region of interest technique. In a very early stage of Alzheimer's disease, this statistical approach revealed gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas and hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex. These two findings might be related in view of anatomical knowledge that the regions are linked through the circuit of Papez. This statistical approach also offers accurate evaluation of therapeutical effects on brain metabolism or perfusion. The latest development in functional imaging relates to the final pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease-amyloid plaques. Amyloid imaging might be an important surrogate marker for trials of disease-modifying agents. (author)

  11. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heneka, Michael T; Carson, Monica J; Khoury, Joseph El

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia......, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded...... therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease....

  12. Alzheimer's Caregivers: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traveling with Your Loved One (Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation) Abuse (Alzheimer's Association) Adapting Activities for People ... Relationships (Alzheimer's Association) Continuing Care ... (Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation) Coping with Agitation and Aggression (National Institute ...

  13. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ARTICLE. DNA Vaccines. P N Rangarajan. History of Vaccine Development. The year 1996 marked the 200th anniversary of the first vaccine developed against smallpox by Edward Jenner. In the now- famous 1796 experiment, Jenner scratched ...

  14. Vaccination, seizures and 'vaccine damage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Natasha J; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2007-04-01

    Concerns about the safety of vaccination have plagued the community, with reduction in vaccine uptake resulting in increased risk of epidemics. Vaccination has been implicated in the cause of febrile seizures, 'vaccine encephalopathy' and autistic spectrum disorders. Evaluation of alleged associations is complicated by evolution in the vaccination field. This review focuses on the risk of seizures following vaccination and the alleged associations of vaccination with vaccine encephalopathy and also with autism spectrum disorders. Over the last decade the introduction of new vaccines such as the acellular pertussis vaccine has produced a reduction in seizures following vaccination, the outcome of which was benign even with older vaccines. New evidence emerged in 2006 showing that cases of alleged 'vaccine encephalopathy' are due to mutations within a sodium channel gene. The weight of epidemiological evidence does not support a relationship between vaccination and childhood epileptic encephalopathies or autism spectrum disorders. Vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society in such a way that produces change in attitudes to vaccination and subsequent increase in vaccine coverage.

  15. Alzheimer disease immunotherapeutics: then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Sk, Shashikantha; Singh Malik, Jagbir

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a public health priority and one of the major contributors to morbidity and global non-communicable disease burden, thus necessitating the need for significant health-care interventions. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and may contribute to 60-70% of cases. The cause and progression of AD are not well understood but have been thought to be due at least in part to protein misfolding (proteopathy) manifest as plaque accumulation of abnormally folded β-amyloid and tau proteins in brain. There are about 8 million new cases per year. The total number of people with dementia is projected to almost double every 20 years, to 66 million in 2030 and 115 million in 2050. Immunotherapy in AD aimed at β-amyloid covers 2 types of vaccination: active vaccination against Aβ42 in which patients receive injections of the antigen itself, or passive vaccination in which patients receive injections of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against Aβ42. Three of the peptide vaccines for active immunizations, CAD106, ACC001, and Affitope, are in phase 2 clinical trials. Three of the mAbs solanezumab, gantenerumab, and crenezumab, are or were in phase 2 and 3 clinical studies. While the phase 3 trials failed, one of these may have shown a benefit at least in mild forms of AD. There is a need for a greater initiative in the development of immunotherapeutics. Several avenues have been explored and still to come.

  16. Disrupting beta-amyloid aggregation for Alzheimer disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, L D; Soto, C

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating degenerative disorder for which there is no cure or effective treatment. Although the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood, compelling evidence indicates that deposition of aggregates composed by a misfolded form of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is the central event in the disease pathogenesis. Therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy is to prevent or reverse Abeta misfolding and aggregation. Diverse strategies have been described to identify inhibitors of this process, including screening of libraries of small molecules chemical compounds, rational design of synthetic peptides, assessment of natural Abeta-binding proteins and stimulation of the immune system by vaccination. In this article we describe these different approaches, their principles and their potential strengths and weaknesses. Overall the available data suggest that the development of drugs to interfere with Abeta misfolding and aggregation is a feasible target that hold great promise for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  18. Communication and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Communication and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print ... stage Communication in the late stage Changes in communication In addition to changes in the brain caused ...

  19. DNA VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksu, Burak

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, protection against infectious diseases has relied on the use of attenuated or killed vaccines. However, many such vaccines are inadequate for reason of efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness. Live-attenuated vaccines may be immunosuppressive, cause disease if not attenuated sufficiently, or provide limited immunity if too much attenuated. A major concern regarding the use of live vaccines is the possibility of outgrowth of more virulent organisms. Killed vaccines are often un...

  20. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Ogholikhan; Kathleen B. Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pocket spending. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history ... State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and older (10 percent) has Alzheimer's dementia. Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer's are women. Older ... 34 percent) is age 65 or older. Approximately two-thirds of caregivers are women; more specifically, over ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advances a biomarker-based method for diagnosis and treatment at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, we ... on the latest news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... elderly people who receive adult day services and nursing home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL ... news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with Alzheimer's as well ...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's provides a number ... a researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia What is Alzheimer's ...

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease is making it possible to detect Alzheimer's disease and provide an accurate diagnosis earlier than at any other time in history. In addition to providing significant medical, emotional and ...

  8. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meaning that they care not only for an aging parent, but also for children under age 18. ... diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Both the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the ...

  9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and social benefits and facilitating participation in important clinical trials, early diagnosis enables individuals to prepare legal, ... news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. Get tips for living with Alzheimer's as well ...

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Help | Join the Cause alz.org >> Alzheimer's & Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ... people who receive adult day services and nursing home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... number of important benefits to diagnosed individuals, their caregivers and loved ones, as well as society as a whole. The development of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease is making it possible to detect Alzheimer's disease ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share the facts: Quick Facts Prevalence Mortality Caregivers Cost Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans living with Alzheimer's is growing — and growing fast. An ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to have Alzheimer's or other dementias as older whites. Hispanics are about one and one-half times ... to have Alzheimer's or other dementias as older whites. As the number of older Americans grows rapidly, ...

  15. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... older. It also is a leading cause of disability and poor health. Although deaths from other major ... c)(3) organization. Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's ...

  16. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Alzheimer's. Today, someone in the United States develops Alzheimer's every 65 seconds. By mid-century, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 seconds. GET INVOLVED. Join ...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This number includes an estimated 5.5 million people age 65 and older and approximately 200,000 ... who have younger-onset Alzheimer's. One in 10 people age 65 and older (10 percent) has Alzheimer's ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia is one of the costliest conditions to society. Total payments in 2017 for all individuals with ... earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, we envision a future in which Alzheimer's disease is placed in the ...

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... irrevocable disability occurs. LEARN ABOUT OUR COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every ...

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... States will develop the disease every 33 seconds. GET INVOLVED. Join the cause Mortality Alzheimer's disease is ... read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I have Alzheimer's I am ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... existing cases of Alzheimer's. Today, someone in the United States develops Alzheimer's every 65 seconds. By mid-century, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 seconds. GET ...

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... newsletter Stay up-to-date on the latest news and advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care and research. ... to End Alzheimer's Become an advocate About Us | News | Events | Press | About this Site | Privacy Policy | Copyrights & ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific progress is now requiring a change in how we diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Both the National Institute ... priority. It has the potential to markedly change how we diagnose Alzheimer's disease and, as a result, ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... state. Read past editions . Sign up for our e-newsletter Stay up-to-date on the latest ... Alzheimer's. First name: Last name: *Email: *Zip: Weekly E-Newsletter Breaking Research Updates The Alzheimer's Association does ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care. Caring for someone with Alzheimer's? Get Resources Cost to Nation Alzheimer's places a huge burden on the health care system, with annual costs exceeding a quarter of a trillion dollars. In ...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ALZ | Research | Professionals | We Can Help | Join the Cause alz.org >> Living with Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: ... disease every 33 seconds. GET INVOLVED. Join the cause Mortality Alzheimer's disease is the sixth-leading cause ...

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... were diagnosed in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage — before dementia — it would collectively save $7 trillion ... symptoms What is dementia What is Alzheimer's 7 stages of Alzheimer's Treatments Contact us 24/7 Helpline: ...

  8. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... whites. Hispanics are about one and one-half times as likely to have Alzheimer's or other dementias ... with Alzheimer's or other dementias were over three times as great as payments for other Medicare beneficiaries. ...

  9. Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Share Plus on Google Plus Alzheimer's & Dementia alz.org | IHaveAlz Overview What Is Dementia ... chapter Join our online community Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease As they age, those affected by Down ...

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  12. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  14. DENGUE VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  15. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the ... 4:22 Your Amazing Brain - Dementia Explained - Alzheimer's Research UK - Duration: 4:58. AlzheimersResearch UK 16,695 ...

  16. [How to define Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease, which was considered to be a rare disease in subjects aged under 65 until the seventies/eighties, has become a very common disease affecting mostly older subjects. Many consider that it is important to review the meaning of the eponym "Alzheimer's disease", and a revolution, quite literally, is likely to occur. The role of vascular lesions in the onset of dementias among older subjects is widely acknowledged; considering those dementias as Alzheimer's disease may have negative consequences for patient management. Indeed, vascular lesions can be prevented and treated, while Alzheimer's lesions cannot. It may be justified to use "Alzheimer syndrome" instead of "Alzheimer's disease" when vascular risk factors and, all the more so, vascular lesions are present. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the pathological proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease, as well as their effects on neurons and synapses. However, the etiology of the disease is still unknown, except in the rare hereditary cases, and there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease at present. Clinical research is progressing, and diagnostic criteria for the pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease were suggested. In France, the outstanding Alzheimer plan 2008-2012 should play an important role in enhancing the understanding of Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's syndromes and related disorders.

  17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's disease is making it possible to detect Alzheimer's disease and provide an accurate diagnosis earlier than at any other time in history. ... to make decisions and share their wishes. Early diagnosis, even ... who will get Alzheimer's disease were diagnosed when they had mild cognitive ...

  18. Anthrax Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anthrax vaccine causes long-term health problems.Independent civilian committees have not found anthrax vaccination to be ... doctor, or get the person to a doctor right away. Tell your doctor what happened, the date ...

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vaccine Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) New website and ...

  20. Vaccine Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... list . Showing availability for 6,604 locations. Influenza Vaccine Recommended for everyone greater than or equal to ... which one may be right for you! Flu Vaccines Protects again influenza, commonly called flu, a respiratory ...

  1. Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

  2. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, G

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intuss...

  3. Contraceptive Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnitsky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches to develop vaccines with contraceptive effect are being carried out since the 1920s. Since 1972, the contraceptive vaccines are one of the priority programs of the World Health Organization (WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Rockefeller Foundation participates in implementing the program. Openly declared objective of creating such vaccines — the regulation of the population in the Third World countries. There are currently three main directions of contraceptive vaccine design: 1 vaccines targeted at blocking the production of gametes; 2 impairing their function; 3 violating the fertilization process. Contraceptive vaccines for more than 10 years are widely used to reduce fertility and castration of wild and domestic animals. In the commercial realization there are veterinary vaccines Equity®, Improvac®, GonaCon®, Repro-BLOC (based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone; SpayVac™ and IVT-PZP® (based on zona pellucida antigens. Clinical studies have shown effective contraceptive action (in women of vaccines, in which human chorionic gonadotropin is used as an antigen. At the same time, there are found the side effects of such vaccines: for vaccines containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone as antigenic components — castration, impotence; for vaccines containing follicle stimulating hormone — oligospermia; zona pellucida antigens — irreversible oophoritis. This paper discusses approaches to detection of sterilizing components in vaccines intended for mass prevention of infectious diseases, not reported by manufacturers, and the consequences of their use. Hidden use of contraceptive vaccines, which already took place, can be detected: 1 by the presence of antibodies to their antigenic components (in unvaccinated by contraceptive vaccines people such antibodies do not exist, except infertility cases; 2 by change in the hormonal levels of the

  4. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  5. Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akiyama, H.; Barger, S.; Barnum, S.; Bradt, B.; Bauer, J.; Cole, G. M.; Cooper, N. R.; Eikelenboom, P.; Emmerling, M.; Fiebich, B. L.; Finch, C. E.; Frautschy, S.; Griffin, W. S.; Hampel, H.; Hull, M.; Landreth, G.; Lue, L.; Mrak, R.; Mackenzie, I. R.; McGeer, P. L.; O'Banion, M. K.; Pachter, J.; Pasinetti, G.; Plata-Salaman, C.; Rogers, J.; Rydel, R.; Shen, Y.; Streit, W.; Strohmeyer, R.; Tooyoma, I.; van Muiswinkel, F. L.; Veerhuis, R.; Walker, D.; Webster, S.; Wegrzyniak, B.; Wenk, G.; Wyss-Coray, T.

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical

  6. Mitophagy and Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jesse S.; Adriaanse, Bryan A.; Greig, Nigel H.

    2017-01-01

    Neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic deficit that occurs early and promotes the disease-defining amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and Tau pathologies. Emerging findings suggest that the autophagy/lysosome pathway that removes damaged...

  7. Immunterapi mod Alzheimers sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkentoft, Alexander Christian; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-01-01

    Passive anti-beta-amyloid (Aß) immunotherapy has been shown to clear brain Aß deposits. Results from phase III clinical trials in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with two monoclonal antibodies bapineuzumab and solanezumab and intravenous immunoglobulin have been disappointing...

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  9. Alzheimer's disease prevention: A way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Pareja, F; Llamas-Velasco, S; Villarejo-Galende, A

    2016-12-01

    This review proposes a more optimistic view of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in contrast to that contributed by the ageing of the population and the failure of potentially curative therapies (vaccines and others). Treatment failure is likely due to the fact that AD gestates in the brain for decades but manifests in old age. This review updates the concept of AD and presents the results of recent studies that show that primary prevention can reduce the incidence and delay the onset of the disease. Half of all cases of AD are potentially preventable through education, the control of cardiovascular risk factors, the promotion of healthy lifestyles and specific drug treatments. These approaches could substantially reduce the future incidence rate of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Earlier Diagnosis What if we could diagnose Alzheimer's before symptoms started? The hope is, future treatments ... diagnosis is among the most active areas in Alzheimer's science, and funding from the Alzheimer's Association has ...

  11. Alzheimer's or Depression: Could It Be Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzheimer's or depression: Could it be both? Alzheimer's and depression have some similar symptoms. Proper treatment improves quality of life. By Mayo Clinic Staff Early Alzheimer's disease and depression share many ...

  12. Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ghezzi, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Fondazione Cà Granda, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, disease-modifying drugs, diagnosis, treatment

  13. [Palliative care and Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Tourres, F; Lefebvre-Chapiro, S; Fétéanu, D; Trivalle, C

    2009-06-01

    Although end-of-life care is a relatively common option for patients with terminal cancer, it has become available only recently for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is a chronic process of gradual deterioration of cognitive ability and the resulting deficits in activities of daily living. The chronic disease course of Alzheimer's disease gives to the clinician the opportunity to look ahead and plan for the final stages of care. This article presents a review of palliative care interventions for patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. End-of-life care for individuals with end-stage Alzheimer's disease is increasingly important because of the increasing number of patients with this disease. However, there are barriers to providing high-quality end-of-life care. Currently, palliative care is not optimal for Alzheimer's patients. Health care systems and clinicians should make efforts to improve the suffering of patients with this disease and their caregivers.

  14. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  15. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  16. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  17. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  18. Leptospirosis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...

  19. Combination Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; O’Hagan, Derek T

    2011-01-01

    The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of th...

  20. Tumor vaccines:

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Mojca; Ihan, Alojz

    2006-01-01

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regirrcents. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tccmor aaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which imrrtune tol...

  1. Investigational medications for treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Pamela E

    2010-09-01

    Development of effective treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease has been challenging. Currently approved treatments include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine hydrochloride. To investigate treatments in development for patients with Alzheimer disease, the author conducted a review of the literature. New approaches for treatment or prevention focus on several general areas, including cholinergic receptor agonists, drugs to decrease β-amyloid and tau levels, antiinflammatory agents, drugs to increase nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, and substances to reduce cell death or promote cellular regeneration. The author focuses on medications currently in clinical trials. Cholinergic agents include orthostatic and allosteric muscarinic M1 agonists and nicotinic receptor agonists. Investigational agents that target β-amyloid include vaccines, antibodies, and inhibitors of β-amyloid production. Anti-inflammatory agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the natural product curcumin, and the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept, have also been studied. Some drugs currently approved for other uses may also show promise for treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease. Results of clinical trials with many of these investigational drugs have been disappointing, perhaps because of their use with patients in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease. Effective treatment may need to begin earlier-before neurodegeneration becomes severe enough for symptoms to appear.

  2. [Calcium hypothesis of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantseva, M A; Mozhaeva, G N; Kaznacheeva, E V

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory and cognitive abilities loss. The etiology of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. In this regard, there is no effective treatment for the disease. Various hypotheses to explain the nature of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease led to the development of appropriate therapeutics. Despite of decades of research and clinical trials available therapeutics, at best, can only slow down the progression of the disease, but cannot cure it. This review dedicated to the one of modern hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis implied the impairment of calcium homeostasis as a key event for the development of neurodegenerative processes.

  3. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute On Aging? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 6K Loading... ...

  4. Tacrine for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qizilbash, N; Birks, J; López-Arrieta, J; Lewington, S; Szeto, S

    2000-01-01

    Tacrine is one of the first drugs to be widely marketed for the loss of memory and intellectual decline in Alzheimer's disease. The alleged success of tacrine in the treatment of these symptoms has been heralded as confirmation of the cholinergic theory of Alzheimer's disease. However, the efficacy of tacrine for symptoms of dementia remains controversial. This is reflected by the low rate of prescription of tacrine in countries where it is approved and the lack of approval by several regulatory authorities in Europe and elsewhere. The uncertainty about the efficacy of tacrine is due to the difficulties in interpretation of the results from the clinical trials. The reasons for this are the small effects of tacrine compared to placebo for all outcomes; the high incidence of adverse events; the lack of benefit observed in several trials; the use of cross-over designs and their associated methodological problems in a disease like dementia; the use of different measurement scales to assess outcome in different trials; and the problem of high dropout rates. To determine the clinical efficacy of tacrine for the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The Cochrane Dementia Group Register of Clinical Trials was searched using the terms 'tacrine', 'tetrahydroaminoacridine' and 'THA' (see the Group's search strategy for full details). All unconfounded, double-blind, randomized trials in which treatment with tacrine was administered for more than a day and compared to placebo in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers, pooled if appropriate and possible, and the pooled odds ratios (95%CI) or the average differences (95%CI) were estimated. Where possible, intention-to-treat data were used. This review produced no clear results. The results were compatible with tacrine producing improvement, no change or even harm for those with Alzheimer's disease. It was not possible to use many of the published results in a combined

  5. Oligodendrocytes and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiyou; Xiao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence has indicated that the breakdown of myelin is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) since the vulnerability of oligodendrocytes under Alzheimer's pathology easily induces the myelin breakdown and the loss of the myelin sheath which might be the initiating step in the changes of the earliest stage of AD prior to appearance of amyloid and tau pathology. Considerable research implicated that beta-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated oligodendrocyte dysfunction and myelin breakdown may be via neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and/or apoptosis. It also seems that the oligodendrocyte dysfunction is triggered by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) through inflammation and oxidative stress as the common pathophysiological base. Impaired repair of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) might possibly enhance the disease progress under decreased self-healing ability from aging process and pathological factors including Aβ pathology and/or NFTs. Thus, these results have suggested that targeting oligodendrocytes may be a novel therapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  6. Apathy in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nobis, L; Husain, M

    2017-01-01

    Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apathy has been related to greater caregiver distress, decreased quality of life, and increased morbidity. Here we review the most recent studies on this neuropsychiatric syndrome, focusing on prevalence, impact on quality of life, behavioural and neuroimaging studies, and treatment options. The results of some investigations on the behavioural and neuroanatomical profile of apathy in...

