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Sample records for alveolate perkinsus marinus

  1. COMPARISON OF IN VITRO-CULTURED AND WILD-TYPE PERKINSUS MARINUS III. FECAL ELIMINATION AND ITS ROLE IN TRANSMISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinsus marinus, a pathogen of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is transmitted directly among oysters. Previous studies found viable P. marinus parasites in the feces and pseudofeces of oysters within hours of injection with parasites, suggesting that the parasite ...

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  3. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

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    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  5. Fast detection of a protozoan pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, using AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Papadi, G.; Coleman, J. K.; Sheppard, B. J.; Dungen, C. F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.; Ren, F.

    2009-06-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect Perkinsus marinus. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5 s when the infected solution was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The sensor can be recycled with a phosphate buffered saline wash. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for Perkinsus marinus detection.

  6. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  7. Polymorphism at the ITS and NTS Loci of Perkinsus marinus isolated from cultivated oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit, Mexico and phylogentic relationship to P. marinus along the Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Arzul, I; Carrasco, N; Gutiérrez-Rivera, J N; Llera-Herrera, R; Vázquez-Juárez, R

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of the protozoan Perkinsus spp. in the gills of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from two estuaries in Nayarit, Mexico, was measured. The protozoan was identified by PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA of Perkinsus spp. The pathogen was found in 92% of oysters from Boca de Camichín and 77% of oysters from Pozo Chino. ITS sequences characterized from C. corteziensis showed 96-100% similarity to Perkinsus marinus. The most frequent ITS sequence (GenBank JQ266236) had 100% identity with the ITS locus of P. marinus from New Jersey, Maryland, South Carolina and Texas, and the second most frequent observed sequence (GenBank JQ266240) was 100% identical to ITS sequences of P. marinus from New Jersey, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Bahía Kino, Sonora, Mexico. The 14 sequences from the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) showed 98% similarity to P. marinus from Texas. The most frequent polymorphism identified was at nucleotide 446 of the ITS region; however, the NTS showed the highest nucleotide diversity, thereby suggesting that this region is suitable for genotype identification. Moreover, the most conserved ITS marker is better for species-specific diagnosis. Both the ITS and NTS sequences of P. marinus obtained from C. corteziensis were grouped in two clades, identifying two allelic variants of P. marinus.

  8. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

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    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed.

  9. Effects of air-exposure gradients on spatial infection patterns of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Jennafer C; Breitburg, Denise L

    2016-02-25

    Spatial distributions of species can be shaped by factors such as parasites, mortality, and reproduction, all of which may be influenced by differences in physical factors along environmental gradients. In nearshore tidal waters, an elevational gradient in aerial exposure during low tide can shape the spatial distributions of benthic marine organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an ecologically and economically important species that can dominate both subtidal and intertidal habitats along the east coast of the USA. Our goal was to determine whether prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus (the causative agent of Dermo disease) infections vary along intertidal to subtidal gradients during summer. We used (1) field experiments conducted at 4 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and a Virginia coastal bay, (2) a controlled air-exposure experiment, and (3) field surveys from 7 sites ranging from Maine to North Carolina to test for effects of tidal exposure on infection. Results from our field surveys suggested that high intertidal oysters tend to have higher infection prevalence than subtidal oysters, but there was no effect on infection intensity. Field experiments rarely yielded significant effects of tidal exposure on infection prevalence and intensity. Overall, our study shows that exposure to air may not be a strong driver of infection patterns in this host-parasite system.

  10. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

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    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  11. The combined influence of sub-optimal temperature and salinity on the in vitro viability of Perkinsus marinus, a protistan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica

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    La Peyre, M.K.; Casas, S.M.; Gayle, W.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2010-01-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a major cause of mortality in eastern oysters along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. It is also well documented that temperature and salinity are the primary environmental factors affecting P. marinus viability and proliferation. However, little is known about the effects of combined sub-optimal temperatures and salinities on P. marinus viability. This in vitro study examined those effects by acclimating P. marinus at three salinities (7, 15, 25. ppt) to 10 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures generally reached in the Gulf of Mexico, and to 2 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures reached along the mid-Atlantic coasts and by measuring changes in cell viability and density on days 1, 30, 60 and 90 following acclimation. Cell viability and density were also measured in 7. ppt cultures acclimated to each temperature and then transferred to 3.5. ppt. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with combined low temperature and salinity, indicating that there is clearly a synergistic effect. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with both low temperature and salinity after 30. days (3.5. ppt, 2 ??C: 0% viability), 60. days (3.5. ppt, 10 ??C: 0% viability) and 90. days (7. ppt, 2 ??C: 0.6 ?? 0.7%; 7. ppt, 10 ??C: 0.2 ?? 0.2%). ?? 2010 .

  12. Diversity of extracellular proteins during the transition from the ‘proto-apicomplexan’ alveolates to the apicomplexan obligate parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Templeton, Thomas J.

    2015-11-20

    The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans – namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis ; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus ; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes , as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell–cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate – guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships – in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans.

  13. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Costa, Carolina Pereira; de Araújo, Jaíse Paiva Bragante; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Wainberg, Alexandre Alter

    2016-01-01

    Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE) Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluated Perkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state. Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%), but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%), and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  14. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mirella da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus andPerkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluatedPerkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state.Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%, but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%, and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  15. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

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    Cold, Emma R; Freyria, Nastasia J; Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández Robledo, José A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1) Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2) Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3) Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications. PMID:27149378

  16. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Cold

    Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  17. Identification of Perkinsus-like parasite in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum using DNA molecular marker at ITS region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Genomic DNA was extracted from hypnospores of Perkinsus-like parasite of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected at the fishing grounds in Huanghai Sea coast Shicheng Island and East China Sea coast Ningbo, China. The internal transcribed spacer(ITS)in rDNA was PCR-amplified, cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of five Perkinsus species in GenBank. The fragment amplified from DNA of parasite of either Shicheng Island or Ningbo contained 649 bp, including partial ssrRNA(51 bp) and ITS(+5.8 S)(598 bp) regions. The ITS(+5.8S) sequences of Perkinsus-like parasite of both Shicheng Island and Ningbo were all 99% identical to those ofPerkinsus atlanticus,and were not more than 95% identical to those of other four Perkinsus species including P. marinus, P.andrewsi, P. qugwadi and P. medierraneus.The ITS (+5.8S) sequence of Perkinsus-like parasite of Shicheng Island was 99% identical to that of Ningbo. These facts about nucleotide sequences suggested that the Perkinsus-like parasite in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum collected from either the Huanghai Sea coast or the East China Sea coast was P. atlanticus, and might reflect P. atlanticus strains of distinct geographic distribution.

  18. [Misting-fountain-alveolitis].

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    Koschel, D; Sennekamp, J; Schurz, C; Müller-Wening, D

    2004-09-01

    A 22-year-old woman developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to a misting fountain at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was made by detection of serum antibodies against the fountain water, by culture of Bacillus subtilis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor mucedo, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the water, and by detection of specific IgG antibodies against Bacillus subtilis and the Mucores. The diagnosis was confirmed by a restrictive lung function pattern, and a highly increased total cell count with a lymphocytosis of 39 % in the bronchoalveolar lavage. An inhalation challenge with the misting fountain resulted in a positive reaction. Because this humidifier system has recently become widespread at home, clinicians should be aware of this specific type of EAA which may be called "misting fountain alveolitis".

  19. Neutrophilic alveolitis in Sweet's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, S J; Quinn, A. G.; Farr, P M; Ashcroft, T.; Gibson, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    In a case of Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) neutrophilic alveolitis was found by lung biopsy. Pulmonary disease in this condition may be underrecognised yet, like the dermatological features, it responds rapidly to corticosteroids.

  20. Capsaicin induced cough in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, M.; Mister, R; Pearson, M.; Calverley, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cough is a common and troublesome symptom in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) but the mechanisms responsible are not known. The cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin is increased in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where lung volumes are increased, but the relationship between cough response and symptom intensity has not been studied in CFA where lung volumes are reduced.
METHODS—Capsaicin challenge tests were performed on 15 subject...

  1. A follow up study on interstitial alveolitis

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    Kamat S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the benefits of steroid therapy in interstitial alveolitis. Method and Materials : One hundred five adult clinic patients were studied with clinical evaluation, chest radiography, CT scan, bronchoscopic lavage, pulmonary function studies and a regular follow up. They were put on daily prednisolone (in 19 on intravenous methyl prednisolone, for several months. Results: Only a few had no cough or dypnoea; 91 cases had atleast gr. III exertional breathlessness; 61(58% had been given steroids earlier and 32(31% were on a prior antitubercular treatment. Only 16% had GERD symptoms. On radiography, interstitial deposits were seen in 102 cases. While 53 cases belonged to idiopathic variety, 41 were sarcoidosis. A majority had poor lung function with a restrictive disability; but 50% showed a significant response (10%+ to bronchodilators. On follow up in 92 cases, 14 died, 8 went in remission; 32 had a fluctuating course. At some stage 66 had showed improvement. Conclusion : A large majority of our interstitial alveolitis cases are very disabled. They show clinical, functional, and radiographic improvement to long term oral prednisolone. In nonresponsive cases, intravenous steroids show an objective response.

  2. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, 67Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or 67Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and 67Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., 67Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or 67Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and 67Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions

  3. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-1505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hypothetical protein [Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983] 1e-72 85% MTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTITTTTITTTTTTIPTTTTTISTTTTTTNTTTTTITTITTTTITTTTTNT...TTTTTTTITITTTTTTTTTTTTSTNTTTTITTTTTTTTTTITTTTITITTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTITTTTTTITTNTITTTTITTTTTTTITTTTTTTLH ...

  4. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  5. Aerosolised ribavirin in patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a pilot study.

    OpenAIRE

    Agustí, C.; Xaubet, A; Ballester, E.; Alarcón, A.; Picado, C

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A report has recently been published concerning a patient with a cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis who showed a striking improvement after being treated with the antiviral drug ribavirin (tribavirin, Virazid). The objective of this study was to further evaluate, in an open trial, the efficacy of rivabirin in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. METHODS: Ten patients (eight women) with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis received aerosolised ribavirin (6 g/day for 15 days). Chest...

  6. Ventilation perfusion radionuclide imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, S J; Hawkins, T; Keavey, P M; Gascoigne, A D; Corris, P A

    1993-06-01

    There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. However, the full spectrum of V/Q abnormalities in this disease is poorly defined. We therefore analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and 'washout delay' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving > 60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO2 or A-aO2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. V/Q images in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis show a diverse range of appearances and may mimic pulmonary embolism. V/Q imaging complements the data obtained from lung function tests and is particularly useful in defining the differential function of each lung which is particularly important in the assessment of patients for single lung transplantation. PMID:8321484

  7. Ventilation perfusion radionuclide imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. We analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and ''washout delay'' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving >60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO2 or A-aO2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. (Author)

  8. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.)

  9. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects.

  10. Coevolution of plastid genomes and transcript processing pathways in photosynthetic alveolates

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrell, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Following their endosymbiotic uptake, plastids undergo profound changes to genome content and to their associated biochemistry. I have investigated how evolutionary transitions in plastid genomes may impact on biochemical pathways associated with plastid gene expression, focusing on the highly unusual plastids found in one group of eukaryotes, the alveolates. The principal photosynthetic alveolate lineage is the dinoflagellate algae. Most dinoflagellate species harbour unusual plastids derive...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus Stetter and Fiala 1986 type strain F1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sun, Hui [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huber, Harald [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2009-01-01

    Staphylothermus marinus Fiala and Stetter 1986 belongs to the order Desulfurococcales within the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. S. marinus is a hyperthermophilic, sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph. Strain F1 was isolated from geothermally heated sediments at Vulcano, Italy, but S. marinus has also been isolated from a hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise. We report the complete genome of S. marinus strain F1, the type strain of the species. This is the fifth reported complete genome sequence from the order Desulfurococcales.

  12. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus

    OpenAIRE

    Cold, Emma R.; Freyria, Nastasia J.; Joaquín Martínez Martínez; Fernández Robledo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects o...

  13. Zoosporulation of a new Perkinsus species isolated from the gills of the softshell clam Mya arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mclaughlin S.M.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A gill-associated Perkinsus sp. isolated from the softshell clam (Mya arenaria is described as a new species, P. chesapeaki sp. nov. Examination of the parasite in seawater cultures revealed life cycle stages and zoosporulation processes similar to those described for other species of the genus Perkinsus. Prezoosporangia developed thickened cell walls upon contraction of the cytoplasm and development of a distinctive clear area between the cell wall and the protoplast. Successive bipartition of the protoplast led to the formation of hundred's of zoospores within mature sporangia. Zoospores were released into seawater through one or more discharge tubes. Ultrastructural studies revealed an oblong zoospore possessing two flagella that arose from a concave side located in the upper third of the zoospore body. The anterior flagellum possessed a unilateral array of hair-like structures. A large anterior vacuole and basolateral nucleus dominated the cytoplasm of the zoospore body. The presence of a rudimentary apical complex including on open-sided conoid, rhoptries, micronemes, and subpellicular microtubules were also discerned. Differences in zoospore morphology, and sequence analyses of two genes previously reported, support the designation of the gill-associated Perkinsus from the softshell clam as a new species

  14. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L. [Hospital General Universitario, Servicios de Neumologia, Alicante (Spain); Sanchez-Paya, J. [Hospital General Universitario, Epidemiologia, Alicante (Spain); Massuti, B. [Hospital General Universitario, Oncologia, Alicante (Spain)

    1999-04-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5{+-}15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2{+-}3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5{+-}13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8{+-}16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8{+-}10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2{+-}8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au) 38 refs.

  15. A complex distribution of elongation family GTPases EF1A and EFL in basal alveolate lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Kirill V; Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mirzaeva, Gulnara S; Diakin, Andrei Yu; Simdyanov, Timur G; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J; Aleoshin, Vladimir V

    2014-09-01

    Translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1A) and the related GTPase EF-like (EFL) are two proteins with a complex mutually exclusive distribution across the tree of eukaryotes. Recent surveys revealed that the distribution of the two GTPases in even closely related taxa is frequently at odds with their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we investigate the distribution of EF1A and EFL in the alveolate supergroup. Alveolates comprise three major lineages: ciliates and apicomplexans encode EF1A, whereas dinoflagellates encode EFL. We searched transcriptome databases for seven early-diverging alveolate taxa that do not belong to any of these groups: colpodellids, chromerids, and colponemids. Current data suggest all seven are expected to encode EF1A, but we find three genera encode EFL: Colpodella, Voromonas, and the photosynthetic Chromera. Comparing this distribution with the phylogeny of alveolates suggests that EF1A and EFL evolution in alveolates cannot be explained by a simple horizontal gene transfer event or lineage sorting. PMID:25179686

  16. Effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe in the treatment of oral alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro de Jesús Nápoles González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: alveolitis is a complication that may appear after the extraction of a tooth. It is considered a dental emergency due to the intense pain. Its prevalence is worrisome for the dental services for the complications and disability that it can provoke in patients.Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe with pharmaceutical use in the treatment of alveolitis.Method: an experimental study was carried out with 100 patients that visited the Provincial Teaching Dental Clinic, “La Vigía” Clinic, and “Julio Antonio Mella” Polycilinic of Camaguey in 2014, and that were diagnosed with alveolitis. The sample was made up of 50 patients in the control group treated with Alvogyl and 50 patients in the study group treated with aloe.Results: most of the patients belonged to the 26 to 45 age group. At 24 hours of treatment the results on pain relief were similar for both groups, with an 18 % for the study group and a 16 % for the control group. At 48 hours the best results were found in the control group, with 62 % of patients with no pain, and only a 30 % in the study group. At 72 hours this tendency was kept with 90 % in the control group and 72 % in the study group. In the study group an 84 % of the patients with wet alveolitis felt pain relief.Conclusions: the aqueous extract of aloe is a natural drug which is effective in the treatment of alveolitis, mainly in wet alveolitis and those affecting the maxillary bones. There were no adverse reactions with none of the used medications.

  17. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) in a well-defined and stable Norwegian population of 250,000 inhabitants during a period of 15 years. We conducted a file survey of all patients (n = 376) aged 16 years or older with a clinician's diagnosis...

  18. Treatment of small cell lung carcinoma in association with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lipton, J. R.; Carroll, K; Mould, J. J.; Winstanley, J.; Thatcher, N

    1982-01-01

    Two patients with small cell bronchogenic carcinoma associated with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis are described. Both patients received radiotherapy and i.v. chemotherapy with moderate dose methotrexate (100 mg/m2) and escalating high dose cyclophosphamide (1·5 g, 2·5 g, 3·5 g/m2).

  19. A family with extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by wild city pigeons: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received

  20. Population structure of Ammodytes marinus in the Northeast Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Nævdal, Gunnar; Lahn-Johannessen, John; Reinert, Jákup; Thorkildsen, Solveig

    1996-01-01

    Samples of the lesser sandeel species Ammodytes marinus Raitt were collected from Iceland, Denmark, Scotland, the Faeroe Islands and central and northern North Sea, and analysed for frequency distributions of genotypes of polymorphic enzymes. Main emphasize was laid on the enzymes IDHP, PGI and PGM, which were analysed by standard starch gel electrophoresis with two buffer systems. The chose of enzymes is based upon earlier studies in Scotland, Denmark as well as preliminar ana...

  1. Interrelationship between lung volume, expiratory flow, and lung transfer factor in fibrosing alveolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty patients with fibrosing alveolitis studied on 104 occasions exhibited significant direct correlations between vital capacity (VC), maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMFR), and transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO). Forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1)/VC ratio bore a weak negative correlation with VC. Peak expiratory flow, MMFR, and maximum flow rates at 50% and 25% of VC were often reduced in patients with severe grades of pulmonary dysfunction. It appears that as the ...

  2. Decreased pulmonary distensibility in fibrosing alveolitis and its relation to decreased lung volume.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, M. J.; Colebatch, H J

    1989-01-01

    The relation between pulmonary distensibility, lung volume, and elastic recoil pressure was examined in 45 patients (38 men) with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (mean age 61 (SD 14) years). Exponential analysis of static pressure-volume data obtained during deflation of the lungs gave the exponent K, an index of the distensibility of the remaining inflatable lung tissue. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured in a body plethysmograph or by nitrogen washout. The results were compared with va...

  3. Vertical gradients of lung density in supine subjects with fibrosing alveolitis or pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, A B; Denison, D M

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography was used to determine the vertical gradient of density in the peripheral lung tissue of 12 patients with histologically proved fibrosing alveolitis and 12 patients with chronic bronchitis and evidence of pulmonary emphysema on the computed tomograms. Measurements were made at total lung capacity and at residual volume and compared with similar measurements from 12 normal subjects reported in a previous study. At residual volume the mean peripheral tissue density in the emp...

  4. Description of Colponema vietnamica sp.n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp., two new alveolate phyla (Colponemidia nom. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. nov. and their contributions to reconstructing the ancestral state of alveolates and eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V Tikhonenkov

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and ecological importance of predatory flagellates are too often overlooked. This is not only a gap in our understanding of microbial diversity, but also impacts how we interpret their better-studied relatives. A prime example of these problems is found in the alveolates. All well-studied species belong to three large clades (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates, but the predatory colponemid flagellates are also alveolates that are rare in nature and seldom cultured, but potentially important to our understanding of alveolate evolution. Recently we reported the first cultivation and molecular analysis of several colponemid-like organisms representing two novel clades in molecular trees. Here we provide ultrastructural analysis and formal species descriptions for both new species, Colponema vietnamica n. sp. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp. Morphological and feeding characteristics concur with molecular data that both species are distinct members of alveolates, with Acavomonas lacking the longitudinal phagocytotic groove, a defining feature of Colponema. Based on ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies, which both provide concrete rationale for a taxonomic reclassification of Alveolata, we establish the new phyla Colponemidia nom. nov. for the genus Colponema and its close relatives, and Acavomonidia nom. nov. for the genus Acavomonas and its close relatives. The morphological data presented here suggests that colponemids are central to our understanding of early alveolate evolution, and suggest they also retain features of the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.

  5. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon.

  6. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  7. Perkinsus olseni and P. chesapeaki detected in a survey of perkinsosis of various clam species in Galicia (NW Spain) using PCR-DGGE as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Pintado, José; Villalba, Antonio; Abollo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    A survey on perkinsosis was performed involving 15 locations scattered along the Galician coast (NW Spain) and four clam species with high market value (Ruditapes decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Venerupis corrugata and Polititapes rhomboides). The prevalence of Perkinsus parasites was estimated by PCR using genus-specific primers. The highest percentage of PCR-positive cases for perkinsosis corresponded to clams R. decussatus and V. corrugata, while lower values were detected in R. philippinarum and no case was found in P. rhomboides. The discrimination of Perkinsus species was performed by PCR-RFLP and by a new PCR-DGGE method developed in this study. Perkinsus olseni was identified in every clam species, except in P. rhomboides, using both PCR-DGGE and PCR-RFLP. Additionally, Perkinsus chesapeaki was only detected by PCR-DGGE infecting two Manila clams R. philippinarum from the same location, reporting the first case in Galicia. P. chesapeaki identification was further confirmed by in situ hybridisation assay and phylogenetic analysis of ITS region and LSU rDNA.

  8. Prevalencia del protozoario Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de ostión japonés Crassostrea gigas en Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Carolina Villanueva-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Crassostrea gigas es un molusco bivalvo de gran importancia comercial. En el noroeste de México su producción es afectada por mortalidades cuyo origen infeccioso no ha sido determinado claramente. En este trabajo se determinó la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de C. gigas en el ciclo 2011-2012. El cultivo se hizo en un sistema de línea suspendida con densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones/canasta y se determinó un tamaño de muestra de 30 ostiones por mes. La detección de Perkinsus sp. se hizo de acuerdo a los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE para Medio Fluido de Tioglicolato y PCR. Con ambos métodos se determinó la prevalencia de Perkinsus sp., que varió entre 3,3 y 40%. La intensidad de la infección estuvo en niveles 1 y 2, de acuerdo a la escala de Mackin. La mortalidad acumulativa en las densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones por canasta fue del 4 y 6%, respectivamente. Las mayores mortalidades del ostión y las mayores prevalencias de Perkinsus sp. ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 y 16,6% y octubre (1,5 y 23,3%, respectivamente, cuando la temperatura fue alta. En conclusión, Perkinsus sp. fue detectado en un cultivo de C. gigas en el estero La Pitahaya con prevalencia moderada, baja intensidad de infección y mayor presencia en los meses más calurosos del ciclo de cultivo.

  9. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  10. Functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danza Francesco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A progressive lung disease and a worse survival have been observed in patients with systemic sclerosis and alveolitis. The objective of this study was to define the functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis in SSc patients. Methods 100 SSc patients (76 with limited and 24 with diffuse disease underwent a multistep assessment of cardiopulmonary system: pulmonary function tests (PFTs every 6–12 months, echocardiography, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, if clinically advisable. Alveolar and interstitial scores on HRCT and IL-6 plasma levels were also assessed as lung disease activity indices. Results 90 SSc patients with abnormal PFTs and 3 with signs and/or symptoms of lung involvement and normal PFTs underwent HRCT and echocardiography. HRCT revealed evidence of fibrosis in 87 (93.5% patients, with 55 (59.1% showing both ground glass attenuation and fibrosis. In 42 patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and consented to undergo BAL, 16 (38.1% revealed alveolitis. 12 (75% of these patients had restrictive lung disease (p 14 (OR(95%CIs:7.03(1.40–34.33. The alveolar score showed a significant correlation with IL-6 plasma levels (r = 0.36, p = 0.001 and with the skin score (r = 0.33, p = 0.001. Cultures of BAL fluid resulted positive in 10 (23.8% of the 42 patients that underwent BAL and after one year a deterioration in PFTs occurred in 8 (80% of these patients (p = 0.01. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥ 40 mmHg was found in 6 (37.5% patients with alveolitis. Conclusion We found alveolitis only in 38.1% of the patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and then underwent BAL, probably because the concomitant fibrosis influenced results. A diffuse skin involvement and a restrictive pattern on PFTs together with ground glass on HRCT were judged possible markers of alveolitis, a BAL examination being indicated as the next step. Nevertheless BAL

  11. Semi-quantitative gallium-67 lung scanning as a measure of the intensity of alveolitis in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium-67 (67Ga) lung scanning has been applied for some years in pulmonary sarcoidosis to assess the activity of the alveolitis. Interpreting the scans, however, is difficult due to the low uptake of 67Ga in the disease process relative to background activity. In this study we have measured the mean parenchymal lung activity of 67Ga and have compared the lung activity to that at three remote sites, the liver, the abdomen and the high. The results obtained were compared with the percentage of lymphocytes in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. There was a very good correlation with the lung-to-thigh uptake measurements and a much poorer correlation with the lung-to-liver and the lung-to-abdomen measurements. It was observed that steroid therapy reduced dramatically the correlation between the broncho-alveolar lavage findings and the 67Ga scan measurements. The results suggest that in patients not on steroid therapy, the 67Ga lung-to-thigh measurements may be used, similarly to the broncho-alveolar lavage lymphocyte counts, to identify those with high-intensity alveolitis from those with low-intensity alveolitis. (orig.)

  12. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  13. CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fluid Flow and Particle Transport in a Model of Alveolated Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal

    2009-05-01

    Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301

  14. Minimal sulfur requirement for growth and sulfur-dependent metabolism of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Hao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon that uses peptides as carbon and energy sources. Elemental sulfur (S° is obligately required for its growth and is reduced to H2S. The metabolic functions and mechanisms of S° reduction were explored by examining S°-dependent growth and activities of key enzymes present in this organism. All three forms of S° tested—sublimed S°, colloidal S° and polysulfide—were used by S. marinus, and no other sulfur-containing compounds could replace S°. Elemental sulfur did not serve as physical support but appeared to function as an electron acceptor. The minimal S° concentration required for optimal growth was 0.05% (w/v. At this concentration, there appeared to be a metabolic transition from H2 production to S° reduction. Some enzymatic activities related to S°-dependent metabolism, including sulfur reductase, hydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and electron transfer activities, were detected in cell-free extracts of S. marinus. These results indicate that S° plays an essential role in the heterotrophic metabolism of S. marinus. Reducing equivalents generated by the oxidation of amino acids from peptidolysis may be transferred to sulfur reductase and hydrogenase, which then catalyze the production of H2S and H2, respectively.

  15. Prey or predator – expanding the food web role of sandeel (Ammodytes marinus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    We report an unexpected observation of lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus foraging on juveniles and late larval stages of the same species. This recording sheds new light on the cannibalistic and piscivorous capacity of forage fish and raises a number of questions about the role of forage fish in m...

  16. Feast or flee: bioelectrical regulation of feeding and predator evasion behaviors in the planktonic alveolate Favella sp. (Spirotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Taylor, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Alveolate (ciliates and dinoflagellates) grazers are integral components of the marine food web and must therefore be able to sense a range of mechanical and chemical signals produced by prey and predators, integrating them via signal transduction mechanisms to respond with effective prey capture and predator evasion behaviors. However, the sensory biology of alveolate grazers is poorly understood. Using novel techniques that combine electrophysiological measurements and high-speed videomicroscopy, we investigated the sensory biology of Favella sp., a model alveolate grazer, in the context of its trophic ecology. Favella sp. produced frequent rhythmic depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming and are responsible for endogenous swimming patterns relevant to foraging. Contact of both prey cells and non-prey polystyrene microspheres at the cilia produced immediate mechanostimulated depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming, and likely underlie aggregative swimming patterns of Favella sp. in response to patches of prey. Contact of particles at the peristomal cavity that were not suitable for ingestion resulted in depolarizations after a lag of ∼600 ms, allowing time for particles to be processed before rejection. Ingestion of preferred prey particles was accompanied by transient hyperpolarizations (∼1 s) that likely regulate this step of the feeding process. Predation attempts by the copepod Acartia tonsa elicited fast (∼20 ms) animal-like action potentials accompanied by rapid contraction of the cell to avoid predation. We have shown that the sensory mechanisms of Favella sp. are finely tuned to the type, location, and intensity of stimuli from prey and predators. PMID:26567352

  17. [Pathogenetic and clinical significance of the adhesion molecule expression on T cells of the lung in sarcoid alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, R; Galandrini, R; Agea, E; Bini, P; Tognellini, R

    1990-01-01

    A double immunofluorescence analysis of CD4+ cell population from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis was carried out. The results showed that, unlike BAL and peripheral blood CD4+ cells of healthy subjects, almost all BAL CD4+ cells of the patients highly express, besides CDw29 antigen, LFA-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules. The co-expression of these molecules on BAL CD4+ cells during high intensity sarcoid alveolitis could represent a marker of immunological memory. The relevant pathogenetic and clinical implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:2199744

  18. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  19. Cytogenetic evidences of genome rearrangement and differential epigenetic chromatin modification in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo-Soto, Lara; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J; Pérez-García, Concepción

    2014-12-01

    This work explores both the chromatin loss and the differential genome methylation in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from a molecular cytogenetic point of view. Fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments on meiotic bivalents and mitotic chromosomes corroborate the chromatin loss previously observed during the development of the sea lamprey and demonstrate that the elimination affects not only to Germ1 sequences but also to the rpt200 satellite DNA and most part of the major ribosomal DNA present on the germinal line. 5-Methylcytosine immunolocation revealed that the GC-rich heterochromatin is highly methylated in the germ line but significantly less in somatic chromosomes. These findings not only support previous observations about genome rearrangements but also give new information about epigenetic changes in P. marinus. The key position of lampreys in the vertebrate phylogenetic tree makes them an interesting taxon to provide relevant information about genome evolution in vertebrates.