  7. Filamentous bacteriophage fd as an antigen delivery system in vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Antonella; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Peptides displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage fd are able to induce humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses, which makes phage particles an attractive antigen delivery system to design new vaccines. The immune response induced by phage-displayed peptides can be enhanced by targeting phage particles to the professional antigen presenting cells, utilizing a single-chain antibody fragment that binds dendritic cell receptor DEC-205. Here, we review recent advances in the use of filamentous phage fd as a platform for peptide vaccines, with a special focus on the use of phage fd as an antigen delivery platform for peptide vaccines in Alzheimer's Disease and cancer.

  8. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  9. HPV vaccine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campaign of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of grade 4 girls in South African (SA) public schools, ... This use is of concern in view of the billions of US dollars GSK had to pay for bribery in the USA, and is ... argument used to entice parents to have their daughters vaccinated is to prevent 3 000 women from dying of ...

  10. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women Febrile Seizures Following Vaccination Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Guillain- ... Flu Vaccines Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Cell-Based ...

  11. Combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AG Skibinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B; and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.

  12. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 556,252 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 18,542 views ... views 5:15 5 Signs You'll Get Alzheimer's Disease - Dr. Russell Blaylock Offers Crucial Advice. - Duration: 33: ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nation Alzheimer's places a huge burden on the health care system, with annual costs exceeding a quarter of ... in out-of-pocket spending. The costs of health care and long-term care for individuals with Alzheimer's ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family and friends ... Plan ahead Get help and support I have Alzheimer's I am a caregiver I am a care professional I am a ...

  15. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ideas to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 5:15 Your Amazing Brain - Dementia Explained - Alzheimer's Research UK - Duration: 4:58. AlzheimersResearch UK 16,695 ...

  16. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suggested video will automatically play next. Up next What you can do to prevent Alzheimer's | Lisa Genova - ... 8:54. Osmosis 310,083 views 8:54 What Is Alzheimer's Disease? - Duration: 3:15. AboutAlzOrg 539, ...

  17. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ideas to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 3:15 Your Amazing Brain - Dementia Explained - Alzheimer's Research UK - Duration: 4:58. AlzheimersResearch UK 16,411 ...

  18. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 728 views 8:54 The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni Wombaker 923,094 views 54:55 Kids Meet a Woman with Alzheimer's | Cut - Duration: 5:15. Cut 6,969,600 ...

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help provided to ... Plan ahead Get help and support I have Alzheimer's I am a caregiver I am a care professional I am a ...

  20. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni Wombaker 923,815 ... 37 Day in the Life of an Alzheimer's Caregiver: Heartbreaking - Duration: 4:39. DavidNazarNews 30,944 views ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 65 and have younger-onset Alzheimer's. One in 10 people age 65 and older (10 percent) has Alzheimer's dementia. Almost two-thirds of ... cause of death. It is the only top 10 cause of death that cannot be prevented, cured ...

  2. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 599,357 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 20,532 views 2:01 The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni ...

  3. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National ... Health Journey 169,151 views 2:20 Inside the Brain: Unraveling the Mystery of Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 4: ...

  4. and late onset Alzheimer's disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent disorder and the most common cause of dementia in elderly populations. Genetic and environmental factors together play a role in developing late onset. Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). According to the recent published papers, ACE is one of the candidate.

  5. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... Mystery of Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 4:22. Knoxville News Sentinel 34,722 views 4:22 Alzheimer's and ...

  6. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 569,749 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 19,280 views ... 827 views 5:15 The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni ...

  7. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 561,781 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 18,848 views ... views 5:15 5 Signs You'll Get Alzheimer's Disease - Dr. Russell Blaylock Offers Crucial Advice. - Duration: 33: ...

  8. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 632,620 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 21,392 views 2:01 The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni ...

  9. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... automatically play next. Up next 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 22,187 views ... 130 views 13:57 The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni ...

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... estimated 5.5 million Americans of all ages have Alzheimer's disease. Of the estimated 5.5 million ... 200,000 individuals are under age 65 and have younger-onset Alzheimer's. One in 10 people age ...

  11. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 579,477 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 19,614 views 2:01 The 7 Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Through a Caregiver's Eyes - Duration: 54:55. Toni ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as older whites. As the number of older Americans grows rapidly, so too will the numbers of new and existing cases of Alzheimer's. Today, someone in the United States develops Alzheimer's every 65 seconds. By mid-century, someone in the United States will develop the ...

  13. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ideas to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 9:57 Your Amazing Brain - Dementia Explained - Alzheimer's Research UK - Duration: 4:58. AlzheimersResearch UK 16,411 ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Both the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the International Work Group (IWG) have proposed guidelines that use detectable measures of biological changes in the brain, commonly known as biological markers, ...

  15. The biological substrates of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, A.B.; Wechsler, A.F.; Brazier, M.A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Dementia of the Alzheimer Type: Genetic Aspects; Determination of Cerebral Metabolic Patterns in Dementia Using Positron Emission Tomography; Pathology of the Basal Forebrain in Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias; Characterization of Neurofibrillary Tangles with Monoclonal Antibodies Raised Against Alzheimer Neurofibrillary Tangles; and HLA Associations in Alzheimer's Disease

  16. Advancing frontiers in Alzheimer's disease research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenner, G.G.; Wurtman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book contain 16 chapters. Some of the titles are: Transmitter Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease: Relation to Cortical Dysfunction as Suggested by Positron Emission Tomography; Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in the Clinical Evaluation of Dementia; Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease; Down's Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease: What is the Relationship; and Beta Protein: A Possible Marker for Alzheimer's Disease

  17. Useful Information on...Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gene D.

    This brochure provides information on Alzheimer's disease by examining who gets Alzheimer's disease and what to expect when someone has Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal brain tissue findings are discussed and three clinical features of Alzheimer's disease are listed: dementia; insidious onset of symptoms; and exclusion of all other specific causes of…

  18. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Ihan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  19. Whither vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Charlene M C; Pinto, Marta V; Sadarangani, Manish; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2017-06-01

    Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of ... How many people in the United States have Alzheimer's disease? as many as 5.1 million as ...

  1. 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease 7 Warning Signs of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents The ... Suncoast Gerontology Center, University of South Florida. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain The only definite way to ...

  2. Selegiline for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, J; Flicker, L

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people accounting for some 60% of cases with late-onset cognitive deterioration. It is now thought that several neurotransmitter dysfunctions are involved from an early stage in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease-associated cognitive decline. The efficacy of selegiline for symptoms of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial and is reflected by its low rate of prescription and the lack of approval by several regulatory authorities in Europe and elsewhere. Reasons for this uncertainty involve the modest overall effects observed in some trials, the lack of benefit observed in several trials, the use of cross-over designs which harbour methodological problems in a disease like dementia and the difficulty in interpreting results from trials when a variety of measurement scales are used to assess outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess whether or not selegiline improves the well-being of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Impairment Group Register of Clinical Trials, was searched using the terms 'selegiline', 'l-deprenyl', "eldepryl" and "monamine oxidase inhibitor-B". MEDLINE, PsycLIT and EMBASE electronic databases were searched with the above terms in addition to using the group strategy (see group details) to limit the searches to randomised controlled trials. All unconfounded, double-blind, randomised controlled trials in which treatment with selegiline was administered for more than a day and compared to placebo in patients with dementia. An individual patient data meta-analysis of selegiline, Wilcock 2002 provides much of the data that are available for this review. Seven studies provided individual patient data and this was pooled with summary statistics from the published papers of the other nine studies. Where possible, intention-to-treat data were used but usually the meta analyses were restricted to completers' data (data on people who

  3. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  4. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  5. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ... of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. Hundreds ...

  6. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose vials ...

  7. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Vaccinations and pregnancy Vaccinations and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? A vaccination is a shot that contains a ...

  8. DNA Vaccines Against Anthrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galloway, Darrell R; Baillie, Les

    2004-01-01

    DNA vaccination is vaccination at its simplest. Due to renewed interest in vaccination against anthrax and other biothreat agents, a genetic immunisation approach offers attractive possibilities for rapid, responsive vaccine development...

  9. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  10. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the effect that Alzheimer's is having in your state. Read ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer's are women. African-Americans are about twice as likely to ... 1 billion. Approximately two-thirds of caregivers are women, and 34 percent are age 65 or older. ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available alz.org | Find Your Chapter 24/7 Helpline: 1.800.272.3900 Find your chapter: search by state In My Area | Alzheimer's & Dementia | Life with ALZ | Research | Professionals |

  • Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available alz.org | Find Your Chapter 24/7 Helpline: 1.800.272.3900 Find your chapter: search by state In My Area | Alzheimer's & Dementia | Life with ALZ | Research | Professionals |

  • How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 54. Osmosis 286,536 views 8:54 ANUGRAH TV 18-03-2018 Sunday HOLY COMMUNION Meeting Live Stream Ankur Narula Ministries 1,685 watching Live now Alzheimer's Prevention Program: Keep Your Brain ...

  • Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... third parties. Please read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I have ... Us | News | Events | Press | About this Site | Privacy Policy | Copyrights & Reprints | Contact Us National Headquarters Alzheimer's Association ...

  • Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with third parties. Please read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I ... About Us | News | Events | Press | About this Site | Privacy Policy | Copyrights & Reprints | Contact Us National Headquarters Alzheimer's ...

  • Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early ... State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease ...

  • How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute On Aging? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 4.6K ...

  • Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... either through out-of-pocket health and long-term care expenses or from the value of unpaid ... spending. The costs of health care and long-term care for individuals with Alzheimer's or other dementias ...

    1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... disease is the only top 10 cause of death in the United States that cannot be prevented, ... Alzheimer's disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States, and the fifth-leading ...

    2. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National ... views 9:29 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

    3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help provided to ... comes from family members, friends or other unpaid caregivers. Nearly half of all caregivers who provide help ...

    4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Read past editions . Sign up for our e-newsletter Stay up-to-date on the latest news ... First name: Last name: *Email: *Zip: Weekly E-Newsletter Breaking Research Updates The Alzheimer's Association does not ...

    5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... three percent of the help provided to older adults in the United States comes from family members, ... of all caregivers who provide help to older adults do so for someone with Alzheimer's or another ...

    6. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... our bodies against Alzheimer’s | Owen Carmichael | TEDxLSU - Duration: 12:17. TEDx Talks 11,316 views 12:17 Alzheimer's disease - plaques, tangles, causes, symptoms & pathology - ...

    7. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National ... minute video shows how Alzheimer’s affects the human brain and looks at promising ideas to treat and ...

    8. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... disease are no longer consistent with the scientific evidence, and no longer serve our health care needs. ... irrevocable disability occurs. LEARN ABOUT OUR COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State ...

    9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... that use detectable measures of biological changes in the brain, commonly known as biological markers, or biomarkers, as part of the diagnosis. The development and validation of Alzheimer's disease ...

    10. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... ... 23, 2017 This 4-minute video shows how Alzheimer’s affects the human brain and looks at promising ...

    11. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... is having in your state. Read past editions . Sign up for our e-newsletter Stay up-to- ... researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia What is Alzheimer's 7 ...

    12. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... which Alzheimer's disease is placed in the same category as other chronic diseases, such as ... report contains data on the impact of this disease in every state across the ...

    13. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe ... Bredesen, MD - Duration: 1:13:27. Silicon Valley Health Institute 94,011 views 1:13:27 Inside ...

    14. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... caregivers of those with dementia indicate substantial emotional, financial and physical difficulties. Caring for someone with Alzheimer's? ... of all elderly people who receive adult day services and nursing home care. Total per-person health ...

    15. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... of people age 65 and older in the United States, particularly the oldest-old, the number of new ... is projected to soar. Today, someone in the United States develops Alzheimer's dementia every 66 seconds. By mid- ...

    16. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Queue Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging ... Aug 23, 2017 This 4-minute video shows how Alzheimer’s affects the human brain and looks at ...

    17. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute On Aging? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 5.7K ...

    18. [Proceeding memory in Alzheimer's disease].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Ma; Chamorro-Sánchez, Jorge; Díaz-Marta, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

      2013-01-01

      Procedural learning can acquire or develop skills through performance and repetition of a task unconsciously or unintentionally. Procedural skills are considered as the cornerstone in the neuropsychological rehabilitation to promote the autonomy of patients with brain damage, as those with Alzheimer's disease. This review presents data about procedural skills in Alzheimer's disease. Over the past three decades, we have found 40 articles studying various procedural skills in the Alzheimer's disease: motor, perceptual-motor, cognitive, perceptual-cognitive and those developed through serial reaction-time paradigm. We analyzed every study evaluating a procedural skill, indicating the used task and preservation or no preservation of procedural learning. Overall, most of the papers published describe conservation of learning procedures or relatively conserved in Alzheimer's disease, which could be used to promote patient autonomy.

    19. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute On Aging? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 4.5K ...

    20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... search by state In My Area | Alzheimer's & Dementia | Life with ALZ | Research | Professionals | We Can Help | Join ... individuals to prepare legal, financial and end-of-life plans while they are still cognitively able to ...

    1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... diagnosis earlier than at any other time in history. In addition to providing significant medical, emotional and ... the U.S. government and diagnosed individuals. Among all Americans alive today, if those who will get Alzheimer's ...

    2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... every 33 seconds. GET INVOLVED. Join the cause Mortality Alzheimer's disease is the only top 10 cause ... This dramatic rise includes more than four-fold increases both in government spending under Medicare and Medicaid ...

    3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... whites. Hispanics are about one and one-half times as likely to have Alzheimer's or other dementias ... an accurate diagnosis earlier than at any other time in history. In addition to providing significant medical, ...

    4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the International Work Group (IWG) have proposed guidelines that use detectable ... boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia What is Alzheimer's 7 stages of ...

    5. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign ...

    6. Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment From Caring to Commitment ... Caring to Commitment During her sister’s battle with Alzheimer’s, Anne Murphy stayed by her side and continues ...

    7. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Try it free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... ... 23, 2017 This 4-minute video shows how Alzheimer’s affects the human brain and looks at promising ...

    8. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... ... 23, 2017 This 4-minute video shows how Alzheimer’s affects the human brain and looks at promising ...

    9. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... arc of scientific progress is now requiring a change in how we diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Both the ... proposed guidelines that use detectable measures of biological changes in the brain, commonly known as biological markers, ...

    10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... caregivers are "sandwich generation" caregivers — meaning that they care not only for an aging parent, but also ... Resources Cost to Nation The costs of health care and long-term care for individuals with Alzheimer's ...

    11. Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Philippe Taupin

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized in the brain by amyloid plaque deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. It is the most common form of dementia among older people. There is at present no cure for AD, and current treatments consist mainly in drug therapy. Potential therapies for AD involve gene and cellular therapy. The recent confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS provide new opportunities for cellular therapy in the CNS, particularly for AD, and to better understand brain physiopathology. Hence, researchers have aimed at characterizing neurogenesis in patients with AD. Studies show that neurogenesis is increased in these patients, and in animal models of AD. The effect of drugs used to treat AD on neurogenesis is currently being investigated, to identify whether neurogenesis contributes to their therapeutic activities.

    12. [Alzheimer's disease and olfaction].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; Atanasova, Boriana

      2013-09-01

      Although olfactory disorders are not at the forefront of the clinical description of Alzheimer's disease (AD), they are common and often overlooked by clinicians and by patients who are largely unaware of their deficits. The past 30 years, the literature has shown early olfactory deficits in AD that is spreading across the olfactory spectrum with disease worsening. Partial overlap between brain areas implies both in olfaction and AD - especially limbic system - motivating these researches. This study describes olfactory parameters and tests using to investigate peripheral (odor threshold) and central (hedonicity, familiarity, intensity, discrimination, identification, olfactory memory) levels. Besides, this article takes an inventory of olfactory disorders in AD including odor threshold, discrimination, identification and olfactory memory capacities with controversial results observed in literature. At last, we discuss which type of olfactory dysfunction could have a clinical interest.

    13. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

      2011-01-01

      Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

    14. Rivastigmine for Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Birks, Jacqueline S; Chong, Lee Yee; Grimley Evans, John

      2015-09-22

      Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause of dementia affecting older people. One of the therapeutic strategies aimed at ameliorating the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by the use of cholinesterase inhibitors to delay the breakdown of acetylcholine released into synaptic clefts. Tacrine, the first of the cholinesterase inhibitors to undergo extensive trials for this purpose, was associated with significant adverse effects including hepatotoxicity. Other cholinesterase inhibitors, including rivastigmine, with superior properties in terms of specificity of action and lower risk of adverse effects have since been introduced. Rivastigmine has received approval for use in 60 countries including all member states of the European Union and the USA. To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of rivastigmine for patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type. We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, on 2 March 2015 using the terms: Rivastigmine OR  exelon OR ENA OR "SDZ ENA 713". ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), numerous trial registries and grey literature sources. We included all unconfounded, double-blind, randomised, controlled trials in which treatment with rivastigmine was administered to patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type for 12 weeks or more and its effects compared with those of placebo in a parallel group of patients, or where two formulations of rivastigmine were compared. One review author (JSB) applied the study selection criteria, assessed the quality of studies and extracted data. A total of 13 trials met the inclusion criteria of the review. The trials had a duration of between 12 and 52 weeks. The older trials tested a capsule form with a dose of up to 12 mg/day. Trials

    15. Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Olin, J; Schneider, L

      2001-01-01

      Galantamine (also called galanthamine, marketed as Reminyl (Janssen)) can be isolated from several plants, including daffodil bulbs, and now synthesized. Galantamine is a specific, competitive, and reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is also an allosteric modulator at nicotinic cholinergic receptor sites potentiating cholinergic nicotinic neurotransmission. A small number of early studies showed mild cognitive and global benefits for patients with Alzheimer's disease, and recently several multicentre clinical trials have been published with positive findings. Galantamine has received regulatory approval in Sweden, is available in Austria, and awaits marketing approval in the United States, Europe, and other countries. The objective of this review is to assess the clinical effects of galantamine in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, and to investigate potential moderators of an effect. The Cochrane Dementia Group specialized register of clinical trials was searched using the terms 'galantamine,' and 'galanthamine' (15 February 2000) as was the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2000, Issue 2). These terms were also used to search the following databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychLit; Combined Health Information Database, NRR (National Research Register), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Centre clinical database, BIOMED (Biomedicine and Health), Glaxo-Wellcome Clinical Trials Register, National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Databases, Current Controlled Trials, Dissertation Abstracts (mainly North American dissertations) 1961-1994, Index to UK Theses (British dissertations) 1970-1994. Published reviews were inspected for further sources. Additional information was collected from an unpublished investigational brochure for galantamine. Trials selected were randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, and unconfounded comparisons of galantamine with placebo for a treatment duration of greater than 4 weeks in people with Alzheimer

    16. Periodontal Vaccines

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daisy Happy

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by predominantly gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria like P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans T. denticola and T. forsythus etc.. Various immunization approaches both as active and passive immunization, against periodontal pathogens have been explored either using the whole microorganism or their specific virulence factors. Non-human primate and other study models have demonstrated raised production of specific antibody titers against various antigens without any recognizable systemic side-effects. But, the current status of our understanding in the field of vaccines against periodontal disease is incomplete. Ongoing research & collaborative efforts can result in development of functional periodontal vaccine for human use in future.

    17. Diversity and Vaccine Controversy

      OpenAIRE

      Frempong, Erica

      2010-01-01

      My area of research dealt with many different aspects of the vaccine movement, the main three were: anti-vaccine sentiments over the Internet, global instances of anti-vaccination efforts, and differences in social class and race in vaccine utilization. I have come to realize that there are two distinct issues arising in the organization that encompasses vaccines. The distinctions are the anti-vaccine movement - the spread of anti-vaccine sentiments over the Internet, and global instances ...

    18. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

    19. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... or share your name. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print It ... and grief as their life is changed by Alzheimer's. You're entitled to these emotions and may ...

    20. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

    1. DNA Vaccines

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      The year 1996 marked the 200th anniversary of the first vaccine developed against smallpox by Edward Jenner. In the now- famous 1796 experiment, Jenner scratched the arm of eight- year-old James Phipps, infecting the boy with cowpox pus taken from a milkmaid carrying the virus. Two months later, he scratched James ...

    2. Valuing vaccination.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

      2014-08-26

      Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

    3. Rotavirus Vaccine

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... rotavirus disease was a common and serious health problem for children in the United States. Almost all children in the U.S. had at least one rotavirus infection before their 5th birthday.Every year before the vaccine was available: more ...

    4. Vexing Vaccines

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bowman, Darcia Harris

      2004-01-01

      Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

    5. Valuing vaccination

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

      2014-01-01

      Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

    6. Alzheimer's disease: studies of diagnosis and therapy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      J.J. Claus (Jules Johan)

      1993-01-01

      textabstractDespite tremendous recent advances in the clinical neurology, neurobiology and epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease, the cause as well as its treatment remains as much a mystery today as when it was first described in 1907 by Alois Alzheimer.' Alzheimer's disease, the most common type

    7. Coping & Caring: Living with Alzheimer's Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leroux, Charles

      This guide on Alzheimer's disease is for those who care for Alzheimer's patients, as well as those who want to learn more about the disease. It answers these questions: (1) what is Alzheimer's? (2) how does the disease progress and how long does it last? (3) how do families cope? and (4) who can provide assistance and information? The guide also…

    8. Insulin and Alzheimer disease: type 3 diabetes?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Andrés Jagua Gualdrón

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available Alzheimer Disease is a neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system whose incidence will increase in next years. Recent investigations relate alzheimer with insulin signaling defects in neurons. Is alzheimer Disease a type 3 diabetes? In this communication write a brief article about evidences from this alzheimer‘s disease model.

    9. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

      2015-03-01

      Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

    10. CT study in Alzheimer's disease

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Arai, Heii; Kobayashi, Kazunari; Ikeda, Kenji; Nagao, Yoshiko; Ogihara, Ryuji; Kosaka, Kenji

      1983-01-01

      Cerebral atrophy on CT was studied in 18 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and in 14 healthy age-matched subjects as the control. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were divided into three groups of Stages I, Ii and III, according to their clinical symptoms. The study of the measurement method disclosed that the computerized measurement involving calculation of the number of pixels contained within the range of the designated CT numbers is liable to produce errors for the determination of the subarachnoid spaces and the ventricles with calcified colloid plexus. Therefor, for the present study was the method adopted, in which the subarachnoid spaces and the ventricles are measured based on the number of pixels contained in the region of interest by tracing them on the display monitor. Then, both Subarachnoid Space Volume Index (SVI) and Ventricle Volume Index (VVI) were calculated as the indices for cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation in a slice through the level of the foramen interventriculare Monroi and other three successive ones through upper regions. Cerebral atrophy observed on CT in Alzheimer patients is attributable to Alzheimer's disease processes, rather than to physiological aging of the brain. The degree of the atrophy increases in proportion to the clinical stage, and cortical atrophy is apparent even at Stage I, whereas ventricular dilatation becomes pronounced at later stage. CT is one of effective clinical tests for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. (J.P.N.)

    11. Alzheimer's disease and intelligence.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yeo, R A; Arden, R; Jung, R E

      2011-06-01

      A significant body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that individual variation in intellectual ability, whether assessed directly by intelligence tests or indirectly through proxy measures, is related to risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in later life. Important questions remain unanswered, however, such as the specificity of risk for AD vs. other forms of dementia, and the specific links between premorbid intelligence and development of the neuropathology characteristic of AD. Lower premorbid intelligence has also emerged as a risk factor for greater mortality across myriad health and mental health diagnoses. Genetic covariance contributes importantly to these associations, and pleiotropic genetic effects may impact diverse organ systems through similar processes, including inefficient design and oxidative stress. Through such processes, the genetic underpinnings of intelligence, specifically, mutation load, may also increase the risk of developing AD. We discuss how specific neurobiologic features of relatively lower premorbid intelligence, including reduced metabolic efficiency, may facilitate the development of AD neuropathology. The cognitive reserve hypothesis, the most widely accepted account of the intelligence-AD association, is reviewed in the context of this larger literature.

    12. Alzheimer disease and anesthesia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Inan, Gözde; Özköse Satirlar, Zerrin

      2015-01-01

      Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and the most prevalent form of dementia. Some factors in the development of AD, age being the best-known one, have been suggested; however, no causes have been found yet. The pathophysiology of the disease is highly complex, current therapies are palliative, and a cure is still lacking. Adverse effects of anesthetics in the elderly have been reported since the 1950s; however, awareness of this old problem has recently gained inportance again. Whether exposure to surgery and general anesthesia (GA) is associated with the development of AD has been questioned. As the population is aging, many elderly patients will need to be anesthetized, and maybe some were already anesthetized before they were diagnosed. Exposure to anesthetics has been demonstrated to promote pathogenesis of AD in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, to date, there have not been any clinical trials to address a link between exposure to GA and the development of AD in humans. Therefore, before making any conclusions we need further studies, but we should be aware of the potential risks and take cautions with vulnerable elderly patients.

    13. Aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Colomina, Maria Teresa; Peris-Sampedro, Fiona

      2017-01-01

      Aluminum (Al) is one of the most extended metals in the Earth's crust. Its abundance, together with the widespread use by humans, makes Al-related toxicity particularly relevant for human health.Despite some factors influence individual bioavailability to this metal after oral, dermal, or inhalation exposures, humans are considered to be protected against Al toxicity because of its low absorption and efficient renal excretion. However, several factors can modify Al absorption and distribution through the body, which may in turn progressively contribute to the development of silent chronic exposures that may lately trigger undesirable consequences to health. For instance, Al has been recurrently shown to cause encephalopathy, anemia, and bone disease in dialyzed patients. On the other hand, it remains controversial whether low doses of this metal may contribute to developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), probably because of the multifactorial and highly variable presentation of the disease.This chapter primarily focuses on two key aspects related to Al neurotoxicity and AD, which are metabolic impairment and iron (Fe) alterations. We discuss sex and genetic differences as a plausible source of bias to assess risk assessment in human populations.

    14. Time trend in Alzheimer diagnoses and the association between distance to an Alzheimer clinic and Alzheimer diagnosis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H

      2015-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Centralization of specialized health care in Denmark has caused increased geographical distance to health-care providers, which may be a barrier for Alzheimer patients to seek health care. We examined the incidence of Alzheimer diagnosis in Denmark between 2000 and 2009 and investigated...... the association between patients' distance to Alzheimer clinics and Alzheimer diagnoses. METHODS: Data of all individuals aged 65+ years were collected from Danish national registers. Incidences of Alzheimer diagnoses were analysed with joinpoint regression and hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer diagnoses were...... analysed with Cox regressions. RESULTS: The annual incidence of Alzheimer diagnoses increased with 32.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1-63.8] among individuals aged 65-74 years from 2000 to 2002 and with 29.1% (95% CI: 11.0-50.2) among individuals aged 75+ years from 2000 to 2003. For both groups...

    15. Demência de alzheimer

      OpenAIRE

      Galvão, Ana Maria

      2011-01-01

      A doença de Alzheimer é considerada a demência mais comum no ser humano, sendo caraterizada como um distúrbio degenerativo do cérebro que leva à perda de memória (Alzheimer's Association, 2010). A notícia de um diagnóstico de demência causa um intenso impacto na vida de pacientes e familiares. Os principais motivos referem-se à impossibilidade de cura e à progressão por vezes rápida dos sintomas. São comumente evidenciadas reações emocionais negativas envolvendo impotência, medo e...

    16. Pharmacologic management of Alzheimer disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Downey, Deborah

      2008-02-01

      Although the diagnosis of AD can be devastating, treatment options exist that can slow the disease's progression and allow patients to continue performing ADLs, thereby improving the quality of life for both patient and caregiver. Research is ongoing, and it is estimated by the Alzheimer's Association that finding a treatment that could delay onset by only 5 years could reduce the number of individuals with AD by nearly 50% over the next 50 years (Alzheimer's Association, 2007). Although pharmacotherapy is not yet a cure, it does remain an important part of a total approach to caring for patients and families affected by AD.

    17. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

      Science.gov (United States)

      Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

    18. Vaccines and Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... vaccination. Because it is very unlikely that a live vaccine will cause disease, being in the same household with a healthy child who has received a live vaccine is also not likely to increase the ...

    19. Vaccination in Fish

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

      vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

    20. Vaccines and Thimerosal

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

    1. Vaccines Stop Illness

      Science.gov (United States)

      Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

    2. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

    3. Vaccines Stop Illness

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

    4. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and adults receive Tdap. CDC recommends whooping cough vaccination for all babies and children, preteens and teens, ...

    5. Vaccine Adverse Events

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

    6. Vaccine refrigeration

      Science.gov (United States)

      McColloster, Patrick J; Martin-de-Nicolas, Andres

      2014-01-01

      This commentary reviews recent changes in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) vaccine storage guidelines that were developed in response to an investigative report by the Office of the Inspector General. The use of temperature data loggers with probes residing in glycol vials is advised along with storing vaccines in pharmaceutical refrigerators. These refrigerators provide good thermal distribution but can warm to 8 °C in less than one hour after the power is discontinued. Consequently, electric grid instability influences appropriate refrigerator selection and the need for power back-up. System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) values quantify this instability and can be used to formulate region-specific guidelines. A novel aftermarket refrigerator regulator with a battery back-up power supply and microprocessor control system is also described. PMID:24442209

    7. Engineered human vaccines

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sandhu, J.S. (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

      1994-01-01

      The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

    8. Effective Vaccination Policies

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-03-31

      effective” vaccine can stop the virus spread by causing herd immunity and the disease will die out. Vaccines that have this capability are in the vaccine ...Effective Vaccination Policies L. Shawa, W. Spears∗,b, L. Billingsc, P. Maximd aDepartment of Computer Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY...this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation

    9. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

      OpenAIRE

      Riedmann, Eva M

      2014-01-01

      Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

    10. Schistosomiasis vaccines

      OpenAIRE

      Siddiqui, Afzal A.; Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

      2011-01-01

      Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease of public health importance to a billion people. An estimated 200 million people are currently infected; an additional 779 million individuals are at risk to acquire the infection in 74 countries. Despite many years of implementation of mass anti-parasitic drug therapy programs and other control measures, this disease has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas.  The discovery of a protective vaccine still remain...

    11. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Starr, S Paul

      2016-11-01

      A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

    12. Hepatitis B Vaccine

      Science.gov (United States)

      Engerix-B® ... as a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

    13. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... to make your opinion count. Sign in 147 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to ... 13:57. TED 615,055 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically ...

    14. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... Alzheimer's disease - Duration: 4:45. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 70,757 views 4:45 Loading more ...

    15. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

      2013-01-01

      Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

    16. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... to make your opinion count. Sign in 128 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to ... 13:57. TED 560,689 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically ...

    17. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available alz.org | Find Your Chapter 24/7 Helpline: 1.800.272.3900 Find your chapter: search by ... under age 65 and have younger-onset Alzheimer's. One in 10 people age 65 and older (10 ...

    18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... An estimated 5.5 million Americans of all ages have Alzheimer's disease. Of the estimated 5.5 ... in 2017, an estimated 5.3 million are age 65 and older and approximately 200,000 individuals ...

    19. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Disease - Duration: 42:07. All N One Home Health 102,543 views 42:07 Your Amazing Brain - ... Bredesen, MD - Duration: 1:13:27. Silicon Valley Health Institute 95,087 views 1:13:27 Alzheimer's ...

    20. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... at promising ideas to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show ... 104 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 20,710 views ...

    1. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... one-quarter of dementia caregivers are "sandwich generation" caregivers — meaning that they care not only for an aging parent, but also ... and support I have Alzheimer's I am a caregiver I am a care professional I am a physician I am a ...

    2. Caregiver Response to Alzheimer's Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Novak, Mark; Guest, Carol

      1989-01-01

      Examined correlates of caregiver burden among 30 caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients. Results revealed no significant correlation between length of time a caregiver had given care to a particular patient and the caregiver's subjective feelings of caregiver burden. Found significant, moderate correlation between caregiver burden and patient…

    3. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... roof: Dale Bredesen - Duration: 9:29. Ford Brewer 1,815 views 9:29 Papa late stage Alzheimer's 9/28/14 - Duration: 3:39. Debbie Templeton 19,479 views 3:39 Type 3 Diabetes: The Connection between Alzheimer’s and Metabolic Syndrome - Duration: ...

    4. [Nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Machado, Jacqueline; Caram, Carmen Lucia Barreto; Frank, Andrea Abdala; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Laks, Jerson

      2009-01-01

      To describe the nutritional status of elderly subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Subjects of both genders (n=40) diagnosed with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, participated in the study. Socioeconomic status, activities of daily life, anthropometric, clinical and dietary profiles were surveyed. Of the total, 65% were female. More than 70% were capable of accomplishing daily activities by themselves. Subjects were eutrophic with a statistically significant difference of the arm circumference between the mild and moderate groups. As for illnesses secondary to Alzheimer's, 52% of the elderly presented hypertension, followed by arthrosis type alterations (17%). The mean consumption of energy and macronutrients in the elderly classified as mild dementia was of 1645 kcal, distributed in 53.7% of carbohydrate, 17.5% of proteins or 0.9 g/kg and 28.8% of lipids. For those classified as moderate dementia it was of 1482 kcal, distributed in 59.3% of carbohydrate, 16.1% of proteins and 24.6% of lipids. In this descriptive study of elderly outpatients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease, most presented a nutritional status of eutrophy, with adequate dietary intake of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamin C, but with low dietary intake of vitamin E.

    5. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Bredesen, MD - Duration: 1:13:27. Silicon Valley Health Institute 91,457 views 1:13:27 5 ... and Symptoms of Alzheimer's - Duration: 2:20. Your Health Journey 172,451 views 2:20 Mid to ...

    6. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... 17. TEDx Talks 12,392 views 12:17 Alzheimer’s Is Not Normal Aging — And We Can Cure It | Samuel Cohen | TED Talks - Duration: 7:54. TED 286,506 views 7:54 Day in the Life of an Alzheimer's Caregiver: Heartbreaking - Duration: 4:39. DavidNazarNews 31,783 ...

    7. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Blaylock M.D 121,120 views 33:27 Kids Meet a Woman with Alzheimer's | Cut - Duration: 5: ... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new ...

    8. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Oil: Ian Blair Hamilton and Cassie Bond - Duration: 9:57. AlkaWay 374,233 views 9:57 Alzheimer's and the Brain - Duration: 15:02. ... blood-brain barrier - Duration: 4:08. Sunnybrook Hospital 9,340 views 4:08 Light-based therapy for ...

    9. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain National Institute On Aging Loading... Unsubscribe from National ...

    10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... get Alzheimer's disease were diagnosed in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage — before dementia — it would collectively save $7 trillion to $7.9 trillion in health and long-term care costs. worried about memory ...

    11. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Bredesen, MD - Duration: 1:13:27. Silicon Valley Health Institute 91,988 views 1:13:27 Your ... and Symptoms of Alzheimer's - Duration: 2:20. Your Health Journey 172,694 views 2:20 Alzheimer’s Is ...

    12. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... at promising ideas to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show ... 309 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 20,617 views ...

    13. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Bredesen, MD - Duration: 1:13:27. Silicon Valley Health Institute 84,533 views 1:13:27 5 ... Disease - Duration: 42:07. All N One Home Health 97,034 views 42:07 Alzheimer's Prevention Program: ...

    14. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Wombaker 929,392 views 54:55 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 21, ... disease - Duration: 41:57. The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health 2,709 views 41:57 ...

    15. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer's are women. Older African-Americans are about twice as likely ... or older. Approximately two-thirds of caregivers are women; more specifically, over one-third of dementia caregivers ...

    16. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... with Alzheimer's or other dementias make up a large proportion of all elderly people who receive adult day services and nursing home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early diagnosis of cognitive impairment ...

    17. Head trauma and Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Nandoe, Rishi D. S.; Scheltens, Philip; Eikelenboom, Piet

      2002-01-01

      The authors describe a case of a 55 year old woman who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease 1.5 years after a car accident in which she experienced a mild concussion. Extensive history taking disclosed no cognitive changes prior to the car accident. The case is discussed in view of the

    18. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... On Aging? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 5.3K Loading... Loading... Working... Add to Want to ... Kids Meet a Woman with Alzheimer's | Cut - Duration: 5:15. Cut 6,803,846 views 5:15 ...

    19. Genome instability in Alzheimer disease

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hou, Yujun; Song, Hyundong; Croteau, Deborah L

      2017-01-01

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Autosomal dominant, familial AD (fAD) is very rare and caused by mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin-1 (PSEN-1), and presenilin-2 (PSEN-2) genes. The pathogenesis...

    20. How Alzheimer's Changes the Brain

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... at promising ideas to treat and prevent the disease. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show ... 055 views 13:57 2-Minute Neuroscience: Alzheimer's Disease - Duration: 2:01. Neuroscientifically Challenged 20,710 views ...

    1. Cerebral imaging revealing Alzheimer's disease

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      2011-01-01

      Cerebral imaging is the only non-invasive means of examining the brain and is essential in studying Alzheimer's disease. As a tool for early diagnosis, evaluation and treatment monitoring, this technology is at the heart of the research being done to further improve its reliability and sensitivity. (authors)

    2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

      Medline Plus

      Full Text Available ... difficulties. Caring for someone with Alzheimer's? Get Resources Cost to Nation The costs of health care and long-term care for ... is expected to be $56 billion. Health care costs increase with the presence of dementia. People with ...

    3. [Vaccination in the elderly].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kwetkat, A; Pletz, M W

      2013-10-01

      The aging immune system, so-called immunosenescence, is well documented as the cause of increased infection rates and severe, often complicated course of infections in the elderly with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it can lead to decreased efficacy of vaccination. The administration of more immunogenic vaccines can be beneficial in the elderly. Implementing vaccination recommendations for the elderly by STIKO can reduce burden of infectious diseases by prevention of infection or reduction of severity of infection. The following vaccinations are recommended by STIKO for all persons aged 60 and above: annual influenza vaccination (additionally all nursing home residents independently of age), once only pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, completion of tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccination as well as regular revaccination. All adults should be vaccinated against pertussis with Tdap vaccine once. Meanwhile, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is allowed for administration in adults but is not recommended by STIKO yet. A lifelong course of vaccination may help to attenuate the effect of immunosenescence.

    4. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

      2010-01-01

      Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

    5. Is immunotherapy an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Licastro Federico

      2004-11-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD is rapidly becoming a hot topic of modern geriatric and clinical gerontology. Current views see immunization with Aβ peptide, the amyloidogenic protein found in senile plaque of AD patient's brains, or the infusion of preformed antibody specific for human Aβ, as possible therapeutic approaches to improve the cognitive status in the disease. Animal models of the disease have provided positive results from both approaches. Thus, an initial clinical trial using immunization with human Aβ in AD patients was started, but then shortly halted because of an unusually high incidence (6% of meningoencephalitis. A long and currently ongoing debate in the scientific community about the pro or contra of vaccination or passive immunization with Aβ in AD is thereafter started. Here, the authors would like to stress few points of concern regarding these approaches in clinical practice.

    6. Emerging therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease: an avenue of hope.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Samuels, Steven C; Grossman, Hillel

      2003-11-01

      Emerging therapies for Alzheimer's disease offer hope to patients and their caregivers. Future treatments will probably include combination approaches with agents that modify amyloid processing, deposition, and clearance. One example, the AD vaccine, reduced amyloid burden and changed behavior in animal models of AD, but the human trial was halted when several subjects developed brain inflammation. Anti-inflammatory agents have epidemiologic support, but clinical trials have been disappointing, possibly related to inadequate study with anti-inflammatory agents that modify amyloid processing. Agents that target known cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, have epidemiologic, preclinical, and clinical evidence to warrant further investigation. Heavy metal chelators, antioxidants, neurotrophic factors, glutaminergic modulators, and agents that modify hyperphosphorylation of Tau are other approaches in research and development.