  20. Gene duplication, loss and selection in the evolution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in alveolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shauna A; Diwan, Rutuja; Orr, Russell J S; Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    A group of marine dinoflagellates (Alveolata, Eukaryota), consisting of ∼10 species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense, produce the toxin saxitoxin and its analogues (STX), which can accumulate in shellfish, leading to ecosystem and human health impacts. The genes, sxt, putatively involved in STX biosynthesis, have recently been identified, however, the evolution of these genes within dinoflagellates is not clear. There are two reasons for this: uncertainty over the phylogeny of dinoflagellates; and that the sxt genes of many species of Alexandrium and other dinoflagellate genera are not known. Here, we determined the phylogeny of STX-producing and other dinoflagellates based on a concatenated eight-gene alignment. We determined the presence, diversity and phylogeny of sxtA, domains A1 and A4 and sxtG in 52 strains of Alexandrium, and a further 43 species of dinoflagellates and thirteen other alveolates. We confirmed the presence and high sequence conservation of sxtA, domain A4, in 40 strains (35 Alexandrium, 1 Pyrodinium, 4 Gymnodinium) of 8 species of STX-producing dinoflagellates, and absence from non-producing species. We found three paralogs of sxtA, domain A1, and a widespread distribution of sxtA1 in non-STX producing dinoflagellates, indicating duplication events in the evolution of this gene. One paralog, clade 2, of sxtA1 may be particularly related to STX biosynthesis. Similarly, sxtG appears to be generally restricted to STX-producing species, while three amidinotransferase gene paralogs were found in dinoflagellates. We investigated the role of positive (diversifying) selection following duplication in sxtA1 and sxtG, and found negative selection in clades of sxtG and sxtA1, clade 2, suggesting they were functionally constrained. Significant episodic diversifying selection was found in some strains in clade 3 of sxtA1, a clade that may not be involved in STX biosynthesis, indicating pressure for diversification

  1. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  2. Prevalencia del protozoario Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de ostión japonés Crassostrea gigas en Sinaloa, México

    OpenAIRE

    Lizeth Carolina Villanueva-Fonseca; César Marcial Escobedo-Bonilla

    2013-01-01

    Crassostrea gigas es un molusco bivalvo de gran importancia comercial. En el noroeste de México su producción es afectada por mortalidades cuyo origen infeccioso no ha sido determinado claramente. En este trabajo se determinó la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de C. gigas en el ciclo 2011-2012. El cultivo se hizo en un sistema de línea suspendida con densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones/canasta y se determinó un tamaño de muestra de 30 ostiones por mes. La d...

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly of Perkinsus olseni trophozoite stimulated in vitro with Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Abul Farah Md; Robledo, Diego; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Alvarez-Dios, Jose A; Harrison, Peter W; Cao, Asunción; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Villalba, Antonio; Pardo, Belén G; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-03-01

    The protistan parasite Perkinsus olseni is a deadly causative agent of perkinsosis, a molluscan disease affecting Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), having a significant impact on world mollusc production. Deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms in R. philippinarum-P. olseni interaction is crucial for controlling this parasitosis. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression in the parasite trophozoite using RNA-seq. Control and treatment (in vitro challenged with Manila clam-plasma) P. olseni trophozoite RNA were extracted and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument using a 100-bp paired-end sequencing strategy. Paired reads (64.7 million) were de novo assembled using Trinity, and the resultant transcripts were further clustered using CAP3. The re-constructed P. olseni transcriptome contains 47,590 unique transcripts of which 23,505 were annotated to 9764 unique proteins. A large number of genes were associated with Gene Ontology terms such as stress and immune-response, cell homeostasis, antioxidation, cell communication, signal transduction, signalling and proteolysis. Among annotated transcripts, a preliminary gene expression analysis detected 679 up-regulated and 478 down-regulated genes, linked to virulence factors, anti-oxidants, adhesion and immune-response molecules. Genes of several metabolic pathways such as DOXP/MEP, FAS II or folate biosynthesis, which are potential therapeutic targets, were identified. This study is the first description of the P. olseni transcriptome, and provides a substantial genomic resource for studying the molecular mechanisms of the host-parasite interaction in perkinsosis. In this sense, it is also the first evaluation of the parasite gene expression after challenge with clam extracellular products.

  4. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) of the toad Bufo marinus

    OpenAIRE

    Lainson R.; De Souza M.C.; Franco C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae), from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite’s sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both c...

  5. Genome sequence of radiation-resistant Modestobacter marinus strain BC501, a representative actinobacterium that thrives on calcareous stone surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Philippe; Gury, Jérôme; Pujic, Petar; Chouaia, Bessem; Crotti, Elena; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Daffonchio, Daniele; Vacherie, Benoit; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Calteau, Alexandra; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Essoussi, Imen; Nouioui, Imen; Abbassi-Ghozzi, Ines; Gtari, Maher

    2012-09-01

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Modestobacter marinus strain BC501, an actinobacterial isolate that thrives on stone surfaces. The generated chromosome is circular, with a length of 5.57 Mb and a G+C content of 74.13%, containing 5,445 protein-coding genes, 48 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal operons.

  6. The biology of Chaetogammarus marinus (Leach) and Eulimnogammarus obtusatus (Dahl) with some notes on other intertidal gammarid species (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, van Marion J.

    1975-01-01

    The reproductive cycles of Chaetogammarus marinus and Eulimnogammarus obtusatus in northern Brittany are compared, as well as the environmental conditions under which these gammarids live. Both species show reproductive activity throughout the year. The maximum rate of ovigerous ♀ ♀ was established

  7. Differentiation of the ILO boundary chest roentgenograph (0/1 to 1/0) in asbestosis by high-resolution computed tomography scan, alveolitis, and respiratory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, T J; McGuinness, G; Goldring, R; Cohen, H; Parker, J E; Crane, M; Naidich, D P; Rom, W N

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans have been advocated as providing greater sensitivity in detecting parenchymal opacities in asbestos-exposed individuals, especially in the presence of pleural fibrosis, and having excellent inter- and intraobserver reader interpretation. We compared the 1980 International Labor Organization (ILO) International Classification of the Radiographs of the Pneumoconioses for asbestosis with the high-resolution CT scan using a grid scoring system to better differentiate normal versus abnormal in the ILO boundary 0/1 to 1/0 chest roentgenograph. We studied 37 asbestos-exposed individuals using the ILO classification, HRCT grid scores, respiratory symptom questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. We used Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the linear relationship between outcome variables and each roentgenographic method. The normal HRCT scan proved to be an excellent predictor of "normality," with pulmonary function values close to 100% for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and no increase in BAL inflammatory cells. Concordant HRCT/ILO abnormalities were associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, reduced diffusing capacity, and alveolitis consistent with a definition of asbestosis. In our study, the ILO classification and HRCT grid scores were both excellent modalities for the assessment of asbestosis and its association with impaired physiology and alveolitis, with their combined use providing statistical associations with alveolitis and reduced diffusing capacity.

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in the lungs of patients with systemic sclerosis, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and other lung disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrin, B; Butcher, D; McAnulty, B J; Dubois, R M; Black, C M; Laurent, G J; Harrison, N K

    1994-02-01

    To study the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis we have examined lung biopsies from nine patients with systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung disease, eight with 'lone' cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, two with cystic fibrosis, two with extrinsic allergic alveolitis, two with Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, one with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, one with giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and one adenocarcinoma of the lung. In cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, both 'lone' and associated with systemic sclerosis alveolar macrophages, bronchial epithelium and hyperplastic type II pneumonocytes expressed intracellular TGF-beta 1. Extracellular TGF-beta 1 was found in the fibrous tissue immediately beneath the bronchial and hyperplastic alveolar epithelium. In normal lung, however, the alveolar epithelium and alveolar interstitium were negative for both forms of TGF-beta 1. There was strong expression of TGF-beta 1 in hyperplastic mesothelium and its underlying connective tissue and in Langerhans' cells in the two cases of histiocytosis. In the organizing pneumonia in cystic fibrosis, the intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue reacted strongly for the extracellular form of TGF-beta 1 and the overlying hyperplastic epithelium expressed the intracellular form. In lymphangioleiomyomatosis, the aberrant smooth muscle cells strongly expressed intracellular TGF-beta 1 and the extracellular form was expressed in the adjacent connective tissue. In giant cell interstitial pneumonia, the numerous alveolar macrophage including the multinucleate forms, expressed intracellular TGF-beta 1, as did the hyperplastic alveolar epithelium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Perkinsus Atlanticus – desenvolvimento de um método de diagnóstico para detecção de infecção em moluscos bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Ricardo B.; Rodrigues, Pedro; Elandalloussi, Laurence M; Afonso, Ricardo; Nunes, Patrícia A.; Cancela, Leonor

    2003-01-01

    Diferentes espécies do género Perkinsus, um protozoário parasita pertencente ao novo phylum Perkinsea, podem ser encontradas mundialmente e constituem uma séria ameaça aos moluscos bivalves como as ostras, amêijoas, abalones e vieiras, os quais têm um papel importante não só do ponto de vista comercial, mas também ecológico.

  10. Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. (Nematoda:Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea), a parasite of Bufo marinus from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, B; Guerrero, R; Durette-Desset, M C

    1996-01-01

    A new species of Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917, a parasite of Bufo marinus L. from Venezuela, is described. Like most Neotropical Oswaldocruzia, Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. is characterized by spicules with three principal branches: blade, shoe and fork, and by a division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length. O. vaucheri Ben Slimane et Durette-Desset, 1993 is the most closely related species due to its caudal bursa of type II and its cervical alae of the same shape but it differs in the following characters: the position of the papillae of rays 4 situated nearer the papillae of rays 3 rather than rays 5, a higher percentage of the ridges in the oesophageal region, the cervical alae three times longer and sharp and the spicular fork divided less deeply.

  11. Radiographic grading of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. A comparison between a modified ILO classification and a descriptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, J; Partanen, K; Terho, E O; Niemitukia, L; Soimakallio, S

    1991-11-01

    We analyzed the acute phase radiographs of 107 consecutive patients with clinically confirmed extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Three readers independently recorded the profusion and the type of opacities according to the standard ILO criteria extended with categories x, y, z, and ground glass for description as proposed by McLoud et al. The profusion of the changes was grade 0 in 13%, grade 1 in 37%, grade 2 in 35%, and grade 3 in 15% of the interpretations. The type of predominant small opacities was p in 33%, x in 22%, s in 13%, t in 10%, q in 9%, and 0, r, u, y, and z in 13% of the interpretations. Ground glass density was seen in 8% of the recordings. The changes were predominantly located in the middle and lower lung zones. For comparison, according to the classification of Hapke et al. miliary changes (68%) predominated over fibrotic (27%) and normal (11%) recordings. The intraobserver agreement was good by both methods, but there was less interobserver variation with the ILO method. The semiquantitative standardized modified ILO scheme was considered more informative than Hapke's descriptive classification for epidemiologic and research purposes.

  12. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Daniel P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

  13. Sterility method of pest control and its potential role in an integrated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  14. Dyes Extracted from Safflower, Medicago Sativa, and Ros Marinus Oficinalis as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Taya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three extracts of plant leaves were used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. These plants are Safflower, Medicago sativa and Ros marinus oficinalis. The natural dyes were extracted before and after grinding the plant leaves. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the three extracts in ethyl alcohol solution were measured. The DSSCs were assembled using TiO2 films on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO coated glass. The DSSCs sensitized with the extracts of grinded leaves showed a better performance compared to those sensitized with un-grinded leaves with the highest efficiency of 0.115 % was obtained for the DSSC sensitized with Medicago sativa. The performance of the DSSCs sensitized with Safflower and Ros marinus oficinalis was significantly improved by acid treatment of the FTO substrates. Impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  15. Weight-Length Relationships in Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus) and Hardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) in Louisiana Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...

  16. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    OpenAIRE

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and sm...

  17. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758) in the River Ulla (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Silva; Sandra Barca; María José Servia

    2015-01-01

    After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary...

  18. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; De Souza, M C; Franco, C M

    2007-12-01

    Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae), from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite's sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both commonly infested by A. rotondatum, the possibility that the parasite of A. ameiva is H. stellata had to be considered. Uninfected lizards fed with material from infected ticks taken from B. marinus, and others fed with liver of toads containing tissue-cysts of H. stellata, were shown to subsequently develop typical Hemolivia infections, with all stages of the development similar to those seen in the naturally infected lizards. Conversely, a juvenile, uninfected toad became infected when fed with sporocysts of Hemolivia in a macerated tick that had fed on an infected A. ameiva and pieces of liver containing tissuecysts from the same lizard. The remarkable lack of host specificity shown by H. stellata, in hosts so widely separated as an amphibian and a reptile, is discussed. PMID:18225421

  19. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae of the toad Bufo marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite’s sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both commonly infested by A. rotondatum, the possibility that the parasite of A. ameiva is H. stellata had to be considered. Uninfected lizards fed with material from infected ticks taken from B. marinus, and others fed with liver of toads containing tissuecysts of H. stellata, were shown to subsequently develop typical Hemolivia infections, with all stages of the development similar to those seen in the naturally infected lizards. Conversely, a juvenile, uninfected toad became infected when fed with sporocysts of Hemolivia in a macerated tick that had fed on an infected A. ameiva and pieces of liver containing tissue-cysts from the same lizard. The remarkable lack of host specificity shown by H. stellata, in hosts so widely separated as an amphibian and a reptile, is discussed.

  20. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  1. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Haïtham; Hezbri, Karima; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Pujic, Petar; Sen, Arnab; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Armengaud, Jean; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2016-01-01

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including 'molecular tinkering/opportunism' as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively. PMID:26125681

  2. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Sghaier, Haïtham

    2015-06-30

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism’ as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.

  3. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

  4. Separation and identification of cathepsin of non irradiated and irradiated red-fish (Sebates marinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathepsin originated from Sebates marinus muscle hydrolyzed denatured hemoglobin optimally at pH 5. At pH 3 this phenomenon was also detected eventhough with lower intensity. Partial purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation technique was not suitable for the separation of protein contaminants from the active enzyme. By column gel filtration through Sephadex G-75 superfine, fractions with high cathepsin specific activity were recovered i.e. fractions with molecular weights between 15,000-20,000 Daltons. These fractions showed isoelectric components in the pH range of 4.5 - 8 with the predominant protein zones at pH 4.5 - 5. In fish irradiated at a dose of 0.3 Mrad, the gel filtration pattern was not essentially changed. However on focusing the 15,000 - 20,000 Dalton fraction, the isoelectric pattern showed some minor changes, especially the accumulation of protein in the range of pH 4.5 - 5. (author)

  5. A spatial age-structured model for describing sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The control of invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) presents large scale management challenges in the Laurentian Great Lakes. No modeling approach has been developed that describes spatial dynamics of lamprey populations. We developed and validated a spatial and age-structured model and applied it to a sea lamprey population in a large river in the Great Lakes basin. We considered 75 discrete spatial areas, included a stock-recruitment function, spatial recruitment patterns, natural mortality, chemical treatment mortality, and larval metamorphosis. Recruitment was variable, and an upstream shift in recruitment location was observed over time. From 1993–2011 recruitment, larval abundance, and the abundance of metamorphosing individuals decreased by 80, 84, and 86%, respectively. The model successfully identified areas of high larval abundance and showed that areas of low larval density contribute significantly to the population. Estimated treatment mortality was less than expected but had a large population-level impact. The results and general approach of this work have applications for sea lamprey control throughout the Great Lakes and for the restoration and conservation of native lamprey species globally.

  6. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Donaldson, Robert P; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples). Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen) in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22%) upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed.

  7. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  8. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Donaldson, Robert P; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples). Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen) in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22%) upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed. PMID:26270653

  9. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Gómez-Baena

    Full Text Available Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples. Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22% upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed.

  10. Larval mortality rates and population dynamics of Lesser Sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus) in the northwestern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Michael R.; Rasmussen, Jens; Bailey, Martin C.; Dunn, John; Fraser, John; Gallego, Alejandro; Hay, Stephen J.; Inglis, Michelle; Robinson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Intense fishing of a stock of sandeels ( Ammodytes marinus) on the sand banks off the Firth of Forth, northeast Scotland, during the 1990s led to a decline in catch per unit effort to uneconomic levels and collateral failures of piscivorous seabird breeding success at nearby colonies. A prohibition on fishing in 1999 was followed by a short-term recovery of stock biomass, but then a sustained decline to very low levels of abundance. Demographic survey data show that despite the decline in stock, recruit abundance was maintained implying an increasing larval survival rate, and that the stock decline was not due to recruitment failure. To verify this hypothesis we analysed a 10-year long data set of weekly catches of sandeel larvae at a nearby plankton monitoring site to determine the patterns of larval mortality and dispersal. We found that the loss rate of larvae up to 20 d age decreased over time, corresponding with the trend in survival rate implied by the stock demography data. The pattern of loss rate in relation to hatchling abundance implied that mortality may have been density dependent. Our study rules out increased larval mortality as the primary cause of decline in the sandeel stock.

  11. Estudio de la efectividad del gel bioadhesivo de clorhexidina en la prevención de la alveolitis y su valor coadyuvante en el postoperatorio tras la extracción de terceros molares inferiores retenidos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Lagares, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    La alveolitis es una complicación bastante frecuente tras la extracción, más aún cuando hablamos de la extracción de los terceros molares retenidos. En estos casos la osteítis alveolar es una patología de alto coste social, en forma de días de trabajo perdidos, baja de productividad, consultas de revisión por parte del cirujano y visitas al hospital. El 45% de los pacientes que desarrollan una alveolitis necesitan un mínimo de 4 visitas postoperatorias para diagnosticarla, tratarla y recupera...

  12. A new 24-membered lactone and a new polyene delta-lactone from the marine bacterium Bacillus marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunmei; Tian, Li; Xu, Minjuan; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2008-11-01

    A new 24-membered macrolide macrolactin T (1), and a new polyene delta-lactone macrolactin U (2), along with macrolactins A, B, D, O, and S, were isolated from the cultured broth of the bacterium Bacillus marinus, which was isolated from Suaeda salsa collected in the coastline of Bohai Sea of China. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses. The inhibitory activity of macrolactins T, B and D against fungi Pyricularia oryzae and Alternaria solani, and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus is reported. PMID:19168981

  13. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-05-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration.

  14. Ionoregulatory changes during metamorphosis and salinity exposure of juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-Santos, P.; McCormick, S.D.; Wilson, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ammocoetes of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. spend many years in freshwater before metamorphosing and migrating to sea. Metamorphosis involves the radical transformation from a substrate-dwelling, filter feeder into a free-swimming, parasitic feeder. In the present work we examined osmoregulatory differences between ammocoetes and transformers (metamorphic juveniles), and the effects of salinity acclimation. We measured the expression of key ion-transporting proteins [Na+/K+-ATPase, vacuolar (V)-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA)] as well as a number of relevant blood parameters (hematocrit, [Na+] and [Cl -]). In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify and characterize the distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and CA immunoreactive cells in the gill. Ammocoetes did not survive in the experiments with salinities greater than 10???, whereas survival in high salinity (???25-35???) increased with increased degree of metamorphosis in transformers. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl -] of ammocoetes in freshwater was lower than transformers and increased markedly at 10???. In transformers, plasma ions increased only at high salinity (>25???). Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase levels were ??? tenfold higher in transformers compared to ammocoetes and salinity did not affect expression in either group. However, branchial H +-ATPase expression showed a negative correlation with salinity in both groups. Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity was strongest in transformers and associated with clusters of cells in the interlamellar spaces. H+-ATPase (B subunit) immunoreactivity was localized to epithelial cells not expressing high Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and having a similar tissue distribution as carbonic anhydrase. The results indicate that branchial Na+/K+-ATPase and salinity tolerance increase in metamorphosing lampreys, and that branchial H+-ATPase is downregulated by salinity.

  15. Anadromous sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are ecosystem engineers in a spawning tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Simon, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) disturb the substratum during nest construction and alter the physical habitat, potentially affecting other stream organisms. We quantified differences in depth, velocity, fine-sediment coverage, embeddedness, intragravel permeability and benthic invertebrate assemblages (density and diversity) among nest mounds, nest pits and undisturbed reference locations over a 4-month period after June spawning. In 2010 and 2011, immediate and persistent effects of nest construction were assessed in summer (July) and in autumn (late September to early October), respectively. Randomly selected nests were sampled annually (25 each in summer and autumn). Nest construction increased stream-bed complexity by creating and juxtaposing shallow, swift, rocky habitat patches with deep, slow, sandy habitat patches. Mounds had a 50–143% less cover of fine sediment, and a 30–62% reduction in embeddedness, compared to pits and reference locations. These physical changes persisted into the autumn (almost 4 months). Five insect families contributed 74% of the benthic invertebrate abundance: Chironomidae (27%), Hydropsychidae (26%), Heptageniidae (8%), Philopotamidae (7%) and Ephemerellidae (6%). Densities of Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae and Heptageniidae were up to 10 times greater in mounds than in pits and adjacent reference habitat. In summer, mounds had twice the density of Chironomidae than did pits, and 1.5 times more than reference habitats, but densities were similar among the habitats in autumn. These results suggest that spawning sea lampreys are ecosystem engineers. The physical disturbance caused by nest-building activity was significant and persistent, increasing habitat heterogeneity and favouring pollution-sensitive benthic invertebrates and, possibly, drift-feeding fish.

  16. An extremely thermostable amylopullulanase from Staphylothermus marinus displays both pullulan- and cyclodextrin-degrading activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2013-06-01

    A gene encoding an amylopullulanase of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 57 from Staphylothermus marinus (SMApu) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. SMApu consisted of 639 amino acids with a molecular mass of 75.3 kDa. It only showed maximal amino acid identity of 17.1 % with that of Pyrococcus furiosus amylopullulanase in all identified amylases. Not like previously reported amylopullulanases, SMApu has no signal peptide but contains a continuous GH57N_Apu domain. It had the highest catalytic efficiency toward pullulan (k cat/K m , 342.34 s(-1) mL mg(-1)) and was extremely thermostable with maximal pullulan-degrading activity (42.1 U/mg) at 105 °C and pH 5.0 and a half-life of 50 min at 100 °C. Its activity increased to 116 % in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2. SMApu could also degrade cyclodextrins, which are resistant to the other amylopullulanases. The initial hydrolytic products from pullulan, γ-CD, and 6-O-maltooligosyl-β-CD were [6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 4)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→]n, maltooctaose, and single maltooligosaccharide plus β-CD, respectively. The final hydrolytic products from above-mentioned substrates were maltose and glucose. These results confirm that SMApu is a novel amylopullulanase of the family GH57 possessing the cyclodextrin-degrading activity of cyclomaltodextrinase. PMID:23001056

  17. Moonlight receptor of the "1-h-midge" Clunio marinus studied by micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, G.; Fleissner, Ge; Neumann, D.; Wellenreuther, G.; Alraun, P.; Fleissner, Gue

    2013-10-01

    Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a "moonlight window" in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine.

  18. Characterization of Somatically-Eliminated Genes During Development of the Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Stephanie A; Herdy, Joseph R; Amemiya, Chris T; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2016-09-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a basal vertebrate that undergoes developmentally programmed genome rearrangements (PGRs) during early development. These events facilitate the elimination of ∼20% of the genome from the somatic cell lineage, resulting in distinct somatic and germline genomes. Thus far only a handful of germline-specific genes have been definitively identified within the estimated 500 Mb of DNA that is deleted during PGR, although a few thousand germline-specific genes are thought to exist. To improve our understanding of the evolutionary/developmental logic of PGR, we generated computational predictions to identify candidate germline-specific genes within a new transcriptomic dataset derived from adult germline and the early embryonic stages during which PGR occurs. Follow-up validation studies identified 44 germline-specific genes and further characterized patterns of transcription and DNA loss during early embryogenesis. Expression analyses reveal that many of these genes are differentially expressed during early embryogenesis and presumably function in the early development of the germline. Ontology analyses indicate that many of these germline-specific genes play known roles in germline development, pluripotency, and oncogenesis (when misexpressed). These studies provide support for the theory that PGR serves to segregate molecular functions related to germline development/pluripotency in order to prevent their potential misexpression in somatic cells. This larger set of eliminated genes also allows us to extend the evolutionary/developmental breadth of this theory, as some deleted genes (or their gnathostome homologs) appear to be associated with the early development of somatic lineages, perhaps through the evolution of novel functions within gnathostome lineages. PMID:27288344

  19. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  20. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 in the River Ulla (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary and fishing in pesqueiras, which are stone constructions placed on the river bed, in the low section of the river. This study advances in the knowledge of the upstream migration (and related impact of barriers, reproduction and fishery of P. marinus in the River Ulla. The study combined fieldwork (radiotelemetry tracking of 19 adults in years 2012 and 2013 and inventory and characterization of obstacles, with information on the capture of lampreys (years 2000 to 2010 by commercial fishing and by a fixed trap located in the middle section of the river. The migration period in this river runs from January, or even December, until June, followed by reproduction in May and June. A total of 48 anthropogenic obstacles (all small-medium sized barriers except the last three, which are impassable, including 20 pesqueiras, were identified as a relevant obstacle for sea lamprey migration (which joins the impact of fishing performed in these sites. Hence, still more attention must be paid to "small" barriers, as pesqueiras, and to fisheries to properly conserve and manage populations of this and other anadromous lamprey species.

  1. Mollusk Distribution and Habitat, Rhode Island Oyster Disease Sampling Sites; Twenty sites were surveyed in the spring and fall of each year to assess the levels of Dermo Disease (Perkinsus marinus) and Haplosporidian infections (H. nelsoni and H. costale)., Published in 2003, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mollusk Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003. It is...

  2. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

    2014-03-01

    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes.

  3. Subcellular localization of the magnetosome protein MamC in the marine magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 using immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde-Tercedor, C [Universidad de Granada; Abada-Molina, F [Universidad de Granada; Martinez-Bueno, M [Universidad de Granada; Pineda-Molina, Estela [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalograficos; Chen, Lijun [Ohio State University; Oestreicher, Zachery [Ohio State University; Lower, Brian H [Ohio State University; Lower, Steven K [Ohio State University; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Jimenez-Lopez, C [Universidad de Granada

    2014-04-24

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular magnetosomes, composed of magnetic (Fe3O4) crystals each enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane that contains proteins not found in other parts of the cell. Although partial roles of some of these magnetosome proteins have been determined, the roles of most have not been completely elucidated, particularly in how they regulate the biomineralization process. While studies on the localization of these proteins have been focused solely on Magnetospirillum species, the goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the localization of the most abundant putative magnetosome membrane protein, MamC, in Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. MamC was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against MamC and immunogold labeling TEM was used to localize MamC in thin sections of cells of M. marinus. Results show that MamC is located only in the magnetosome membrane of Mc. marinus. Based on our findings and the abundance of this protein, it seems likely that it is important in magnetosome biomineralization and might be used in controlling the characteristics of synthetic nanomagnetite.

  4. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)). PMID:24425741

  5. Ultraviolet stress delays chromosome replication in light/dark synchronized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC9511

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blot Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about how such minimalist microorganisms manage to sustain high growth rates and avoid potentially detrimental, UV-induced mutations to their DNA. To address this question, we studied the cell cycle dynamics of P. marinus PCC9511 cells grown under high fluxes of visible light in the presence or absence of UV radiation. Near natural light-dark cycles of both light sources were obtained using a custom-designed illumination system (cyclostat. Expression patterns of key DNA synthesis and repair, cell division, and clock genes were analyzed in order to decipher molecular mechanisms of adaptation to UV radiation. Results The cell cycle of P. marinus PCC9511 was strongly synchronized by the day-night cycle. The most conspicuous response of cells to UV radiation was a delay in chromosome replication, with a peak of DNA synthesis shifted about 2 h into the dark period. This delay was seemingly linked to a strong downregulation of genes governing DNA replication (dnaA and cell division (ftsZ, sepF, whereas most genes involved in DNA repair (such as recA, phrA, uvrA, ruvC, umuC were already activated under high visible light and their expression levels were only slightly affected by additional UV exposure. Conclusions Prochlorococcus cells modified the timing of the S phase in response to UV exposure, therefore reducing the risk that mutations would occur during this particularly sensitive stage of the cell cycle. We identified several possible explanations for the observed timeshift. Among these, the sharp decrease in transcript levels

  6. Identification of squalamine in the plasma membrane of white blood cells in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2007-12-01

    It is well established that innate mechanisms play an important role in the immunity of fish. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from several species of teleosts. Here, we report the isolation of an antimicrobial compound from the blood of bacterially challenged sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. An acetic acid extract from the blood cells of challenged fish was subjected to solid-phase extraction, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the purified fractions assayed for antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, antimicrobial activity in these fractions originated from squalamine, an aminosterol previously identified in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the identity of squalamine, an antimicrobial and antiangiogenic agent, in the active fraction from the sea lamprey blood cells. Immunocytochemical analysis localized squalamine to the plasma membrane of white blood cells. Therefore, we postulate that squalamine has an important role in the innate immunity that defends the lamprey against microbial invasion. The full biochemical and immunological roles of squalamine in the white blood cell membrane remain to be investigated. PMID:17726196

  7. Structural Mechanism for Light-driven Transport by a New Type of Chloride Ion Pump, Nonlabens marinus Rhodopsin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; DeLong, Edward F; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2016-08-19

    The light-driven inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin Nonlabens marinus rhodopsin-3 (NM-R3), from a marine flavobacterium, belongs to a phylogenetic lineage distinct from the halorhodopsins known as archaeal inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsins. NM-R3 and halorhodopsin have distinct motif sequences that are important for chloride ion binding and transport. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a new type of light-driven chloride ion pump, NM-R3, at 1.58 Å resolution. The structure revealed the chloride ion translocation pathway and showed that a single chloride ion resides near the Schiff base. The overall structure, chloride ion-binding site, and translocation pathway of NM-R3 are different from those of halorhodopsin. Unexpectedly, this NM-R3 structure is similar to the crystal structure of the light-driven outward sodium ion pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2. Structural and mutational analyses of NM-R3 revealed that most of the important amino acid residues for chloride ion pumping exist in the ion influx region, located on the extracellular side of NM-R3. In contrast, on the opposite side, the cytoplasmic regions of K. eikastus rhodopsin 2 were reportedly important for sodium ion pumping. These results provide new insight into ion selection mechanisms in ion pumping rhodopsins, in which the ion influx regions of both the inward and outward pumps are important for their ion selectivities. PMID:27365396

  8. Relation of concentration and exposure time to the efficacy of niclosamide against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, R.J.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Bills, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of 2’, 5-dichloro-4’-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) at various concentrations and exposure times was tested against free-swimming larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) at 12°C and 17°C in Lake Huron water. Concentrations of niclosamide in test solutions ranged from 0.46 to 4.7 mg/L with pH 7.8 to 8.3, total alkalinity 78 to 88 mg/L as CaCO3, and total hardness 95 to 105 mg/L as CaCO3. In each test, six groups of larvae were exposed to a single concentration of niclosamide for times ranging from 30 s to 30 min. Exposure time was treated as the dose and, for each concentration tested, the exposure time necessary to kill 50 and 99.9% of larvae (ET50 and ET99.9) was determined. Linear regressions of the log10-transformed ET50 and ET99.9 on the log10-transformed niclosamide concentrations were significant at both temperatures with r2ranging from 0.94 to 0.98. The predicted ET50 ranged from 58 sec to 21.7 min and the ET99.9 ranged from 2.5 to 43.5 min across the concentrations and temperatures tested. Niclosamide required a significantly longer time to kill larvae at 12°C than at 17°C.

  9. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  10. Size control of in vitro synthesized magnetite crystals by the MamC protein of Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Tercedor, C; Montalbán-López, M; Perez-Gonzalez, T; Sanchez-Quesada, M S; Prozorov, T; Pineda-Molina, E; Fernandez-Vivas, M A; Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Trubitsyn, D; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C

    2015-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that share the unique ability of biomineralizing magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bounded crystals of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). Magnetosome biomineralization is mediated by a number of specific proteins, many of which are localized in the magnetosome membrane, and thus is under strict genetic control. Several studies have partially elucidated the effects of a number of these magnetosome-associated proteins in the control of the size of magnetosome magnetite crystals. However, the effect of MamC, one of the most abundant proteins in the magnetosome membrane, remains unclear. In this present study, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized inorganically in free-drift experiments at 25 °C in the presence of different concentrations of the iron-binding recombinant proteins MamC and MamCnts (MamC without its first transmembrane segment) from the marine, magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 and three commercial proteins [α-lactalbumin (α-Lac), myoglobin (Myo), and lysozyme (Lyz)]. While no effect was observed on the size of magnetite crystals formed in the presence of the commercial proteins, biomimetic synthesis in the presence of MamC and MamCnts at concentrations of 10-60 μg/mL resulted in the production of larger and more well-developed magnetite crystals (~30-40 nm) compared to those of the control (~20-30 nm; magnetite crystals grown protein-free). Our results demonstrate that MamC plays an important role in the control of the size of magnetite crystals and could be utilized in biomimetic synthesis of magnetite nanocrystals. PMID:25874532

  11. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  12. The modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus is cell-attached, and its C-terminal domain has several putative homologues among cell-attached proteins within the phylum Bacteroidetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Hachem, Maher Abou; Ramchuran, Santosh;

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the function of the fifth domain of the thermostable modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus was unresolved. A putative homologue to this domain was however identified in a mannanase (Man26A) from the same microorganism which raised questions regarding a common function....

  13. NORTHWARD EXPANSION OF A MARINE PARASITE: TESTING THE ROLE OF TEMPERATURE ADAPTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The known range of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) parasite, Perkinsus marinus, expanded into the northeastern United States in the early 1990s. We used both in vitro and in vivo data to test the hypothesis that the northward expansion was associated with a low-tempera...

  14. Use of the duplex TaqMan MGB probe for simultaneous detection of Perkinsus and Bonamia in marine shellfish%同时检测海洋贝类包纳米虫和派琴虫的双重TaqMan MGB探针实时荧光 PCR方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书林; 陈信忠; 肖懿哲; 朱苏琴; 龚艳清; 杨俊萍

    2014-01-01

    A duplex TaqMan MGB real-time PCR method was optimized to simultaneously detect Perkinsus sp.and Bonamia sp..The primers and TaqMan MGB probes were designed and chosen to amplify the conserved SSU seg-ment of genus Bonamia sp.ribosomal DNA and ITS segment of genus Perkinsus sp.ribosomal DNA.The duplex real-time PCR identified and differentiated the two protozoan parasite groups.The sensitivity of the duplex real-time PCR assay was 446 and 171 template copies and it had higher sensitivity.Tenfold serial dilutions of the plasmid DNAs of Bonamia sp.and Perkinsus sp.were quantified the actual copy numbers using the duplex real-time PCR.The corre-lation coefficient of calibration curves were 0.999 and 1 .000,respectively.Meanwhile,this method had no cross reaction with other species of protozoa in mollusks and the common pathogenic bacteria in mariculture.The method showed advantages of rapid and high efficiency when applied to detect 296 clinical specimens from Meizhou bay, Pinghai bay and Xinghua bay of Fujian.This assay is proved to be sensitive and specific and can be widely used for the protozoan infection survey,disease surveillance and the quarantine of shell fish.%根据包纳米虫(Bonamia sp.)SSU rDNA和派琴虫(Perkinsus sp.)ITS rDNA的保守区序列,设计特异性引物和Taqman MGB探针,建立了同时检测上述两种贝类原虫的双重实时荧光PCR方法.该方法可检测到包纳米虫基因的446拷贝质粒,以及派琴虫基因的171拷贝质粒,具有较高的灵敏度.以10倍系列稀释的包纳米虫阳性标准品质粒和派琴虫阳性标准品质粒为模板,测得该方法的定量标准曲线相关系数分别为0.999和1.000,显示出很好的扩增效率.同时该方法与尼氏单孢子虫(Haplosporidium nelsoni)、沿岸单孢子虫(H.costale)等其他贝类原虫,以及副溶血性弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)、迟缓爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda)和#爱德华氏菌

  15. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  16. Richness and distribution of tropical oyster parasites in two oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Fleischer, Robert C; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Parasites can exert strong effects on population to ecosystem level processes, but data on parasites are limited for many global regions, especially tropical marine systems. Characterizing parasite diversity and distributions are the first steps towards understanding the potential impacts of parasites. The Panama Canal serves as an interesting location to examine tropical parasite diversity and distribution, as it is a conduit between two oceans and a hub for international trade. We examined metazoan and protistan parasites associated with ten oyster species collected from both Panamanian coasts, including the Panama Canal and Bocas del Toro. We found multiple metazoan taxa (pea crabs, Stylochus spp., Urastoma cyrinae). Our molecular screening for protistan parasites detected four species of Perkinsus (Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus olseni, Perkinsus beihaiensis) and several haplosporidians, including two genera (Minchinia, Haplosporidium). Species richness was higher for the protistan parasites than for the metazoans, with haplosporidian richness being higher than Perkinsus richness. Perkinsus species were the most frequently detected and most geographically widespread among parasite groups. Parasite richness and overlap differed between regions, locations and oyster hosts. These results have important implications for tropical parasite richness and the dispersal of parasites due to shipping associated with the Panama Canal. PMID:27263626

  17. Richness and distribution of tropical oyster parasites in two oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Fleischer, Robert C; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Parasites can exert strong effects on population to ecosystem level processes, but data on parasites are limited for many global regions, especially tropical marine systems. Characterizing parasite diversity and distributions are the first steps towards understanding the potential impacts of parasites. The Panama Canal serves as an interesting location to examine tropical parasite diversity and distribution, as it is a conduit between two oceans and a hub for international trade. We examined metazoan and protistan parasites associated with ten oyster species collected from both Panamanian coasts, including the Panama Canal and Bocas del Toro. We found multiple metazoan taxa (pea crabs, Stylochus spp., Urastoma cyrinae). Our molecular screening for protistan parasites detected four species of Perkinsus (Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus olseni, Perkinsus beihaiensis) and several haplosporidians, including two genera (Minchinia, Haplosporidium). Species richness was higher for the protistan parasites than for the metazoans, with haplosporidian richness being higher than Perkinsus richness. Perkinsus species were the most frequently detected and most geographically widespread among parasite groups. Parasite richness and overlap differed between regions, locations and oyster hosts. These results have important implications for tropical parasite richness and the dispersal of parasites due to shipping associated with the Panama Canal.

  18. Structure and stability of metagenome-derived glycoside hydrolase family 12 cellulase (LC-CelA a homolog of Cel12A from Rhodothermus marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genes encoding novel cellulases with putative signal peptides at the N-terminus, termed pre-LC-CelA–J, were isolated from a fosmid library of a leaf–branch compost metagenome by functional screening using agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose and trypan blue. All the cellulases except pre-LC-CelG have a 14–29 residue long flexible linker (FL between the signal peptide and the catalytic domain. LC-CelA without a signal peptide (residues 20–261, which shows 76% amino acid sequence identity to Cel12A from Rhodothermus marinus (RmCel12A, was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. LC-CelA exhibited its highest activity across a broad pH range (pH 5–9 and at 90 °C, indicating that LC-CelA is a highly thermostable cellulase, like RmCel12A. The crystal structure of LC-CelA was determined at 1.85 Å resolution and is nearly identical to that of RmCel12A determined in a form without the FL. Both proteins contain two disulfide bonds. LC-CelA has a 16-residue FL (residues 20–35, most of which is not visible in the electron density map, probably due to structural disorder. However, Glu34 and Pro35 form hydrogen bonds with the central region of the protein. ΔFL-LC-CelA (residues 36–261 and E34A-LC-CelA with a single Glu34 → Ala mutation were therefore constructed and characterized. ΔFL-LC-CelA and E34A-LC-CelA had lower melting temperatures (Tm than LC-CelA by 14.7 and 12.0 °C respectively. The Tm of LC-CelA was also decreased by 28.0 °C in the presence of dithiothreitol. These results suggest that Glu34-mediated hydrogen bonds and the two disulfide bonds contribute to the stabilization of LC-CelA.

  19. Geometric hysteresis of alveolated ductal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, M; Butler, J P; Vlastelica, I; Stojanovic, B; Rankovic, V; Tsuda, A

    2011-11-01

    Low Reynolds number airflow in the pulmonary acinus and aerosol particle kinetics therein are significantly conditioned by the nature of the tidal motion of alveolar duct geometry. At least two components of the ductal structure are known to exhibit stress-strain hysteresis: smooth muscle within the alveolar entrance rings, and surfactant at the air-tissue interface. We hypothesize that the geometric hysteresis of the alveolar duct is largely determined by the interaction of the amount of smooth muscle and connective tissue in ductal rings, septal tissue properties, and surface tension-surface area characteristics of surfactant. To test this hypothesis, we have extended the well-known structural model of the alveolar duct by Wilson and Bachofen (1982, "A Model for Mechanical Structure of the Alveolar Duct," J. Appl. Physiol. 52(4), pp. 1064-1070) by adding realistic elastic and hysteretic properties of (1) the alveolar entrance ring, (2) septal tissue, and (3) surfactant. With realistic values for tissue and surface properties, we conclude that: (1) there is a significant, and underappreciated, amount of geometric hysteresis in alveolar ductal architecture; and (2) the contribution of smooth muscle and surfactant to geometric hysteresis are of opposite senses, tending toward cancellation. Quantitatively, the geometric hysteresis found experimentally by Miki et al. (1993, "Geometric Hysteresis in Pulmonary Surface-to-Volume Ratio during Tidal Breathing," J. Appl. Physiol. 75(4), pp. 1630-1636) is consistent with little or no smooth muscle tone in anesthetized rabbits in control conditions, and with substantial smooth muscle activation following methacholine challenge. The observed local hysteretic boundary motion of the acinar duct would result in irreversible acinar flow fields, which might be important mechanistic contributors to aerosol mixing and deposition deep in the lung. PMID:22168737

  20. Geometric Hysteresis of Alveolated Ductal Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Kojic, M.; Butler, J. P.; Vlastelica, I.; B. Stojanovic; Rankovic, V.; Tsuda, A.

    2011-01-01

    Low Reynolds number airflow in the pulmonary acinus and aerosol particle kinetics therein are significantly conditioned by the nature of the tidal motion of alveolar duct geometry. At least two components of the ductal structure are known to exhibit stress-strain hysteresis: smooth muscle within the alveolar entrance rings, and surfactant at the air-tissue interface. We hypothesize that the geometric hysteresis of the alveolar duct is largely determined by the interaction of th...

  1. Enhanced recovery of Arcobacter spp. using NaCl in culture media and re-assessment of the traits of Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus isolated from marine water and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Massó, Nuria; Andree, Karl B; Furones, M Dolors; Figueras, M José

    2016-10-01

    The genus Arcobacter is a relatively poorly known group of bacteria, and the number of new species and sequences from non-culturable strains has increased considerably in recent years. This study investigates whether using media that contain NaCl might help to improve the recovery of Arcobacter spp. from marine environments. To this aim, 62 water and shellfish samples were analysed in parallel, with both a commonly used culture method (enrichment in Arcobacter-CAT broth followed by culture on Blood Agar) and a new one that supplements the Arcobacter-CAT enrichment broth with 2.5% NaCl (w/v) followed by culturing on Marine Agar. The new method yielded ca. 40% more positive samples and provided a higher diversity of known (11 vs. 7) and unknown (7 vs. 2) Arcobacter species. Among the 11 known species recovered, Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus were isolated only by this new method. No more strains of these species have been isolated since their original descriptions, both of which were based only on a single strain. In view of that, the phenotypic characteristics of these species are re-evaluated in the present study, using the new strains. Strains of A. halophilus had the same phenotypic profile as the type strain. However, some strains of A. marinus differed from the type strain in that they did not hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate, becoming, therefore, the first Arcobacter species to show a varying ability to hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate. This study shows to what extent a simple variation to the culture media can have a big influence on positive samples and on the community of species recovered. PMID:27282494

  2. Longitudinal course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in pigeon breeders.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, S. J.; Banham, S W; Carter, R; P. Lynch; Boyd, G.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal course of pigeon breeders' disease by evaluating 24 patients with the acute form of the disease 10 years after their original diagnosis. Twenty one patients attended for clinical assessment, pulmonary function studies, chest radiography, and antibody measurement. Eighteen had continued to keep pigeons, emphasising their commitment to the hobby. Despite continued antigen exposure pigeon related symptoms had improved in most patients and ...

  3. Parasites of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis cultured in Nayarit, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Vasquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria

    2010-09-01

    The pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is collected and cultured in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and the improvement and promotion of its culture are seen as a possible source for the economic development of coastal populations. However, information about the parasite fauna of the pleasure oyster is almost completely lacking. A histopathological survey carried out in two estuaries, Boca del Camichín and Pozo Chino, revealed the presence of hypertrophied gametes, rickettsiales-like prokaryotes (RLPs), the protozoan Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan Nematopsis sp., Ancistrocoma-like ciliates (ALCs), Sphenophrya-like ciliates, a turbellarian Urastoma sp., and encysted crustaceans. In general, prevalence and intensity of parasites were similar in both localities except that ALCs and encysted crustaceans were more prevalent in Pozo Chino than in Boca del Camichín. Perkinsus marinus and RLPs seem to represent a more significant risk for the health of pleasure oysters than do the other parasites, and surveillance and control of these parasites are needed for the development of pleasure oyster culture.

  4. Spatial and temporal distributions of contaminant body burden and disease in Gulf of Mexico oyster populations: The role of local and large-scale climatic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. A.; Powell, E. N.; Wade, T. L.; Taylor, R. J.; Presley, B. J.; Brooks, J. M.

    1992-06-01

    As part of NOAA's Status and Trends Program, oysters were sampled from 43 sites throughout the Gulf of Mexico from Brownsville, Texas, to the Florida Everglades from 1986 to 1989. Oysters were analysed for body burden of a suite of metals and petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the prevalence and intensity of the oyster pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, and condition index. The contaminants fell into two groups based on the spatial distribution of body burden throughout the Gulf. Arsenic, selenium, mercury and cadmium were characterized by clinal reduction in similarity with distance reminiscent of that followed by mean monthly temperature and precipitation. Zinc, copper, PAHs and silver showed no consistent geographic trend. Within local regions, industrial and agricultural and use and P. marinus prevalence and infection intensity frequently correlated with body burden. Contaminants and biological attributes followed one of three temporal trends. Zinc, copper and PAHs showed concordant shifts over 4 years throughout the eastern and southern Gulf. Mercury and cadmium showed concordant shifts in the northwestern Gulf. Selenium, arsenic, length, condition index and P. marinus prevalence and infection intensity showed concordant shifts throughout most of the entire Gulf. Concordant shifts suggest that climatic factors, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation being one example, exert a strong influence on biological attributes and contaminant body burdens in the Gulf. Correlative factors are those that probably affect or indicate the rate of tissue turnover and the frequency of reproduction; namely, temperature, disease intensity, condition index and length.

  5. Critical threshold size for overwintering sandeels (Ammodytes marinus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Hartvig, Martin; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2011-01-01

    : (1) Fish smaller than Lth display winter feeding activity, and (2) size at maturation of iteroparous species is larger than Lth to ensure sufficient energy reserves to accommodate both the metabolic cost of passive overwintering and reproductive investments. Both predictions were found......Several ecologically and commercially important fish species spend the winter in a state of minimum feeding activity and at lower risk of predation. To enable this overwintering behaviour, energetic reserves are generated prior to winter to support winter metabolism. Maintenance metabolism in fish...

  6. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A

    2003-01-01

    of pulmonary fibrosis (ICD 8: 517 and ICD 9: 515 and 516). Cases with a history of exposure to fibrogenic agents or with collagen vascular disease were excluded and the remaining 158 cases were defined as CFA. The average annual incidence of hospitalised CFA was 4.3 per 100,000. No change was observed...

  7. Downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Brynildson, Clifford L.

    1951-01-01

    In order to obtain more precise information concerning the downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, a trapping device was operated in the Carp Lake River, Emmet County, Michigan, from October, 1948, to July, 1951.

  8. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the poste...

  9. Assessments of the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) in the North Sea based on revised stock divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Lewy, Peter; Wright, P.

    1999-01-01

    for the different aggregations. Based on a geographical division of the North Sea in a number of proposed assessment regions, regional as well as whole North Sea sandeel assessments are presented based on revised data (e.g, catch in numbers at age and effort). The assessments suggest regional differences in fishing...... effort, catch per unit effort, yield, fishing and natural mortality. A better understanding of sandeel growth is important for stock and catch predictions because previous studies indicate that the variability of mean weight-at-age is one of the most important factors influencing the precision...

  10. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  11. 'n Konseptuele model vir 'n bestuursinligtingstelsel vir 'n streekkantoor / Albertus Marinus Jan Brenkman

    OpenAIRE

    Brenkman, Albertus Marinus Jan

    1989-01-01

    In the research for this paper, which concerns a conceptual model for a management information system (MIS) for a regional office, it was found that the regional office could be seen as a typical mini organisation. The regional office as organisation needs educational leaders in order to function. This educational management can be embodied in a pyramid structure comprising top management, middle management and first-line management. Management information is therefore ...

  12. Expression of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha transgene in murine lung causes lymphocytic and fibrosing alveolitis. A mouse model of progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Miyazaki; Araki, K; Vesin, C; Garcia, I.; Kapanci, Y.; Whitsett, J A; Piguet, P F; Vassalli, P.

    1995-01-01

    The murine TNF-alpha gene was expressed under the control of the human surfactant protein SP-C promoter in transgenic mice. A number of the SP-C TNF-alpha mice died at birth or after a few weeks with very severe lung lesions. Surviving mice transmitted a pulmonary disease to their offspring, the severity and evolution of which was related to the level of TNF-alpha mRNA in the lung; TNF-alpha RNA was detected in alveolar epithelium, presumably in type II epithelial cells. In a longitudinal stu...

  13. Albirhodobacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from sea shore water of Visakhapatnam, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    activities. The fatty acids were found to be dominated by C sub(16:0),C sub(18:1) omega7c and summed in feature 3 (C sub(16:1) omega 7c and/or C sub(16:1) omega 6c). Strain N9 sup(T) was determined to contain Q-10 as the major respiratory quinone...

  14. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Daniel P; Killorn Erin E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from ...

  15. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicolas S; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  16. The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus genome reveals the early origin of several chemosensory receptor families in the vertebrate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ziping

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR, trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR, V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not been examined systematically in agnathan genomes. Results Petromyzon is the only extant jawless vertebrate whose genome has been sequenced. Known to be exquisitely sensitive to several classes of odorants, lampreys detect fewer amino acids and steroids than teleosts. This reduced number of detectable odorants is indicative of reduced numbers of CR gene families or a reduced number of genes within CR families, or both, in the sea lamprey. In the lamprey genome we identified a repertoire of 59 intact single-exon CR genes, including 27 OR, 28 TAAR, and four V1R-like genes. These three CR families were expressed in the olfactory organ of both parasitic and adult life stages. Conclusion An extensive search in the lamprey genome failed to identify potential orthologs or pseudogenes of the multi-exon V2R family that is greatly expanded in teleost genomes, but did find intact calcium-sensing receptors (CASR and intact metabotropic glutamate receptors (MGR. We conclude that OR and V1R arose in chordates after the cephalochordate-urochordate split, but before the diversification of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The advent and diversification of V2R genes from glutamate receptor-family G protein-coupled receptors, most likely the CASR, occurred after the agnathan-gnathostome divergence.

  17. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors in chordates: insights from three lamprey species, Lampetra fluviatilis, Petromyzon marinus, and Lethenteron japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Campo-Paysaa, Florent; Jandzik, David; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Cattell, Maria V; Neef, Haley C; Langeland, James A.; Kuratani, Shigeru; Medeiros, Daniel M.; Mazan, Sylvie; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls many developmental processes in chordates, from early axis specification to late organogenesis. The functions of RA are chiefly mediated by a subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. While RARs have been extensively studied in jawed vertebrates (that is, gnathostomes) and invertebrate chordates, very little is known about the repertoire and developmental role...

  18. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  19. Size control of in vitro synthesized magnetite crystals by the MamC protein of Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Tercedor, C; Montalbán-López, M; Perez-Gonzalez, T; Sanchez-Quesada, M S; Prozorov, T; Pineda-Molina, E; Fernandez-Vivas, M A; Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Trubitsyn, D; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that share the unique ability of biomineralizing magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bounded crystals of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). Magnetosome biomineralization is mediated by a number of specific proteins, man

  20. Structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of galectins in aquatic mollusks: From a sweet tooth to the Trojan horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Feng, C; Bianchet, M A; Bachvaroff, T R; Tasumi, S

    2015-09-01

    Galectins constitute a conserved and widely distributed lectin family characterized by their binding affinity for β-galactosides and a unique binding site sequence motif in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of their structural conservation, galectins display a remarkable functional diversity, by participating in developmental processes, cell adhesion and motility, regulation of immune homeostasis, and recognition of glycans on the surface of viruses, bacteria and protozoan parasites. In contrast with mammals, and other vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, the identification and characterization of bona fide galectins in aquatic mollusks has been relatively recent. Most of the studies have focused on the identification and domain organization of galectin-like transcripts or proteins in diverse tissues and cell types, including hemocytes, and their expression upon environmental or infectious challenge. Lectins from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, however, have been characterized in their molecular, structural and functional aspects and some notable features have become apparent in the galectin repertoire of aquatic mollusks. These including less diversified galectin repertoires and different domain organizations relative to those observed in vertebrates, carbohydrate specificity for blood group oligosaccharides, and up regulation of galectin expression by infectious challenge, a feature that supports their proposed role(s) in innate immune responses. Although galectins from some aquatic mollusks have been shown to recognize microbial pathogens and parasites and promote their phagocytosis, they can also selectively bind to phytoplankton components, suggesting that they also participate in uptake and intracellular digestion of microalgae. In addition, the experimental evidence suggests that the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus has co-evolved with the oyster host to be selectively recognized by the oyster hemocyte galectins over algal food

  1. A restoration suitability index model for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Beseres Pollack

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs are one of the most threatened marine habitats on earth, with habitat loss resulting from water quality degradation, coastal development, destructive fishing practices, overfishing, and storm impacts. For successful and sustainable oyster reef restoration efforts, it is necessary to choose sites that support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Selection of suitable sites is critically important as it can greatly influence mortality factors and may largely determine the ultimate success of the restoration project. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS provides an effective methodology for identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration and removes much of the uncertainty involved in the sometimes trial and error selection process. This approach also provides an objective and quantitative tool for planning future oyster reef restoration efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a restoration suitability index model and reef quality index model to characterize locations based on their potential for successful reef restoration within the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. The restoration suitability index model focuses on salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and depth, while the reef quality index model focuses on abundance of live oysters, dead shell, and spat. Size-specific Perkinsus marinus infection levels were mapped to illustrate general disease trends. This application was effective in identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration, is flexible in its use, and provides a mechanism for considering alternative approaches. The end product is a practical decision-support tool that can be used by coastal resource managers to improve oyster restoration efforts. As oyster reef restoration activities continue at small and large-scales, site selection criteria are critical for assisting stakeholders and managers and for maximizing long-term sustainability of oyster resources.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen M Klinger

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs, factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during

  3. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 341533 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein P9215_03981 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9215 MWSKIRLTIYGTTAIAGILWPFYFIIQFINLVRNGNIQGTFIDIGNAFFDDAWITPTSGFISADTAILLIAIFVFYAAEGKRLKLRFWGIYFPLTFIISLAFSFGAFMFIRELEINKELNETD ...

  4. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 470846 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical protein P9202_817 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9202 MEQIPMSGIEQVREIIRKEVEPLAALASSLKLELEQTRADVNYLIENSIDTPNIYLKPNDLAKLVGCSHSTIKRYRNDGTIKESSIKKVKREKRTDYYYHRFAAIKDIQAIRPLQIKTKK ...

  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 310121 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MISSCSLTPEVLEQAYGHGARECPSSNEQINLVFSQDRSFDLVELEQLLEAVGWSRRPMRRVRL...ALDHTLLKVGLWRHDPLLPRLVGFARCTGDGVLEATVWDVAIHPIYQGVGLGKHLMDYTLESLKEMGVKRVTLFADPGVVDFYERQGWTLEPDGHKCAFWYA ...

  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 433745 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mal protein L22 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MTTSSPTTTTIAKAHGRFIRGSVSKVRRVLDQIRGRTYRDALIMLEFMPYRSTGPITKVLRSAVANAEHNLGLDPASLVIAQASADMGPSMKRYRPRAQGRAFAIKKQTCHISIAVAAQTDS ...

  7. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 428821 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tical protein P9211_05431 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MSKKLKTQRVDYATLASSLQLEEESREFIYSLIAALMKLGLLSIGIASLLNLGFASHQRIRRNMELTSLVRSETLKYKKLHLRFDSLFTIGGRNRFIEEQGQWIMPNSIRVIWR ...

  8. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 425351 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein P9303_25061 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MFSAPMRLLCSPLMFGLLVGSSGLMGLASSPAHAGELRCDGTLLQLSVRESGELRSDRFRFSLQVEAEGKTSSAAMDQLNQRLVTVRSRVRPLILDDLKIPAPRSYAIDGATPWQ ...

  9. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 352017 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omain-containing protein Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MDPCVKTVLEVGEKLVKKSPANHQRGIETVGGMLYLTTARLIFESHALNIQAGVTTISISEINRLRKDWTKFLNVIPIFPNTLAVTSSSGHEDKFILFRRTPWINEINKLKEGQN ...

  10. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 438405 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bonucleotide triphosphate pyrophosphatase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MSSNELTERVLVIASGNAGKIREFRQLLAHLPLSVQAQPKDLAVEETGQTFAE...NARIKALTVAQATGQWALADDSGLSVEALAGAPGVYSARYAASDALRIERLLQELKEIDDRRAHFSAALCIASETNEVLLEVEGRCEGLITHAARGEKGFGYDPIFEVDATGTTFAEMTIEQKRQWSHRGCAFALLDPALQELLHKQNKP ...

  11. Details of the structure determination of the sulfated steroids PSDS and PADS: new components of the sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus) migratory pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Thomas R; Dvornikovs, Vadims; Fine, Jared M; Anderson, Kari R; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Muddiman, David C; Shao, Feng; Sorensen, Peter W; Wang, Jizhou

    2007-09-28

    The discovery of two new components of the migratory pheromone used by sea lamprey to guide adults to spawning grounds was recently reported. These hold promise for use in a pheromone-based control program for this species, an invasive pest in the Great Lakes. Details of the structure determination of these steroidal bis-sulfates [petromyzosterol disulfate (PSDS, 2) and petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS, 3)] are described here. Pattern matching of 1H NMR data was particularly valuable. This involved comparison of spectra of the natural samples of 2 and 3 with those of appropriate steroidal analogues [e.g., petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1, a previously known sea lamprey bile acid derivative that is a third component of the migratory pheromone), cholesterol sulfate (6), and squalamine (8)] and model compounds containing the unprecedented aminolactam substructure present in 3. The logic underlying the iterative analyses used is presented. PMID:17718505

  12. Structural lipid changes and NKA activity of gill cells´ basolateral membranes as response to increasing salinity and atrazine stressors in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L. juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Lança

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of BLM lipids associated with NKA activity seems to be the strategy adopted by gill cells of juveniles to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors and for contact/resistance to ATZ exposure.