    7. Vaccination in food allergic patients

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      allergy: • Vaccines produced in embryonated eggs, such as yellow fever vaccine, influenza vaccine and rabies vaccine. Yellow fever vaccine is most likely to contain significant amounts of egg protein. • Vaccines produced in chick fibroblast cell cultures, such as measles and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, do not.

    8. VACCINATION SAFETY: MODERN DATA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      V.К. Tatochenko

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available Vaccination aided disease control over infection pathology among the children led to elimination of smallpox and poliomyelitis, drastic decrease of the tuberculous meningitis recurrences, tetanus, measles and other infection diseases and their complications. At the same time, Russia is still afraid to apply certain vaccines. The reasons for that are mainly subjective. This is the unjustified caution related to the fear that it may cause severe vaccine associated complications. The data in view of the lecture indicates the safety of the vaccinal prevention procedures and measures for the prevention of their complications.Key words: vaccinal prevention, vaccination complications, vaccination safety, children.

    9. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

      Science.gov (United States)

      1999-08-01

      Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

    10. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Loucq, Christian

      2013-01-01

      Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

    11. Inflammaging as a prodrome to Alzheimer's disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rrapo Elona

      2008-11-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Recently, the term "inflammaging" was coined by Franceshci and colleagues to characterize a widely accepted paradigm that ageing is accompanied by a low-grade chronic up-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory responses. Inflammaging differs significantly from the traditional five cardinal features of acute inflammation in that it is characterized by a relative decline in adaptive immunity and T-helper 2 responses and is associated with increased innate immunity by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. While the over-active innate immunity characteristic of inflammaging may remain subclinical in many elderly individuals, a portion of individuals (postulated to have a "high responder inflammatory genotype" may shift from a state of "normal" or "subclinical" inflammaging to one or more of a number of age-associated diseases. We and others have found that IFN-γ and other pro-inflammatory cytokines interact with processing and production of Aβ peptide, the pathological hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD, suggesting that inflammaging may be a "prodrome" to AD. Although conditions of enhanced innate immune response with overproduction of pro-inflammatory proteins are associated with both healthy aging and AD, it is suggested that those who age "well" demonstrate anti-inflammaging mechanisms and biomarkers that likely counteract the adverse immune response of inflammaging. Thus, opposing the features of inflammaging may prevent or treat the symptoms of AD. In this review, we fully characterize the aging immune system. In addition, we explain how three novel treatments, (1 human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC, (2 flavanoids, and (3 Aβ vaccination oppose the forces of inflammaging and AD-like pathology in various mouse models.

    12. Re-Engineering Alzheimer Clinical Trials: Global Alzheimer's Platform Network.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cummings, J; Aisen, P; Barton, R; Bork, J; Doody, R; Dwyer, J; Egan, J C; Feldman, H; Lappin, D; Truyen, L; Salloway, S; Sperling, R; Vradenburg, G

      2016-06-01

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development is costly, time-consuming, and inefficient. Trial site functions, trial design, and patient recruitment for trials all require improvement. The Global Alzheimer Platform (GAP) was initiated in response to these challenges. Four GAP work streams evolved in the US to address different trial challenges: 1) registry-to-cohort web-based recruitment; 2) clinical trial site activation and site network construction (GAP-NET); 3) adaptive proof-of-concept clinical trial design; and 4) finance and fund raising. GAP-NET proposes to establish a standardized network of continuously funded trial sites that are highly qualified to perform trials (with established clinical, biomarker, imaging capability; certified raters; sophisticated management system. GAP-NET will conduct trials for academic and biopharma industry partners using standardized instrument versions and administration. Collaboration with the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) European Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease (EPAD) program, the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and other similar international initiatives will allow conduct of global trials. GAP-NET aims to increase trial efficiency and quality, decrease trial redundancy, accelerate cohort development and trial recruitment, and decrease trial costs. The value proposition for sites includes stable funding and uniform training and trial execution; the value to trial sponsors is decreased trial costs, reduced time to execute trials, and enhanced data quality. The value for patients and society is the more rapid availability of new treatments for AD.

    13. Dengue 4 Vaccine Development

      Science.gov (United States)

      1987-09-01

      and monkeys. b) Preparation of a production seed from uncloned Dengue 4 (H241) PDK-35 vaccine isolated from viremic serum of a volunteer vaccinee , and... synthetic peptide vaccines , work on development of live attenuated virus vaccines continues. Experimental attenuated live virus vaccines -I- for protection...CopU~1C FftE 0~AD( ) DENGUE 4 VACCINE DEVELOPMENT Lf 0, to ANNUAL AND FINAL REPORT0 by 0Nyven J. Marchette, Ph.D. September 1, 1987 (For the period 1

    14. Oral vaccination of fish

      OpenAIRE

      Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

      2016-01-01

      The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

    15. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

      2014-12-01

      Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

    16. Proline isomer-specific antibodies reveal the early pathogenic tau conformation in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Greenwood, Alex; Binder, Lester; Bigio, Eileen H; Denial, Sarah; Nicholson, Linda; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

      2012-03-30

      cis-trans isomerization of proteins phosphorylated by proline-directed kinases is proposed to control numerous signaling molecules and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and other diseases. However, there is no direct evidence for the existence of cis-trans protein isomers in vivo or for their conformation-specific function or regulation. Here we develop peptide chemistries that allow the generation of cis- and trans-specific antibodies and use them to raise antibodies specific for isomers of phosphorylated tau. cis, but not trans, p-tau appears early in the brains of humans with mild cognitive impairment, accumulates exclusively in degenerated neurons, and localizes to dystrophic neurites during Alzheimer's progression. Unlike trans p-tau, the cis isomer cannot promote microtubule assembly, is more resistant to dephosphorylation and degradation, and is more prone to aggregation. Pin1 converts cis to trans p-tau to prevent Alzheimer's tau pathology. Isomer-specific antibodies and vaccines may therefore have value for the early diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    17. Vaccines against malaria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hill, Adrian V S

      2011-10-12

      There is no licenced vaccine against any human parasitic disease and Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a major cause of infectious mortality, presents a great challenge to vaccine developers. This has led to the assessment of a wide variety of approaches to malaria vaccine design and development, assisted by the availability of a safe challenge model for small-scale efficacy testing of vaccine candidates. Malaria vaccine development has been at the forefront of assessing many new vaccine technologies including novel adjuvants, vectored prime-boost regimes and the concept of community vaccination to block malaria transmission. Most current vaccine candidates target a single stage of the parasite's life cycle and vaccines against the early pre-erythrocytic stages have shown most success. A protein in adjuvant vaccine, working through antibodies against sporozoites, and viral vector vaccines targeting the intracellular liver-stage parasite with cellular immunity show partial efficacy in humans, and the anti-sporozoite vaccine is currently in phase III trials. However, a more effective malaria vaccine suitable for widespread cost-effective deployment is likely to require a multi-component vaccine targeting more than one life cycle stage. The most attractive near-term approach to develop such a product is to combine existing partially effective pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidates.

    18. Alzheimer's disease and periodontitis - an elusive link

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abhijit N. Gurav

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the preeminent cause and commonest form of dementia. It is clinically characterized by a progressive descent in the cognitive function, which commences with deterioration in memory. The exact etiology and pathophysiologic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease is still not fully understood. However it is hypothesized that, neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is marked by salient inflammatory features, characterized by microglial activation and escalation in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the affected regions. Studies have suggested a probable role of systemic infection conducing to inflammatory status of the central nervous system. Periodontitis is common oral infection affiliated with gram negative, anaerobic bacteria, capable of orchestrating localized and systemic infections in the subject. Periodontitis is known to elicit a "low grade systemic inflammation" by release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into systemic circulation. This review elucidates the possible role of periodontitis in exacerbating Alzheimer's disease. Periodontitis may bear the potential to affect the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Periodontitis shares the two important features of Alzheimer's disease namely oxidative damage and inflammation, which are exhibited in the brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Periodontitis can be treated and hence it is a modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    19. Alzheimer's disease: a practical, psychological approach.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Powell, L S

      1985-01-01

      Alzheimer's Disease affects approximately two million people. It is a crippling, organic brain disorder that causes loss of recent memory, intellectual deterioration, unpredictable behavioral changes, and personality deterioration. The fourth leading cause of death among the elderly, it also affects younger people. The disease has two victims, the Alzheimer patient and the caregiver. Caregivers often experience shame, embarrassment, denial, frustration, anger, depression, and guilt as they care for an Alzheimer patient. This paper provides information about the disease and it's manifestations, along with practical suggestions to help both the Alzheimer patient and the caregiver.

    20. DTI measurements for Alzheimer's classification.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maggipinto, Tommaso; Bellotti, Roberto; Amoroso, Nicola; Diacono, Domenico; Donvito, Giacinto; Lella, Eufemia; Monaco, Alfonso; Antonella Scelsi, Marzia; Tangaro, Sabina

      2017-03-21

      Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising imaging technique that provides insight into white matter microstructure integrity and it has greatly helped identifying white matter regions affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its early stages. DTI can therefore be a valuable source of information when designing machine-learning strategies to discriminate between healthy control (HC) subjects, AD patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nonetheless, several studies have reported so far conflicting results, especially because of the adoption of biased feature selection strategies. In this paper we firstly analyzed DTI scans of 150 subjects from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) database. We measured a significant effect of the feature selection bias on the classification performance (p-value  content provided by DTI measurements for AD classification. Classification performances and biological insight, concerning brain regions related to the disease, provided by cross-validation analysis were both confirmed on the independent test.

    1. Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Devanand, D P; Brockington, C D; Moody, B J; Brown, R P; Mayeux, R; Endicott, J; Sackeim, H A

      1992-01-01

      The Behavioral Syndromes Scale for Dementia (BSSD) is a new instrument that showed strong internal consistency and interrater reliability in an outpatient sample of 106 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Factor analysis provided support for a priori symptom groupings, particularly the syndromes of disinhibition and apathy-indifference. Dependency (87%), denial of illness (63%), and motor agitation (55%) were common, while sexual disinhibition (2.9%) and self-destructive behaviors (2.9%) were rare. Virtually all symptoms were predominantly minimal to mild in severity. Patients with longer illness duration were more apathetic. Disinhibited behaviors and apathy-indifference increased with greater severity of dementia. Catastrophic reactions, aggression, and agitation were associated with greater functional impairment. There was great heterogeneity in symptom presentation. In Alzheimer's disease, several behavioral changes might be direct manifestations of underlying brain pathology, rather than being solely secondary to cognitive impairment.

    2. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

      2015-06-19

      Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

    3. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ... Immunization Action Coalition (IAC), a non-profit organization, works to ... facilitates communication about the safety, efficacy, and use of vaccines ...

    4. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

    5. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-10-01

      ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

    6. Vaccines against poverty

      Science.gov (United States)

      MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

      2014-01-01

      With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

    7. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

      2016-03-01

      Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    8. Vaccine Associated Myocarditis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Johnson Francis

      2017-04-01

      Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.

    9. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

      OpenAIRE

      Loucq, Christian

      2013-01-01

      Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles M?rieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...

    10. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

      Science.gov (United States)

      2009-01-01

      containing 50gmL−1 each of neomycin and streptomycin and supplemented with 0.5% human serum albumin , U.S.P. The lyophilized vaccine is the filtered...vaccine was prepared from specific pathogen-free eggs infected with the attenuated CM4884 strain of WEE virus. The supernatant was harvested and filtered...supernatant harvested from primary chicken embryo cell cultures. The vaccine was prepared from spe- cific pathogen-free eggs infected with the

    11. Successful adjuvant-free vaccination of BALB/c mice with mutated amyloid β peptides

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wahi Monika M

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent human clinical trial of an Alzheimer's disease (AD vaccine using amyloid beta (Aβ 1–42 plus QS-21 adjuvant produced some positive results, but was halted due to meningoencephalitis in some participants. The development of a vaccine with mutant Aβ peptides that avoids the use of an adjuvant may result in an effective and safer human vaccine. Results All peptides tested showed high antibody responses, were long-lasting, and demonstrated good memory response. Epitope mapping indicated that peptide mutation did not lead to epitope switching. Mutant peptides induced different inflammation responses as evidenced by cytokine profiles. Ig isotyping indicated that adjuvant-free vaccination with peptides drove an adequate Th2 response. All anti-sera from vaccinated mice cross-reacted with human Aβ in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse brain tissue. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that an adjuvant-free vaccine with different Aβ peptides can be an effective and safe vaccination approach against AD. This study represents the first report of adjuvant-free vaccines utilizing Aβ peptides carrying diverse mutations in the T-cell epitope. These largely positive results provide encouragement for the future of the development of human vaccinations for AD.

    12. Solving the puzzle of Alzheimer disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Uriri-Glover, Johannah; McCarthy, Marianne; Cesarotti, Evelyn

      2012-09-10

      Managing patients with dementia and Alzheimer disease can be a challenge. Often, families and caregivers ask clinicians about the latest treatments. This article summarizes the latest evidence-based practice related to pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management of patients with Alzheimer disease.

    13. Turning principles into practice in Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Lindesay, J.; Bullock, R.; Daniels, H.; Emre, M.; Foerstl, H.; Froelich, L.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Martinez-Lage, P.; Monsch, A. U.; Tsolaki, M.; van Laar, T.

      P>The prevalence of dementia is reaching epidemic proportions globally, but there remain a number of issues that prevent people with dementia, their families and caregivers, from taking control of their condition. In 2008, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) launched a Global Alzheimer's Disease

    14. Amyloid imaging in prodromal Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Ossenkoppele, R.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Prins, N.D.

      2011-01-01

      Patients with mild cognitive impairment are at an increased risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease. However, not all patients with mild cognitive impairment progress, and it is difficult to accurately identify those patients who are in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease. In a recent

    15. Fatty acids, lipid metabolism and Alzheimer pathology.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hooijmans, C.R.; Kiliaan, A.J.

      2008-01-01

      Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown and there is no cure for the disease yet despite 100 years of extensive research. Cardiovascular risk factors such as high serum cholesterol, presence of the Apolipoprotein

    16. Harmonized diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Morris, J C; Blennow, K; Froelich, L

      2014-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Two major sets of criteria for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recently have been published, one from an International Working Group (IWG) and the other from working groups convened by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the Alzheimer's Association (AA...

    17. Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McBroom, Lynn W.

      1987-01-01

      Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

    18. Gaps in Alzheimer's Knowledge among College Students

      Science.gov (United States)

      Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

      2014-01-01

      Despite the prevalence of the disease, it appears that there may be a need for increased education for formal and family caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Today's college students will be asked to fill both of these roles in the future. This study examined the level of knowledge of Alzheimer's disease among…

    19. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

    20. TREM2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guerreiro, Rita; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Bras, Jose; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Majounie, Elisa; Cruchaga, Carlos; Sassi, Celeste; Kauwe, John S.K.; Younkin, Steven; Hazrati, Lilinaz; Collinge, John; Pocock, Jennifer; Lashley, Tammaryn; Williams, Julie; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Goate, Alison; Rademakers, Rosa; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

      2013-01-01

      BACKGROUND Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia. METHODS We used genome, exome, and Sanger sequencing to analyze the genetic variability in TREM2 in a series of 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1107 controls (the discovery set). We then performed a meta-analysis on imputed data for the TREM2 variant rs75932628 (predicted to cause a R47H substitution) from three genomewide association studies of Alzheimer's disease and tested for the association of the variant with disease. We genotyped the R47H variant in an additional 1887 cases and 4061 controls. We then assayed the expression of TREM2 across different regions of the human brain and identified genes that are differentially expressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and in control mice. RESULTS We found significantly more variants in exon 2 of TREM2 in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in controls in the discovery set (P = 0.02). There were 22 variant alleles in 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 5 variant alleles in 1107 controls (P<0.001). The most commonly associated variant, rs75932628 (encoding R47H), showed highly significant association with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.001). Meta-analysis of rs75932628 genotypes imputed from genomewide association studies confirmed this association (P = 0.002), as did direct genotyping of an additional series of 1887 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 4061 controls (P<0.001). Trem2 expression differed between control mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS Heterozygous rare variants in TREM2 are associated with a significant increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (Funded by Alzheimer's Research UK and others.) PMID:23150934

    1. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: ... cochlear implants. Why Are the PCV and PPSV Vaccines Recommended? Children younger than 2 years old, adults ...

    2. Vaccine Policy Issues

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Thaul, Susan

      2005-01-01

      .... Whether a vaccine's target is naturally occurring or present because of hostile intent, the issues policy makers must deal with include vaccine development, production, availability, safety, effectiveness, and access...

    3. Laser facilitates vaccination

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ji Wang

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.

    4. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

      Science.gov (United States)

      Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

    5. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

      2016-04-01

      Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

    6. Vaccine Safety Datalink

      Science.gov (United States)

      The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

    7. Vaccine Policy Issues

      Science.gov (United States)

      2005-05-19

      evidence “favors rejection” of the idea that either the measles- mumps-rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing vaccines cause autism (IOM...that the vaccines or preservatives or packaging might cause autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. One focus has been on thimerosal, a mercury...with the vaccinia virus that causes cowpox to provoke an immune response to protect against the smallpox virus. CRS-2 3A smallpox vaccine is available

    8. Vaccine Controversy Medical Oversight

      OpenAIRE

      Casady, Megan

      2010-01-01

      The anti-vaccination movement has gained significant influence because of its extremely diverse underlying support. From distrust of governmental policies regarding vaccination to scientific data that seemingly proves the dangers of vaccination, the discourses are able to reach and impact a large number of the public. My research this semester focused on the expansion of recommendations made by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concerning the seasonal influenza vaccine, the...

    9. The pertussis vaccine controversy.

      OpenAIRE

      Hinman, A R

      1984-01-01

      Over the past few years, there has been continuing controversy about whether the benefits of routine vaccination for pertussis outweight the potential risks. Some of the epidemiologic and technical issues include ascertainment and reporting of cases, case definition and laboratory confirmation, identification and purification of antigens, vaccine potency measurement, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine safety. Other factors include legal and economic issues, ethical concerns, emotional overlays, an...

    10. Vaccine herd effect

      OpenAIRE

      Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

      2011-01-01

      Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible pop...

    11. Anti-Vaccination Movement

      OpenAIRE

      Chapman, Jonathan

      2010-01-01

      The current anti-vaccination movements that have established themselves in the United States as well as other regions in the world are like a hydra of discourse. Right when one effective measure is created to convince people to vaccinate two more anti-vaccination movements sprout up in its place. These anti-vaccination movements are driven by cultural beliefs, ideologies, medical exemption laws, non-medical exemption laws, distrust of the government, distrust of large pharmaceutical companies...

    12. Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McNeil, Michael M; DeStefano, Frank

      2018-02-01

      Vaccine-associated hypersensitivity reactions are not infrequent; however, serious acute-onset, presumably IgE-mediated or IgG and complement-mediated anaphylactic or serious delayed-onset T cell-mediated systemic reactions are considered extremely rare. Hypersensitivity can occur because of either the active vaccine component (antigen) or one of the other components. Postvaccination acute-onset hypersensitivity reactions include self-limited localized adverse events and, rarely, systemic reactions ranging from urticaria/angioedema to full-blown anaphylaxis with multisystem involvement. Risk of anaphylaxis after all vaccines is estimated to be 1.31 (95% CI, 0.90-1.84) per million vaccine doses, respectively. Serious hypersensitivity reactions after influenza vaccines are particularly important because of the large number of persons vaccinated annually. Influenza vaccines are unique in requiring annual changes in the vaccines' antigenic composition to match the predicted circulating influenza strains. Recently, novel influenza vaccine types were introduced in the United States (recombinant vaccines, some with higher antigen content and a new adjuvanted vaccine). Providers should be aware of changing recommendations on the basis of recent published evidence for persons with a history of egg allergy to receive annual influenza vaccination. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology and risk factors for reported vaccine-associated adverse events. Further research is also needed to determine whether repeated annual inactivated influenza vaccination, the number of vaccine antigens administered at the same time, and the current timing of routine infant vaccinations are optimal for overall population well-being. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    13. Self- Efficacy and Caregiver Strain in Alzheimer\\'s Caregivers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Farahnaz Mohamadi Shahbalaghi

      2006-10-01

      Full Text Available This study with a co relational design has conducted to determine relationship between caregiving strain and self-efficacy in family caregiver of patient with Alzheimer. Accessible sample of the study consisted of 81 family caregivers that all of them were member of Iranian Alzheimer Association. Data was gathered by demographic, self-efficacy and care giving strain questioners. Findings showed the most of the subjects were female (%60, spouse of care giving recipient (56%, married (64%, reside in same household (55%, 49% under high school education, 45% of them haven't taken formal courses about the care of the patients, 53% of them were satisfied about providing of care, 36% reported bad health status. The most important caring needs consisted education for better care providing. the Mean of self-efficacy was 66/96 (29-106 and strain 39/43 (17-65. There were not any relations between strain and self-efficacy with demographic variables. There was positive significant Pearson correlation (r=0/539, p=O/ 01 between self-efficacy and strain. Findings indicated that self-efficacy and care giving strain are subjective and individualized concepts. Care giving to elderly patients is a stressful event but moderate co-relationship shows that caregivers apprise the stress of care giving as a constructive and controllable manner.