  13. Structural lipid changes and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity of gill cells' basolateral membranes during saltwater acclimation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acclimation is a critical period for anadromous species and a process yet to be understood in lampreys. Considering that changes in lipid composition of the gill cells' basolateral membranes may disrupt the major transporter Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, the goal of this study was to detect changes at this level during juvenile sea lamprey seawater acclimation. The results showed that saltwater acclimation has a direct effect on the fatty acid composition of gill cells basolateral membrane's phospholipids. When held in full-strength seawater, the fatty acid profile of basolateral membrane's phospholipids suffered a restructure by increasing either saturation or the ratio between oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Simultaneously, the activity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase revealed a significant and positive correlation with basolateral membrane's cholesterol content in the presence of highest salinity. Our results pointed out for lipid adjustments involving the functional transporter present on the gill cell basolateral membranes to ensure the role played by branchial Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in ion transport during saltwater acclimation process. The responses observed contributed to the strategy adopted by gill cell's basolateral membranes to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors, to ensure the success of the process of seawater acclimation associated with the downstream trophic migration of juvenile sea lamprey.

  14. Correlation among the cytokines levels in the bronco-alveolar lavage in a cohort of patient of the Central Military Hospital, with systemic sclerosis (SS), with and without alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic sclerosis (SS) is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by thickening and fibrosis of the skin and by distinctive forms of involvement of internal organs, notably the heart, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. We analyzed nineteen patients with SS 9 with SSI, 10 with SSd and two healthy controls. All patients were evaluated by comprise of skin, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Pulmonary assessments were performed with chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography, vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and bronchoalveolar lavage (cellular counts and measured interleukin). The interleukin's levels of IL 6, IL 1 β IL 8, and TNFα were found increased in all patients with SS, but not in healthy controls. The interleukin's level in SSd patients tended to be higher than in SSI patients, but this difference only reach statistical significance with interleukins 6. Lung involvement in SS is associated with an increase in interleukin's levels in BAL fluids, but this difference only reach statistical significance with the interleukins 6 lL 1β and TNFα

  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 528 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al protein P9303_04231 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MATRSLISLYALLATSAVITQSAEAAVYSQPNACNPIEANIQGIRNGS...WSLFLRPNNIIFGENDQARSWKNGSGKSWKNGSSSGKWKNGSGKNWKNSSGWRNGGWRNGSSGKWKNGSGGFLNW ...

  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 436078 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available photosystem I PsaK protein (subunit X) Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986 MLTTLFAAAAAPATFEWSPKCAIVMIACNVFAYAIARATIRKPNEGFEIPNSQFFGGLSHASVVGANCLGHIFGIGAILGLASRGVL ...

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 470883 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein P9211_14491 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MAAAAFLSAAAFLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACL...SAAAFLSAAAFLAAAAFLSAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACL...SAAAFLAAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAAFLSAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACL...SAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACLSAAAFLAAAACLSTPCLLAATCKSILYVLIYSSTLIVSKRPSLLKVNQLH ...

  18. Interstitial lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  19. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - ...

  20. Incidence of fibrinolytic alveolitis, acute infection, edema, and pain longer than two days after dental extraction = Incidência de alveolite fibrinolítica, infecção aguda, edema e dor por mais de dois dias após extração dentária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este é um estudo prospectivo, observacional e descritivo sobre a incidência de alveolite fibrinolítica (FA, infecção aguda (AI, edema e dor por mais de dois dias (P2D após cirurgia de extração dentária. Metodologia: A amostra foi constituída por 80 casos cirúrgicos de extração dentária realizados por alunos de odontologia da Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina. As seguintes complicações foram registradas: 2 casos de FA (2,5%, 2 casos de AI (2,5%, 8 casos de edema significativo (10% e 8 casos de dor com duração por mais de dois dias após a cirurgia (10%. Resultados: O teste do qui-quadrado mostrou associação significativa entre osteotomia e desenvolvimento de FA (P=0,001, e entre P2D (P=0,02 e edema (P=0,01. O relato de extração dentária difícil ou traumática foi relacionado com desenvolvimento de FA (P=0,01, P2D (P < 0,001 e maior edema (P < 0,001. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que FA, edema e P2D estavam relacionados com extração dentária mais traumática e realização de osteotomia nesta amostra

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1259 ref|YP_001484461.1| Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-proteinmannosyltra...nsferase [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9215] gb|ABV50875.1| Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-proteinmannosyltransferase [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9215] YP_001484461.1 0.54 23% ...

  2. Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: microbiological and microscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Júnior, E J M; Raposo, M J; Lisboa Neto, J A; Diniz, M F A; Marcelino Júnior, C A C; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of medicinal herbs as antimicrobial agents was tested on isolated microorganisms from an induced alveolitis and on alveolitis in rats. Sixteen ethanolic extracts from plants were prepared and tested. The plant materials were selected from ethnobotanic data and the best result was obtained with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. The activity on Enterococcus, Bacillus corineforme, Streptococcus viridans and S. beta-hemolytic was better than the one presented by the antibiotic currently used for the treatment of alveolitis. The extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi has shown good wound-healing activity by histological analysis. PMID:11995943

  3. Cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Turkish miners

    OpenAIRE

    Kayacan, O.; Beder, S; KARNAK, D.

    2003-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis.

  4. Expression der NADPH-Oxidasen NOX1 und NOX4 in der Lunge des Kaninchens unter Normoxie und Hypoxie

    OpenAIRE

    Selbitz, Anne-Christine

    2008-01-01

    Die hypoxische pulmonale Vasokonstriktion (HPV) gewährleistet unter physiologischen Bedingungen eine optimale Anpassung der lokalen Perfusion an die Ventilationsverhältnisse der Lunge. Auslöser der HPV ist eine lokale alveoläre Hypoventilation, die in minderbelüfteten Lungenbezirken zur reflektorischen pulmonalarteriellen Vasokonstriktion und somit einer Umleitung des Blutflusses zu besser belüfteten Lungenarealen führt. Chronische alveoläre Hypoxie führt dagegen zu pulmonaler Hypertonie, Cor...

  5. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0360 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Petromyzon marinus cDNA 3', mRNA sequence /clone_end=3' /gb=EE273115 /gi=111169992 /ug=Pma.7410 /len=694 1e-18 49% MCVVCVSYVCRM...CVVCVSYVCRMCVVCVSCVCCVCVVCVSYVSCVCRVCVVCVSYVCRVYVVCMLYVCCVYVVCISYVCRMCVVCVSCVCRM...CVVCVSYVCRVYVVFMSYVCRMCVVCVSCLCSVYVVCMSYVCRMYVVCMLRLCCVYLVCLLYVCRMYVVCVSYVCCVYVVCMLYVCRMCVVCMLYVCRMYFVCMYACRM

  6. Mouth of a lamprey

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Staff, Frontiers of Biogeography

    2013-01-01

    cover: Mouth of a Petromyzon marinus lamprey, taken at Aquarium Finisterrae (Coruña, Galicia, Spain). The original has been rotated. Picture by Drow male (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Drow_male), Creative Commons license.

  7. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James D; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F; Klotz, Martin G; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Murrell, J Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D; Svenning, Mette M; Stein, Lisa Y; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Klotz, Martin G.; Knief, Claudia; Op Den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  11. Mercury in fishes of the J.N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From June 26 to 30,1990 spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and largemouth bass...

  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 433086 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antitermination protein NusG Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MSNELTTNLASSKANTSIARWYAVQVASSCEKKVKATLEQR...YP_396705.1 1117:25313 1212:957 1217:957 1218:957 1219:957 74546:217 transcription

  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 174468 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s with different specificities Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9202 MINSTKNDKTIGITGASGALGKELTKLFRQKGYKVIGFS...ZP_05138363.1 1117:3468 1212:440 1217:440 1218:440 1219:440 93058:866 dehydrogenase

  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 158688 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_397847.1 1117:3219 1212:425 1217:425 1218:425 1219:425 74546:294 dehydrogenase with different specificiti...es Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MNLDLKDKFIIIAGGLGGIGLETVKDLISEGAEISILTQNES

  15. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o Petromyzon marinus cDNA 3', mRNA sequence /clone_end=3' /gb=EE272683 /gi=111169662 /ug=Pma.1613 /len=663 1e-08 26% MEVGIS...IMEVAISIMEVDISIMEVDISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVDISIMEVGISIMEVAISIMEVAISIMEVGISITEVRISIMEVGIS...IMEVGISITEVGISITEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISITEVGISITEVGISITEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGIS...ITEVGISIMEVGISITEVRISIMEVGFTITASSTSSLSSLTQARLLHLFPSTLQRTTSSCLMLSSSLSAMNNPLLDENLSTPPPLIILQIRHPSIHPHGGRPLSDAFRPWAAALFLVSAIGHRPSLAVTTRPDKAQISSGAV ...

  16. Mercury in fishes of the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 24 to 28, 1990, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) were collected from...

  17. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0590 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mprey LyEST Petromyzon marinus cDNA, mRNA sequence /gb=CO550264 /gi=51798580 /ug=Pma.7176 /len=769 3e-10 51% MCLSIPPPLCLFLSSPLSISLPLS...LPLSLYLPASISLPLSLPLSISLPLSLPLSLSLPLSLPLSLYLPASISLPLSLPLSISLPLSLPLSISLPLS

  18. Lijst van de Nederlandsche visschen aanwezig in 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, tevens eene vermelding van de tot nu toe in en bij Nederland waargenomen visschen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1924-01-01

    Afd.: CHORDATA. Groep III: CEPHALOCHORDATA. Fam.: BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE. Branchiostoma lanceolata (Pallas) — slakprik, niet aanwezig. Groep IV: CRANIATA. Klasse: Marsipobranchii. Fam.: PETROMYZONIDAE. Petromyzon marinus L. — zeeprik. 1 ex. beschadigd, Noordzee, uit het oude kabinet, in spir. no. 4277.

  19. [Toxic and drug-induced lesions of the pulmonary parenchyma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russi, E

    1992-05-01

    Pulmonary tissue may be damaged by certain toxins or drugs in a dose-dependent way or by a hypersensitivity reaction. Pathological changes consist of a permeability pulmonary edema, an alveolar hemorrhage, an alveolitis and finally the formation of pulmonary fibrosis. Ingestion of the weed killer paraquat may induce a rapidly progressive and lethal form of fibrosing alveolitis, the inhalation of nitrous oxides may elicit lung edema. The most common drugs causing lung damage are cytotoxic agents, often used in combination, and the noncytotoxic drugs amiodarone and nitrofurantoin. PMID:1589677

  20. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  1. Experiment list: SRX471976 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s || biomaterial_provider=ENCODE - Broad || sex=male || tissue=human alveolar basal epithelial cells || cell..._line=A549 || cell_subtype=alveolar basal epithelial cells || cell_type=epithelial cells || disease=alveol...ar adenocarcinoma || ethnicity=caucausian || ChIPtarget=H3K4me3 http://dbarchive.bi

  2. Cholestasis and pneumonitis induced by gold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, J M; Perez, T; Hautefeuille, P; Tonnel, F; Colombel, J F; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1989-12-01

    The authors describe the association of gold salt-induced cholestasis and lymphocytic alveolitis proved by liver biopsy and broncho-alveolar lavage. To our knowledge this is the third case report on the combination of liver disease and pulmonary infiltration induced by gold compounds. PMID:2612124

  3. Asbestos and Probable Microscopic Polyangiitis

    OpenAIRE

    George S Rashed Philteos; Kelly Coverett; Rajni Chibbar; Ward, Heather A; Cockcroft, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    Several inorganic dust lung diseases (pneumoconioses) are associated with autoimmune diseases. Although autoimmune serological abnormalities are common in asbestosis, clinical autoimmune/collagen vascular diseases are not commonly reported. A case of pulmonary asbestosis complicated by perinuclear-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (myeloperoxidase) positive probable microscopic polyangiitis (glomerulonephritis, pericarditis, alveolitis, multineuritis multiplex) is described and the possible...

  4. Evaluation of lung function abnormalities prevalence in poultry workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Hermínia Brites; Clérigo, Anália; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction - Poultry workers can be at an increased risk of occupational respiratory diseases, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Spirometry screening is fundamental to early diagnosis trough the identification of related ventilatory defects. Purpose - We aimed to assess the prevalence of lung function abnormalities in poultry workers.

  5. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0108 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0108 gnl|UG|Pma#S35121104 Petromyzon marinus clone Int.39 variable lym...phocyte receptor 5' LRR region (VLR) mRNA, partial sequence /gb=DQ151402 /gi=76096554 /ug=Pma.9655 /len=943 5.3 30% ...

  6. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0331 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0331 gnl|UG|Pma#S35120760 Petromyzon marinus clone T.B6 variable lymph...ocyte receptor diversity region (VLR) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,654) /gb=DQ151325 /gi=76162296 /ug=Pma.9197 /len=654 0.005 39% ...

  7. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 gnl|UG|Pma#S35120761 Petromyzon marinus clone T.B4 variable lymph...ocyte receptor diversity region (VLR) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,555) /gb=DQ151324 /gi=76162293 /ug=Pma.9198 /len=555 0.017 25% ...

  8. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0113 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0113 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438354 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.1C09 varia...ble lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,591) /gb=EF094658 /gi=126570353 /ug=Pma.9506 /len=591 1.6 37% ...

  9. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0678 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0678 gnl|UG|Pma#S35161357 PMAO-aae16e03.g1 Lamprey_EST_Embryo Petromyzon mar...inus cDNA 5' similar to ref|XP_137183.1| similar to olfactory receptor MOR142-1 [Mus musculus], mRNA s

  10. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0753 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0753 gnl|UG|Pma#S35161357 PMAO-aae16e03.g1 Lamprey_EST_Embryo Petromyzon mar...inus cDNA 5' similar to ref|XP_137183.1| similar to olfactory receptor MOR142-1 [Mus musculus], mRNA s

  11. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0852 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0852 gnl|UG|Pma#S35120728 Petromyzon marinus clone T.E6 variable lymph...ocyte receptor diversity region (VLR) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,798) /gb=DQ151357 /gi=76162367 /ug=Pma.9181 /len=798 1e-08 30% ...

  12. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0426 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0426 gnl|UG|Pma#S35161357 PMAO-aae16e03.g1 Lamprey_EST_Embryo Petromyzon mar...inus cDNA 5' similar to ref|XP_137183.1| similar to olfactory receptor MOR142-1 [Mus musculus], mRNA s

  13. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0807 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0807 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438427 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRB.124.C09 var...iable lymphocyte receptor B diversity region (VLRB) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,513) /gb=EF094584 /gi=126507805 /ug=Pma.9553 /len=513 6.8 41% ...

  14. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0738 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0738 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438429 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRB.124.C07 var...iable lymphocyte receptor B diversity region (VLRB) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,465) /gb=EF094582 /gi=126507801 /ug=Pma.9555 /len=465 1.5 30% ...

  15. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0733 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0733 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438347 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.1D04 varia...ble lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,675) /gb=EF094665 /gi=126570374 /ug=Pma.9499 /len=675 1.5 35% ...

  16. Patchy zooplankton grazing and high energy conversion efficiency: ecological implications of sandeel behavior and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Asbjørn; Rindorf, Anna

    2013-01-01

    of prey. Here we studied zooplankton consumption and energy conversion efficiency of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the central North Sea, using stomach data, length and weight-at-age data, bioenergetics, and hydrodynamic modeling. The results suggested: (i) Lesser sandeel in the Dogger area depend...... sandeel densities and growth rates per area than larger habitats...

  17. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  18. Apuntes sobre la reproduccion de algunos Bagres marinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo, José A.

    1973-01-01

    Mouthbreeding in the male, and modifications of the pelvic fins of the female are recorded for the first time in Selenaspis herzbergii. The pelvic girdle of Selenaspis herzbergii is compared with those of Sciadeichthys proops, Arius spixii, and Bagre marinus. Data are given on eggs and fry in the bu

  19. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,663) /gb=EF094798 /gi=126570709 /ug=Pma.9369 /len=663 0.006 31% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0203 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438215 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.G7 variabl

  20. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,660) /gb=EF094807 /gi=126570727 /ug=Pma.9360 /len=660 0.049 27% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438206 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.H7 variabl

  1. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,660) /gb=EF094756 /gi=126570624 /ug=Pma.9410 /len=660 4.8 43% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438257 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.C6 variabl

  2. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,666) /gb=EF094716 /gi=126570506 /ug=Pma.9450 /len=666 2.2 35% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438297 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.9 variable

  3. Water-Striders of the American Genus Trochopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Doesburg , van P.H.

    1966-01-01

    In April 1898 the veliid genus Trochopus Carpenter was erected to hold a new halophilous water-strider from Jamaica, described as marinus. The specimens were netted in numbers on standing salt waters beneath mangrove trees in swamps near the head of Kingston Harbour. In August of the same year CHAMP

  4. Postmortem proteome degradation profiles of longissimus muscle in Yorkshire and Duroc pigs and their relationship with pork quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Pas, M.F.W.; Jansen, J; Broekman, K.C.J.A.; Reimert, H.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.030 Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Postmortem proteome degradation profiles of longissimus muscle in Yorkshire and Duroc pigs and their relationship with pork quality traits Marinus F.W. te Pasa, , , Jaap Jansena, Konrad C.J.A. Broekmanb, Henny Reime

  5. Tocqueville's Christian Citzen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus

    2005-01-01

    Tocqueville's Christian Citizen Marinus Ossewaarde Introduction Alexis De Tocqueville is well known for his critique of democracy. A French statesman, he was left with the legacy of the French Revolution that had torn his fatherland and had changed the course of human history for good. Tocqueville,

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06827-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zon marinus Petromyzon ... 52 0.019 1 ( AC178407 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3112E3, WO... 46 0.072 2 ( DQ435000 ) Prome...rops cafer microsatellite Pro24 sequence. 50 0.074 1 ( CT030713 ) Mouse DNA sequenc

  7. Dicty_cDB: VFI784 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ococcus marinus str. MI... 38 0.12 AY623918_1( AY623918 |pid:none) Nyctotherus ovalis pyruvate dehydr...... 38 0.12 AY623920_1( AY623920 |pid:none) Nyctotherus ovalis pyruvate dehydr... 37 0.2

  8. Electromotive force and impedance studies of cellulose acetate membranes: Evidence for two binding sites for divalent cations and for an alveolar structure of the skin layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith Sørensen, T.; Jensen, J.B.; Malmgren-Hansen, B.

    1991-01-01

    . Alveoles in dense membranes or in the skin layer of asymmetric membranes seem to have a mean radius corresponding to ca. 70 angstrom. The dielectric constant in the alveoles is ca. 30 in contrast to a dielectric constant of ca. 16 in the >>lamellar phaseconstant...... of ca. 30 in the alveolar phase is also supported by a simple dielectric calculation of the Nernst distribution of mono- and divalent ions between external water and the alveolar solution. Corrections for activity coefficients only seems important above 0.5 M. The Onsager-Samaras dielectric repulsion...... may temporarily transform the membranes from weak cationic exchange membranes to weak anionic exchange membranes. The divalent cations may be washed out, but the rate of dissociation is very low. There seems to be two relaxations, the slower being of the order of weeks, the faster being of the order...

  9. High resolution CT in interstitial pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution CT images were assessed in 39 patients with confirmed interstitial lung disease. 22 patients with fibrosing alveolitis, 12 patients with lymphangitic spread of tumour and 5 patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis of the lung were included. In fibrosing alveolitis the dominant features on HR-CT were honeycomb cysts with concomitant fibrosis in a predominantly peripheral subpleural distribution. In contrast to this the patients with LAM showed cystic lesions without any predominance - throughout the lung fields and without any fibrotic changes. In lymphangitic spread of tumour, polygonal lines and septal lines as well as nodules were found along the bronchovascular bundles. The patterns seen on HR-CT of the thorax correlate extremely well with the underlying pathology and make it possible to differentiate between the three disease entities by means of characteristic features. (orig.)

  10. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.)

  11. A Histologically Distinctive Interstitial Pneumonia Induced by Overexpression of the Interleukin 6, Transforming Growth Factor β1, or Platelet-Derived Growth Factor B Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sakuma, Junko; Hayashi, Seiji; Abe, Kin'ya; Saito, Izumu; Harada, Shizuko; Sakatani, Mitsunoir; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsumoto, Norinao; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Kishmoto, Tadamitsu

    1995-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is characterized by alveolitis with resulting fibrosis of the interstitium. To determine the relevance of humoral factors in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia, we introduced expression vectors into Wistar rats via the trachea to locally overexpress humoral factors in the lungs. Human interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-6 receptor genes induced lymphocytic alveolitis without marked fibroblast proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of human transforming growth factor β1 or human platelet-derived growth factor B gene induced only mild or apparent cellular infiltration in the alveoli, respectively. However, both factors induced significant proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen fibrils. These histopathologic changes induced by the transforming growth factor β1 and platelet-derived growth factor B gene are partly akin to those changes seen in lung tissues from patients with pulmonary fibrosis and markedly contrast with the changes induced by overexpression of the IL-6 and IL-6 receptor genes that mimics lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

  12. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the c...

  13. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Barkhordari, A.; CJP Jones; RW Stoddart; SF McClure; McClure, J; S Rahimi Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists.Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) compared to those found in normal tissue.Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a pan...

  14. High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Chest X-Ray Findings of Interstitial Lung Disease Related to Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sheikh; Z. Basiri; F. Esna Ashari; M. Jabari; Y. Pishva

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Interstitial lung disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with scleroderma. For this reason an early diagnosis of lung involvement is warranted. The best approach to detect pulmonary disease particularly alveolitis (inflammatory NSIP) as a reversible phase is controversial. The aim of this study is estimating the advantage of HRCT as a noninvasive screening test to detect the pattern of ILD related to systemic sclerosis.Materials & Methods...

  15. The Effects of Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides on Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenjun; Liao, Bin; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Chen; Fan, Xianming

    2009-01-01

    Previous study showed that aerosolized signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) inhibited the expression of STAT1 and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and decreased the concentrations of TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of STAT1 ASON ameliorated alveolitis in rat pulmonary fibrosis. However, further investigations are neede...

  16. Mechanisms of neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunninghake, G W; Gadek, J E; Lawley, T J; Crystal, R G

    1981-01-01

    Neutrophils are a characteristic feature of the alveolitis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). a chronic disorder limited to lung. One mechanism by which neutrophils may be selectively attracted to lung and not other tissues is via the secretion of the neutrophil-specific chemotactic factor by alveolar macrophages. To evaluate the role of alveolar macrophages in modulating the migration of neutrophils to he lung in IPF, alveolar macrophages, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of patients ...

  17. Effects of inflammation and fibrosis on pulmonary function in diffuse lung fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chinet, T; Jaubert, F; Dusser, D.; Danel, C.; Chrétien, J.; Huchon, G J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the relation between lung function and inflammation and fibrosis in patients with diffuse lung fibrosis, a study was made of untreated patients without appreciable airway obstruction (14 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and seven with pneumoconiosis). Quantitative assessment of inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis was carried out on open lung biopsy specimens and compared with lung volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), TLCO corrected for alveolar volu...

  18. サルコイドーシスの肺肉芽腫形成に対する Propionibacterium acens の関与に関する研究 第1編 サルコイドーシス肺胞リンパ球のPropionibacterium acens に対する Interleukin-2 産生及び Interleukin-2 受容体発現のついて

    OpenAIRE

    森,由弘

    1992-01-01

    We previously reported that alveolar lymophocytes in patients with active sarcoidosis are sensitized Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) which may play a significant role in the induction of alveolitis in these patients. We further investigated the production of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), and the responsiveness to IL-2 of alveolar lymphocytes obtained from sarcoidosis patients and stimulated by P. acnes in vitro. In 21 untreated sarcoidosis patients, 7 treated patients and 13 control subjects, the...

  19. BCG-induced pneumonitis with lymphocytic pleurisy in the absence of elevated KL-6

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiume, Makoto; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kuno, Takahira; Mukai, Shinji; Naruse, Keishi; Hatakeyama, Nobuo; OGUSHI, FUMITAKA

    2014-01-01

    Background Pneumonitis is a rare complication of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy seen in patients with urothelial cancer following the repeated administration of BCG. However, no case of BCG-induced pleurisy has been reported. Case presentation We here report the first case of pneumonitis with lymphocytic pleurisy following bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Although marked T helper cell alveolitis was found by bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies, no aci...

  20. Serum marker KL-6/MUC1 for the diagnosis and management of interstitial pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kohno, Nobuoki

    1999-01-01

    Interstitial pneumonitis includes more than a hundred diseases in which alveolitis is the main manifestation of the affected lung. Symptoms such as dry cough and exertional dyspnea, fine crackles on chest auscultation, interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray films and CT scans, respiratory function tests, and Ga-67 scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis and the evaluation of disease activity. However, the poor prognosis of some types of interstitial pneumonitis has not been improved . ...

  1. Vacuolar ATPase Regulates Surfactant Secretion in Rat Alveolar Type II Cells by Modulating Lamellar Body Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveol...

  2. Lungefunksjon, lungevolum, diffusjonskapasitet og respiratorisk muskelstyrke hos svømmere: en observasjonell kasus-kontroll studie

    OpenAIRE

    Hellesøy, Ingrid Decube

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Tidligere studier av svømmere viser at svømmerne skiller seg fra aktive kontroller, ikke-aktive kontroller og har bedre enn forventede verdier for lungefunksjon, lungevolum, diffusjonskapasitet og respiratorisk muskelstyrke. De økte verdiene hos svømmere kan skyldes ulike årsaker; antropometri, respiratorisk muskelstyrke, treningsmengde og økt antall alveoler. Ingen studier har hittil bekreftet eller avkreftet de ulike teoriene. Hovedmålet med den foreliggende studien...

  3. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases; HRCT der Lunge bei Kollagenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Roos, N. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Schmitz-Linneweber, B. [Medizinische Klinik B, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Gaubitz, M. [Medizinische Klinik B, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Kollagenosen koennen als systemische Bindegewebserkrankungen auch zu einem breiten Spektrum pathologischer Veraenderungen am Respirationstrakt fuehren, wobei sich Art und Ausmass der Manifestationen innerhalb einzelner Entitaeten und zwischen verschiedenen Krankheitsbildern erheblich unterscheiden koennen. In der vorliegenden Uebersicht werden die entsprechenden Befunde von Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und insbesondere hochaufloesender Computertomographie (HRCT) beschrieben. Beruecksichtigt werden dabei die fibrosierende Alveolitis (Alveolitis, interstitielle Pneumonie, Lungenfibrose), bronchiale (Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis, Bronchiektasen), pleurale und vaskulaere Manifestationen sowie Lymphadenopathie und therapie-induzierte Befunde. Typische Befundmuster

  4. The possibilities of computer tomography in paecilomycosis of lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdusalom Ashurov; Rohila Jabbarova

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed computed tomography (CT) results of chest in 56 patients with lung injures caused by paecilomycosis fungus at the age from 17 to 59 years. In our investigations, the perverted lung pattern due to pathology of interstitial tissue was observed in 52 (93%) patients of 56 (with chronic bronchitis - 100%, exogenous-allergic alveolitis - 93%, recurrent pneumonia - 100% and with bronchial asthma - 80%). Analysis showed that CT provides wide opportunities in visualization of all spec...

  5. FIRST RECORD OF THE RARE MARINE REPTILE THOLODUS SCHMIDI FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS

    OpenAIRE

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2004-01-01

    Tholodus schmidi, a rare marine reptile of debated affinity and with a peculiar durophagous dentition, is for the first time recorded outside the Muschelkalk Basin of Central Europe. Parts of a mandibular ramus and a maxilla, both bearing teeth and nearly uncrushed, have been found in the upper Anisian (Balatonicus Subzone) of northeastern Italy. The tooth implantation is relatively complex, with both "alveolate" and "ankylosed" teeth. Disarticulated postcranial bones of an ichthyosaur have b...

  6. PAS staining of bronchoalveolar lavage cells for differential diagnosis of interstital lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zabel Peter; Hauber Hans P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful diagnostic tool in interstitial lunge diseases (ILD). However, differential cell counts are often non specific and immunocytochemistry is time consuming. Staining of glyoproteins by periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction may help in discriminating different forms of ILD. In addition, PAS staining is easy to perform. BAL cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 8), sarcoidosis (n = 9), and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EA...

  7. Diversity in a hidden world: potential and limitation of next-generation sequencing for surveys of molecular diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    MEDINGER, RALPH; Nolte, Viola; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Jost, Steffen; OTTENWÄLDER, BIRGIT; Schlötterer, Christian; BOENIGK, JENS

    2010-01-01

    With the delivery of millions of sequence reads in a single experiment, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently revolutionizing surveys of microorganism diversity. In particular, when applied to Eukaryotes, we are still lacking a rigorous comparison of morphological and NGS-based diversity estimates. In this report, we studied the diversity and the seasonal community turnover of alveolates (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae) in an oligotrophic freshwater lake by SSU amplicon sequencing with NG...

  8. Medical image of the week: sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Knox KS

    2013-01-01

    A 42 year old African-American man from Indianapolis presented with cough and skin lesions. ACE level was elevated at 86 μg/L. Spirometry was normal except for a diffusing capacity 52% of predicted. Imaging was suggestive of sarcoidosis versus granulomatous infection. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage cytospin revealed a lymphocytic alveolitis (27% lymphocytes) with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 6.2:1 by flow cytometry. Biopsy showed classic noncaseating granulomas and no organisms supportin...