    14. Pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease

      OpenAIRE

      Forlenza, Orestes V.

      2005-01-01

      O presente artigo de revisão aborda as perspectivas atuais e futuras no tratamento farmacológico da doença de Alzheimer. Os benefícios e limitações da terapia de reposição colinérgica, representada fundamentalmente pelos inibidores das colinesterases, são apresentados com base em dados de pesquisas neurobiológicas, farmacológicas e clínicas, ilustrados pelos principais estudos controlados por placebo e por estudos recentes de metanálise. O papel da memantina nos casos de demência moderada a g...

    15. Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A

      2015-01-01

      A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research.

    16. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jaurigue, Jonnel A; Seeberger, Peter H

      2017-01-01

      Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases-malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma , and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development.

    17. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

      Science.gov (United States)

      Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

      Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

    18. [Improving vaccination measures].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Iannazzo, S

      2014-01-01

      Despite the benefits of routine vaccination of newborns are known and widely documented, in recent years we are observing a gradual increase in the number of parents who express doubts and concerns about the safety of vaccines and the real need to submit their children to vaccinations included in the national recommendations. This attitude is reinforced by the current epidemiological profile, in Western countries, of many vaccine preventable diseases, accompanied by a low risk perception among parents. Institutions and all the actors involved in vaccination programs have a duty to investigate the reasons for the loss of confidence in vaccination among the population in order to identify and implement appropriate and effective interventions. The improvement of vaccination should, theoretically, goes on a double track, placing side by side the provision of effective vaccines, safe and necessary, and interventions designed to increase demand for vaccination among the population, improve access to vaccination services, improve the system as a whole. But to actually improve the vaccinations' offer it is necessary also to provide interventions aimed at regaining the confidence of the population in relation to vaccination and the institutions that promote them. Particular attention should be given to the aspects of communication and risk communication.

    19. Veterinary Replicon Vaccines

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

      2017-01-01

      Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have

    20. Oral vaccination of fish

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

      2016-01-01

      The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

    1. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. M. Kharit

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

    2. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

      2016-11-15

      Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    3. Concept Analysis: Alzheimer's Caregiver Stress.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Llanque, Sarah; Savage, Lynette; Rosenburg, Neal; Caserta, Michael

      2016-01-01

      The aim of this article was to analyze the concept of caregiver stress in the context of caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Currently, there are more than 15 million unpaid caregivers for persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. This unpaid care can be stressful for caregivers due to the chronic nature of the disease process, as well as other factors. The paper incorporates the modified method of Wilson's concept analysis procedure to analyze the concept of caregiver stress. A review of the literature was undertaken using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Google Scholar, and PubMed. A theoretical definition of caregiver stress is provided, and the defining attributes, related concepts, antecedents, and consequences of caregiver stress are proposed, and case studies are presented. The analysis demonstrates that caregiver stress is the unequal exchange of assistance among people who stand in close relationship to one another, which results in emotional and physical stress on the caregiver. Implications for future nursing research and practice conclude the paper. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    4. WITHDRAWN: Tacrine for Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Qizilbash, N; Birks, J; Lopez Arrieta, J; Lewington, S; Szeto, S

      2007-07-18

      Tacrine is one of the first drugs to be widely marketed for the loss of memory and intellectual decline in Alzheimer's disease, often accompanied by abnormal behaviour and physical decline. The alleged success of tacrine in the treatment of these symptoms has been heralded as confirmation of the cholinergic theory of Alzheimer's disease. The efficacy of tacrine for symptoms of dementia remains controversial. This is reflected by the low rate of prescription of tacrine in countries where it is approved and the lack of approval by several regulatory authorities in Europe and elsewhere. The uncertainty about the efficacy of tacrine is due to the difficulties in interpretation of the results from the clinical trials. The reasons for this are the small effects of tacrine compared to placebo for all outcomes; the high incidence of adverse events; the lack of benefit observed in several trials; the use of cross-over designs and their associated methodological problems in a disease like dementia; the use of different measurement scales to assess outcome in different trials; and the problem of high dropout rates. To determine the clinical efficacy of tacrine for the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The Cochrane Dementia Group Register of Clinical Trials was searched using the terms 'tacrine', 'tetrahydroaminoacridine' and 'THA' (see the Group's search strategy for full details). All unconfounded, double-blind, randomized trials in which treatment with tacrine was administered for more than a day and compared to placebo in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers, pooled if appropriate and possible, and the pooled odds ratios (95%CI) or the average differences (95%CI) were estimated. Where possible, intention-to-treat data were used. This review produced no clear results. The results were compatible with tacrine producing improvement, no change or even harm for those with Alzheimer's disease. It was not possible to

    5. Mathematical model on Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hao, Wenrui; Friedman, Avner

      2016-11-18

      Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive skills. AD is characterized by the presence of two types of neuropathological hallmarks: extracellular plaques consisting of amyloid β-peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. The disease affects 5 million people in the United States and 44 million world-wide. Currently there is no drug that can cure, stop or even slow the progression of the disease. If no cure is found, by 2050 the number of alzheimer's patients in the U.S. will reach 15 million and the cost of caring for them will exceed $ 1 trillion annually. The present paper develops a mathematical model of AD that includes neurons, astrocytes, microglias and peripheral macrophages, as well as amyloid β aggregation and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. The model is represented by a system of partial differential equations. The model is used to simulate the effect of drugs that either failed in clinical trials, or are currently in clinical trials. Based on these simulations it is suggested that combined therapy with TNF- α inhibitor and anti amyloid β could yield significant efficacy in slowing the progression of AD.

    6. Aphasia(s) in Alzheimer.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Teichmann, M; Ferrieux, S

      2013-10-01

      Language disorders of degenerative origin are frequently tied to Alzheimer disease (AD) the different variants of which can result in primary and secondary aphasia syndromes. More specifically, Alzheimer pathology can primarily erode frontal, temporal or parietal language cortices resulting in three genuine AD language variants which account for about 30% of primary degenerative aphasias. Likewise, it can spread from non-language to language cortices leading to secondary language disorders like in typical amnesic AD and in several atypical AD variants. This paper reviews the whole set of AD variants by characterising their impact on the neural language system and on linguistic functioning. It also provides cues for diagnostic strategies which are essential for linguistic, syndromic and nosological patient classification, for adequate clinical follow-up and for guiding language rehabilitation. Such diagnostic approaches, founded on detailed linguistic phenotyping while integrating anatomical and neuropathological findings, also represent a crucial issue for future drug trials targeting the physio-pathological processes in degenerative aphasias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

    7. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Braczkowska, Bogumiła; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Braczkowski, Ryszard; Barański, Kamil

      2017-01-01

      Vaccine hesitancy is a worrying phenomenon due to its range and health-related consequences. Secondary epidemiological data on the current situation of vaccination in Poland were analyzed. The source of the analyzed data were obtained from the reports of the National Sanitary Inspection and the National Institute of Public Health–National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw. Legal basis on vaccination and the responsibilities of physicians related to these regulations were also discussed. Considering the opinions of ECDC experts, factors influencing vaccine hesitancy were identified. Attention was paid to the activities of the anti-vaccination movements, their range of activity and a strategy of action.

    8. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yongqun He

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

    9. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mark V. Pauly

      2017-10-01

      Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

    10. Pertussis vaccination in pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Healy, C Mary

      2016-08-02

      Pertussis has had a resurgence with the highest incidence and complication rates in young infants, and deaths occurring mainly at Pertussis vaccination in pregnancy may protect infants through passive and active transfer of maternal antibodies that protect the infant until the primary immunization series. Studies show vaccinating pregnant women with acellular pertussis vaccine is safe for mother and infant, immunogenic with efficient transfer of antibodies to infants, and effective in preventing pertussis in young infants. Vaccine uptake in pregnant women is sub-optimal, but provider recommendation is the most important factor in improving vaccination rates. Studies are ongoing to determine the best timing of vaccination to protect infants, and into other strategies. Vaccinating pregnant women offers hope to prevent pertussis-related morbidity and mortality in infants worldwide.

    11. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chandrakant Lahariya

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs. The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course.

    12. Alzheimer's disease: a report from the 7th Kuopio Alzheimer symposium.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Pikkarainen, Maria; Soininen, Hilkka

      2015-10-01

      The 7th Kuopio Alzheimer symposium was held on 11-13 June, 2015, in Kuopio, Finland and attracted ~250 attendees from 14 different countries around the world. The theme for the symposium in its seventh year was 'From mechanisms to prevention and intervention of Alzheimer's disease'. The 3-day international scientific symposium composed of seven oral sessions and a poster session. The program, spanning from molecular mechanisms to prevention, prediction, diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, provided a forum for the attendees to share their research, network and to obtain a comprehensive overview of the current status and future directions of research into Alzheimer's disease.

    13. 77 FR 14804 - Advisory Council on Alzheimer's Research, Care, and Services; Request for Nominations

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-03-13

      ... programs that impact people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and their caregivers. The... Alzheimer's patient advocates (2), Alzheimer's caregivers (2), health care providers (2), representatives of... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Council on Alzheimer's Research, Care, and...

    14. Global Data Sharing in Alzheimer Disease Research.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ashish, Naveen; Bhatt, Priya; Toga, Arthur W

      2016-01-01

      Many investigators recognize the importance of data sharing; however, they lack the capability to share data. Research efforts could be vastly expanded if Alzheimer disease data from around the world was linked by a global infrastructure that would enable scientists to access and utilize a secure network of data with thousands of study participants at risk for or already suffering from the disease. We discuss the benefits of data sharing, impediments today, and solutions to achieving this on a global scale. We introduce the Global Alzheimer's Association Interactive Network (GAAIN), a novel approach to create a global network of Alzheimer disease data, researchers, analytical tools, and computational resources to better our understanding of this debilitating condition. GAAIN has addressed the key impediments to Alzheimer disease data sharing with its model and approach. It presents practical, promising, yet, data owner-sensitive data-sharing solutions.

    15. The Global Alzheimer's Association Interactive Network.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Toga, Arthur W; Neu, Scott C; Bhatt, Priya; Crawford, Karen L; Ashish, Naveen

      2016-01-01

      The Global Alzheimer's Association Interactive Network (GAAIN) is consolidating the efforts of independent Alzheimer's disease data repositories around the world with the goals of revealing more insights into the causes of Alzheimer's disease, improving treatments, and designing preventative measures that delay the onset of physical symptoms. We developed a system for federating these repositories that is reliant on the tenets that (1) its participants require incentives to join, (2) joining the network is not disruptive to existing repository systems, and (3) the data ownership rights of its members are protected. We are currently in various phases of recruitment with over 55 data repositories in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia and can presently query >250,000 subjects using GAAIN's search interfaces. GAAIN's data sharing philosophy, which guided our architectural choices, is conducive to motivating membership in a voluntary data sharing network. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    16. Education and the risk for Alzheimer's disease

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Letenneur, L; Launer, L J; Andersen, K

      2000-01-01

      The hypothesis that a low educational level increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. The authors studied the association of years of schooling with the risk for incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease by using pooled data from four European population-based follow......-up studies. Dementia cases were identified in a two-stage procedure that included a detailed diagnostic assessment of screen-positive subjects. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease were diagnosed by using international research criteria. Educational level was categorized by years of schooling as low (...), middle (8-11), or high (> or =12). Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) were estimated by using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, study center, smoking status, and self-reported myocardial infarction and stroke. There were 493 (328) incident cases of dementia (Alzheimer's disease) and 28...

    17. Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease in vivo

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.

      1994-01-01

      The article describes the current knowledge on biochemical changes in Alzheimer's disease. Following a summary on post mortem findings, results from positron emission tomography will be focused on. This synopsis shows that patients with Alzheimer's disease show very consistently changes in the cholinergic transmission. In addition to this, changes of the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic system are observed. It is possible, that clinical, pathological and functional differences in Alzheimer's disease between different patients reflect variations of a single disease process. It is also thinkable, that there are subclassifications in Alzheimer's disease which are reflected in the above described biochemical abnormalities. In this case it is important in therapeutical terms to investigate these subtypes. (orig.) [de

    18. Education and the risk for Alzheimers disease

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Letenneur, L; Launer, L J; Andersen, K

      2000-01-01

      The hypothesis that a low educational level increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. The authors studied the association of years of schooling with the risk for incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease by using pooled data from four European population-based follow......-up studies. Dementia cases were identified in a two-stage procedure that included a detailed diagnostic assessment of screen-positive subjects. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease were diagnosed by using international research criteria. Educational level was categorized by years of schooling as low (...), middle (8-11), or high (> or =12). Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) were estimated by using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, study center, smoking status, and self-reported myocardial infarction and stroke. There were 493 (328) incident cases of dementia (Alzheimer's disease) and 28...

    19. Caregiving for Alzheimer's Disease or Other Dementia

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... What's this? Submit Button Caregiving for Person with Alzheimer's Disease or a related Dementia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Alzheimer’s Disease? Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form ...

    20. [Mercury in vaccines].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hessel, Luc

      2003-01-01

      Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

    1. Current Ebola vaccines

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

      2012-01-01

      Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

    2. Alzheimer's disease: synapses gone cold

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hyman Bradley T

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Synapse loss is the best pathological correlate of cognitive decline in AD and mounting evidence suggests that AD is primarily a disease of synaptic dysfunction. Soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid beta (Aβ, the peptide that aggregates to form senile plaques in the brain of AD patients, have been shown to be toxic to neuronal synapses both in vitro and in vivo. Aβ oligomers inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP and facilitate long-term depression (LTD, electrophysiological correlates of memory formation. Furthermore, oligomeric Aβ has also been shown to induce synapse loss and cognitive impairment in animals. The molecular underpinnings of these observations are now being elucidated, and may provide clear therapeutic targets for effectively treating the disease. Here, we review recent findings concerning AD pathogenesis with a particular focus on how Aβ impacts synapses.

    3. APP processing in Alzheimer's disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zhang Yun-wu

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/aggregation of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and inhibition of Aβ generation has become a hot topic in AD research. Aβ is generated from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by γ-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by α-secretase within the Aβ domain to release soluble APPα and preclude Aβ generation. Cleavage of APP by caspases may also contribute to AD pathologies. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP is crucial for AD therapeutics. Here we review current knowledge of APP processing regulation as well as the patho/physiological functions of APP and its metabolites.

    4. Humanin signal for Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Matsuoka, Masaaki

      2011-01-01

      Despite a bulk of evidence supporting the idea that increased neurotoxic insults lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the possibility still remains that insufficiency of an endogenous defense system contributes to the disease progression. Humanin is a bioactive peptide that is likely to inhibit both neuronal death and dysfunction only related to AD by binding to a Humanin receptor on the cell-surface and by activating a STAT3-mediated signal, preventing the onset of dementia. A couple of recent studies presented evidence suggesting that the Humanin signal is decreased in neurons of AD patients. If this is the case, the restoration or activation of the Humanin signal in neurons may change the course of AD.

    5. [Alzheimer's disease: New therapeutic strategies].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Villegas, Sandra

      2015-07-20

      The rapid increase in prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease means that treatments to prevent, stop or reverse this devastating disease are urgently needed. Despite advances in understanding its molecular pathology, there are no drugs that can halt its progression. This review takes a tour through phase 2, or higher studies, probing receptor agonist agents interfering with aggregation, inhibitors/modulators of secretases, lipid-lowering agents, and, finally and most extensively, immunotherapy. The fact that phase 3 studies with bapineuzumab and solaneuzumab have recently failed does not invalidate the potential of immunotherapy, as more information is available and new clinical trials are being initiated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

    6. Brain Imaging in Alzheimer Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Johnson, Keith A.; Fox, Nick C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Klunk, William E.

      2012-01-01

      Imaging has played a variety of roles in the study of Alzheimer disease (AD) over the past four decades. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used diagnostically to rule out other causes of dementia. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism with fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and amyloid tracers such as Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with AD, and in prodromal and even presymptomatic states that can help rule-in the AD pathophysiological process. No one imaging modality can serve all purposes as each have unique strengths and weaknesses. These modalities and their particular utilities are discussed in this article. The challenge for the future will be to combine imaging biomarkers to most efficiently facilitate diagnosis, disease staging, and, most importantly, development of effective disease-modifying therapies. PMID:22474610

    7. Neuropathological Alterations in Alzheimer Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Frosch, Matthew P.; Masliah, Eliezer; Hyman, Bradley T.

      2011-01-01

      The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD) include “positive” lesions such as amyloid plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, and glial responses, and “negative” lesions such as neuronal and synaptic loss. Despite their inherently cross-sectional nature, postmortem studies have enabled the staging of the progression of both amyloid and tangle pathologies, and, consequently, the development of diagnostic criteria that are now used worldwide. In addition, clinicopathological correlation studies have been crucial to generate hypotheses about the pathophysiology of the disease, by establishing that there is a continuum between “normal” aging and AD dementia, and that the amyloid plaque build-up occurs primarily before the onset of cognitive deficits, while neurofibrillary tangles, neuron loss, and particularly synaptic loss, parallel the progression of cognitive decline. Importantly, these cross-sectional neuropathological data have been largely validated by longitudinal in vivo studies using modern imaging biomarkers such as amyloid PET and volumetric MRI. PMID:22229116

    8. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

      OpenAIRE

      Stern, Yaakov

      2012-01-01

      The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's diseas...

    9. Alzheimer's disease: the dependency and care

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maria Amelia Ximenes

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia among older people and has gradually increased with the aging population. Knowing Alzheimer's disease, the demand for care produced by the disease and its impact on the lives of family caregivers, give a sense of the scale of the problems faced in everyday life of families. This article is a literature review addresses these issues.  