  9. Asbestos and Probable Microscopic Polyangiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S Rashed Philteos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several inorganic dust lung diseases (pneumoconioses are associated with autoimmune diseases. Although autoimmune serological abnormalities are common in asbestosis, clinical autoimmune/collagen vascular diseases are not commonly reported. A case of pulmonary asbestosis complicated by perinuclear-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (myeloperoxidase positive probable microscopic polyangiitis (glomerulonephritis, pericarditis, alveolitis, multineuritis multiplex is described and the possible immunological mechanisms whereby asbestosis fibres might be relevant in induction of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are reviewed in the present report.

  10. Temporal development of compensation strategies for perturbed palate shape in German /S/-production

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Jana; Hoole, Phil; Perrier, Pascal; Fuchs, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The palate shape of four speakers was changed by a prosthesis which either lowered the palate or retracted the alveoles. Subjects wore the prosthesis for two weeks and were recorded several times via EMA. Results of articulatory measurements show that speakers use different compensation methods at different stages of the adaptation. They lower the tongue immediately after the insertion of the prosthesis. Other compensation methods as for example lip protrusion are only acquired after longer p...

  11. Temporal development of compensation strategies for perturbed palate shape in German /sch/-production

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Jana; Hoole, Phil; Perrier, Pascal; Fuchs, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The palate shape of four speakers was changed by a prosthesis which either lowered the palate or retracted the alveoles. Subjects wore the prosthesis for two weeks and were recorded several times via EMA. Results of articulatory measurements show that speakers use different compensation methods at different stages of the adaptation. They lower the tongue immediately after the insertion of the prosthesis. Other compensation methods as for example lip protrusion are only...

  12. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Workers at an Indium Processing Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Donat, Walter E.; Ettensohn, David B; Roggli, Victor L; Ingram, Peter; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage–colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have an elevated level. These cases suggest that inhalational exposure to ITO causes pulmonary alveol...

  13. Nanoparticle delivery in infant lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Holger; Takenaka, Shinji; James P Butler; Henry, Frank S.; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with th...

  14. Combined use of non-invasive techniques to predict pulmonary arterial pressure in chronic respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, J M; Csukas, M

    1989-01-01

    The value of non-invasive procedures for predicting pulmonary arterial pressure was investigated in 370 patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases and in 73 with fibrosing alveolitis in a combined study at nine centres in six European countries. Measurements included forced expiratory volume in one second, arterial blood gas tensions, standard electrocardiogram, radiographic dimensions of pulmonary artery, right ventricle dimensions by M mode echocardiography, and myocardial scintigraphy...

  15. Lateral transfer of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes: an emerging concern for molecular ecology of microbial eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Akinori; Toyofuku, Takashi; Takishita, Kiyotaka

    2014-07-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are widely utilized in depicting organismal diversity and distribution in a wide range of environments. Although a few cases of lateral transfer of rRNA genes between closely related prokaryotes have been reported, it remains to be reported from eukaryotes. Here, we report the first case of lateral transfer of eukaryotic rRNA genes. Two distinct sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were detected from a clonal culture of the stramenopile, Ciliophrys infusionum. One was clearly derived from Ciliophrys, but the other gene originated from a perkinsid alveolate. Genome-walking analyses revealed that this alveolate-type rRNA gene is immediately adjacent to two protein-coding genes (ubc12 and usp39), and the origin of both genes was shown to be a stramenopile (that is, Ciliophrys) in our phylogenetic analyses. These findings indicate that the alveolate-type rRNA gene is encoded on the Ciliophrys genome and that eukaryotic rRNA genes can be transferred laterally.

  16. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome architecture et gestion du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  17. Effect of expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha with Qidan granule treatment in rats by bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛洪涛; 宋秀杰; 靳长俊; 王静; 黄琛; 张欣; 王建平; 姜淑娟

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Qidan granule in blemycinA5-induced pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (PIF)in rats. Methods: PIF models were established by blemycinA5-induced in rats. They were treated by Qidan granule and Hydrocortisone respectively. The pathological changes and collagen protein disposition were observed, and the expression of TGF-β, TNF-α proteins were measured by immunohistochemical technique. Results: The pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis were alleviated remarkably in Qidan granule group compared with those in the model control group and hydrocortisone group (P<0.01). The expression of TGF-β and TNF-α protein were higher in Qidan granule group than those in normal group ,and were significantly less than those in the model control group and in hydrocortisone group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Qidan granule would ameliorate the pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. TGF-β and TNF-α might play an important role in the development of alveolitis and fibrosis in rats.

  18. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A. Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Scott C Weaver; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacit...

  19. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0793 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0793 gnl|UG|Pma#S35052147 PMAD-aac08j21.g1 Lamprey_WGS_pCMV-sport6 Petromyzon mar...inus cDNA 5' similar to gb|AAH45362.1| Similar to citrate synthase [Danio rerio], mRNA sequence /clone_end=5' /gb=DW021162 /gi=83670754 /ug=Pma.4046 /len=887 5.3 29% ...

  20. Decline of electrogenic Na+/K+ pump activity in rod photoreceptors during maintained illumination

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Light-evoked changes in membrane voltage were recorded intracellularly from rod photoreceptors in the isolated retina preparation of the toad, Bufo marinus, during superfusion with a solution containing pharmacological agents that blocked voltage-dependent conductances. Under these conditions, the amplitude of the hyperpolarizing photoresponse became much greater than under control conditions. The results of several experiments support the conclusion that this increase in photoresponse amplit...

  1. AcEST: DK945817 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available u... 49 2e-05 sp|Q46J69|CH10_PROMT 10 kDa chaperonin OS=Prochlorococcus marinu... 49 2e-05 sp|A2C4I3|CH10_PR...IKLGSDEYVLLSEK-DILAVV 102 >sp|A2C4I3|CH10_PROM1 10 kDa chaperonin OS=Prochlorococcus marinus (strain NATL1A)

  2. Croceicoccus naphthovorans sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading and acylhomoserine-lactone-producing bacterium isolated from marine biofilm, and emended description of the genus Croceicoccus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yili; Zeng, Yanhua; Feng, Hao; Wu, Yuehong; Xu, Xuewei

    2015-05-01

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading and acylhomoserine-lactone-producing marine bacterium, designated strain PQ-2(T), was isolated from marine biofilm collected from a boat shell at a harbour of Zhoushan island in Zhejiang Province, PR China. Strain PQ-2(T) is Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Optimal growth of strain PQ-2(T) was observed at 32 °C, at pH 7.0 and in 2% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PQ-2(T) showed highest similarity to Croceicoccus marinus E4A9(T) (96.3%) followed by Novosphingobium malaysiense MUSC 273(T) (95.6%) and Altererythrobacter marinus H32(T) (95.6%). Phylogenetic analysis with all species of the family Erythrobacteraceae with validly published names revealed that strain PQ-2(T) formed a phyletic line with Croceicoccus marinus E4A9(T) that was distinct from other members of the family Erythrobacteraceae . The sole respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C17 : 1ω6c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. In the polar lipid profile, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and one sphingoglycolipid were the major compounds; and another sphingoglycolipid was present in a minor amount. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain PQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Croceicoccus , for which the name Croceicoccus naphthovorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PQ-2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12805(T) =NBRC 110381(T)). In addition, emended descriptions for the genus Croceicoccus and the species C. marinus are given. PMID:25713040

  3. A surface tow net for collection of parasitic-phase sea lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Frederick H.

    1968-01-01

    A STUDY OF MIGRATORY BEHAVIOR of parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes required a means of capturing lampreys for tagging and releasing in St. Marys River, Lake Huron. Smith and Elliott (1953) fished specially made gill and trap nets for sea lampreys, but stationary nets could not be used in the St. Marys River because of boat traffic, interference with sport fishermen, and fast currents.

  4. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-07 33% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  5. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 7e-05 40% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  6. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0829 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 5e-06 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  7. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 8e-10 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  8. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 2e-14 43% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  9. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 2e-21 43% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  10. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0637 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-10 35% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  11. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0248 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-23 54% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  12. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0567 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 5e-19 50% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  13. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-18 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  14. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0377 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 2e-18 53% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  15. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 6e-11 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  16. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0498 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-18 43% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  17. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-11 40% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  18. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0418 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 0.004 30% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  19. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0815 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-05 35% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  20. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0584 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 4e-04 25% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  1. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0220 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 5e-18 50% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  2. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0416 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 2e-23 61% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  3. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 0.004 21% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  4. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0493 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-19 49% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  5. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0216 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 5e-15 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  6. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0438 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-20 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  7. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-25 52% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  8. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0339 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 2e-16 36% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  9. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0779 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 5e-12 43% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  10. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0325 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 2e-15 42% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  11. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0880 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-07 34% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  12. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0206 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 7e-09 39% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  13. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 9e-11 37% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  14. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-17 42% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  15. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 1e-10 36% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  16. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0518 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 3e-15 35% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  17. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0730 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 8e-16 55% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  18. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0719 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pdb|1F5P|A Chain A, 2.9 Angstrom Crystal Structure Of Lamprey Hemoglobin That Has Been Exposed To Ca> /clone_end=5' /gb=EC382711 /gi=109184428 /ug=Pma.9642 /len=631 0.76 30% ... ...myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to sp|P02208|GLB5_PETMA Globin V pir|GGLMS globin V [validated] - sea lamprey

  19. Utilización de glucosa por Prochlorococcus: caracterización del transportador Pro 1404 y efectos metabólicos

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Marín, Mª Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is responsible for a significant part of CO2 fixation in the ocean. It was long considered an autotrophic cyanobacterium, but our group has shown in laboratory experiments that Prochlorococcus can take up glucose like a heterotrophic organism. However, the mechanisms of glucose uptake and its occurrence in the ocean have not been shown. Here we report that the gene melB confers capability for glucose uptake in P. marinus SS120. We utilized a cyanobacterium un...

  20. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    OpenAIRE

    Delarbre, C; Spruyt, N; Delmarre, C; Gallut, C; Barriel, V.; Janvier, P.; Laudet, V; Gachelin, G

    1998-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. The 16,697-bp-long mtDNA possesses a gene organization identical to that of the Osteichthyes, but different from that of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. The main features of the mtDNA of osteichthyans were thus established in the common ancestor to chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. The phylogenetic analysis confirms that the Chondrichthyes are the sister group of th...

  1. Development of a Fluorescence Quantitative PCR Method for Detection of Marteilia refringens in Shellfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liji XIE; Zhixun XIE; Yaoshan PANG; Jiabo LIU; Xianwen DENG; Zhiqin XIE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This paper was to develop a fluorescence quantitative PCR method for detection of M. refringens in shellfish. [Method] A pair of primers and a TaqMan probe were designed and synthesized according to the conserved gene se- quences of M. refringens in GenBank, so as to develop a fluorescence quantitative PCR method for detection of M. refringens. The developed fluorescence quantitative PCR method was compared with conventional PCR detection. [Result] The fluores- cence quantitative PCR could detect 40 template copies of plasmid DNA, and its sensitivity was 100 times higher than the conventional PCR. The detection results of Perkinsus sp, Haplosporidium sp, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio parahaemolyticu, Vibrio alginolyticu, Vibrio rluvialis and Vibrio mimicus were negtive. [Conclusion] The fluorescence quantitative PCR method for M. refringens es- tablished in this paper is specific, sensitive, rapid and quantitative with good re- peatability, which can be used for clinical detection of M. refringens infection.

  2. The Nuclear DNA Content and Genetic Diversity of Lampetra morii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinyu; Meng, Wenbin; Wu, Fenfang; Xu, Anlong; Chen, Shangwu; Huang, Shengfeng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear DNA content and genetic diversity of a river lamprey, the Korean lamprey Lampetra morii, which is distributed in the northeast of China. L. morii spends its whole life cycle in fresh water, and its adult size is relatively small (~160 mm long) compared with that of other lampreys. The haploid nuclear DNA content of L. morii is 1.618 pg (approximately 1.582 Gb) in germline cells, and there is ~15% germline DNA loss in somatic cells. These values are significantly smaller than those of Petromyzon marinus, a lamprey with a published draft genome. The chromosomes of L. morii are small and acrocentric, with a diploid modal number of 2n = 132, lower than some other lampreys. Sequence and AFLP analyses suggest that the allelic polymorphism rate (~0.14% based on examined nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences) of L. morii is much lower than that (~2%) of P. marinus. Phylogenetic analysis based on a mitochondrial DNA fragment confirms that L. morii belongs to the genus Lampetra, which, together with the genus Lethenteron, forms a sister group to P. marinus. These genetic background data are valuable for subsequent genetic and genomic research on L. morii. PMID:27388621

  3. Diversity of Picoeukaryotes at an Oligotrophic Site off the Northern Red Sea Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa, Francisco Jose Acosta

    2012-05-01

    Picoeukaryotes are protist 3 µm belonging to a wide diversity of taxonomic groups, and they are an important constituent of the ocean microbiota, performing essential ecological roles in marine trophic chains and in nutrient and carbon budgets. Despite this, the true extent of their diversity is currently unknown, and in the last decade molecular surveys have uncovered a substantial number of previously unknown groups from all taxonomic levels. No studies on this group have been done so far on the Red Sea, a unique marine environment characterized by oligotrophic conditions and high irradiance, salinity and water temperature. We sampled the surface waters of a site near the northern Red Sea coast, and analyzed the picoeukaryotic diversity through the construction of PCR clone libraries using the 18S ribosomal gene. The community captured by our library is dominated by three main groups, the alveolates (32%), chlorophytes (32%) and Stramenopiles (20.55%). Members of Radiolaria, Cercozoans and Haptophyta were also found, although in low abundances. Photosynthetic organisms are especially diverse and abundant in the sample, with heterotrophic organism mostly composed by the mostly parasitic novel alveolates and bacterivorous stramenopiles. Novel clades were detected among the Novel Alveolates- II and the photosynthetic stramenopiles taxa, which suggests that they may be part of a number of groups unique to the basin and adapted to the high salinity and temperature conditions. This is the first study done on the Red Sea focusing on the diversity of the complete picoeukaryotic fraction, and provides a stepping stone in the characterization of the picoeukaryotic component of the microbial diversity of the basin.

  4. Influenza virus infection, ozone exposure, and fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, G J; Bassett, D J

    1990-05-01

    Oxidant exposure following chemically induced lung injury exacerbates the tendency to develop pulmonary fibrosis. Influenza virus pneumonitis causes severe acute lung damage that, upon resolution, is followed by a persistent alveolitis and parenchymal changes characterized by patchy interstitial pneumonia and collagen deposition in the affected areas. To determine whether oxidant exposure exacerbates the virus-induced alveolitis and residual lung damage, mice were infected by aerosol inhalation with influenza A virus and continuously exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone or ambient air. Noninfected control mice were exposed to either ambient air or ozone. On various days during the first month after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed and their lungs assessed for acute injury (lung lavage albumin, total and differential cell counts, wet/dry ratios, and morphometry). At 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed for total and differential lavage cell counts, lung hydroxyproline content, and morphometric analysis. Ozone exposure did not alter the proliferation of virus in the lungs as quantitated by infectious virus titers of lung homogenates at 1, 4, 7, 10, and 15 days after virus infection but mitigated the virus-induced acute lung injury by approximately 50%. After Day 30 a shift in the character of the pulmonary lesions was observed in that continuous exposure to ozone potentiated the postinfluenzal alveolitis and structural changes in the lung parenchyma. Additional studies suggest that the mechanism for the enhanced postinfluenzal lung damage may be related to the oxidant impairing the repair process of the acute influenzal lung damage. These data demonstrate that ozone exposure mitigates acute virus-induced lung injury and potentiates residual lung damage. PMID:2339849

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  6. Rapamycin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the expression of metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiaoguang; Dai Huaping; Ding Ke; Xu Xuefeng; Pang Baosen; Wang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and devastating form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the clinic.There is no effective therapy except for lung transplantation.Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug with potent antifibrotic activity.The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin on bleomycininduced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the relation to the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1).Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intratracheal injection of 0.3 ml of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in sterile 0.9% saline to make the pulmonary fibrosis model.Rapamycin was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg per gavage,beginning one day before bleomycin instillation and once daily until animal sacrifice.Ten rats in each group were sacrificed at 3,7,14,28 and 56 days after bleomycin administration.Alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis were semi-quantitatively assessed after HE staining and Masson staining under an Olympus BX40 microscope with an IDA-2000 Image Analysis System.Type Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen fibers were identified by Picro-sirius-polarization.Hydroxyproline content in lung tissue was quantified by a colorimetric-based spectrophotometric assay,MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and by realtime quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Bleomycin induced alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis of rats was inhibited by rapamycin.Significant inhibition of alveolitis and hydroxyproline product were demonstrated when daily administration of rapamycin lasted for at least 14 days.The inhibitory efficacy on pulmonary fibrosis was unremarkable until rapamycin treatment lasted for at least 28 days (P <0.05).It was also demonstrated that rapamycin treatment reduced the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in lung tissue that was increased by bleomycin.Conclusion These results highlight the significance of rapamycin in alleviating

  7. Concurrent conjunctivitis and placentitis in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R D

    1991-11-01

    Consistent histopathological lesions were found in 10 out of 136 aborted fetuses examined during a three year period, using a multi-disciplinary diagnostic investigation technique. Fetuses exhibited a generalized mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, accompanied by distinctive lesions of conjunctival hyperplasia and goblet cell formation, alveolitis, and necrotic placentitis. In two cases where amnion was also examined, a chronic amnionitis was present. No consistent laboratory findings could be related to these cases. The fetal and placental lesions described were similar to those associated with experimental inoculation of Ureaplasma diversum in pregnant cows, and with field isolations of the same organism in aborting cattle.

  8. Medical image of the week: sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox KS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old African-American man from Indianapolis presented with cough and skin lesions. ACE level was elevated at 86 μg/L. Spirometry was normal except for a diffusing capacity 52% of predicted. Imaging was suggestive of sarcoidosis versus granulomatous infection. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage cytospin revealed a lymphocytic alveolitis (27% lymphocytes with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 6.2:1 by flow cytometry. Biopsy showed classic noncaseating granulomas and no organisms supporting the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient’s symptoms and radiographic findings improved with 20 mg prednisone every other day for 3 months duration.

  9. Therapy of systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valentini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of the patient with Systemic Sclerosis has greatly improved in the last ten years, because of two kinds of achievements. A number of drugs have been demonstrated to be active in some disease manifestations like alveolitis, pulmonary hypertension and complicated Raynaud’s phenomenon. Some of these drugs namely cyclophosphamide and iloprost await to be confirmed as disease modifying agents. The methological approach to be made in clinical trials has been defined allowing to correctly analyze the results of published trials and plan future ones.

  10. Intraossäre Anästhesie X-tip® bei Zahnextraktionen

    OpenAIRE

    Augello, M; Furrer, T; Locher, M.

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung: Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es herauszufinden, ob mit alleiniger Applikation der IOA mit dem intraossären Anästhesie-Applikations-System X-tip® eine ausreichende Anästhesie möglich ist sowie Nebenwirkungen festzustellen. Bei 55 Patienten wurden 62 Zähne extrahiert, bei einem Zahn eine Pulpektomie durchgeführt und einmal eine Kürettage bei Alveolitis sicca vorgenommen. Nach der Schleimhautanästhesie mit Ubistesin forte® wurde mit dem X-tip® die Kortikalis perforiert...

  11. ANTISYNTHETASE SYNDROME IS THE MOST SEVERE SUBTYPE OF POLYMYOSITIS/DERMATOMYOSITIS:DESCRIPTION OF CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseyevna Antelava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymyositis (PM and dermatomyositis (DM are autoimmune skeletal muscle diseases of unknown etiology, which are referred to as systemic connective tissue diseases and united under the common term Tidiopathic inflammatory myopathiesy. The most severe subtype of PM/DM is the antisynthetase syndrome that is characterized by a certain sympathocomplex, including interstitial lung lesion that is one of the most common visceral changes. Of interest are the specific features of the antisynthetase syndrome, its onset, the course and pulmonary manifestations of fibrosing alveolitis, unlike the classical course of PM/DM. Two clinical cases of the antisynthetase syndrome are given.

  12. Radiological findings and differential diagnosis in childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In children with asthma, routine chest X-ray typically shows bilaterally increased air volume, low diaphragms, wide diaphragmatic angles, and often a slender cardiac silhouette with a prominent pulmonic arch. Such an X-ray is not diagnostic of asthma itself, however, but rather of its complications: pneumonitis (particularly in toddlers with infectious asthma), atelectasis due to mucus obstruction, and, rarely, extra-alveolar air trapping (pneumomediastinum with or without cutaneous emphysema more often than pneumothorax). The differential diagnosis has to rule out 'pseudoasthma' due to cystic fibrosis, alveolitis, achalasia, and foreign body aspiration. (orig.)

  13. Tracking X-ray microscopy for alveolar dynamics in live intact mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Soeun; Kwon, Namseop; Weon, Byung Mook; Kim, Jinkyung; Rhee, Chin Kook; Choi, Han Sung; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Je, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a tracking X-ray microscopy (TrXM) as a novel methodology by using upper right lung apices alveoli in live intact mice. By enabling tracking of individual alveolar movements during respiration, TrXM identifies alveolar dynamics: individual alveoli in the upper lung apices show a small size increment as 4.9 ± 0.4% (mean ± s.e.m.) during respiration while their shapes look almost invariant. TrXM analysis in alveolar dynamics would be significant for better understanding of alveol...

  14. A comparative study of the pulmonary effects of NO2 in the rat and hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J R; Cottrell, R C; Herod, I. A.; Atkinson, H. A.; Miller, K

    1985-01-01

    A study of the response of rat and hamster to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) under identical conditions has been undertaken. Exposure to 20 parts/IO6 NO2 for 24 h produced a mild cytotoxic effect on the terminal bronchiole and proximal alveoli in the rat, whereas the hamster developed a moderate to severe bronchiolitis and alveolitis. Electron microscopic examination of tissue sections showed accumulation of surfactant in lamellar bodies of the alveolar type II cell in the rat but not in the hamster,...

  15. A culture-dependent survey of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Xiamen area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; OUYANG Jianping; AO Jingqun; CHEN Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    Microbes are believed to play important roles in ecosystem function in many environments. The hot springs of Xiamen Island are close to the Xiamen Sea, and may have some characteristics different from those of inland hot springs. Microbes living in the hot springs of Xiamen may have new characteristics. However, little is known about microbial communities of hot springs close to the Xiamen Sea. A cuhure-dependent survey of microbial population in the Xiamen hot springs was pcrformed by using an approach combining total cellular protein profile identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 328 isolates of bacteria were obtained from liquid and sediment samples from the Xiamen hot springs, including neutrophilie thermophilic bacteria and moderately thermophilic acidophiles. Neutrophilic thermophilic bacteria, which grow at a temperature range of 55-90℃ including Rhodothermus marinus (Strain 1) , Thermus thermophilus (Strain 2), Thermus thiopara (Strain 3) , Geobacillus stearothermophilus(Strain 4) , Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Strain 5) , and Pseudomonas pseudoal-caligenes (Strain 6), were recovered by 2216E plates. Moderately thermophilic acidophiles, which can grow at temperatures above 50℃ and a pH range of 1. 8-3.5 such as Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (Strain 8) , Sul-fobacillus acidophilus (Strain 9), and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (Strain 10), were isolated on selective solid medium containing sulfur and Fe2+. Among these strains, Rhodothermus marinus, Thermus thermophilus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus are not only thermophilcs, but also halophiles. One bacterium strain (Strain 6) shared 99% nucleotide sequence homology with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes on the 16S rRNA gene se-quence, but was quite different from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in biological characteristics, suggesting that it may represent a novel thermophilic species. Results indicated that various species of neutrophilic thermophiles and moderately thermophilic

  16. Is Monoglucosyldiacylglycerol a Precursor to Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in All Cyanobacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is ubiquitous in the photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. It is synthesized by galactosylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) in the chloroplasts, whereas it is produced by epimerization of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (GlcDG) in at least several cyanobacteria that have been analyzed such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A previous study, however, showed that the mgdE gene encoding the epimerase is absent in some cyanobacteria such as Gloeobacter violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Acaryochloris marina. In addition, the N-terminal 'fatty acid hydroxylase' domain is lacking in the MgdE protein of Prochlorococcus marinus. These problems may cast doubt upon the general (or exclusive) role of MgdE in the epimerization of GlcDG to MGDG in cyanobacteria. In addition, GlcDG is usually present at a very low level, and the structural determination of endogenous GlcDG has not been accomplished with cyanobacterial samples. In this study, I determined the structure of GlcDG from Anabaena variabilis by (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. I then showed that G. violaceus, T. elongatus, A. marina and P. marinus contain GlcDG. In all cases, GlcDG consisted of fewer unsaturated molecular species than MGDG, providing further evidence that GlcDG is a precursor to MGDG. The conversion of GlcDG to MGDG was also demonstrated by radiolabeling and chase experiments in G. violaceus and P. marinus. These results demonstrate that all the analyzed cyanobacteria contain GlcDG, which is converted to MGDG, and suggest that an alternative epimerase is required for MGDG synthesis in these cyanobacteria.

  17. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  18. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.

    2015-12-08

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  19. Radiation-induced strain differences in mouse alveolar inflammatory cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas J; Létuvé, Séverine; Haston, Christina K

    2005-01-01

    Whole-thorax irradiation results in the development of the diffuse inflammatory response alveolitis in C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice and a milder alveolitis with fibrosis in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. In this study, we investigate if this mouse strain difference in response to radiation is due to differences in lung inflammatory cell apoptosis. Mice of the C3H and B6 strains were given a radiation dose of 18 Gy to the thorax and the animals were sacrificed at 11 or 18 weeks following exposure or when they were moribund. Active caspase-3 staining was used to identify apoptotic cells in the alveolar space of histological lung sections from the mice. The apoptotic index of B6 mice was greater than that of C3H mice at 11 weeks postirradiation (17.8% of airspace cells vs. 7.8%, p = 0.028) and in mice sacrificed because of illness (27.3% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.036). No C3H mice survived to the later time point. The inflammatory cells undergoing apoptosis in the mouse lungs were morphologically consistent with alveolar macrophages. We conclude that a difference in inflammatory cell apoptosis may contribute to the disparate pulmonary radiation response of these mouse strains.

  20. [Dental technician's pneumoconiosis; a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman Eyüboğlu, Canan; Itil, Oya; Gülşen, Aşkin; Kargi, Aydanur; Cimrin, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Since 1939, it has been known that, silicosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be seen among dental technicians. The interstitial disease caused by the exposure to complex substances used by dental technicians is classified as a special group called dental technician's pneumoconiosis. A 36-year-old man, who has no smoking history, presented with severe dyspnea. He had worked in different dental laboratories for 22 years, but he did not have respiratory symptoms until five years ago. After that date, he had hospitalized and had been examined for respiratory pathologies for many times. He had came to our clinic, because of the progression of his dyspnea. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates which can be related with pneumoconiosis and chronic type 1 respiratory deficiency had been diagnosed as the result of the examinations. While he has no history of smoking or any other risk factors or diseases in his medical history, the case was accepted as dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The factors related with the pathogenesis of dental technician's pneumoconiosis are; the complex compound of the substances (metal dusts, silica, plaster, wax and resins, chemical liquids, methyl methacrylate) used in this sector and their effects on the lung parenchyma. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis related with methyl methacrylate has been reported. The most important factor to acquire an occupational lung disease is a complex occupational exposure. The insufficient workplace airing and the lack of preventive measures added on this exposure, the risks become much more greater. PMID:18701982

  1. [Dental technician's pneumoconiosis; a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman Eyüboğlu, Canan; Itil, Oya; Gülşen, Aşkin; Kargi, Aydanur; Cimrin, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Since 1939, it has been known that, silicosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be seen among dental technicians. The interstitial disease caused by the exposure to complex substances used by dental technicians is classified as a special group called dental technician's pneumoconiosis. A 36-year-old man, who has no smoking history, presented with severe dyspnea. He had worked in different dental laboratories for 22 years, but he did not have respiratory symptoms until five years ago. After that date, he had hospitalized and had been examined for respiratory pathologies for many times. He had came to our clinic, because of the progression of his dyspnea. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates which can be related with pneumoconiosis and chronic type 1 respiratory deficiency had been diagnosed as the result of the examinations. While he has no history of smoking or any other risk factors or diseases in his medical history, the case was accepted as dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The factors related with the pathogenesis of dental technician's pneumoconiosis are; the complex compound of the substances (metal dusts, silica, plaster, wax and resins, chemical liquids, methyl methacrylate) used in this sector and their effects on the lung parenchyma. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis related with methyl methacrylate has been reported. The most important factor to acquire an occupational lung disease is a complex occupational exposure. The insufficient workplace airing and the lack of preventive measures added on this exposure, the risks become much more greater.