    10. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bagyinszky E

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Eva Bagyinszky,1 Young Chul Youn,2 Seong Soo A An,1,* SangYun Kim3,*1Department of BioNano Technology Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, 2Department of Neurology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Budang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, classified as either early onset (under 65 years of age, or late onset (over 65 years of age. Three main genes are involved in early onset AD: amyloid precursor protein (APP, presenilin 1 (PSEN1, and presenilin 2 (PSEN2. The apolipoprotein E (APOE E4 allele has been found to be a main risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified several genes that might be potential risk factors for AD, including clusterin (CLU, complement receptor 1 (CR1, phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM, and sortilin-related receptor (SORL1. Recent studies have discovered additional novel genes that might be involved in late-onset AD, such as triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2 and cluster of differentiation 33 (CD33. Identification of new AD-related genes is important for better understanding of the pathomechanisms leading to neurodegeneration. Since the differential diagnoses of neurodegenerative disorders are difficult, especially in the early stages, genetic testing is essential for diagnostic processes. Next-generation sequencing studies have been successfully used for detecting mutations, monitoring the epigenetic changes, and analyzing transcriptomes. These studies may be a promising approach toward understanding the complete genetic mechanisms of diverse genetic disorders such as AD.Keywords: dementia, amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, presenilin 2, APOE, mutation, diagnosis, genetic testing

    11. Predicting progression of Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Doody, Rachelle S; Pavlik, Valory; Massman, Paul; Rountree, Susan; Darby, Eveleen; Chan, Wenyaw

      2010-02-23

      Clinicians need to predict prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and researchers need models of progression to develop biomarkers and clinical trials designs. We tested a calculated initial progression rate to see whether it predicted performance on cognition, function and behavior over time, and to see whether it predicted survival. We used standardized approaches to assess baseline characteristics and to estimate disease duration, and calculated the initial (pre-progression) rate in 597 AD patients followed for up to 15 years. We designated slow, intermediate and rapidly progressing groups. Using mixed effects regression analysis, we examined the predictive value of a pre-progression group for longitudinal performance on standardized measures. We used Cox survival analysis to compare survival time by progression group. Patients in the slow and intermediate groups maintained better performance on the cognitive (ADAScog and VSAT), global (CDR-SB) and complex activities of daily living measures (IADL) (P values < 0.001 slow versus fast; P values < 0.003 to 0.03 intermediate versus fast). Interaction terms indicated that slopes of ADAScog and PSMS change for the slow group were smaller than for the fast group, and that rates of change on the ADAScog were also slower for the intermediate group, but that CDR-SB rates increased in this group relative to the fast group. Slow progressors survived longer than fast progressors (P = 0.024). A simple, calculated progression rate at the initial visit gives reliable information regarding performance over time on cognition, global performance and activities of daily living. The slowest progression group also survives longer. This baseline measure should be considered in the design of long duration Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    12. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mark Ide

      Full Text Available Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.

    13. Perspectives on future Alzheimer therapies: amyloid-β protofibrils - a new target for immunotherapy with BAN2401 in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lannfelt, Lars; Möller, Christer; Basun, Hans; Osswald, Gunilla; Sehlin, Dag; Satlin, Andrew; Logovinsky, Veronika; Gellerfors, Pär

      2014-01-01

      The symptomatic drugs currently on the market for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have no effect on disease progression, and this creates a large unmet medical need. The type of drug that has developed most rapidly in the last decade is immunotherapy: vaccines and, especially, passive vaccination with monoclonal antibodies. Antibodies are attractive drugs as they can be made highly specific for their target and often with few side effects. Data from recent clinical AD trials indicate that a treatment effect by immunotherapy is possible, providing hope for a new generation of drugs. The first anti-amyloid-beta (anti-Aβ) vaccine developed by Elan, AN1792, was halted in phase 2 because of aseptic meningoencephalitis. However, in a follow-up study, patients with antibody response to the vaccine demonstrated reduced cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis that Aβ immunotherapy may have clinically relevant effects. Bapineuzumab (Elan/Pfizer Inc./Johnson & Johnson), a monoclonal antibody targeting fibrillar Aβ, was stopped because the desired clinical effect was not seen. Solanezumab (Eli Lilly and Company) was developed to target soluble, monomeric Aβ. In two phase 3 studies, Solanezumab did not meet primary endpoints. When data from the two studies were pooled, a positive pattern emerged, revealing a significant slowing of cognitive decline in the subgroup of mild AD. The Arctic mutation has been shown to specifically increase the formation of soluble Aβ protofibrils, an Aβ species shown to be toxic to neurons and likely to be present in all cases of AD. A monoclonal antibody, mAb158, was developed to target Aβ protofibrils with high selectivity. It has at least a 1,000-fold higher selectivity for protofibrils as compared with monomers of Aβ, thus targeting the toxic species of the peptide. A humanized version of mAb158, BAN2401, has now entered a clinical phase 2b trial in a collaboration between BioArctic Neuroscience and Eisai without the safety concerns seen

    14. What Vaccines Do You Need?

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...

    15. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

    16. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

    17. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

    18. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

      2017-03-01

      This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

    19. Vaccine development for syphilis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lithgow, Karen V; Cameron, Caroline E

      2017-01-01

      Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a globally prevalent disease despite remaining susceptible to penicillin treatment. Syphilis vaccine development is a viable preventative approach that will serve to complement public health-oriented syphilis prevention, screening and treatment initiatives to deliver a two-pronged approach to stemming disease spread worldwide. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of the need for development of a syphilis vaccine, summarizes significant information that has been garnered from prior syphilis vaccine studies, discusses the critical aspects of infection that would have to be targeted by a syphilis vaccine, and presents the current understanding within the field of the correlates of protection needed to be achieved through vaccination. Expert commentary: Syphilis vaccine development should be considered a priority by industry, regulatory and funding agencies, and should be appropriately promoted and supported.

    20. Vaccination and neurological disorders

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Anastasia Gkampeta

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

    1. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

      2016-01-01

      The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

    2. Vaccine herd effect.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

      2011-09-01

      Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

    3. Vaccination against seasonal flu

      CERN Multimedia

      2015-01-01

      The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

    4. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Fever Varicella (Chickenpox) Yellow Fever Live Zoster (Shingles) Vaccine, ZVL Recombinant Zoster (Shingles) Vaccine, RZV Any vaccine can cause ... RZV side-effects What are the risks from recombinant shingles vaccine? With any medicine, including vaccines, there is a ...

    5. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Linhares Alexandre C.

      2000-01-01

      Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

    6. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marshall K. Cheney

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

    7. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zingg, W

      2005-10-01

      Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents.

    8. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

      OpenAIRE

      Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

      2011-01-01

      Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...

    9. Pricing of new vaccines

      OpenAIRE

      Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

      2010-01-01

      New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

    10. Vaccines for the elderly.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Weinberger, B; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B

      2012-10-01

      Vaccination is the most efficient strategy to prevent infectious disease. The increased vulnerability to infection of the elderly makes them a particularly important target population for vaccination. However, most vaccines are less immunogenic and efficient in the elderly because of age-related changes in the immune system. Vaccination against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and varicella zoster virus is recommended for the elderly in many countries. Various strategies such as the use of adjuvants and novel administration routes are pursued to improve influenza vaccination for the elderly and recent developments in the field of pneumococcal vaccination led to the licensure of protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines containing up to 13 serotypes. As antibody titres are generally lower in the elderly and-particularly for inactivated vaccines-decline fast in the elderly, regular booster immunizations, for example against tetanus, diphtheria and, in endemic areas, tick-borne encephalitis, are essential during adulthood to ensure protection of the elderly. With increasing health and travel opportunities in old age the importance of travel vaccines for persons over the age of 60 is growing. However, little is known about immunogenicity and efficacy of travel vaccines in this age group. Despite major advances in the field of vaccinology over the last decades, there are still possibilities for improvement concerning vaccines for the elderly. Novel approaches, such as viral vectors for antigen delivery, DNA-based vaccines and innovative adjuvants, particularly toll-like receptor agonists, will help to achieve optimal protection against infectious diseases in old age. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

    11. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

      OpenAIRE

      Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

      2016-01-01

      Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment o...

    12. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

      2015-05-05

      The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

    13. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

      2017-03-14

      The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

    14. Dengue virus vaccine development.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

      2014-01-01

      Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    15. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

      2017-01-01

      An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...... vaccine against yellow fever, vaccinations appear safe in untreated patients with MS and ON. However, most studies were underpowered, and small risks cannot be excluded. One study of BCG vaccination after the first demyelinating event showed even a reduced risk of developing MS. Further studies are needed...

    16. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

      Science.gov (United States)

      Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

    17. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... information about vaccine supplies and provides guidance to healthcare providers who are facing vaccine ... supplies in the private sector and increasing national supply; (3) implemented ordering controls ...

    18. Modelling vaccination schedules for a cancer immunoprevention vaccine

      Science.gov (United States)

      Motta, Santo; Castiglione, Filippo; Lollini, Pierluigi; Pappalardo, Francesco

      2005-01-01

      We present a systematic approach to search for an effective vaccination schedule using mathematical computerized models. Our study is based on our previous model that simulates the cancer vs immune system competition activated by tumor vaccine. This model accurately reproduces in-vivo experiments results on HER-2/neu mice treated with the immuno-prevention cancer vaccine (Triplex) for mammary carcinoma. In vivo experiments have shown the effectiveness of Triplex vaccine in protection of mice from mammary carcinoma. The full protection was conferred using chronic (prophylactic) vaccination protocol while therapeutic vaccination was less effcient. In the present paper we use the computer simulations to systematically search for a vaccination schedule which prevents solid tumor formation. The strategy we used for defining a successful vaccination schedule is to control the number of cancer cells with vaccination cycles. We found that, applying the vaccination scheme used in in-vivo experiments, the number of vaccine injections can be reduced roughly by 30%. PMID:16305756

    19. Universal influenza vaccines: Shifting to better vaccines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Donnelly, John J

      2016-06-03

      Influenza virus causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections and is the most likely, among known pathogens, to cause a large epidemic in humans. Influenza virus mutates rapidly, enabling it to evade natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Furthermore, influenza viruses can cross from animals to humans, generating novel, potentially pandemic strains. Currently available influenza vaccines induce a strain specific response and may be ineffective against new influenza viruses. The difficulty in predicting circulating strains has frequently resulted in mismatch between the annual vaccine and circulating viruses. Low-resource countries remain mostly unprotected against seasonal influenza and are particularly vulnerable to future pandemics, in part, because investments in vaccine manufacturing and stockpiling are concentrated in high-resource countries. Antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin stalk have been isolated from humans and shown to confer protection in animal models, suggesting that broadly protective immunity may be possible. Several innovative influenza vaccine candidates are currently in preclinical or early clinical development. New technologies include adjuvants, synthetic peptides, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vectors, messenger RNA, viral vectors, and attenuated or inactivated influenza viruses. Other approaches target the conserved exposed epitope of the surface exposed membrane matrix protein M2e. Well-conserved influenza proteins, such as nucleoprotein and matrix protein, are mainly targeted for developing strong cross-protective T cell responses. With multiple vaccine candidates moving along the testing and development pipeline, the field is steadily moving toward a product that is more potent, durable, and broadly protective than previously licensed vaccines. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

    20. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      M.J. Engelhart (Marianne); M.I. Geerlings (Miriam); A. Ruitenberg (Annemieke); J.C. van Swieten (John); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

      2002-01-01

      textabstractCONTEXT: Laboratory findings have suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Therefore, the risk of Alzheimer disease might be reduced by intake of antioxidants that counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

    1. Complement C4 phenotypes in dementia of the Alzheimer type

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Eikelenboom, P.; Goetz, J.; Pronk, J. C.; Hauptmann, G.

      1988-01-01

      Complement C4 phenotype distribution was studied in 64 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. In contrast to reported findings we failed to find a significant association between C4B2 gene frequency and Alzheimer's dementia

    2. Vaccination in elite athletes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gärtner, Barbara C; Meyer, Tim

      2014-10-01

      Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or traveling to endemic areas, the athletes should be immune against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. Vaccination against pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type b is only relevant in athletes with certain underlying disorders. Rubella and papillomavirus vaccination might be considered after an individual risk-benefit analysis. Other vaccinations such as cholera, rabies, herpes zoster, and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) cannot be universally recommended for athletes at present. Only for a very few diseases, a determination of antibody titers is reasonable to avoid unnecessary vaccinations or to control efficacy of an individual's vaccination (especially for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and, partly, hepatitis A). Vaccinations should be scheduled in a way that possible side effects are least likely to occur in periods of competition. Typically, vaccinations are well tolerated by elite athletes, and resulting antibody titers are not different from the general population. Side effects might be reduced by an optimal selection of vaccines and an appropriate technique of administration. Very few discipline-specific considerations apply to an athlete's vaccination schedule mainly from the competition and training pattern as well as from the typical geographical distribution of competitive sites.

    3. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

      2009-09-01

      An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

    4. Alzheimers Disease: Review of Emerging Treatment Role for Intravenous Immunoglobulins

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rakez Kayed

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti Aβ peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-Aβ and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects.

    5. 78 FR 66611 - National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2013

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-11-05

      ... National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible and progressive brain disease that slowly erodes precious..., including senior citizens as well as younger Americans with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. This month, we...

    6. ABO and Rhesus blood groups in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Renvoize, E B

      1985-01-01

      ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups were examined in 124 patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type (PDAT) and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), and their distribution was compared with controls. No significant associations between these blood groups and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were found after statistical correction for multiple comparisons.

    7. 75 FR 67899 - National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-11-04

      ... effective treatments and a cure, we must continue to support both Alzheimer's disease research and the... National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Alzheimer's disease tragically robs individuals of their memories and leads to progressive mental...

    8. 77 FR 11116 - Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-02-24

      ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease AGENCY... Alzheimer's Disease, which is available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/napa/NatlPlan.shtml . DATES: Submit... . Background On January 4, 2011, President Barack Obama signed into law the National Alzheimer's Project Act...

    9. Denial of memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sevush, S; Leve, N

      1993-05-01

      Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease often deny or underestimate the severity of their memory impairment. The authors examined the relationships between denial and severity of cognitive impairment and between denial and the presence of depressed mood and sad affect in 128 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Denial of memory deficit was evaluated by structured interview. Cognition was evaluated with a quantitative examination that assessed performance on 16 subtests. Depression was rated by using a scale that included patients' self-ratings as well as caregivers' and examiners' assessments of the patient's mood and affect. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the relationship between denial and demographic, cognitive, and depression variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to further examine the relationship between denial and individual cognitive subset scores. Denial did not correlate with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease, duration of illness, or educational background. It did correlate with gender: women exhibited greater denial than men. A significant correlation was found between denial and overall severity of cognitive deficit and particularly with impairment in object naming. A negative correlation was found between denial and depression. The association between denial and cognitive impairment may suggest that denial of probable Alzheimer's disease results from disruption of cognitive abilities needed for awareness of illness. The negative association between denial and depression may suggest that depression in Alzheimer's disease is in part reactive in nature.

    10. [Anesthesia and Alzheimer disease - Current perceptions].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Marques, Ana Filipa Vieira da Silva Ferreira; Lapa, Teresa Alexandra Santos Carvalho

      It has been speculated that the use of anesthetic agents may be a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer disease. The objective of this review is to describe and discuss pre-clinical and clinical data related to anesthesia and this disease. Alzheimer disease affects about 5% of the population over 65 years old, with age being the main risk factor and being associated with a high morbidity. Current evidence questions a possible association between anesthesia, surgery, and long-term cognitive effects, including Alzheimer disease. Although data from some animal studies suggest an association between anesthesia and neurotoxicity, this link remains inconclusive in humans. We performed a review of the literature in which we selected scientific articles in the PubMed database, published between 2005 and 2016 (one article from 1998 due to its historical relevance), in English, which address the possible relationship between anesthesia and Alzheimer disease. 49 articles were selected. The possible relationship between anesthetic agents, cognitive dysfunction, and Alzheimer disease remains to be clarified. Prospective cohort studies or randomized clinical trials for a better understanding of this association will be required. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

    11. Vaccines against malaria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B

      2015-03-15

      Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    12. Vaccines.gov

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Whooping cough can cause dangerous complications for babies, which is why it’s important to get vaccinated — especially if you’re pregnant. Read more . Rubella (German Measles) Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent ...

    13. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

      2017-03-01

      Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. © 2016 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    14. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

      2011-01-01

      textabstractVaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the

    15. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... not routinely recommended for those 5 years of age or older, since most older children and adults are already immune to Hib. Available information does not suggest that older children and adults with cochlear implants require the Hib vaccine. However, the Hib vaccine ...

    16. [Papillomavirus vaccines: adverse effects].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bayés, Maria E; Valero, Edith; Valero, Edith Gil; Gutiérrez, Herance; Martín Zafra, Antonia; Valverde Caballero, Inocencia; Aizpurua Galdeano, María Pilar

      2011-11-01

      The Health Department of Catalunya laun- ched the first vaccination campaign against human papillo- mavirus (HPV) in the 2008-09 school year This study des- cribes the side effects of HPV vaccine and compared them with those of the vaccine against Hepatitis. This is a prospective observational study Nurses of our primary health centre went to the area's schools to administer the HPV vaccine and hepatitis vaccine (when necessary). Afterwards, between 24 to 72 hours, they went back to schools in order to control the adverse effects. The frequency of general symptoms (syn- cope, fever, headache, muscle aches, malaise) was less than 5% with the first two doses. With the third, 9.8% of girls referred headache. Pain was the most common local symptom: 28.3% of girls reported pain with the first dose, 53.4% with the second and 53.6% with the third. Local reactions appear more often with HPV than with hepatitis vaccine, especially in the second and third doses (McNemar test p HPV vaccine was generally well tolerated. General side effects were rare. Local symptoms were com- mon and increased with each new dose. The vaccine against hepatitis produced fewer side effects.

    17. ADULT PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION GUIDELINE

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Vaccination is. • potentially beneficial to any individual. • very effective in young otherwise healthy individuals. • targeted at high-risk groups when there are cost considerations. Evidence. Detailed literature review with emphasis on local. South African studies. Benefits, harms, costs. • Vaccine is very effective in preventing ...

    18. Therapeutic vaccines for leishmaniasis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Khamesipour, Ali

      2014-11-01

      Numerous therapeutic strategies are used to treat leishmaniasis. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is solely depends on antimonate derivatives with safety issues and questionable efficacy and there is no fully effective modality to treat CL caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania braziliensis. There is no prophylactic vaccine available against any form of leishmaniasis. Immunotherapy for CL has a long history; immunotherapy trials of first and second generation vaccines showed promising results. The current article briefly covers the prophylactic vaccines and explains different immunotherapy strategies that have been used to treat leishmaniasis. This paper does not include experimental vaccines and only lays emphasis on human trials and those vaccines which reached human trials. Immunotherapy is currently used to successfully treat several disorders; Low cost, limited side effects and no possibility to develop resistance make immunotherapy a valuable choice especially for infectious disease with chemotherapy problems. Efforts are needed to explore the immunological surrogate marker(s) of cure and protection in leishmaniasis and overcome the difficulties in standardization of crude Leishmania vaccines. One of the reasons for anti-leishmaniasis vaccine failure is lack of an appropriate adjuvant. So far, not enough attention has been paid to develop vaccines for immunotherapy of leishmaniasis.

    19. Pricing of new vaccines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

      2010-08-01

      New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

    20. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nakayama, Tetsuo

      2011-01-01

      Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

    1. Place de la vaccination

      OpenAIRE

      Revest , Matthieu; Tattevin , Pierre

      2017-01-01

      National audience; Immunogénicité des vaccins antigrippaux chez les patients BPCODeux études se sont intéressées à la réponse humorale à la vaccination antigrippale chez les patients suivis pour une BPCO.

    2. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

      2016-01-01

      Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics.

    3. Vaccines Europe 2009.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mukhopadhyay, Tarit K

      2010-02-01

      The Informa Life Sciences vaccines conference is an annual meeting of a relatively small number of academics and industrialists. It is split into three concurrent sessions covering vaccine discovery, quality and manufacturing. Although there were many presentations of merit, only a few will be discussed here, including the plenary speeches on adjuvants and influenza.

    4. Acceptance of vaccination

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Lehmann, B.; Eilers, R.; Donken, R.; Barug, D.; Swillens, J.; Vriend, C. de; Weerdenburg, S.; Pot, M.; Keulen, H. van; Paulussen, T.; Vermey, K.; Alberts, N.; Marra, E.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.

      2016-01-01

      Both in 2013 and 2015 the mean intention of parents to vaccinate their child was high. Only 21% of parents reported making an informed decision about childhood vaccinations included in the NIP. Mass media attention on the use of allegedly inferior needles, which was later refuted, appeared to have a

    5. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jadhav, Emmanuel D; Winkler, Danielle L; Anderson, Billie S

      2018-01-01

      The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Young adults ( n  = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann-Whitney U -tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017. A little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination. Young adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

    6. HPV vaccine uptake in a school-located vaccination program.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Middleman, Amy B; Won, Tiana; Auslander, Beth; Misra, Sanghamitra; Short, Mary

      2016-11-01

      Previous research has implied that while parents may be willing to have their adolescents receive some recommended vaccines via school-located vaccination program (SLVP), they were less likely to agree to the HPV vaccine being administered via SLVP. During an SLVP in a large urban area, 86% of those participating in the program received an HPV vaccine.