  2. [Respiratory disease caused by MMVF fibers and yarn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, L; Rivolta, G; Barducci, M; Errigo, G; Picchi, O

    1999-01-01

    The non-carcinogenic effects of vitreous fibres on the human respiratory apparatus have been the subjects of numerous studies on large exposed populations. No evidence seems to have been produced of the existence of a fibrogenic effect. However, no definite and agreed opinion has yet been expressed by the main Agencies and Institutions working in the field of prevention. As a contribution to the discussion, the paper presents the experience of the Clinica del Lavoro of Milano involving 1000 subjects who underwent broncho-alveolar lavage during assessment and checking for suspected occupational respiratory disease. A group of 23 cases was selected who were exposed to vitreous fibres without other significant exposures to factors considered hazardous for the respiratory apparatus, especially asbestos. We observed 7 cases of alveolitis; 6 cases with pleural thickening; 2 cases of interstitial disease. On the basis of the nature of exposure (duration, latency from beginning and from the end of hazardous occupation), of the data obtained from the examination of the bronchial lavage liquid (presence of vitreous fibres, siderocytes, cellularity), and of the clinical and laboratory data (X-ray, PFR), the view expressed is tendentially reassuring concerning the possible effects of vitreous fibres on the respiratory apparatus. Although the existence of an irritative type of lesion that manifests in the form of alveolitis and localised pleural thickening seems possible, albeit in a limited number of cases, it does however appear much more difficult to admit the existence of a fibrogenic effect. PMID:10339954

  3. A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma. It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.

  4. Unsteady diffusional screening in 3D pulmonary acinar structures: from infancy to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Shachar-Berman, Lihi; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-07-26

    Diffusional screening in the lungs is a physical phenomenon where the specific topological arrangement of alveolated airways of the respiratory region leads to a depletion, or 'screening', of oxygen molecules with increasing acinar generation. Here, we revisit diffusional screening phenomena in anatomically-inspired pulmonary acinar models under realistic breathing maneuvers. By modelling 3D bifurcating alveolated airways capturing both convection and diffusion, unsteady oxygen transport is investigated under cyclic breathing motion. To evaluate screening characteristics in the developing lungs during growth, four representative stages of lung development were chosen (i.e. 3 months, 1 year and 9 months, 3 years and adulthood) that capture distinct morphological acinar changes spanning alveolarization phases to isotropic alveolar growth. Numerical simulations unveil the dramatic changes in O2 transport occurring during lung development, where young infants exhibit highest acinar efficiencies that rapidly converge with age to predictions at adulthood. With increased ventilatory effort, transient dynamics of oxygen transport is fundamentally altered compared to tidal breathing and emphasizes the augmented role of convection. Resolving the complex convective acinar flow patterns in 3D acinar trees allows for the first time a spatially-localized and time-resolved characterization of oxygen transport in the pulmonary acinus, from infancy to adulthood.

  5. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Ross F; Gornik, Sebastian G; Koreny, Ludek; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: "chromista" phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids-the "chromalveolates." This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales. PMID:27066182

  6. A hypothesis for the evolution of nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes in "chromalveolate" members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Takishita

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes bearing red alga-derived plastids--photosynthetic alveolates (dinoflagellates plus the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii plus the chromerid Chromera velia, photosynthetic stramenopiles, haptophytes, and cryptophytes--possess unique plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (henceforth designated as "GapC1". Pioneering phylogenetic studies have indicated a single origin of the GapC1 enzymes in eukaryotic evolution, but there are two potential idiosyncrasies in the GapC1 phylogeny: Firstly, the GapC1 tree topology is apparently inconsistent with the organismal relationship among the "GapC1-containing" groups. Secondly, four stramenopile GapC1 homologues are consistently paraphyletic in previously published studies, although these organisms have been widely accepted as monophyletic. For a closer examination of the above issues, in this study GapC1 gene sampling was improved by determining/identifying nine stramenopile and two cryptophyte genes. Phylogenetic analyses of our GapC1 dataset, which is particularly rich in the stramenopile homologues, prompt us to propose a new scenario that assumes multiple, lateral GapC1 gene transfer events to explain the incongruity between the GapC1 phylogeny and the organismal relationships amongst the "GapC1-containing" groups. Under our new scenario, GapC1 genes uniquely found in photosynthetic alveolates, photosynthetic stramenopiles, haptophytes, and cryptopyhytes are not necessarily a character vertically inherited from a common ancestor.

  7. Ultrastructural observation on pulmonary fibrosis in E9 rats treated with compoundCarapax trionycis formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ren; Li-Xuan Wang; Xue-Cheng Ji; Jia-Ying Zhou; Man-Ying Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ultrastructural changes in pulmonary tissue of a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis following treatment with compoundCarapax trionycis(C. trionycis;Biejia inChinese) formula.Methods:Sixty maleSprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=15): compoundC. trionycis formula high-, middle-, and low-dose groups as well as model group. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by bleomycin.Five rats from each group weresacrificed on day 7,14 and28 of the drug treatment, respectively.The pulmonary tissue was harvested followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and subsequent transmission electron microscopy.TheSzapiel’s method was used to assess the degree of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis.Results:Compared with the model group, the compoundC. trionycis formula groups had slighter pulmonary alveolitis after the7-day treatment and also had alleviated alveolar inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis after the14-day treatment.After the28-day treatment, the compoundC. trionycis formula groups showed deposition of a small amount of fibrous tissue and lesions occupying less than21% of the whole lung area, while the model group showed focal or diffuse fibrous deposition, narrow alveolar cavity, disordered lung structure, and lesions in larger than51% of the whole lung area. Conclusions:The compoundC. trionycis formula can inhibit the proliferation of collagen fibers and resist pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. The Effects of Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides on Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Wang; Bin Liao; Ming Zeng; Chen Zhu; Xianming Fan

    2009-01-01

    Previous study showed that aerosolized signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) inhibited the expression of STATI and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein in alveolar macrophages (Ams) and decreased the concentrations of TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of STAT1 ASON ameliorated alveolitis in rat pulmonary fibrosis. However, further investigations are needed to determine whether there is an effect from administration of STAT1 ASON on fibrosis. This study investigated the effect of aerosolized STAT1 ASON on the expressions of inflammatory mediators, hydroxyproline and type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ collagen mRNA in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. The results showed that STAT1 ASON applied by aerosolization could ameliorate alveolitis and fibrosis, inhibit the expressions of inflammatory mediators, decrease the content of hydroxyproline, and suppress the expressions of type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ collagen mRNA in lung tissue in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Decrease the Concentrations of Inflammatory Mediators in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Bleomycin-Induced Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Bin Liao; Chen Zhu; Wenjun Wang; Xiaoqin Zhan; Xianming Fan

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by releasing a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. In addition, abnormal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation in AMs may play a pivotal role in the process of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transfected STAT1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) into rats by aerosolization, and then investigated the effect of STAT1 ASON on inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Our results showed that STAT1 ASON by aerosolization could enter into lung tissues and AMs. STAT1 ASON could inhibit mRNA and protein expressions of STATI and ICAM-1 in AMs of rat with pulmonary fibrosis, and had no toxic side effect on liver and kidney. Aerosolized STAT1 ASON could ameliorate the alveolitis through inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory mediators in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):219-224.

  10. Downstream migration of recently transformed sea lampreys before and after treatment of a Lake Michigan tributary with a lampricide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, John W.

    1972-01-01

    After the Pere Marquette River was treated with a lampricide in May 1964, the number of recently transformed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in the water-intake structure of a chemical plant near the mouth of the stream dropped 99.5%, from 13,913 (average for 1962-63 and 1963-64) to 76 (average for the next four migration seasons). Average length of the lampreys caught increased markedly after the treatment. In five of the six migration seasons, the catch of downstream migrants was higher in the fall than in the spring.

  11. An all-season trap for downstream-migrating fish and other aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Alberton; Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE LARVAL STAGES OF THE SEA LAMPREY (Petromyzon marinus), which started in 1960, required a trap that could capture lamprey larvae moving downstream, and that would operate efficiently throughout the year. Sub zero temperatures in the winter and flooding during the spring were the most critical operational problems. Part of the trap was based on the principles of an inclined-plane trap described by Wolf (1951), but the design also incorporated features to prevent ice formation during the winter and to and to strain high flows during the spring runoff.

  12. Complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yuri L; Yura, Kei; Shindo, Miyuki; Kusakabe, Rie; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys are eel-like jawless fishes evolutionarily positioned between invertebrates and vertebrates, and have been used as model organisms to explore vertebrate evolution. In this study we determined the complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the Japanese river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, using next-generation sequencers. The sequence was 16,272 bp in length. The gene content and order were identical to those of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, which has been the reference among lamprey species. However, the sequence similarity was less than 90%, suggesting the need for the whole-genome sequencing of L. japonicum.

  13. AcEST: BP919731 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .38 sp|Q09916|HAS1_SCHPO ATP-dependent RNA helicase has1 OS=Schizosa... 34 0.49 sp|Q80TY4|ST18_MOUSE Suppression...hylococcu... 32 1.4 sp|O60284|ST18_HUMAN Suppression of tumorigenicity protein 18... Trigger factor OS=Prochlorococcus marinus (s... 32 2.4 sp|Q9QX27|ST18_RAT Suppression of tumorigenicity pro...L+ DV+G ++ S KT+AF IP + L F+ Sbjct: 105 KEMGFETMTEIQKRSIPPLLAGRDVLGAAKTG--SGKTLAFLIPTIEMLYALKFK 157 >sp|Q80TY4|ST18_MOUSE Suppression

  14. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when...

  15. Properties of Lactate Dehydrogenase in a Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, P; Yen, H. C.; Mathemeier, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Vibrio marinus MP-1 was purified 15-fold and ammonium activated. The optimum pH for pyruvate reduction was 7.4. Maximum lactate dehydrogenase activity occurred at 10 to 15 degrees C, and none occurred at 40 degrees C. The crude-extract enzyme was stable between 15 and 20 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 45 degrees C. The partially purified enzyme was stable between 8 and 15 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 30...

  16. Biologie, écologie et pêche des lamproies migratrices (agnathes amphihalins): rapport final - Troisième tranche fonctionnelle -

    OpenAIRE

    TAVERNY C.; Urdaci, M.; Elie, A.M.; BEAULATON L.; Ortusi, I.; Daverat, F.; ELIE P.

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of growth larval habitat Petromyzon marinus et Lampetra sp..preferences was examined in 4th order rivers Livenne, Cère, Dronne and in the 6th order river Dordogne (modules from 279 to 2,5 m3/s). From shallow waters to deepwater areas, the same dredging technique was used while diving to catch burrowing larvae. Sampled sections of rivers were chosen downstream of one spawning ground at least. Larvae aggregated at sites presenting a soft river bed in deep macrohabitats or shallow wa...

  17. Gram-positive bacteria of marine origin: a numerical taxonomic study on Mediterranean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, M; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J

    1997-12-01

    A numerical taxonomic study was performed on 65 Gram-positive wild strains of heterotrophic, aerobic, marine bacteria, and 9 reference strains. The isolates were obtained from oysters and seawater sampled monthly over one year, by direct plating on Marine Agar. The strains were characterized by 96 morphological, biochemical, physiological and nutritional tests. Clustering yielded 13 phena at 0.62 similarity level (Sl coefficient). Only one of the seven phena containing wild isolates could be identified (Bacillus marinus). A pronounced salt requirement was found in most isolates.

  18. Status report of the Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02482-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available occus marinus MED4 complete genome. 32 5.5 22 ( GO153289 ) CAGA35717.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 36 6.5 7 ( GO169294 ) CAGA43233.fwd CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38 6....5 2 ( GO169293 ) CAGA43233.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38 6.5 2 ( AC091149 ) Homo sapiens chr...... 40 6.7 4 ( GO144477 ) CAGA30851.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38... 6.7 2 ( GO213214 ) CAGB24659.fwd CAGB Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38 6.7 2 ( EU028331 ) Glycine max c

  20. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  1. An assessment of beaked redfish (S. mentella and S. fasciatus) in NAFO division 3M (with an approach to the likely impact of recent 3M cod growth on redfish natural mortality)

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila de Melo, A.; SABORIDO-REY Fran; González-Troncoso, Diana; Pochtar, Maria; Alpoim, R. (Ricardo)

    2011-01-01

    The 3M redfish assessment is focused on the beaked redfish, regarded as a management unit composed of two populations from two very similar species: the Flemish Cap S. mentella and S. fasciatus. The reason for this approach is the historical dominance of this group in the 3M redfish commercial catch until 2005. However a new golden redfish fishery (S. marinus) started on September 2005 on shallower depths of the Flemish Cap bank above 300m. This new reality implied a revision of c...

  2. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  3. Specialized Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Prevailing in Seawater around a Port in the Strait of Malacca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Teramoto

    Full Text Available Major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical seas have been indicated only by laboratory culturing and never through observing the bacterial community structure in actual environments. To demonstrate the major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons spilt in actual tropical seas, indigenous bacterial community in seawater at Sentosa (close to a port and East Coast Park (far from a port in Singapore was analyzed. Bacterial species was more diverse at Sentosa than at the Park, and the composition was different: γ-Proteobacteria (57.3% dominated at Sentosa, while they did not at the Park. Specialized hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (SHCB, which use limited carbon sources with a preference for petroleum hydrocarbons, were found as abundant species at Sentosa, indicating petroleum contamination. On the other hand, SHCB were not the abundant species at the Park. The abundant species of SHCB at Sentosa were Oleibacter marinus and Alcanivorax species (strain 2A75 type, which have previously been indicated by laboratory culturing as important petroleum-aliphatic-hydrocarbon degraders in tropical seas. Together with the fact that SHCB have been identified as major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environments, these results demonstrate that the O. marinus and Alcanivorax species (strain 2A75 type would be major degraders of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons spilt in actual tropical seas.

  4. Isolation, cultivation and genomic analysis of magnetosome biomineralization genes of a new genus of South-seeking magnetotactic cocci within the Alphaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillo, Viviana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Abreu, Fernanda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, Ana C [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Almeida, Luiz G [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Enrich-Prast, Alex [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Farina, Marcos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Vasconcelos, Ana T [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Lins, Ulysses [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    2014-01-01

    Although magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats, they are still considered fastidious microorganisms with regard to growth and cultivation with only a relatively low number of axenic cultures available to date. Here, we report the first axenic culture of an MTB isolated in the Southern Hemisphere (Itaipu Lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Cells of this new isolate are coccoid to ovoid in morphology and grow microaerophilically in semi-solid medium containing an oxygen concentration ([O2]) gradient either under chemoorganoheterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic conditions. Each cell contains a single chain of approximately 10 elongated cuboctahedral magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetosomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that the coccoid MTB isolated in this study represents a new genus in the Alphaproteobacteria; the name Magnetofaba australis strain IT-1 is proposed. Preliminary genomic data obtained by pyrosequencing shows that M. australis strain IT-1 contains a genomic region with genes involved in biomineralization similar to those found in the most closely related magnetotactic cocci Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. However, organization of the magnetosome genes differs from M. marinus.

  5. Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  6. Expresión heteróloga de ARN mensajeros de Leishmania en ovocitos de anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Olarte Rubén Darío

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de expresión heteróloga en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis ha sido ampliamente utilizada para la caracterización funcional de canales iónicos. En este estudio se reporta el uso del modelo nativo de ovocitos de Bufo marinus para la expresión heteróloga de ARN poliadenilado (ARNm poli(A+ de Leishmania amazonensis y la posterior identificación de canales iónicos mediante registros electrofisiológicos utilizando la técnica de voltaje controlado (voltage-clamp. Se logró realizar la maduración, extracción y cultivo de ovocitos de B. marinus bajo condiciones similares a las estandarizadas para X. laevis. El potencial de reposo promedio así como las corrientes endógenas mostraron ser definidas por canales de cloruro dependientes de calcio y rectificadores de salida, de manera similar a lo reportado en X. laevis. La inyección de ARNm poli(A+ de L. amazonensis generó la expresión de corrientes de cloruro de  amplitud, cinética y características farmacológicas diferentes a las corrientes endógenas, reportadas en estudios previos con X. laevis como posible resultado de la expresión heteróloga de canales iónicos de L. amazonensis.

  7. Gull contributions of phosphorus and nitrogen to a Cape Cod kettle pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.; Soukup, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrient excretion rates and the annual contribution of P from the feces of the gulls Larus argentatus and L. marinus (and of N from L. argentatus) to the nutrient budget of Gull Pond (Wellfleet), a soft water seepage lake, have been estimated. Intensive year-round gull counts by species were combined with determinations of defecation rate and the nutrient content of feces to quantitatively assess the P loading rates associated with regular gull use of this coastal pond on a seasonal and annual basis. Total P loading from gulls was estimated to be 52 kg yr?1, with 17 kg from L. argentatus and 35 kg from L. marinus, resulting from about 5.0 ? 106 h yr?1 and 1.7 ? 106 h yr?1 of pond use. This compares with P loading estimates of 67 kg yr?1 from upgradient septic systems, 2 kg yr?1 from precipitation and 3 kg yr?1 from unpolluted ground water. Fifty-six percent of annual gull P loading was associated with migratory activity in late fall. Estimated annual N loading by L. argentatus was 14 kg TKN, 206 g NO3-N, and 1.85 g g NH3-N.

  8. The increasing of fibroblast growth factor 2, osteocalcin, and osteoblast due to the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To make a successfull denture prominent ridge is needed, preservation on tooth extraction socket is needed in order to prevent alveol bone resorption caused by revocation trauma. An innovative modification of the material empirically suspected to be able reduce inflammation caused by the revocation trauma is a combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine (XCB and Aloe vera is a biogenic stimulator and accelerating the growth of alveolar ridge bone after tooth extraction. Purpose: The research was aimed to determine of the increasing alveol bone formation by inducing the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine. Methods: To address the problems, the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine was induced into the tooth extraction sockets of Cavia cabayas which devided on 8 groups. Groups control, filled with XCB, Aloe vera and Aloe vera and XCB combination, at 7 days and 30 days after extraction. Afterwards, immunohistochemical examination was conducted to examine the expressions of FGF-2 and osteocalcin, as the product of the growth of osteoblasts. Results: There were significantly increases expression of FGF-2 and osteocalcyn on group which filled with XCB, Aloe vera and combined Aloe vera and XCB. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine into the tooth sockets can enhance the growth expressions of FGF-2 and osteocalcin as the product of osteoblasts, thus, the growth of alveolar bone was increased.Latar belakang: Untuk keberhasilan pembuatan gigitiruan diperlukan ridge yang prominent, maka diperlukan suatu preservasi soket pencabutan gigi untuk mencegah terjadinya resopsi tulang alveolar akibat trauma pencabutan. Suatu inovasi modifikasi bahan yang diduga secara empiris dapat mengurangi keradangan karena trauma pencabutan adalah berupa kombinasi Aloe vera dan xenograft concelous bovine (XCB. Aloe vera yang merupakan

  9. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated to treatment with natalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Curto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natalizumab (Tysabri® is a leukocytes chemotaxis inhibitor that decreases the leukocytes passage through the hematoencephalic barrier and it is currently used in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. We present a patient with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis diagnosed with MS who started treatment with natalizumab. She began to show mild asthmatic symptoms until she needed admission to the hospital due to respiratory insufficiency. Blood tests showed peripheral eosinophilia and the thoracic computed tomography scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltrates. The bronchoscopy with the bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in eosinophilic alveolitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection, connective tissue disease, or vasculitis were observed. After discontinuation of natalizumab, the patient improved without other treatments. As MS is a prevalent disease and the use of natalizumab is increasing, we consider important to point out that this drug can be associated with pulmonary eosinophilia, especially in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma.

  10. [Near-drowning in an adult: favorable course after a 20-minute submersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, L; Domenighetti, G

    1982-06-12

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful in a healthy 29-year-old woman who had been submerged for 20 minutes in water at 10 degrees C. The evolution was characterized by the development of a multifactorial ARDS (secondary drowning) and sepsis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and Acinetobacter anitratum. Fibrosing alveolitis caused a restrictive syndrome with severe mechanical impairment and transitory therapy-resistant hypoxemia. It is suggested that prolonged submersion in cold water is also a treatable and completely reversible condition in adults. In our patient without neurological sequelae the pulmonary function studies after 3 months show complete recovery from the mechanical impairment. After a follow-up period of 11 months only mild abnormalities of gas exchange persist.

  11. Telonemia, a new protist phylum with affinity to chromist lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Eikrem, W.; Klaveness, D.;

    2006-01-01

    , such as the alveolates and heterokonts. Using the same approach on coastal samples, we have identified a novel group of protist small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences that do not correspond to any phylogenetic group previously identified. Comparison with other sequences obtained from cultures of heterotrophic protists...... showed that the environmental sequences grouped together with Telonema, a genus known since 1913 but of uncertain taxonomic affinity. Phylogenetic analyses using four genes (SSU, Hsp90, alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin), and accounting for gamma- and covarion-distributed substitution rates, revealed...... Telonema as a distinct group of species branching off close to chromist lineages. Consistent with these gene trees, Telonema possesses ultrastructures revealing both the distinctness of the group and the evolutionary affinity to chromist groups. Altogether, the data suggest that Telonema constitutes a new...

  12. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  13. Experimental investigation of particle deposition mechanisms in the lung acinus using microfluidic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Mulligan, Molly; Dubowski, Yael; Sznitman, Josue; Sznitman Lab-department of Biomedical Engineering Team; Dubowski Lab-faculty of Civil; Environmental Engineering Team

    2014-11-01

    In order to experimentally investigate particle deposition mechanisms in the deep alveolated regions of the lungs, we have developed a novel microfluidic device mimicking breathing acinar flow conditions directly at the physiological scale. The model features an anatomically-inspired acinar geometry with five dichotomously branching airway generations lined with periodically expanding and contracting alveoli. Deposition patterns of airborne polystyrene microspheres (spanning 0.1 μm to 2 μm in diameter) inside the airway tree network compare well with CFD simulations and reveal the roles of gravity and Brownian motion on particle deposition sites. Furthermore, measured trajectories of incense particles (0.1-1 μm) inside the breathing device show a critical role for Brownian diffusion in determining the fate of inhaled sub-micron particles by enabling particles to cross from the acinar ducts into alveolar cavities, especially during the short time lag between inhalation and exhalation phases.

  14. FIRST RECORD OF THE RARE MARINE REPTILE THOLODUS SCHMIDI FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Tholodus schmidi, a rare marine reptile of debated affinity and with a peculiar durophagous dentition, is for the first time recorded outside the Muschelkalk Basin of Central Europe. Parts of a mandibular ramus and a maxilla, both bearing teeth and nearly uncrushed, have been found in the upper Anisian (Balatonicus Subzone of northeastern Italy. The tooth implantation is relatively complex, with both "alveolate" and "ankylosed" teeth. Disarticulated postcranial bones of an ichthyosaur have been found close to, but not in articular association with, the dentigerous bones of Tholodus. The humerus resembles that of immature individuals of the Chinese genus Chaohusaurus. This association, and some features of teeth and dentigerous bones, suggests that Tholodus might be a grippiid ichthyosaur. 

  15. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  16. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  17. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by zinc fume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroo; Hirata, Takeo; Shimane, Shoko; Morita, Sumihito; Chihara, Koji; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2006-12-01

    A 55-year-old man with a 3-year occupational history of welding was admitted for repeated episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after inhalation of smoke while welding galvanized steel. A computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse centrilobular nodules, panlobular ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields, and he suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 55.3Torr) while breathing room air. Percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased, and lung biopsy specimens at thoracoscopy revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and organization in air spaces. His symptoms and signs disappeared spontaneously only when he ceased welding. Panlobular ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening improved immediately with oral corticosteroids. Patch tests using metal series gave positive reactions to zinc. We diagnosed this case as hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by zinc fumes.

  18. Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Lionel; Chaffron, Samuel; Bittner, Lucie; Eveillard, Damien; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Roux, Simon; Darzi, Youssef; Audic, Stephane; Berline, Léo; Brum, Jennifer R; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Espinoza, Julio Cesar Ignacio; Malviya, Shruti; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Dimier, Céline; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Poulain, Julie; Searson, Sarah; Stemmann, Lars; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Speich, Sabrina; Follows, Mick; Karp-Boss, Lee; Boss, Emmanuel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; de Vargas, Colomban; Iudicone, Daniele; Sullivan, Matthew B; Raes, Jeroen; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2016-04-28

    The biological carbon pump is the process by which CO2 is transformed to organic carbon via photosynthesis, exported through sinking particles, and finally sequestered in the deep ocean. While the intensity of the pump correlates with plankton community composition, the underlying ecosystem structure driving the process remains largely uncharacterized. Here we use environmental and metagenomic data gathered during the Tara Oceans expedition to improve our understanding of carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean. We show that specific plankton communities, from the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum, correlate with carbon export at 150 m and highlight unexpected taxa such as Radiolaria and alveolate parasites, as well as Synechococcus and their phages, as lineages most strongly associated with carbon export in the subtropical, nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic ocean. Additionally, we show that the relative abundance of a few bacterial and viral genes can predict a significant fraction of the variability in carbon export in these regions.

  19. P67-phox (NCF2 lacking exons 11 and 12 is functionally active and leads to an extremely late diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Roesler

    Full Text Available Two brothers in their fifties presented with a medical history of suspected fungal allergy, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, alveolitis, and invasive aspergillosis and pulmonary fistula, respectively. Eventually, after a delay of 50 years, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD was diagnosed in the index patient. We found a new splice mutation in the NCF2 (p67-phox gene, c.1000 + 2T → G, that led to several splice products one of which lacked exons 11 and 12. This deletion was in frame and allowed for remarkable residual NADPH oxidase activity as determined by transduction experiments using a retroviral vector. We conclude that p67-phox which lacks the 34 amino acids encoded by the two exons can still exert considerable functional activity. This activity can partially explain the long-term survival of the patients without adequate diagnosis and treatment, but could not prevent progressing lung damage.

  20. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  1. Early aggressive intra-venous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for interstitial lung disease in a patient with systemic sclerosis. A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peshin, R

    2009-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are currently no recommended guidelines for management of these patients. This is probably due to the rarity of this condition, as well as clinical trials with only a small number of cases. There are published case report and case series along with the two main trials, viz. Scleroderma Lung Study and the Fibrosing Alveolitis Study, but again, there is no consensus on treatment protocols. In this report, we present a case of aggressive interstitial lung disease in a patient with SSc, which improved dramatically on treatment with intra-venous cyclophosphamide and high dose prednisolone therapy.

  2. [A comparative study of the effectiveness of the analgesic effect of electropuncture stimulation and nonnarcotic analgesics in therapy patients in an emergency dental care office].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, B T; Kalinin, V I; Emel'ianova, M V; Rozin, I Ia; Trebich, I Ia

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of patients' subjective sensations, of rheography and electro-odontometry data has lead the authors to a conclusion that the analgesic effect of rengasil was higher than that of ibuprofen and that rengasil combination with electropuncture was still more effective. The analgesic effect was the most marked in alveolitis and periodontitis, less so in inflammations of the pulp, and no effect could be achieved in acute purulent pulpitis. The authors suppose that pain syndrome alleviation after electropuncture stimulation and after administration of anti-inflammatory drugs is explained mainly by changed hemodynamics at the site of inflammation, this resulting in reduction of the edema and in diminished effects of biochemical substances released in the course of inflammation.

  3. [Isocyanates: occupational exposures and disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X

    2003-09-01

    Isocyanates are extensively used for the production of different foams and elastomers. They also serve as glues, lacquer hardeners, inks, adhesives, fillers, finishes, sealants, coating and insulation materials. Usually, their application results in inhalative, partly also in cutaneous uptake. This review describes occupational exposures to isocyanates as well as hazardous effects. Isocyanates are used in the automotive/mechanical engineering/building and construction/mining/casting/electricity and electronic/plastics/printing/timber and furniture/white goods and textile industry, partly also in medicine. Hazardous exposures to thermal degradation products of isocyanate-based polyurethanes and other materials have also be taken into consideration. Obstructive airway diseases are the major disorder caused by isocyanates. Rare cases suffer from extrinsic allergic alveolitis or eczema. In addition to regulation-based primary prevention qualitative medical surveillance mostly prevents disorders. There is also a need for the establishment of a validated biomonitoring of endangered employees. PMID:13680473

  4. The bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase of Tetrahymena thermophila provides a tool for molecular and biotechnology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiedtke Arno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR and thymidylate synthase (TS are crucial enzymes in DNA synthesis. In alveolata both enzymes are expressed as one bifunctional enzyme. Results Loss of this essential enzyme activities after successful allelic assortment of knock out alleles yields an auxotrophic marker in ciliates. Here the cloning, characterisation and functional analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila's DHFR-TS is presented. A first aspect of the presented work relates to destruction of DHFR-TS enzyme function in an alveolate thereby causing an auxotrophy for thymidine. A second aspect is to knock in an expression cassette encoding for a foreign gene with subsequent expression of the target protein. Conclusion This system avoids the use of antibiotics or other drugs and therefore is of high interest for biotechnological applications.

  5. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Life Cycle of Vitrella brassicaformis n. sp., n. gen., a Novel Chromerid from the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Oborník, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Chromerida are photoautotrophic alveolates so far only isolated from corals in Australia. It has been shown that these secondary plastid-containing algae are closely related to apicomplexan parasites and share various morphological and molecular characters with both Apicomplexa and Dinophyta. So far, the only known representative of the phylum was Chromera velia. Here we provide a formal description of another chromerid, Vitrella brassicaformis gen. et sp. nov., complemented with a detailed study on its ultrastructure, allowing insight into its life cycle. The novel alga differs significantly from the related chromerid C. velia in life cycle, morphology as well as the plastid genome. Analysis of photosynthetic pigments on the other hand demonstrate that both chromerids lack chlorophyll c, the hallmark of phototrophic chromalveolates. Based on the relatively high divergence between C. velia and V. brassicaformis, we propose their classification into distinct families Chromeraceae and Vitrellaceae. Moreover, we predict a hidden and unexplored diversity of the chromerid algae. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  7. KİŞİYE ÖZEL DENTAL İMPLANT ABUTMENTLARI

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    ÖZETDişsiz alanların implant destekli protez ile restorasyonu günümüzde konvansiyonel protetik tedavilere karşı geçerli bir tedavi seçeneği haline gelmiştir. İmplant destekli restorasyonların başarısında implant ile restorasyon arasındaki bağlantı oldukça önemlidir. Diş çekim sonrası alveol kemiği ve yumuşak dokuda oluşan değişiklikler kişiden kişiye fark etmektedir. Bu nedenle her vakada prefabrike abutmentlar ile uygun bağlantı ve yumuşak doku konturu elde edilememektedir. Bu durumlarda kiş...

  8. Scintigraphic studies of inflammation in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, B.R. (Albany Medical College, New York (USA))

    1991-09-01

    67Ga lung scintigraphy is an established means to assess alveolar inflammation in a wide variety of diffuse lung diseases. It can be used to monitor the extent and activity of the alveolitis during the course of the disease and as a follow-up evaluation to therapy. Although the mechanism of 67Ga localization is not established firmly, the isotope appears to act as a tracer for disturbed protein and cellular fluxes within the interstitium and alveolar spaces. The radiolabeled aerosol study may also be applied to the study of these fluxes as a reflection of inflammation and injury. Although Tc-DTPA clearance studies are highly sensitive to lung injury, they may be too nonspecific to separate lung injury from other physiologic processes effectively. 117 references.

  9. Atrofik maksillanın iliak greft kullanılarak gerçekleştirilen kemik augmentasyonunu takiben uygulanan implant tedavisi: Olgu sunumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Alveolar bone resorption which occurs as a result of teeth extraction or periodontal disease causes functional and esthetic problems. In case of severe jaw-bone atrophy, bone augmentation procedures are becoming necessary prior to implant placement. During the planning of such cases, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT examination provides detailed qualitative and quantitative data about maxillofacial bones with reduced radiation exposure. This article illustrated the implant treatment of a patient with severe atrophic maxilla following bone augmentation using iliac graft in the light of CBCT examination with 2-year of follow-up.

    Keywords: Alveolar atrophy, alveolar augmentation, CBCT, iliak graft, implant treatment.

     

    ÖZET

    Diş çekimi veya periodontal harabiyet sonucu oluşan alveoler kemik rezorpsiyonu, estetik ve fonksiyonel problemlere neden olur. İleri düzeyde çene kemiği atrofisi gözlenen durumda implant tedavisi öncesinde augmentasyon işlemleri kaçınılmaz olmaktadır. Bu tür olguların planlanmasında konik hüzmeli bilgisayarlı tomografi incelemesi çene-yüz kemikleri hakkında detaylı kalitatif ve kantitatif verileri, düşük radyasyon dozu eşliğinde sağlamaktadır. Bu makalede, maksillada ileri düzeyde alveoler kemik atrofisi bulunan bir hastada, CBCT incelemesi ışığında, iliak greft kullanılarak yapılan kemik augmentasyon işlemleri ve sonrasında uygulanan implant tedavisi 2 yıllık takibi eşliğinde sunulmuştur.

  10. Clearance of inhaled technetium-99m-DTPA as a clinical index of pulmonary vascular disease in systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kon, O.M.; Daniil, Z.; Bois, R.M. du [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Black, C.M. [Royal Free Hospital, Dept. of Rheumatology, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of the clearance time of inhaled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) to distinguish pulmonary vascular disease from early fibrosing alveolitis (FA) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) It was hypothesized that this would be preserved in patients with vascular disease compared with FA, despite similar gas-transfer deficits and matching lung volumes, because of the preservation of alveolar epithelial integrity. All patients had SSc and were categorized into a control group (C; n=9), pulmonary vascular group (VAS; n=14) or FA group (n=14) dependent on the appearance on a computed tomography (CT) scan and the transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) (VAS and FA {<=}70%, C {>=}80%). All patients had a forced vital capacity (FVC) of >80%. The TL,CO (median) was similar in the VAS (57.5%) and FA (60%) groups. There was a significant difference in median DTPA clearance half-times between FA (21.25 min) and VAS (46.5 min) (p=0.014) and between FA and C (84.5 min) (p=0.0004). No difference was found between VAS and C (p=0.0778). Follow-up data from the VAS group showed no subsequent development of FA on the CT scan and no decrease in FVC (n=13, mean 42 months). These results suggest that clearance of diethylenetriamine pentaacetate is preserved in patients likely to have pulmonary vascular disease and may be useful in distinguishing fibrosing alveolitis from vascular disease in systemic sclerosis. (au) 22 refs.

  11. Diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in the deep tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Smith, Danielle; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Bochdansky, Alexander B.

    2013-08-01

    Employing a combination of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and fluorescein isothiocyanate (DAPI-FITC) staining and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we distinguished a variety of taxonomic and morphological types of eukaryotic microbes in the central and deep water masses of the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Samples were taken along a transect across the tropical Atlantic, along the equatorial upwelling and into the West-African upwelling region. Samples were collected as deep as 7000 m in the Romanche Fracture Zone within the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Approximately 50-70% of FISH-identified eukaryotes in deep water masses belong to one of seven groups: kinetoplastids, labyrinthulomycetes, fungi, diplonemids, group II alveolates, MAST 4 (stramenopiles), and an unidentified organism with a peculiar nuclear morphology. A smaller percentage of total eukaryotes was identified in the Central Water, especially in the oxygen minimum zone, than in deep water masses. CARD-FISH probes designed to identify broad taxonomic groups revealed kinetoplastids and fungi were more abundant than noted in previous studies employing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Group II alveolates, in contrast, were much less prevalent than previously reported. On a second survey, eukaryotic microbes were enumerated in the deep-sea basins below the North Atlantic subtropical gyre including the Vema Fracture Zone, which is another prominent trench in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The abundance of eukaryotes and chlorophyll concentrations were significantly different between the two cruises, which covered very different hydrographic regimes with associated high and low levels of primary production, respectively.

  12. Diversity and vertical distribution of microbial eukaryotes in the snow, sea ice and seawater near the North Pole at the end of the polar night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eBachy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the microorganisms living in the high Arctic Ocean is still rudimentary compared to other oceans mostly because of logistical challenges imposed by its inhospitable climate and the presence of a multi-year ice cap. We have used 18S rRNA gene libraries to study the diversity of microbial eukaryotes in the upper part of the water column (0-170 m depth, the sea ice (0-1.5 m depth and the overlying snow from samples collected in the vicinity of the North Pole (N88°35', E015°59 at the very end of the long polar night. We detected very diverse eukaryotes belonging to Alveolata, Fungi, Amoebozoa, Viridiplantae, Metazoa, Rhizaria, Heterokonta and Telonemia. Different alveolates (dinoflagellates and Marine Alveolate Groups I and II species were the most abundant and diverse in gene libraries from water and sea ice, representing 80% of the total number of clones and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs. Only contaminants and/or species from continental ecosystems were detected in snow, suggesting wind- and animal- or human-mediated cosmopolitan dispersal of some taxa. By contrast, sea ice and seawater samples harbored a larger and more similar inter-sample protist diversity as compared with snow. The North Pole was found to harbor distinctive eukaryotic communities along the vertical gradient with an unparalleled diversity of core dinoflagellates, largely dominant in libraries from the water column, as compared to other oceanic locations. In contrast, phototrophic organisms typical of Arctic sea ice and plankton, such as diatoms and prasinophytes, were very rare in our samples. This was most likely due to a decrease of their populations after several months of polar night darkness and to the presence of rich populations of diverse grazers. Whereas strict phototrophs were scarce, we identified a variety of likely mixotrophic taxa, which supports the idea that mixotrophy may be important for the survival of diverse protists through the

  13. Clearance of inhaled technetium-99m-DTPA as a clinical index of pulmonary vascular disease in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the utility of the clearance time of inhaled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) to distinguish pulmonary vascular disease from early fibrosing alveolitis (FA) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) It was hypothesized that this would be preserved in patients with vascular disease compared with FA, despite similar gas-transfer deficits and matching lung volumes, because of the preservation of alveolar epithelial integrity. All patients had SSc and were categorized into a control group (C; n=9), pulmonary vascular group (VAS; n=14) or FA group (n=14) dependent on the appearance on a computed tomography (CT) scan and the transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) (VAS and FA ≤70%, C ≥80%). All patients had a forced vital capacity (FVC) of >80%. The TL,CO (median) was similar in the VAS (57.5%) and FA (60%) groups. There was a significant difference in median DTPA clearance half-times between FA (21.25 min) and VAS (46.5 min) (p=0.014) and between FA and C (84.5 min) (p=0.0004). No difference was found between VAS and C (p=0.0778). Follow-up data from the VAS group showed no subsequent development of FA on the CT scan and no decrease in FVC (n=13, mean 42 months). These results suggest that clearance of diethylenetriamine pentaacetate is preserved in patients likely to have pulmonary vascular disease and may be useful in distinguishing fibrosing alveolitis from vascular disease in systemic sclerosis. (au)

  14. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  15. Artesunate modulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors as well as collagen-IV to attenuate pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Huang, G; Mo, B; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of artesunate on extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and the expression of collagen-IV, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) to understand the pharmacological role of artesunate in pulmonary fibrosis. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups that were administered saline alone, bleomycin (BLM) alone, BLM + artesunate, or artesunate alone for 28 days. Lung tissues from 10 rats in each group were used to obtain lung fibroblast (LF) primary cells, and the rest were used to analyze protein expression. The mRNA expression of collagen-IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in lung fibroblasts was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of collagen-IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 protein in lung tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Artesunate treatment alleviated alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in rats, as indicated by a decreased lung coefficient and improvement of lung tissue morphology. Artesunate treatment also led to decreased collagen-IV protein levels, which might be a result of its downregulated expression and increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein and mRNA levels. Increased TIMP-1 and TIMP- 2 protein and mRNA levels were detected after artesunate treatment in lung tissues and primary lung fibroblast cells and may contribute to enhanced activity of MMP-2 and -9. These findings suggested that artesunate attenuates alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating expression of collagen-IV, TIMP-1 and 2, as well as MMP-2 and -9, to reduce ECM accumulation. PMID:27323108

  16. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the design of a geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in argilite formations. Content: 1 - approach of the study: goal, main steps of the design study, iterative approach, content; 2 - general description: high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, purposes of a reversible disposal, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site - the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, design principles of the disposal facility architecture, role of the different disposal components; 3 - high-level and long-lived wastes: production scenarios, description of primary containers, inventory model, hypotheses about receipt fluxes of primary containers; 4- disposal containers: B-type waste containers, C-type waste containers, spent fuel disposal containers; 5 - disposal modules: B-type waste disposal modules, C-type waste disposal modules, spent-fuel disposal modules; 6 - overall underground architecture: main safety questions, overall design, dimensioning factors, construction logic and overall exploitation of the facility, dimensioning of galleries, underground architecture adaptation to different scenarios; 7 - boreholes and galleries: general needs, design principles retained, boreholes description, galleries description, building up of boreholes and galleries, durability of facilities, backfilling and sealing up of boreholes and galleries; 8 - surface facilities: general organization, nuclear area, industrial and administrative area, tailings area; 9 - nuclear exploitation means of the facility: receipt of primary containers and preparation of disposal containers, transfer of disposal containers from the surface to the disposal alveoles, setting up of containers inside alveoles; 10 - reversible management of the disposal: step by step disposal process, mastery of disposal behaviour and action capacity, observation and

  17. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Ralf; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of Hyperoplus lanceolatus from Hyperoplus immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that Ammodytes tobianus differs from Ammodytes marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes) failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common

  18. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  19. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Ralf; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of Hyperoplus lanceolatus from Hyperoplus immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that Ammodytes tobianus differs from Ammodytes marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes) failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using

  20. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Weaver, Scott C; Wong, Gerard C L

    2011-09-20

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored. PMID:21930925

  1. Arsenic concentrations in some coexisting marine organisms from Newfoundland and Labrador. [Shrimp, Zooplankton, Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, V.S.

    1976-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic concentrations in sea water and mud, and total arsenic concentrations, in bodies of shrimp, zooplankton, and fish from northern Newfoundland and southern Labrador were measured. There was a positive relationship between concentration and carapace length in Pandalus borealis and P. montagui and a negative relationship in Eualus macilentus. There was no relationship between concentrations in shrimp eggs and carapace length. Arsenic concentrations in zooplankton and fish muscle were relatively low compared with the shrimp species; amphipods contained more arsenic than copepods or euphausiids, and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) more than redfish (Sebastes marinus), turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). There was no evidence of increasing arsenic concentrations through successively higher levels of the food chain.

  2. Growth and survival of larval and early juvenile lesser sandeel in patchy prey field in the North Sea: An examination using individual-based modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Deurs, Mikael van;

    2012-01-01

    Disentangling physical–biological interaction processes during early life-stages of fish is crucial for the understanding of fish stock recruitment. Among many individual and environmental aspects affecting mortality during the early life-stages of fish, encountering food at greater than average...... concentrations is regarded important for survival. Intense aggregations of zooplankton in near-surface waters provide these conditions for larval fish. Simulation studies by individual-based modeling can help understanding of the mechanisms for survival during early life-stages. In this study, we examined how...... growth and survival of larvae and early juveniles of Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea are influenced by availability and patchiness of the planktonic prey by adapting and applying a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish. Input food conditions were generated by...

  3. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  4. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.;

    2013-01-01

    concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...

  5. Crystal structure and functional characterization of a light-driven chloride pump having an NTQ motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuglae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Cha, Jeong Seok; Kim, Hoyoung; Lee, Weontae; Kim, Jihyun F; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    A novel light-driven chloride-pumping rhodopsin (ClR) containing an 'NTQ motif' in its putative ion conduction pathway has been discovered and functionally characterized in a genomic analysis study of a marine bacterium. Here we report the crystal structure of ClR from the flavobacterium Nonlabens marinus S1-08(T) determined under two conditions at 2.0 and 1.56 Å resolutions. The structures reveal two chloride-binding sites, one around the protonated Schiff base and the other on a cytoplasmic loop. We identify a '3 omega motif' formed by three non-consecutive aromatic amino acids that is correlated with the B-C loop orientation. Detailed ClR structural analyses with functional studies in E. coli reveal the chloride ion transduction pathway. Our results help understand the molecular mechanism and physiological role of ClR and provide a structural basis for optogenetic applications. PMID:27554809

  6. Presence of vibrios in seawater and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Rosa Anna; Stabili, Loredana

    2002-09-01

    During the spring-summer period, vibrios were detected in water and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in 30 sampling sites located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy). In order to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution of the investigated area, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli densities were also determined. Vibrio alginolyticus constituted the predominant component of the total culturable vibrios. Some Vibrio species such as V. mediterranei, V. parahaemolyticus, V. diazotrophicus, V. nereis, and V. splendidus were present in water as well as in mussel samples; selective retention in mussels, however, was demonstrated for other vibrios (V. vulnificus, V. cincinnatiensis, V. orientalis, V. anguillarum, V. marinus, V. hollisae). The isolation of some potential pathogenic vibrio species shows the importance of Vibrio research to estimate water quality and to avoid transmission of infection to man and to other marine organisms.

  7. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Miehls, Scott; O'Connor, Lisa M; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies. PMID:27341485

  8. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott; O’Connor, Lisa M.; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-06-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies.

  9. Spatial patterns and trends in abundance of larval sandeels in the North Sea: 1950–2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynam, Christopher P.; Halliday, Nicholas C.; Höffle, Hannes;

    2013-01-01

    Early recruitment indices based on larval fish data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) have the potential to inform stock assessments of Ammodytes marinus in the North Sea. We evaluate whether the CPR data are reliable for sandeel larvae. Spatially, CPR larval data were comparable with...... catches by dedicated larval samplers (Gulf and bongo nets) during ICES coordinated surveys in 2004 and 2009. ICES data are also used to explore environmental influences on sandeel distributions. Temporally, CPR data correlate with larval data from plankton surveys off Stonehaven (1999–2005), with sandeel...... 0-group trawl data at the east Fair Isle ground (since 1984), and with recruitment data (since 1983) for the Dogger Banks stock assessment area. Therefore, CPR data may provide an early recruit index of relative abundance for the Dogger Banks assessment area, where the majority of the commercial...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09523-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available id:none) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT... 39 0.20 ( O42657 ) RecName: Full=GRIP and coiled-coil domain-co...14_1( BC113114 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Rho-associated, coile... 37 0.97 AY229987_101( AY229987 |pid:none) Cryptophlebia leucotr...D7 chromo... 33 4.5 U36377_1( U36377 |pid:none) Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activate... 33 4.6 ( O76329 ) RecName: Full=Intera...422018_798( AM422018 |pid:none) Candidatus Phytoplasma australie... 34 8.2 (B5RRN9) RecName: Full=Chromosomal replication init...g-U09796-1Q.Seq.d Length = 670 Score = 48.1 bits (24), Expect = 2e-05 Identities = 30/32 (93%) Strand = Plus

  11. Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, S.; Harris, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    lower when availability peaked early. We speculate that these effects are linked to annual variations in sandeel Life history events and, in particular, to the onset of burying behaviour of 1+ group fish and the arrival of 0 group sandeels on the seabirds' feeding grounds. Although the timing of these......The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus is a key prey species for many marine birds in the North Sea. This fish is currently the target of the largest single species fishery in the area, and this has led to concern about the potential impact of the fishery on seabirds. There are 2 critical issues......: does the breeding success of seabirds depend on sandeel availability and does the fishery reduce sandeel availability to a level at which avian reproductive output is affected? This paper investigates the first question in detail and briefly touches on the second by testing for correlations between...

  12. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott; O’Connor, Lisa M.; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies. PMID:27341485

  13. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Miehls, Scott M.; O'Connor, Lisa M; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry T.; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available i 12J chromoso... 236 1e-60 CP000615_1654( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4...rubrum ATCC 1117... 169 1e-40 CP000615_1802( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c... 169 1e-4...hlorococcus marinus str. MIT... 152 1e-35 CP000614_1848( CP000614 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c...phila str. L4... 142 2e-32 CP000616_10( CP000616 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 chr... 141 4e-32 C...DSM 13855, c... 239 8e-62 AM286415_3060( AM286415 |pid:none) Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. ... 239 1e-61 CP

  15. Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires

  16. The evolution of tenascins and fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josephine C; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Tenascins are extracellular matrix glycoproteins that act both as integrin ligands and as modifiers of fibronectin-integrin interactions to regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. In tetrapods, both tenascins and fibronectin bind to integrins via RGD and LDV-type tripeptide motifs found in exposed loops in their fibronectin-type III domains. We previously showed that tenascins appeared early in the chordate lineage and are represented by single genes in extant cephalochordates and tunicates. Here we have examined the genomes of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii as well as the lampreys Petromyzon marinus and Lethenteron japonicum to learn more about the evolution of the tenascin gene family as well as the timing of the appearance of fibronectin during chordate evolution. The coelacanth has 4 tenascins that are more similar to tetrapod tenascins than are tenascins from ray-finned fishes. In contrast, only 2 tenascins were identified in the elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey L. japonicum. An RGD motif exposed to integrin binding is observed in tenascins from many, but not all, classes of chordates. Tetrapods that lack this RGD motif in tenascin-C have a similar motif in the paralog tenascin-W, suggesting the potential for some overlapping function. A predicted fibronectin with the same domain organization as the fibronectin from tetrapods is found in the sea lamprey P. marinus but not in tunicates, leading us to infer that fibronectin first appeared in vertebrates. The motifs that recognize LDV-type integrin receptors are conserved in fibronectins from a broad spectrum of vertebrates, but the RGD integrin-binding motif may have evolved in gnathostomes.

  17. Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov., novel actinobacteria with an insight into their adaptive mechanisms for survival in extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Bull, Alan T; Trujillo, Martha E; Riesco, Raul; Sangal, Vartul; van Wezel, Gilles P; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-06-01

    A polyphasic study was designed to determine the taxonomic provenance of three Modestobacter strains isolated from an extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil. The strains, isolates KNN 45-1a, KNN 45-2b(T) and KNN 45-3b, were shown to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties in line with their classification in the genus Modestobacter. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and formed a branch in the Modestobacter gene tree that was most closely related to the type strain of Modestobacter marinus (99.6% similarity). All three isolates were distinguished readily from Modestobacter type strains by a broad range of phenotypic properties, by qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles and by BOX fingerprint patterns. The whole genome sequence of isolate KNN 45-2b(T) showed 89.3% average nucleotide identity, 90.1% (SD: 10.97%) average amino acid identity and a digital DNA-DNA hybridization value of 42.4±3.1 against the genome sequence of M. marinus DSM 45201(T), values consistent with its assignment to a separate species. On the basis of all of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Modestobacter as Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov. with isolate KNN 45-2b(T) (CECT 9023(T)=DSM 101691(T)) as the type strain. Analysis of the whole-genome sequence of M. caceresii KNN 45-2b(T), with 4683 open reading frames and a genome size of ∽4.96Mb, revealed the presence of genes and gene-clusters that encode for properties relevant to its adaptability to harsh environmental conditions prevalent in extreme hyper arid Atacama Desert soils. PMID:27108251

  18. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs.

  19. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  20. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Maria L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  1. Clinical and immunological reactions to Aspergillus niger among workers at a biotechnology plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, M D; Scarisbrick, D A; Luczynska, C M; Clarke, E C; Seaton, A

    1985-01-01

    The workforce at a biotechnology plant producing citric acid by fermentation of molasses with a strain of Aspergillus niger was studied. A combination of a respiratory questionnaire and clinical assessment identified 18 subjects (4.9% of the workforce) with work related bronchospasm. In nine of these evidence of sensitisation to A niger was obtained by skin prick tests and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) using as an antigen an extract of the A niger culture fluid from the process. Of the 325 subjects without work related bronchospasm, only nine (2.7%) had a positive prick test. There were no subjects with symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Investigation into the source of the antigen showed that whereas, in some areas of the plant, A niger spores were present, in others there were no detectable spores. In these areas, however, extracts of filters from air samplers were shown by RAST inhibition to contain A niger antigens, indicating that the culture fluid was generating airborne antigen. RAST inhibition studies showed that the A niger culture fluid used in the process contained antigens that were not present in a commercially available A niger extract, thus emphasising the importance in this type of investigation of using antigens prepared from material to which the workers are exposed. PMID:3986142

  2. Inhibitory effects of amines from Citrus reticulata on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-Mei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Xiao, Na; Shen, Qi; Li, Jian-Xin

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal lung disease for which, thus far, there are no effective treatments. The pericarp of Citrus reticulata, as a traditional herbal drug, has been used for the clinical treatment of lung-related diseases in China for many years. In the present study, the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata were isolated, and their hydrochlorides were prepared. The results of screening using cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts (hELFs) revealed that, of the amines, 4-methoxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (designated as amine hydrochloride 1) possessed the most potent inhibitory effect. Further in vivo experiments using a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated that the oral administration of amine hydrochloride 1 significantly lowered the hydroxyproline content in both serum and lung tissue, and alleviated pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that amine hydrochloride 1 exerted its inhibitory effect against IPF through the downregulation of lung transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 protein expression. Our results demonstrated that amine hydrochloride 1 prevented the development of bleomycin‑induced lung fibrosis in rats. Thus, our data suggest that the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata have therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of IPF. PMID:26675886

  3. Pneumoconiose por exposição a metal duro com pneumotórax bilateral espontâneo Hard metal pneumoconiosis with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A pneumoconiose por metal duro, descrita pela primeira vez em 1964, é uma doença difusa causada por inalação de partículas de cobalto. A doença pode se manifestar de três formas diferentes: asma ocupacional, doença intersticial e alveolite alérgica. Relata-se um caso de um jovem do sexo masculino, afiador de ferramentas, com quadro de tosse seca e dispnéia progressiva há um ano, apresentando-se à admissão com pneumotórax espontâneo bilateral. O diagnóstico foi confirmado através de biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto.Hard metal pneumoconiosis, first described in 1964, is a diffuse disease caused by the inhalation of cobalt particles. The disease can manifest as occupational asthma, interstitial disease or allergic alveolitis. We report the case of a young male, working as a tool sharpener, who presented with dry cough and progressive dyspnea for one year, as well as with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax at admission. The diagnosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy.

  4. β-thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messana Irene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-thymosins play roles in cytoskeleton rearrangement, angiogenesis, fibrosis and reparative process, thus suggesting a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of thymosins β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of scleroderma patients with interstitial lung disease and the relation of these factors with pulmonary functional and radiological parameters. Methods β-thymosins concentrations were determined by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Mass Spectrometry in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 46 scleroderma patients with lung involvement and of 15 controls. Results Thymosin β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 were detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients and controls. Thymosin β4 levels were significantly higher in scleroderma patients than in controls. In addition, analyzing the progression of scleroderma lung disease at one-year follow-up, we have found that higher thymosin β4 levels seem to have a protective role against lung tissue damage. Thymosin β4 sulfoxide levels were higher in the smokers and in the scleroderma patients with alveolitis. Conclusions We describe for the first time β-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease. Thymosin β4 seems to have a protective role against lung tissue damage, while its oxidation product mirrors an alveolar inflammatory status.

  5. Characterization of eukaryotic microbial diversity in hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla B Heidelberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the community structure of the microbial eukaryotic community from hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Australia, using near full length 18S rRNA sequences. Water samples were taken in both summer and winter over a four year period. The extent of eukaryotic diversity detected was low, with only 35 unique phylotypes using a 97% sequence similarity threshold. The water samples were dominated (91% by a novel cluster of the Alveolate, Apicomplexa Colpodella spp., most closely related to C. edax. The Chlorophyte, Dunaliella spp. accounted for less than 35% of water column samples. However, the eukaryotic community entrained in a salt crust sample was vastly different and was dominated (83% by the Dunaliella spp. The patterns described here represent the first observation of microbial eukaryotic dynamics in this system and provide a multiyear comparison of community composition by season. The lack of expected seasonal distribution in eukaryotic communities paired with abundant nanoflagellates suggests that grazing may significantly structure microbial eukaryotic communities in this system.

  6. Evidence for chronic inflammation as a component of the interstitial lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a generalized disorder characterized by fibrosis of many organs including the lung parenchyma. Unlike most other interstitial disorders, traditional concepts of the interstitial lung disease associated with PSS have held it to be a ''pure'' fibrotic disorder without a significant inflammatory component. To directly evaluate whether an active alveolitis is associated with this disorder, patients with chronic interstitial lung disease and PSS were studied by open lung biopsy, gallium-67 scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Histologic evaluation of the biopsies demonstrated that the interstitial fibrosis of PSS is clearly associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, both in the interstitium and on the alveolar epithelial surface. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 77% of the patients, showing diffuse, primarily lower zone uptake, suggestive of active inflammation. Consistent with the histologic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage studies demonstrated a mild increase in the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils with occasional increased numbers of lymphocytes. Importantly, alveolar macrophages from patients with PSS showed increased release of fibronectin and alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor, mediators that together stimulate lung fibroblasts to proliferate, thus suggesting at least one mechanism modulating the lung fibrosis of these patients

  7. Evolutionary distinctiveness of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe; Van Dolah, Frances M; Murray, Shauna A

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids, which are essential cell membrane constituents and fuel storage molecules, are thought to share a common evolutionary origin with polyketide toxins in eukaryotes. While fatty acids are primary metabolic products, polyketide toxins are secondary metabolites that are involved in ecologically relevant processes, such as chemical defence, and produce the adverse effects of harmful algal blooms. Selection pressures on such compounds may be different, resulting in differing evolutionary histories. Surprisingly, some studies of dinoflagellates have suggested that the same enzymes may catalyse these processes. Here we show the presence and evolutionary distinctiveness of genes encoding six key enzymes essential for fatty acid production in 13 eukaryotic lineages for which no previous sequence data were available (alveolates: dinoflagellates, Vitrella, Chromera; stramenopiles: bolidophytes, chrysophytes, pelagophytes, raphidophytes, dictyochophytes, pinguiophytes, xanthophytes; Rhizaria: chlorarachniophytes, haplosporida; euglenids) and 8 other lineages (apicomplexans, bacillariophytes, synurophytes, cryptophytes, haptophytes, chlorophyceans, prasinophytes, trebouxiophytes). The phylogeny of fatty acid synthase genes reflects the evolutionary history of the organism, indicating selection to maintain conserved functionality. In contrast, polyketide synthase gene families are highly expanded in dinoflagellates and haptophytes, suggesting relaxed constraints in their evolutionary history, while completely absent from some protist lineages. This demonstrates a vast potential for the production of bioactive polyketide compounds in some lineages of microbial eukaryotes, indicating that the evolution of these compounds may have played an important role in their ecological success. PMID:26784357

  8. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO2 decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages

  9. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  10. Temporal Expression of Notch in Preterm Rat Lungs Exposed to Hyperoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of Notch in hyperoxia-induced preterm rat lung injury, 2days-old preterm SD rats were randomized into control and hyperoxia group (FiO2 ≥0.85). On day 1, 7, 14 and 21, 8 rat pups of each time point were used to assess histopathological changes of lung with HE staining and to evaluate the expression of Notch1 and Notch3 with immunohistochemistry.Notch1, Notch3, Aquaprin5 (AQP5) and surfactant protein C (SP-C) mRNA were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the lung injury in the hyperoxia group was characterized by retarded lung alveolization and differentiation of alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells (AEC Ⅱ ). Positive staining of Notch1 in hyperoxia group was weaker than controls at every time point (except for day 7), while positive staining of Notch3 was much stronger (P<0.05, P<0.01). Notch1, Notch3 mRNA level showed similar change as protein level. AQP5, SP C mRNA decreased significantly as compared with that of the controls (P<0.01).We are led to conclude that hyperoxia results in abnormal expression of Notch, which is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of lung injury through regulating proliferation and transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.