    7. Alzheimer's disease: An alternative approach

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative cortical dementia. It starts with memory loss, spatial disorientation in people above the age of 65 yr with a preference to females. Its incidence is expected to increase threefold by 2050. It affects almost one out of ten persons above the age of 65 years. Majority of patients are sporadic, but a very small percentage is autosomal dominant. The pathomechanisms postulated include amyloid cascade hypothesis according to which mutation in amyloid precursor protein causes Aβ aggregation. The next hypothesis is signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3 causing aberration in intracellular signalling pathways. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are other important pathological changes reported. It is observed that dementia research has not yielded the expected result world over, and therefore, the pitfalls with reference to known facts about diagnosis, clinical features, pathogenic mechanisms, assessment of progression, biomarkers, treatment and prevention, as well as brief information on our experiments with relatively inexpensive methods of differentiating the most common types of dementia AD and frontotemporal dementia are discussed.

    8. REVIEW: Curcumin and Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

      2010-10-01

      Curcumin has a long history of use as a traditional remedy and food in Asia. Many studies have reported that curcumin has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antitumor. Because of the reported effects of curcumin on tumors, many clinical trials have been performed to elucidate curcumin's effects on cancers. Recent reports have suggested therapeutic potential of curcumin in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In in vitro studies, curcumin has been reported to inhibit amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, and Aβ-induced inflammation, as well as the activities of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. In in vivo studies, oral administration of curcumin has resulted in the inhibition of Aβ deposition, Aβ oligomerization, and tau phosphorylation in the brains of AD animal models, and improvements in behavioral impairment in animal models. These findings suggest that curcumin might be one of the most promising compounds for the development of AD therapies. At present, four clinical trials concerning the effects of curcumin on AD has been conducted. Two of them that were performed in China and USA have been reported no significant differences in changes in cognitive function between placebo and curcumin groups, and no results have been reported from two other clinical studies. Additional trials are necessary to determine the clinical usefulness of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    9. Scintigraphic appearance of Alzheimer diesase

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Holman, B.L.; Johnson, K.A.

      1991-01-01

      Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating affliction of the elderly that has reached epidemic proportions. It produces regional abnormalities of brain blood flow and metabolism that may have diagnostic utility. In this paper the author determine the predictive value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT for detecting AD based on the prospective study of 132 consecutive patients coming to their nuclear medicine clinical unit for evaluation of memory loss or cognitive abnormalities. The final diagnosis was determined during clinical follow-up of 10.1 months ± 10.8. A final diagnosis was established in 113 patients, 52 of whom had AD. The probability of AD was 0.19 for normal perfusion 0.82 for bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects, 0.77 for bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with additional defects, 0.57 for unilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with or without additional defects, 0.25 for defects not involving the posterotemporal and/or parietal cortex, and 0.0 for small cortical defects. Of nine patients with bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with AD, six had Parkinson disease dementia

    10. Ayurvedic Profiling of Alzheimer's Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bredesen, Dale E; Rao, Rammohan V

      2017-05-01

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, personality changes, and an overall decline in cognitive function. The cause of AD is not yet completely defined and efforts to find a cure for it have so far been disappointing. AD is one of the most significant health care problems nationally and globally. Recently, we described a personalized therapeutic approach called metabolic enhancement for neurodegeneration (MEND) that successfully reversed the cognitive decline in patients with early AD. The magnitude of the improvement was exceptional, providing testimony to the fact that a personalized and programmatic approach to cognitive decline is highly effective. Ayurveda is a personalized system of traditional medicine native to India and the Indian subcontinent. Although a direct reference to AD in the ancient Ayurvedic literature is missing, concepts including forgetfulness, memory loss, and brain cell loss have been described. Using the clinical information and the metabolic profiling of AD individuals we recently reported using the MEND program, we now describe in this commentary, 3 subtypes of AD based on the Ayurvedic interpretation. Ayurvedic profiling of patients with AD reveals 3 readily distinguishable subtypes, namely Vata, Pitta, and Krimi, which will prove useful in patients with cognitive decline and those at risk for such decline from the standpoint of specific subtype-based Ayurvedic intervention.

    11. Alzheimer's Disease and the Eye

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Richard A. Armstrong

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, is a major disorder causing visual problems in the elderly population. The pathology of AD includes the deposition in the brain of abnormal aggregates of β-amyloid (Aβ in the form of senile plaques (SP and abnormally phosphorylated tau in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT. A variety of visual problems have been reported in patients with AD including loss of visual acuity (VA, colour vision and visual fields; changes in pupillary response to mydriatics, defects in fixation and in smooth and saccadic eye movements; changes in contrast sensitivity and in visual evoked potentials (VEP; and disturbances of complex visual functions such as reading, visuospatial function, and in the naming and identification of objects. Many of these changes are controversial with conflicting data in the literature and no ocular or visual feature can be regarded as particularly diagnostic of AD. In addition, some pathological changes have been observed to affect the eye, visual pathway, and visual cortex in AD. The optometrist has a role in helping a patient with AD, if it is believed that signs and symptoms of the disease are present, so as to optimize visual function and improve the quality of life.

    12. Alzheimer's Disease and the Eye☆

      Science.gov (United States)

      Armstrong, Richard A.

      2010-01-01

      Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a major disorder causing visual problems in the elderly population. The pathology of AD includes the deposition in the brain of abnormal aggregates of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the form of senile plaques (SP) and abnormally phosphorylated tau in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). A variety of visual problems have been reported in patients with AD including loss of visual acuity (VA), colour vision and visual fields; changes in pupillary response to mydriatics, defects in fixation and in smooth and saccadic eye movements; changes in contrast sensitivity and in visual evoked potentials (VEP); and disturbances of complex visual functions such as reading, visuospatial function, and in the naming and identification of objects. Many of these changes are controversial with conflicting data in the literature and no ocular or visual feature can be regarded as particularly diagnostic of AD. In addition, some pathological changes have been observed to affect the eye, visual pathway, and visual cortex in AD. The optometrist has a role in helping a patient with AD, if it is believed that signs and symptoms of the disease are present, so as to optimize visual function and improve the quality of life.

    13. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

      2014-01-01

      Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

    14. Genetic Aspects of Alzheimer Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williamson, Jennifer; Goldman, Jill; Marder, Karen S.

      2011-01-01

      Background Alzheimer disease (AD) is a genetically complex disorder. Mutations in 3 genes, presenilin 1, amyloid precursor protein, and presenilin 2, lead to early-onset familial AD in rare families with onset of disease occurring prior to age 65. Specific polymorphisms in apolipoprotein E are associated with the more common, late-onset AD occurring after age 65. In this review, we discuss current advances in AD genetics, the implications of the known AD genes, presenilin 1, presenilin 2, amyloid precursor protein, and apolipoprotein E, and other possible genes on the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counseling of patients and families with early- and late-onset AD. Review Summary In addition to the mutations in 4 known genes associated with AD, mutations in other genes may be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Most recently, 2 different research groups have reported genetic association between 2 genes, sortilin-related receptor and GAB2, and AD. These associations have not changed the diagnostic and medical management of AD. Conclusions New research in the genetics of AD have implicated novel genes as having a role in the disease, but these findings have not been replicated nor have specific disease causing mutations been identified. To date, clinical genetic testing is limited to familial early-onset disease for symptomatic individuals and asymptomatic relatives and, although not recommended, amyloid precursor protein apolipoprotein E testing as an adjunct to diagnosis of symptomatic individuals. PMID:19276785

    15. Molecular subtypes of Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Maderna, Emanuela; Ghidoni, Roberta; Benussi, Luisa; Tonoli, Elisa; Giaccone, Giorgio; Moda, Fabio; Paterlini, Anna; Campagnani, Ilaria; Sorrentino, Stefano; Colombo, Laura; Kubis, Adriana; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

      2018-02-19

      Protein misfolding and aggregation is a central feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in the form of parenchymal and/or vascular amyloid. A widely accepted concept is that AD is characterized by distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Recent studies revealed that Aβ assemblies might have structural differences among AD brains and that such pleomorphic assemblies can correlate with distinct disease phenotypes. We found that in both sporadic and inherited forms of AD, amyloid aggregates differ in the biochemical composition of Aβ species. These differences affect the physicochemical properties of Aβ assemblies including aggregation kinetics, resistance to degradation by proteases and seeding ability. Aβ-amyloidosis can be induced and propagated in animal models by inoculation of brain extracts containing aggregated Aβ. We found that brain homogenates from AD patients with different molecular profiles of Aβ are able to induce distinct patterns of Aβ-amyloidosis when injected into mice. Overall these data suggest that the assembly of mixtures of Aβ peptides into different Aβ seeds leads to the formation of distinct subtypes of amyloid having distinctive physicochemical and biological properties which result in the generation of distinct AD molecular subgroups.

    16. Polyhydroxycurcuminoids but not curcumin upregulate neprilysin and can be applied to the prevention of Alzheimer?s disease

      OpenAIRE

      Chen, Po-Ting; Chen, Zih-ten; Hou, Wen-Chi; Yu, Lung-Chih; Chen, Rita P.-Y.

      2016-01-01

      Neprilysin (NEP) is the most important A?-degrading enzyme. Its expression level decreases with age and inversely correlated with amyloid accumulation, suggesting its correlation with the late-onset of Alzheimer?s disease. Recently, many reports showed that upregulating NEP level is a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of Alzheimer?s disease. Here, we used a sensitive fluorescence-based A? digestion assay to screen 25 curcumin analogs for their ability to upregulate NEP activity...

    17. DNA fusion gene vaccines

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

      2010-01-01

      DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....

    18. DNA fusion gene vaccines

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

      2010-01-01

      DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

    19. Next generation vaccines.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Riedmann, Eva M

      2011-07-01

      In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

    20. Vaccines to combat smoking.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bevins, Rick A; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Sanderson, Sam D

      2008-04-01

      Current US FDA-approved biological therapies for treating smoking target central nervous system processes. Although these therapies have had some success, relapse within a year is still high. Clearly additional strategies are needed to aid individuals in maintaining abstinence. We briefly discuss promising research using vaccines to combat smoking and then identify some potentially important directions for future research. Immunization with a nicotine vaccine generates drug-specific antibodies that sequester some of the nicotine in the peripheral circulation preventing it from entering the brain, thus decreasing its addictive effects. Albeit promising, much more research is necessary to identify more efficacious vaccine designs and formulations, as well as optimal immunization regimens. A further understanding of the factors contributing to the substantial individual differences in immunogenicity to these vaccines and how to best use vaccines in combination with other treatment strategies will increase the success of intervention efforts.

    1. Diseases and vaccines

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

      2016-01-01

      between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities? communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines? effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

    2. Vaccine-Hesitant Justifications

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rodriguez, Nathan J.

      2016-01-01

      Vaccine-preventable diseases have re-emerged as more individuals have strayed from the recommended inoculation schedule. Previous work on vaccine hesitancy is generally limited to content analyses. Using grounded theory, this project examines vaccine debates on a prominent discussion board over a period of five years. Individuals generally justified opposition or hesitancy toward vaccines through personal experience and/or research, and the concepts of narrative persuasion and the conflation of expertise help describe the most prominent characteristics of such discourse. A consideration of online comments regarding vaccinations allows practitioners to not only become better prepared for patient concerns they might encounter, and but also become more familiar with the types of anecdotes and narratives that may be influential but left unspoken in face-to-face conversations. PMID:28508015

    3. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

      2015-02-06

      Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

    4. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

      2014-09-22

      The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    5. Vaccine candidates in STD.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fletcher, Mark A

      2002-12-01

      Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by organisms that infect the mucosal surfaces of the genitourinary tract. In spite of its public health importance, current STD vaccine research lags behind work against pathogens that target another mucosal region, the respiratory tract. In the latter case, live-attenuated viral vaccines, killed whole-cell bacterial vaccines, subunit/protein bacterial vaccines, and bacterial polysaccharide vaccines have been enormously successful. To move STD vaccine research forward, complex issues must be resolved. Those include selection of an appropriate antigen (e.g. scientific feasibility and intellectual property rights), the manufacture of the vaccine (e.g. delivery systems, formulation processes, and production steps), and the appropriate public health approach (e.g. medical indications and marketing aspects). Particular scientific problems have delayed STD vaccine development, like incomplete attenuation (human herpes simplex virus type 2), accentuated immunopathology (Chlamydia trachomatis), poor immunogenicity (Treponema pallidum), and broad antigenic heterogeneity (Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Nevertheless, efforts continue with the use of protein antigens: for example, the haemolysin toxoid of Haemophilus ducreyi; the major outer membrane protein(s) of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis; the glycoprotein D of human herpes simplex virus type 2; and the proteins E6 and E7 of human papilloma virus. It may be predicted that eventual STD vaccines (administered either for prophylaxis or for therapy) will use approaches that include (1) live-attenuated viruses, (2) subunit proteins or inactivated whole organisms given with mucosal adjuvants or with cellular immune response adjuvants, and (3) DNA plasmids expressing the vaccine antigen.

    6. Laser vaccine adjuvants

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

      2014-01-01

      Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

    7. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

      Science.gov (United States)

      Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

      2012-01-01

      Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

    8. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

      2012-01-01

      Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

    9. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

    10. The pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Frisoni, G.B.; Henneman, W.J.; Weiner, M.W.

      2008-01-01

      BACKGROUND: In North America, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has established a platform to track the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A pilot study has been carried out in Europe to test the feasibility of the adoption of the ADNI platform (pilot E-ADNI). METHODS: Seven...... academic sites of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) enrolled 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 with AD, and 18 older healthy persons by using the ADNI clinical and neuropsychological battery. ADNI compliant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, cerebrospinal fluid...

    11. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Borràs Eva

      2009-05-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

    12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Some people should not get HPV vaccine or should waitAnyone who has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any component of HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your ...

    13. Current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Osborn, Gerald G; Saunders, Amanda Vaughn

      2010-09-01

      There is neither proven effective prevention for Alzheimer disease nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Nevertheless, a spectrum of biopsychosocial therapeutic measures is available for slowing progression of the illness and enhancing quality of life for patients. These measures include a range of educational, psychological, social, and behavioral interventions that remain fundamental to effective care. Also available are a number of pharmacologic treatments, including prescription medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for Alzheimer disease, "off-label" uses of medications to manage target symptoms, and controversial complementary therapies. Physicians must make the earliest possible diagnosis to use these treatments most effectively. Physicians' goals should be to educate patients and their caregivers, to plan long-term care options, to maximally manage concurrent illnesses, to slow and ameliorate the most disabling symptoms, and to preserve effective functioning for as long as possible. The authors review the various current treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease.

    14. [Anti-ageing therapies in Alzheimer's disease].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alonso Abreu, Gara S; Brito Armas, José M; Castro Fuentes, Rafael

      Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. Currently, there are no effective treatments to prevent or delay the natural course of the disease. Numerous studies have provided information about the molecular processes underlying biological ageing and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to slow ageing and promote healthy longevity in laboratory model systems. The main issue addressed in this review is whether an intervention that has anti-ageing properties can alter the appearance and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease, a disease in which age is the biggest risk factor. Different anti-ageing interventions have been shown to prevent (and in some cases possibly restore) several parameters recognised as central symptoms to the development of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, they are taking the first steps towards translating these laboratory discoveries into clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

    15. Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

      2013-01-01

      Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    16. A computed tomography study of Alzheimer's disease

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Arai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Juntendo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo; Ikeda, Y.; Nagao, Y.; Ogihara, R.; Kosaka, K.; Psychiatric Research Inst. of Tokyo

      1983-01-01

      Computed tomography (CT) was used to study cerebral atrophy in 18 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease of presenile type and in 14 healthy age-matched subjects as controls. Using the computerized planimetric method, Subarachnoid Space Volume Index and Ventricle Volume Index were calculated as the measure of cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation respectively. From the results the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The cerebral atrophy in Alzheimer patients could be attributable to the disease processes rather than to physiological aging of the brain. 2. The degree of atrophy increases in parallel with the progress of the clinical stage, and the cortical atrophy is already apparent at an early stage, whereas the ventricular dilatation becomes pronounced at later stages. 3. CT could be one of the most useful clinical tests available for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. (orig.) [de

    17. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN.

      Science.gov (United States)

      He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang

      2010-09-27

      Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Bioinformatics curation and ontological representation of Brucella vaccines

    18. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-01-01

      Background Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. Results VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Conclusions Bioinformatics curation and ontological

    19. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

      2013-01-01

      Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a vaccine concept, optimizing protective antigens, and selecting the most effective vaccine delivery approach for candidate biodefense vaccines. PMID:19837293

    20. Progress towards a Leishmania vaccine.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tabbara, Khaled S

      2006-07-01

      Leishmaniasis is a vector-born protozoan disease. Approximately 12 million individuals are affected worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1.5-2 million. Two clinical manifestations are recognized, cutaneous, and visceral, both of which are common in the Middle East. In both forms, infection is chronic, with potential deformities, persistence following cure, and lifelong risk of reactivation. Attempts to develop an effective human Leishmania vaccine have not yet succeeded. Leishmanization, a crude form of live vaccination historically originated in this part of the world. Experimental vaccination has been extensively studied in model animals in the past 2 decades. In this review, major human killed vaccine trials are surveyed, and modern trends in Leishmania vaccine development, including subunit vaccines, naked DNA vaccines, and transmission blocking vaccines are explored. Recent findings of a link between persistence of live parasites, and maintenance of long-term immunity suggest live vaccination with attenuated strains, as a future vaccination strategy.

    1. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Karthik Kaliaperumal

      2013-08-01

      Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

    2. A Critical Assessment of Research on Neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reddy, P Hemachandra

      2017-01-01

      The purpose of this mini-forum, "Neurotransmitters and Alzheimer's Disease", is to critically assess the current status of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease. Neurotransmitters are essential neurochemicals that maintain synaptic and cognitive functions in mammals, including humans, by sending signals across pre- to post-synaptic neurons. Authorities in the fields of synapses and neurotransmitters of Alzheimer's disease summarize the current status of basic biology of synapses and neurotransmitters, and also update the current status of clinical trials of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer's disease. This article discusses the prevalence, economic impact, and stages of Alzheimer's dementia in humans.

    3. Alzheimer's disease due to loss of function

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Kepp, Kasper Planeta

      2016-01-01

      Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a highly complex disease involving a broad range of clinical, cellular, and biochemical manifestations that are currently not understood in combination. This has led to many views of AD, e.g. the amyloid, tau, presenilin, oxidative stress, and metal hypotheses. The amy......Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a highly complex disease involving a broad range of clinical, cellular, and biochemical manifestations that are currently not understood in combination. This has led to many views of AD, e.g. the amyloid, tau, presenilin, oxidative stress, and metal hypotheses...

    4. [Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Donoso S, Archibaldo; Delgado D, Carolina

      2009-02-01

      The pharmacological interventions for Alzheimer disease should be based in its pathogenic mechanisms such as amyloidogenesis, tau hyperphosphorilation, disturbances in neurotransmission and changes in neuronal trophism. Other therapies derive from epidemiological observations, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogens, statins and anti hypertensive drugs. Some life style interventions, such as changes in diet, exercise and brain stimulation could also be beneficial for the prevention of Alzheimer disease. Ongoing research on pathogenic mechanisms promises the discovery of more effective therapies. Healthy life style should always be recommended due to its benefit and lack of untoward effects.

    5. Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hampel, H.; Padberg, F.; Koetter, H.U.; Teipel, S.J.; Ehrhardt, T.; Hegerl, U.; Stuebner, S.; Moeller, H.J.

      1997-01-01

      Alzheimer's disease is often diagnosed too late. Its etiology is still largely unknown and remains one of the big challenges in neurobiological fundamental research. Optimized early and differential diagnosis can be ensured by a dynamic concept of multidisciplinary diagnosis in cooperation between practitioners specializing in brain disorders, clinical psychogeriatric deprtments, and general practitioners. This, in turn, will enable individualized planning of further living conditions and care of Alzheimer patients and their relations as well as efficient and early pharmacotherapy and psychological intervention. (orig) [de

    6. [Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito

      2013-04-01

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons. Although details of the disease pathomechanisms remain unclear, Aβ likely acts as a key protein for AD initiation and progression, followed by abnormal tau phosphorylation and neuronal death (amyloid-cascade hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, Aβ immunization therapies are created to eliminate Aβ from the brain, and to prevent the neurons from damage by these pathogenic proteins. There are two methods for Aβ immunotherapies: active and passive immunization. Previous studies have shown Aβ removal and improved cognitive function in animal models of AD. Clinical trials on various drugs, including AN1792, bapineuzumab, and solanezumab, have been carried out; however, all trials have failed to demonstrate apparent clinical benefits. On the contrary, side effects emerged, such as meningoencephalitis, vasogenic edema, which are currently called amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-E and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H). In neuropathological studies of immunized cases, Aβ was removed from the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau was reduced in the neuronal processes. Moreover, deterioration of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and an increase of microhemorrhages and microinfarcts were described. Aβ is cleared from the brain mainly via the lymphatic drainage pathway. ARIA could stem from severe CAA due to dysfunction of the drainage pathway after immunotherapy. Aβ immunization has a potential of cure for AD patients, although the above-described problems must be overcome before applying this therapy in clinical treatment.

    7. Alzheimer's disease and the fornix.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oishi, Kenichi; Lyketsos, Constantine G

      2014-01-01

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Researchers have long been focused on the cortical pathology of AD, since the most important pathologic features are the senile plaques found in the cortex, and the neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss that begin in the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. In addition to these gray matter (GM) structures, histopathological studies indicate that the white matter (WM) is also a good target for both the early diagnosis of AD and for monitoring disease progression. The fornix is a WM bundle that constitutes a core element of the limbic circuits, and is one of the most important anatomical structures related to memory. Functional and anatomical features of the fornix have naturally captured researchers' attention as possible diagnostic and prognostic markers of AD. Indeed, neurodegeneration of the fornix has been histologically observed in AD, and growing evidence indicates that the alterations seen in the fornix are potentially a good marker to predict future conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD, and even from cognitively normal individuals to AD. The degree of alteration is correlated with the degree of memory impairment, indicating the potential for the use of the fornix as a functional marker. Moreover, there have been attempts to stimulate the fornix using deep brain stimulation (DBS) to augment cognitive function in AD, and ongoing research has suggested positive effects of DBS on brain glucose metabolism in AD patients. On the other hand, disease specificity for fornix degeneration, methodologies to evaluate fornix degeneration, and the clinical significance of the fornix DBS, especially for the long-term impact on the quality of life, are mostly unknown and need to be elucidated.

    8. Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils

      Science.gov (United States)

      2016-09-01

      Martins, Bavari, Zika Vaccine Development 1 Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils Martins KAO, Bavari S. The current Zika virus...contrast, work had been underway for decades on the development of an Ebola virus vaccine , laying the groundwork for a rapid response in 2014. The...broader community’s extensive experience with Dengue virus vaccine development and with the pros and cons of different vaccine platforms has led to

    9. Vaccine decision-making begins in pregnancy: Correlation between vaccine concerns, intentions and maternal vaccination with subsequent childhood vaccine uptake.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Danchin, M H; Costa-Pinto, J; Attwell, K; Willaby, H; Wiley, K; Hoq, M; Leask, J; Perrett, K P; O'Keefe, Jacinta; Giles, M L; Marshall, H

      2017-08-12

      Maternal and childhood vaccine decision-making begins prenatally. Amongst pregnant Australian women we aimed to ascertain vaccine information received, maternal immunisation uptake and attitudes and concerns regarding childhood vaccination. We also aimed to determine any correlation between a) intentions and concerns regarding childhood vaccination, (b) concerns about pregnancy vaccination, (c) socioeconomic status (SES) and (d) uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy and routine vaccines during childhood. Women attending public antenatal clinics were recruited in three Australian states. Surveys were completed on iPads. Follow-up phone surveys were done three to six months post delivery, and infant vaccination status obtained via the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). Between October 2015 and March 2016, 975 (82%) of 1184 mothers consented and 406 (42%) agreed to a follow up survey, post delivery. First-time mothers (445; 49%) had significantly more vaccine concerns in pregnancy and only 73% had made a decision about childhood vaccination compared to 89% of mothers with existing children (p-valuechildhood vaccination. In the post delivery survey, 46% and 82% of mothers reported receiving pregnancy influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. The mother's degree of vaccine hesitancy and two attitudinal factors were correlated with vaccine uptake post delivery. There was no association between reported maternal vaccine uptake or SES and childhood vaccine uptake. First time mothers are more vaccine hesitant and undecided about childhood vaccination, and only two thirds of all mothers believed they received enough information during pregnancy. New interventions to improve both education and communication on childhood and maternal vaccines, delivered by midwives and obstetricians in the Australian public hospital system, may reduce vaccine hesitancy for all mothers in pregnancy and post delivery, particularly first-time mothers

    10. Glycoconjugate vaccines: an update.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vella, Mairi; Pace, David

      2015-04-01

      Globally, the three main pathogens causing serious infections are Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Over the last 5 years, new vaccines protecting against these bacteria have been developed and introduced in various countries. This review describes the recently licensed glycoconjugates being used to protect against these encapsulated bacteria. Immunogenicity and safety data that led to licensure or licensure expansion of these glycoconjugates are discussed in addition to the resultant impact on the disease burden. The maintenance of robust immunisation programmes with high uptake rates is important in maintaining low rates of disease. Epidemiological surveillance systems are essential in monitoring any changes in infectious disease trends and in identifying emerging infections such as from non-typeable H. influenzae, pneumococcal serotype replacement disease and changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal serogroups. This is important to guide future vaccine development. Accessibility of these glycoconjugate vaccines in resource poor regions, which bear the highest disease burden from these pathogens, remains challenging largely due to high vaccine pricing. Recent aids from public and private funding, tiered vaccine pricing and the transfer of vaccine technology have helped in introducing these vaccines where they are most needed.

    11. Vaccines, viruses, and voodoo.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Silva, Joseph; Gershwin, M Eric

      2002-01-01

      Vaccinations are invaluable in protection from a wide variety of diseases that can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Although a rare complication of vaccination, autoimmune disorders represent one of these morbidities. Recently, widespread public concern has arisen from case reports suggesting that--similar to what has been observed after natural viral infections--there might be an association between specific immunizations and autoimmune diseases. Herein we address the biological plausibility of such a connection, focusing particularly on the examples of hepatitis B, rubella, and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations, and the autoimmune diseases they are potentially associated with. Our review of the available data suggests that, for the general population, the risk: benefit ratio is overwhelmingly in favor of vaccinations. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that, in genetically susceptible individuals, vaccination can result in the unmasking of an autoimmune disease triggered by the immunization. We also critically examine the existing data suggesting a link between immunization against MMR and autism, and briefly discuss the controversial evidence pointing to a possible relationship between mercury exposure from vaccines and autistic disorders. There is a continued urgent need for rigorously designed and executed studies addressing these potential associations, although the use of vaccinations remains a critical public health tool for protection against infectious disease.

    12. Zika Virus Vaccine Development.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Graham, Barney S

      2017-12-16

      The emergence of Zika virus in Brazil and its association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome led to accelerated vaccine development efforts. Based on prior flavivirus vaccine development programs, knowledge of flavivirus particle structure, definition of E dimers as the key antigenic target, and deep understanding of neutralizing mechanisms, multiple vaccine strategies have advanced to the stage of clinical evaluation with unprecedented speed. These include nucleic acid (DNA and messenger RNA), whole-inactivated virus, live-attenuated or chimeric virus, and protein or viruslike particle vaccines. Within a year from the declaration by the World Health Organization of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, multiple vaccine candidates entered clinical trials, now totaling 7 products with an additional 40-plus candidate vaccines in preclinical development. The rapid progress in vaccine development demonstrates the capacity of governments, public health organizations, and the scientific community to respond to pandemic threats when sufficient prior knowledge exists, emergency funding is made available, and interagency cooperation is achieved and serves as a paradigm for preparing for future emerging infectious diseases. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

    13. HPV Vaccines: Current Status

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mustafa Erkan Sarı

      2017-04-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the main cause is Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection. HPV vaccines have had dramatic impacts on the prevalence of targeted HPV types (6,11,16 and 18, genital warts and precancerous cervical lesions. The World Health Organization (WHO and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have confirmed the safety of HPV vaccines after >250 million doses were administered worldwide. WHO approved the two-dose-schedule of HPV vaccines in females younger than 15 years of age, with ≥6 month intervals. Extension of vaccination to men could further reduce the population prevalence of HPV and provide direct protection of men against genital warts and anal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers. The nine-valent HPV vaccine has demonstrated equivalent protection against the four types in the quadrivalent vaccine and high efficacy against the next five commonest causes of cervical cancer (HPV types 31,33,45,52 and 58. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP recommends the nine-valent vaccine and it has been approved by the FDA in 2014 for both genders between 11–12 years of age.

    14. Vaccinations in asplenic adults.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hammerquist, Rhonda J; Messerschmidt, Kimberly A; Pottebaum, April A; Hellwig, Thaddaus R

      2016-05-01

      The recommended immunizations for adult asplenic patients are reviewed. Patients without a spleen are at risk of developing overwhelming postsplenectomy infections due to encapsulated organisms, mainly pneumococcal, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Due to the high mortality rates associated with these infections, vaccinations are recommended as a preventive measure. It is challenging to ensure optimal immunizations in these high-risk patients due to the number of recommended vaccines, the availability of multiple formulations, and the inability to administer specific formulations at the same time, as well as differences in subsequent vaccine administration schedules. Pharmacists play a key role in recommending specific vaccines and timing for these patients in order to achieve the most robust immune response. This article reviews the specific recommendations for pneumococcal, meningococcal, Hib, and influenza vaccinations in asplenic patients. In order to prevent potentially life-threatening infections, asplenic individuals should be vaccinated against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, Hib, and influenza. The optimal timing of vaccination in relation to splenectomy depends on the nature of the splenectomy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

    15. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

      2007-12-01

      In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

    16. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Mailand, Mia Topsøe; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

      2017-01-01

      on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles-mumps-rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse...... was found for influenza. Further research is needed for the potential therapeutic use of the BCG vaccine in patients in risk of developing MS and for the preventive potential of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine....

    17. Vaccines against drug abuse.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

      2012-01-01

      The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

    18. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Fomsgaard, Anders

      2015-01-01

      Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

    19. Cellular based cancer vaccines

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M

      2012-01-01

      Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

    20. ADE and dengue vaccination.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Carrasquila, Gabriel; Luna, Expedito; Ramos-Castañeda, José

      2017-07-13

      The vaccine against Dengue virus (DENV), Dengvaxia® (CYD), produced by Sanofi-Pasteur, has been registered by several national regulatory agencies; nevertheless, the performance and security of this vaccine have been challenged in a series of recent papers. In this work, we intend to contribute to the debate by analyzing the concept of an enhancing vaccine, presenting objections to the epidemiological model base of the concept and, likewise, presenting data that contradict that concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    1. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gianni Bona

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

    2. Support for an hypothesis linking Alzheimer`s disease and Down syndrome

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Geller, L.N.; Benjamin, M.B.; Dressler, D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

      1994-09-01

      A connection between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is indicated by the fact that Down syndrome individuals develop AD neuropathology by the third or fourth decade of life. One explanation for the connection between AD and Down syndrome would be that the overexpression of a gene or genes on chromosome 21 results in Alzheimer`s disease, the most likely candidate being the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene. However, mutations in the APP gene have been found to be associated with only a very small percentage of familial AD cases. An alternative cause of some Alzheimer`s disease cases may be sporadic trisomy of chromosome 21, resulting from mutations or toxins that cause chromosome nondisjunction. Several predictions can be made based on this hypothesis. One prediction is that there should be more trisomy 21 in cells from AD individuals than from unaffected controls. Using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization to compare the number of trisomy chromosome 21 cells in cultured fibroblasts from AD and unaffected individuals, we have shown that there are a significantly larger number of trisomy 21 cells from AD individuals. Another prediction is that a defect in the mitotic spindle apparatus could be the underlying cause of the aneuploidy. Cultured lymphoblasts from AD and unaffected individuals were briefly exposed to the microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine. As assayed by the subsequent appearance of metaphase chromosomes showing centromere separation, cells from AD patients were significantly more sensitive to colchicine treatment compared to cells from unaffected individuals, supporting the prediction of an altered spindle apparatus. Finally, we would predict that both types of patients should share some physical symptoms. We have also found that AD, like Down`s patients, are hypersensitive to the effect of the cholinergic antagonist, tropicamide, on pupil dilation, which may serve as a diagnostic test for Alzheimer`s disease.

    3. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

      1994-09-15

      Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

    4. Brivaracetam, but not ethosuximide, reverses memory impairments in an Alzheimer?s disease mouse model

      OpenAIRE

      Nygaard, Haakon B; Kaufman, Adam C; Sekine-Konno, Tomoko; Huh, Linda L; Going, Hilary; Feldman, Samantha J; Kostylev, Mikhail A; Strittmatter, Stephen M

      2015-01-01

      Introduction Recent studies have shown that several strains of transgenic Alzheimer?s disease (AD) mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP) have cortical hyperexcitability, and their results have suggested that this aberrant network activity may be a mechanism by which amyloid-? (A?) causes more widespread neuronal dysfunction. Specific anticonvulsant therapy reverses memory impairments in various transgenic mouse strains, but it is not known whether reduction of epileptiform a...

    5. Adolescent Vaccines: Latest Recommendations, Addressing Barriers, and Improving Vaccine Rates.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rose, Kathleen C

      2017-07-01

      The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the Tdap, HPV, and meningitis vaccines be administered to youth beginning between the ages of 11 and 12. The school nurse, knowledgeable about vaccine schedules and the rationale for the schedules, is in a unique position to advocate for all adolescent vaccines and their timely administration through addressing parent-guardian concerns and supporting other healthcare providers in completing the adolescent vaccines. This article reviews current recommendations for adolescent vaccinations and the actions needed to improve vaccination rates with a focus on Human Papillomavirus vaccine, the vaccine with the lowest completion rates among this age group. Additionally, school nurses are introduced to Middle School Health Starts Here, a program for school nurses designed to address the whole child as students progress from 5th grade to middle school. Public policy issues including school mandates, along with possible barriers to vaccine completion in adolescents, are discussed.

    6. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

      2005-11-01

      In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

    7. 78 FR 46590 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; Advisory Council on Alzheimer's...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-08-01

      ... Evaluation; Advisory Council on Alzheimer's Research, Care, and Services AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Alzheimer's Research, Care, and Services. The six positions are for each of the following categories, as specified in the National Alzheimer's Project Act: Alzheimer's patient advocate, Alzheimer's caregiver...

    8. Llama VHH as immunotherapeutics in Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Dorresteijn, B.

      2013-01-01

      Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among elderly in the Western world. AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disease where patients starting with episodic memory problems end up completely bedridden and care dependent. At present there is no real therapy stopping or

    9. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease wanes with age

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hoozemans, Jeroen J. M.; Rozemuller, Annemieke J. M.; van Haastert, Elise S.; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.

      2011-01-01

      Inflammation is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that aging has an effect on the function of inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of age-related diseases like AD. However, the age-dependent relationship between inflammation and

    10. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease wanes with age

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hoozemans, J.J.M.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; van Haastert, E.S.; Eikelenboom, P.; van Gool, W.A.

      2011-01-01

      ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that aging has an effect on the function of inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of age-related diseases like AD. However, the age-dependent relationship between

    11. Aripiprazole in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      De Deyn, P.P.; Drenth, Annemieke F. J.; Kremer, B.P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Van Dam, D.

      Introduction: Psychosis is a common and difficult to treat symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is a cause of diminished quality of life and care-giver distress. Atypical antipsychotics are frequently used for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis, despite FDA warnings because of increased

    12. Cerebrospinal fluid markers of Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      van Gool, W. A.; Bolhuis, P. A.

      1991-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To review studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in order to answer the question whether CSF contains a specific marker which can be used to support a clinical diagnosis of AD. DATA SOURCES: Studies identified through an English-language literature

    13. Alzheimer Café : Prima Praktijken

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Frans Nauta; Marica Crombach

      2010-01-01

      In Nederland lijden zo’n 230.000 mensen aan een vorm van dementie. Door de vergrijzing en veroudering van de bevolking zal dit aantal de komende decennia alleen maar toenemen. Psychogerontoloog Bère Miesen heeft voor deze doelgroep het Alzheimer Café opgericht: een maandelijkse bijeenkomst in de

    14. Cholinergic modulation, visual function and Alzheimer's dementia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nobili, L; Sannita, W G

      1997-12-01

      Electrophysiological evidence at a cellular level and in vivo macroelectrode recordings converge in indicating a degree of specificity of acetylcholine action in vision. Acetylcholine (ACh) function is also thought to play a significant role in memory, learning and other cognitive processes. In this respect, ACh action is suggested to serve in both sensory and cognitive processes. The pharmacological blocking of brain muscarinic transmission has been proposed as a model of geriatric memory impairment and Alzheimer's dementia. Visual electrophysiological testing is deemed of diagnostic specificity for this disease. ACh brain neurotransmission, however, mostly contributes to the modulation of nonspecific aspects of cognition, such as arousal or attention. Alzheimer's dementia results from complex neuron alterations [which also affect muscarinic receptors among other (sub)cellular structures] rather than simply reflecting ACh impoverishment. A substantial loss of retinal ganglion cells is documented in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is consistent with electrophysiological observations. However, it is unclear to what extent the dysfunction of the visual system observable in Alzheimer's dementia is qualitatively different from that occurring spontaneously during aging. The dissimilarities between the effect of acute muscarinic blocking (e.g. by scopolamine) and dementia outnumber the similarities. Accordingly, the conventional ACh agonist-antagonist model of dementia now appears questionable, and replacement treatment with compounds enhancing ACh function proved disappointing. It is suggested that (nonspecific) ACh action becomes function-specific, as determined by the architecture of local brain circuits in which it is involved.

    15. Hypocretin (orexin) loss in Alzheimer's disease.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Fronczek, R.; Geest, S. de; Frolich, M.; Overeem, S.; Roelandse, F.W.; Lammers, G.J.; Swaab, D.F.

      2012-01-01

      Sleep disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are associated with the severity of dementia and are often the primary reason for institutionalization. These sleep problems partly resemble core symptoms of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder caused by a general loss of the neurotransmitter

    16. Hypocretin (orexin) loss in Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Fronczek, Rolf; van Geest, Sarita; Frölich, Marijke; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Roelandse, Freek W. C.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Swaab, Dick F.

      2012-01-01

      Sleep disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are associated with the severity of dementia and are often the primary reason for institutionalization. These sleep problems partly resemble core symptoms of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder caused by a general loss of the neurotransmitter

    17. Alzheimer's disease therapies: Selected advances and future ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Among the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one of the biggest challenges that the modern health care system has to deal with. The lack of data about the etiology and the complexity of the underlying pathogenesis constitute the biggest struggle facing the development of new therapeutical ...

    18. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...

    19. Retrograde amnesia in patients with Alzheimer's disease

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Meeter, M.; Eijsackers, E; Mulder, J

      2006-01-01

      Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on two retrograde memory tests, one based on public events, and the other querying autobiographical memory. On both tests, patients showed strong decrements as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

    20. Nanodeeltjes in de strijd tegen Alzheimer

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes

      2015-01-01

      Medicatie bij de ziekte van Alzheimer is vooral gericht op symptoombestrijding. Kan dat niet anders, vroegen wetenschappers van de Universiteit Twente zich af. De komende vier jaar gaan zij proberen een cocktail van medicijnen met behulp van nanodeeltjes gericht in de hersenen te brengen.