  11. Plasma protein adsorption pattern and tissue-implant reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling Chong; Chen, Xi Guang; Xu, Quan Chen; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Yu, Le Jun; Zhou, Ying Min

    2008-01-01

    Various poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (PVA/CMCS) blend films were prepared by a mechanical blending method and characterized by SEM for their surface and cross-section morphologies. It indicated that blending high CMCS content in PVA plastic led to a rough surface and loose structure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine fibrinogen (BFG) were chosen as representative plasma proteins to carry out adsorption tests. Equilibrium adsorption amount of proteins onto the blends decreased with the increase of CMCS content in film matrix, and BSA was more easily adsorbed onto the films than BFG in the same conditions. The blend films also exhibited different trends for BSA and BFG adsorption when pH of the media changed, but maximum adsorption approximately occurred at the isoelectric point of proteins. Moreover, increasing the ionic strength would always decrease the adsorptions of protein onto the films. In animal experiments, it was found that incorporation of CMCS and PVA gave a lower tissue reaction than pure PVA films when they were subcutaneously implanted in Wistar rats. After two weeks subcutaneous implantation, surfaces of PVA became wrinkled and cracked; however, the blend implants exhibited a alveolate porous microstructure.

  12. Intratracheal manganese superoxide dismutase gene therapy for prevention of irradiation-induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Normal lung tissue often limits the irradiation dose that can be given safely to cancers. Increasing the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in normal lung tissue via intratracheal liposomes or adenovirus in the thorax, was evaluated for protective effect against irradiation-induced damage. Materials and Methods: To demonstrate that radiosensitivity is affected by MnSOD expression, irradiation survival curves were performed on cloned fibroblast lines derived from mice homozygous for MnSOD expression (SOD +/+), heterozygous for MnSOD (SOD +/-), or MnSOD knockouts (SOD -/-). In addition, irradiation survival curves were performed on IB3-1 human bronchoalveolar control cells or cells overexpressing an MnSOD transgene. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were anesthetized and intratracheally injected with liposomes containing 500 μg of plasmid DNA containing either MnSOD transgene, or LacZ transgene. Twenty-four hours later, the mice received 2000 cGy irradiation to the thoracic cavity. At 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after irradiation, serum TGF-β1 levels were determined by ELISA; other mice were held for survival and percent alveolitis measured. Adult female nude mice [Balb/c nu/nu] received adenovirus (109 plaque-forming units) containing the transgenes for either human MnSOD, human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ, by intratracheal injections. Four days later, the mice received 850 cGy irradiation to the hemibody. The mice were sacrificed at 130 days after irradiation. The lungs were removed, frozen in OCT, sectioned, stained with H and E, and analyzed for percent alveolitis. In a subset, mice were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Serum was tested for TGF-β1 levels by ELISA. The lungs were excised, and RNA extracted and analyzed by slot-blot for expression for messenger RNA for MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, IL-1, or TGF-β. Results: Irradiation survival curves demonstrated that cells having higher levels of MnSOD were more radioresistant, SOD

  13. Denticle-embedded ampullary organs in a Cretaceous shark provide unique insight into the evolution of elasmobranch electroreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Romain; Guinot, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    Here, we report a novel type of dermal denticle (or placoid scale), unknown among both living and fossil chondrichthyan fishes, in a Cretaceous lamniform shark. By their morphology and location, these dermal denticles, grouped into clusters in the cephalic region, appear to have been directly associated with the electrosensory ampullary system. These denticles have a relatively enlarged (˜350 μm in diameter), ornamented crown with a small (˜100 μm) asterisk- or cross-shaped central perforation connected to a multi-alveolate internal cavity. The formation of such a complex structure can be explained by the annular coalescence and fusion, around an ampullary vesicle, of several developmental units still at papillary stage (i.e. before mineralization), leading to a single denticle embedding an alveolar ampulla devoid of canal. This differs from larger typical ampullae of Lorenzini with a well-developed canal opening in a pore of the skin and may represent another adaptive response to low skin resistance. Since it has been recently demonstrated that ampullary organs arise from lateral line placodes in chondrichthyans, this highly specialized type of dermal denticle (most likely non-deciduous) may be derived from the modified placoid scales covering the superficial neuromasts (pit organs) of the mechanosensory lateral line system of many modern sharks.

  14. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  15. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.

    2014-10-01

    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  16. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wang, Fang; Chu, Limin; Wang, Hao; Zhong, Zhiping; Liu, Zhipei; Gao, Jianyong; Duan, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes) in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing 18S rRNA gene sequence reads obtained in investigated mesosaline lakes is closely related to Holozoa group (48.13%), whereas Stramenopiles (26.65%) and Alveolates (10.84%) are the next most common groups. Hypersaline lakes in the Qaidam Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%), whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50%) and Xiaochaidan (1.15%). Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper) saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  17. Genetic diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms in Lake Taihu, a large shallow subtropical lake in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meijun; Chen, Feizhou; Yu, Yang; Ji, Jian; Kong, Fanxiang

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the genetic diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms (0.8-20 microm) by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in six genetic libraries constructed from six locations in Lake Taihu, a large shallow subtropical lake in China. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and one clone representative of each RFLP pattern was partially sequenced. A total of 528 clones were clustered into 165 RFLP patterns and finally into 131 operational taxonomic unit (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each library included many unique OTUs, as well as members of distantly related phylogenetic groups. A majority of the clones were from alveolates, stramenopiles, cercozoa, cryptophytes, chlorophytes, and fungi, with members of choanoflagellida, euglenida, centroheliozoa, ancyromonadidae, ichthyosporea, and kathablepharid representing a minor fraction of the library. Six OTUs (15 clones) were not related to any known eukaryotic group. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the differences in eukaryotic microorganism community composition of in the six regions were partially related to trophic status, sediment resuspension, and top-down regulation by metazooplankton.

  18. Study of genetic diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton in different oceanic regions by small-subunit rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, B; Pedrós-Alió, C; Massana, R

    2001-07-01

    Very small eukaryotic organisms (picoeukaryotes) are fundamental components of marine planktonic systems, often accounting for a significant fraction of the biomass and activity in a system. Their identity, however, has remained elusive, since the small cells lack morphological features for identification. We determined the diversity of marine picoeukaryotes by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in five genetic libraries from North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea surface waters. Picoplankton were obtained by filter size fractionation, a step that excluded most large eukaryotes and recovered most picoeukaryotes. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and at least one clone of each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was partially sequenced. In general, the phylogenetic diversity in each library was rather great, and each library included many different OTUs and members of very distantly related phylogenetic groups. Of 225 eukaryotic clones, 126 were affiliated with algal classes, especially the Prasinophyceae, the Prymnesiophyceae, the Bacillariophyceae, and the Dinophyceae. A minor fraction (27 clones) was affiliated with clearly heterotrophic organisms, such as ciliates, the chrysomonad Paraphysomonas, cercomonads, and fungi. There were two relatively abundant novel lineages, novel stramenopiles (53 clones) and novel alveolates (19 clones). These lineages are very different from any organism that has been isolated, suggesting that there are previously unknown picoeukaryotes. Prasinophytes and novel stramenopile clones were very abundant in all of the libraries analyzed. These findings underscore the importance of attempts to grow the small eukaryotic plankton in pure culture.

  19. The evolution of ERMIONE in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid homeostasis: An evolutionary view from comparative cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A

    2016-08-01

    The ER-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in maintaining mitochondrial morphology and lipid homeostasis. ERMES and MICOS are two scaffolding complexes of ERMIONE that contribute to these processes. ERMES is ancient but has been lost in several lineages including animals, plants, and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates and rhizaria). On the other hand, MICOS is ancient and has remained present in all organisms bearing mitochondrial cristae. The ERMIONE precursor evolved in the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria which had the central subunit of MICOS, Mic60. The subsequent evolution of ERMIONE and its interactors in eukaryotes reflects the integrative co-evolution of mitochondria and their hosts and the adaptive paths that some lineages have followed in their specialization to certain environments. By approaching the ERMIONE from a perspective of comparative evolutionary cell biology, we hope to shed light on not only its evolutionary history, but also how ERMIONE components may function in organisms other than S. cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  20. Prolonged lung retention of 123I-IMP in pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of venously injected 123I-IMP in the lung was studied. At 30 and 50 min after the injection of the 1.5 mCi 123I-IMP, the concentration of 123I-IMP in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were much higher than in the blood. It was considered that 123I-IMP was transported into the alveolar spaces and was absorbed by the alveolar cells. The half time (T1/2) of the 123I-IMP release from the lung at 10 and 25 min immediately after the injection was calculated. In normal subjects the T1/2 ranged between 25 and 44 min and was prolonged in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and allergic alveolitis. It was considered that the retention of 123I-IMP was related not only to the endothelial cells, but also to the alveolar cells. It was considered that the analysis of the lung release of 123I-IMP forms a new lung dysfunction index. (orig.)

  1. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways, and/or tissue sensitivity: the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapours from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. It is emphasised that the current version of the model described here is still provisional. (author)

  4. Shear flow over a self-similar expanding pulmonary alveolus during rhythmical breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, S.; Butler, J. P.; Brenner, H.; Emanuel, I.; Tsuda, A.

    2000-02-01

    Alternating shear flow over a self-similar, rhythmically expanding hemispherical depression is investigated. It provides a fluid-mechanical model for an alveolated respiratory unit, by means of which the effect of lung rhythmical expansion on gas mixing as well as aerosol dispersion and deposition can be studied. The flow is assumed to be very slow and governed by the quasi-steady linear Stokes equations. Consequently, superposition of the following two cases provides an easy route toward characterizing the aforementioned flow field. The first case treats the flow field that is generated by a rhythmically expanding spherical cap (the alveolus). The cap is attached at its rim to a circular opening in an expanding unbounded plane bounding a semi-infinite fluid region. The rate of expansion of the cap and the plane are chosen such as to maintain the system's configurational self-similarity. The second case addresses the flow disturbance that is generated by an alternating shear flow encountering a rigid hemispherical cavity in a plane bounding a semi-infinite fluid domain.

  5. Successful treatment of lipoid pneumonia associated with bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Sias, Selma; Oliveira Caetano, Regina; Dutra Comarella, Júlia; de Oliveira, Elen; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-08-01

    Partial bowel obstruction is a serious complication of ascariasis infestation generally treated with mineral oil. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) as a therapeutic strategy for reducing lung inflammation of lipoid pneumonia associated with ascariasis. The study included five children (mean age 25 months) with partial small-bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides, who underwent diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage for assessment of refractory pneumonia. Routine biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis were carried out in the BAL. Protein, lactate dehydrogenase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) cytokine levels were determined in the serum before and after treatment. At admission, children consistently had respiratory symptoms, altered hematological function, increased immunoglobulin E serum level and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Chest tomography showed consolidation with air bronchogram (4/4), ground-glass infiltration (3/4) and decreased attenuation in the consolidation areas (2/4). Presence of marked pleocytosis with Sudan positive foamy alveolar macrophages, high protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL indicated presence of mixed alveolitis. One child with extensive consolidation and air bronchogram in both lungs died before treatment. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages efficiently removed alveolar oil deposits, restored BAL cellularity, improved clinical symptoms, radiological parameters and further reduced inflammatory reaction evidenced by marked decrease of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. This study presents a therapeutic strategy for management of lung complications caused by mineral oil administration to treat intestinal bowel obstruction associated with ascariasis. PMID:20026557

  6. Usual interstitial pneumonitis UIP presenting with Wells grade 3. Can imaging methods help predict further progression of disease?; Fibrosi polmanare idiopatica con grado 3 di Wells all'esordio: possono le metodiche di diagnostica per immagini aiutare a predire la progressione ulteriore della malattia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasano, L.; Pacilli, A. M.G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria; Zompatori, M.; Monetti, N. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Battista, G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia, Radiodiagnostica 1; Di Scioscio, V.; Sciascia, N.

    1999-10-01

    Three different grades of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be identified by HRCT pattern. Patients with predominant ground-glass opacity (grade 1) usually improve after treatment and may have a better prognosis. The subjects with a predominant reticular pattern and honeycombing (grade 3.) have irreversible fibrosis and usually do not improve after immunosuppressive therapy. Nevertheless, these patients may worsen even in the absence of HRCT features of the so-called alveolitis. The aim of this report is to investigate the predictive role of some noninvasive imaging methods (HRCT with visual score of disease extent; Gallium scintigraphy; DTPA scintigraphy) in patients with idiopathic fibrosis and a prevalent macroscopic fibrosis at HRCT study. [Italian] La fibrosi polomare idiopatica viene distinta in 3 gradi con diversa prognosi in base alla predominanza di opacita' a vetro smerigliato da alveolite o di fibrosi irreversibile. La fibrosi irreversibile tuttavia non e' necessariamente una situazione stabile ma puo progredire ed evolvere ulteriormente. In particolare i pazienti che gia all'esordio presentano solo i segni della fibrosi possono peggiorare a distanza di tempo nonostante la terapia. Scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di individuare in un gruppo di pazienti con prevalente fibrosi macroscopica quale possa essere un parametro preditivo della successiva evoluzione della malattia.

  7. Subsurface ecosystem resilience: long-term attenuation of subsurface contaminants supports a dynamic microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, J.M.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Mauro, D.M.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-01-15

    The propensity for groundwater ecosystems to recover from contamination by organic chemicals (in this case, coal-tar waste) is of vital concern for scientists and engineers who manage polluted sites. The microbially mediated cleanup processes are also of interest to ecologists because they are an important mechanism for the resilience of ecosystems. In this study we establish the long-term dynamic nature of a coal-tar waste-contaminated site and its microbial community. We present 16 years of chemical monitoring data, tracking responses of a groundwater ecosystem to organic contamination (naphthalene, xylenes, toluene, 2-methyl naphthalene and acenaphthylene) associated with coal-tar waste. In addition, we analyzed small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from two contaminated wells at multiple time points over a 2-year period. Principle component analysis of community rRNA fingerprints (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP)) showed that the composition of native microbial communities varied temporally, yet remained distinctive from well to well. After screening and analysis of 1178 cloned SSU rRNA genes from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, we discovered that the site supports a robust variety of eukaryotes (for example, alveolates (especially anaerobic and predatory ciliates), stramenopiles, fungi, even the small metazoan flatworm, Suomina) that are absent from an uncontaminated control well. This study links the dynamic microbial composition of a contaminated site with the long-term attenuation of its subsurface contaminants.

  8. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (UK)); Gehr, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.)

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The evolution of ERMIONE in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid homeostasis: An evolutionary view from comparative cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A

    2016-08-01

    The ER-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in maintaining mitochondrial morphology and lipid homeostasis. ERMES and MICOS are two scaffolding complexes of ERMIONE that contribute to these processes. ERMES is ancient but has been lost in several lineages including animals, plants, and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates and rhizaria). On the other hand, MICOS is ancient and has remained present in all organisms bearing mitochondrial cristae. The ERMIONE precursor evolved in the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria which had the central subunit of MICOS, Mic60. The subsequent evolution of ERMIONE and its interactors in eukaryotes reflects the integrative co-evolution of mitochondria and their hosts and the adaptive paths that some lineages have followed in their specialization to certain environments. By approaching the ERMIONE from a perspective of comparative evolutionary cell biology, we hope to shed light on not only its evolutionary history, but also how ERMIONE components may function in organisms other than S. cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26825688

  10. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.

  11. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes. PMID:26084520

  12. Celiac disease and microscopic colitis: A report of 4 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zsolt Barta; Eva Zold; Arpad Nagy; Margit Zeher; Istvan Csipo

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people at all ages. However, it can be associated also to other immunopathological disorders, and may be associated with abnormal histology in segments of the gut other than the small bowel including colonic inflammation. While guidelines for endoscopic investigation of the jejunum are well defined, no indication is defined for colonic investigation. We describe four cases of concurrent CD and microscopic colitis (MC) diagnosed at our department over a 10-year period and analyzed the main features and outcomes of CD in this setting. The symptoms of these patients were improved initially by a gluten-free diet before the onset of MC symptoms. Two of the patients were siblings and had an atypical form of CD. The other two patients with CD and MC also presented with fibrosing alveolitis and were anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody positive. The co-existence of immune-mediated small bowel and colonic inflammatory and pulmonary diseases are not well-known, and no systematic approach has been used to identify the lifelong patterns of these immune-based diseases. Patients can develop, or present with CD at any stage in life, which can co-exist with other gastrointestinal diseases of (auto-) immune origin. In addition, the familial co-existence and prevalence of MC in patients with a prior diagnosis of CD are unclear. Clinicians managing celiac disease should be aware of these associations and understand when to consider colon investigation.

  13. Systemic sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure: about 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.

  14. Elafin/elastase-specific inhibitor in bronchoalveolar lavage of normal subjects and farmer's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, G M; Sallenave, J M; Israél-Assayag, E; Cormier, Y; Gauldie, J

    1996-10-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1(PI)) cannot fully explain the total neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitory capacity detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, suggesting the existence of other NE inhibitor(s). In the present study, we measured the concentrations of elafin, a newly described, low-molecular-weight serine proteinase inhibitor, SLPI, and alpha1(PI) in BAL fluids from eight healthy subjects, 13 asymptomatic farmers, seven farmers with active farmer's lung (FL), and seven farmers with previous (Ex) FL. In addition to SLPI and alpha1(PI), elafin was present in BAL fluids from control subjects and asymptomatic farmers, 13 (7-31) and 12 (7-67) mmol/mol of albumin (median and range) respectively. Elafin concentration increased significantly to 105 (38-207) mmol/mol of albumin in farmers with active FL and was also elevated in farmers with Ex FL. Elafin levels were highly correlated with lung inflammatory cell numbers, especially lymphocytes, and the decrease in single-breath diffusion capacity (DLCO). Elafin and SLPI were linked to yet uncharacterized proteins in BAL fluids. In conclusion, elafin is a constituent of BAL fluid from normal subjects and is found in enhanced concentrations in FL and in farmers with lymphocytic alveolitis. This suggests that elafin may play a role in lung homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:8887613

  15. Genetic diversity, morphological uniformity and polyketide production in dinoflagellates (Amphidinium, Dinoflagellata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna A Murray

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are an intriguing group of eukaryotes, showing many unusual morphological and genetic features. Some groups of dinoflagellates are morphologically highly uniform, despite indications of genetic diversity. The species Amphidinium carterae is abundant and cosmopolitan in marine environments, grows easily in culture, and has therefore been used as a 'model' dinoflagellate in research into dinoflagellate genetics, polyketide production and photosynthesis. We have investigated the diversity of 'cryptic' species of Amphidinium that are morphologically similar to A. carterae, including the very similar species Amphidinium massartii, based on light and electron microscopy, two nuclear gene regions (LSU rDNA and ITS rDNA and one mitochondrial gene region (cytochrome b. We found that six genetically distinct cryptic species (clades exist within the species A. massartii and four within A. carterae, and that these clades differ from one another in molecular sequences at levels comparable to other dinoflagellate species, genera or even families. Using primers based on an alignment of alveolate ketosynthase sequences, we isolated partial ketosynthase genes from several Amphidinium species. We compared these genes to known dinoflagellate ketosynthase genes and investigated the evolution and diversity of the strains of Amphidinium that produce them.

  16. Accurate quantification of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltini, C; Hance, A J; Ferrans, V J; Basset, F; Bitterman, P B; Crystal, R G

    1984-10-01

    Quantification of the differential cell count and total number of cells recovered from the lower respiratory tract by bronchoalveolar lavage is a valuable technique for evaluating the alveolitis of patients with inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. The most commonly used technique for the evaluation of cells recovered by lavage has been to concentrate cells by centrifugation and then to determine total cell number using a hemocytometer and differential cell count from a Wright-Glemsa-stained cytocentrifuge preparation. However, we have noted that the percentage of small cells present in the original cell suspension recovered by lavage is greater than the percentage of lymphocytes identified on cytocentrifuge preparations. Therefore, we developed procedures for determining differential cell counts on lavage cells collected on Millipore filters and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (filter preparations) and compared the results of differential cell counts performed on filter preparations with those obtained using cytocentrifuge preparations. When cells recovered by lavage were collected on filter preparations, accurate differential cell counts were obtained, as confirmed by performing differential cell counts on cell mixtures of known composition, and by comparing differential cell counts obtained using filter preparations stained with hematoxylin-eosin with those obtained using filter preparations stained with a peroxidase cytochemical stain. The morphology of cells displayed on filter preparations was excellent, and interobserver variability in quantitating cell types recovered by lavage was less than 3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6385789

  17. [The cobalt lung in diamond cutters: a new disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demedts, M; Gyselen, A

    1989-01-01

    Although for forty years already broncho-pulmonary pathology has been described in workers exposed to hard-metal (i.e. alloys of tungsten carbide and cobalt) and although cobalt is considered the offending agent of this hazard, these abnormalities have almost not been found after exposure to cobalt alone except in animal experiments. Recently we detected clearcut broncho-pulmonary pathology in 48 diamond polishers (i.e. nearly 1% of those exposed) attributable to the ultrafine cobalt dust from the cutting surface of polishing disks, in which it was used as a cementing matrix for microdiamonds without any tungsten carbide. Nineteen of these patients presented with a fibrosing alveolitis documented in 6 by lung biopsy and in 12 by broncho-alveolar lavage, both of which revealed characteristic multinucleated giant cells. Thirteen suffered from asthma of occupational origin, in 9 proven by cobalt-inhalation tests, and in 5 by peak flow measurements at the workplace. Sixteen had mixed bronchial and alveolar pathology or were incompletely documented. A cross-sectional study in about 200 diamond polishers showed a significant correlation between exposure to cobalt and decrease in lung function. The strikingly harmful effects of cobalt can be explained by the chronic exposure to very small particles with markedly increased solubility. The pathogenesis of the broncho-pulmonary pathology may be attributed to the cytotoxic as well as to the sensitising (i.e. allergic and/or idiosyncratic) actions of cobalt. PMID:2561412

  18. Commentary: research on the mechanisms of the occupational lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this commentary, the pathogenesis of alveolitis is examined and elucidated by animal models. The use of broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) and Ga-67 citrate whole-body scanning as a measure of the activity of alveolar inflammation in workers is discussed. Gallium scan indices have been reported to be elevated in asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; diseases which may now be evaluated at earlier, potentially reversible stages. Research in emphysema and other lung diseases associated with α1 antitrypsin deficiency may help explain why coal miners develop focal emphysema. Furthermore, investigation of genetic factors may reveal why workers with similar exposures have a different susceptibility for the development of pneumoconiosis or lung cancer. Occupational asthma may not respond to removal of the worker from exposure because reactive airways may be a predisposing factor for chronic ashthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. A continuing challenge will be disease risk in new industries such as electronics and alternate energy industries and new diseases in worker groups not previously studied, such as the variety of pneumoconioses among dental laboratory technicians who work with exotic metal alloys. 52 references

  19. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers. PMID:23514065

  20. Severe lung injuries due to SO/sub 2/ inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, P.; Leupold, W.; Mittenzwey, K.W.; Rupprecht, E.

    1982-01-01

    By accident a 12 year old boy had to spend 4 hours in a SO/sub 2/-enriched atmosphere (concentration 13.8 mg per cubicmeter = 4.8 ppm). The course of the following intoxication was tetraphasic: 1. acute irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper airways and of the eye: rhinopharyngitis, laryngitis and bronchitis, conjunctivitis and corneal lesions (duration: 5 days), 2. symptom free interval (duration: 3 days), 3. subacute destruction of the low airways and the lung: destructing bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis, emphysema of the lung, mediastinum and skin, gradual development of bronchiectasis (duration: 9-12 months) and 4. gradual transition into terminal scarification: emphysema of the lung, continuous partial respiratory insufficiency with combined, especially obstructive disturbance of ventilation (without alterations observed during the last 4 years). On occasions of this fateful and therapeutically hardly influenced course recommendations are given for initial general and topical administration of very high doses of corticosteroids in each case of inhalative intoxication as the only measure which probably would have prevented it.

  1. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Geometrical influence of pulmonary acinar models on respiratory flows and particle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josue

    2012-11-01

    Due to experimental challenges in assessing respiratory flows in the deep regions of the lungs, computational simulations are typically sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport and deposition in the acinus. Most commonly, simulations are performed using generic geometries of alveoli, including spheres, toroids and polyhedra to mimic the acinar region. However, local respiratory flows and ensuing particle trajectories are anticipated to be highly influenced by the specific geometrical structures chosen. To date, geometrical influences have not yet been thoroughly quantified. Knowing beforehand how geometries affect acinar flows and particle transport is critical in translating simulated data to predictions of aerosol deposition in real lungs. Here, we conduct a systematic investigation on a number of generic acinar models. Simulations are conducted for simple alveolated airways featuring a selection of geometries. Deposition patterns and efficiencies are quantified both for massless particles, highlighting details of the local flow, and micron-scale aerosols. This latter group of particles represents an important class of inhaled aerosols known to reach and deposit in the acinus. Our work emphasizes the subtleties of acinar geometry in determining the fate of inhaled aerosols.

  3. CT pathologic correlative study of BOOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was proposed as a new infiltrative lung disease in 1985, we think it has two radiologic problems. First, in spite of interstitial pneumonia, about half of chest radiographs of BOOP has been reported to show alveolar opacities. Second, because radiologic features of both some cases of BOOP and of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) show reticular shadows on chest radiographs, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between two diseases. We correlated CT images with open lung biopsy specimens and evaluated CT's ability to differentiate BOOP from UIP. CT findings of all cases of BOOP were : 1) markedly increased dense infiltrates of various sizes which demarcated sharply from normal lung field. Air bronchogram was always present. 2) less dense images were seen which also stood out against the normal lung field. The former corresponded to air space consolidation formed by organized exudates and inflammatory cells within alveolar ducts and alveoli, while the latter indicated luminal and mural alveolitis. Both findings were sharply delineated from each other probably because of intervening interlobular septa. Conglomerated small cystic shadows and air bronchiolograms within areas of intense lung density were seen in CT images of most of 28 patients with UIP. Those findings proved to correspond to macroscopic or microscopic honey combing which were not seen in our cases of BOOP. These radiologic and pathologic features of UIP were different from those of BOOP. (author)

  4. Towards a porous media model of the human lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Christopher T.; Straatman, Anthony G.

    2012-05-01

    In this article, progress towards building a complete porous media model of the human lung is discussed. While the recent trend in computational fluid dynamics studies of airflow in the human lung has been to continually increase the size and detail of the airway tree under consideration, it is proposed in this work that simulating flow in the human lung as a coupled fluid-porous system is an effective method to simulate the flow in the whole lung. Under the proposed modeling paradigm, a truncated airway tree constitutes a fluid region which is coupled to a porous region that represents the remainder of the lung volume, containing small airways and alveoli. The first part of this work describes pore-level simulations conducted in an alveolated duct geometry, which are present in large quantities in the human lung, to determine its permeability. Next, volume-averaged simulations incorporating the results of the pore-level simulations and using a realistic lung geometry based on computed tomography images are discussed along with future directions for this work.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in the perivascular space in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabst Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS contained in tobacco smoke and a variety of environmental and occupational dusts is a toxic agent causing lung inflammation characterized by migration of neutrophils and monocytes into alveoli. Although migration of inflammatory cells into alveoli of LPS-treated rats is well characterized, the dynamics of their accumulation in the perivascular space (PVS leading to a perivascular inflammation (PVI of pulmonary arteries is not well described. Methods Therefore, we investigated migration of neutrophils and monocytes into PVS in lungs of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intratracheally with E. coli LPS and euthanized after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Control rats were treated with endotoxin-free saline. H&E stained slides were made and immunohistochemistry was performed using a monocyte marker and the chemokine Monocyte-Chemoattractant-Protein-1 (MCP-1. Computer-assisted microscopy was performed to count infiltrating cells. Results Surprisingly, the periarterial infiltration was not a constant finding in each animal although LPS-induced alveolitis was present. A clear tendency was observed that neutrophils were appearing in the PVS first within 6 hours after LPS application and were decreasing at later time points. In contrast, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed after 24 hours. In addition, MCP-1 expression was present in perivascular capillaries, arteries and the epithelium. Conclusion PVI might be a certain lung reaction pattern in the defense to infectious attacks.

  6. A Microfluidic Model of Biomimetically Breathing Pulmonary Acinar Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying respiratory flow characteristics in the pulmonary acinar depths and how they influence inhaled aerosol transport is critical towards optimizing drug inhalation techniques as well as predicting deposition patterns of potentially toxic airborne particles in the pulmonary alveoli. Here, soft-lithography techniques are used to fabricate complex acinar-like airway structures at the truthful anatomical length-scales that reproduce physiological acinar flow phenomena in an optically accessible system. The microfluidic device features 5 generations of bifurcating alveolated ducts with periodically expanding and contracting walls. Wall actuation is achieved by altering the pressure inside water-filled chambers surrounding the thin PDMS acinar channel walls both from the sides and the top of the device. In contrast to common multilayer microfluidic devices, where the stacking of several PDMS molds is required, a simple method is presented to fabricate the top chamber by embedding the barrel section of a syringe into the PDMS mold. This novel microfluidic setup delivers physiological breathing motions which in turn give rise to characteristic acinar air-flows. In the current study, micro particle image velocimetry (µPIV) with liquid suspended particles was used to quantify such air flows based on hydrodynamic similarity matching. The good agreement between µPIV results and expected acinar flow phenomena suggest that the microfluidic platform may serve in the near future as an attractive in vitro tool to investigate directly airborne representative particle transport and deposition in the acinar regions of the lungs. PMID:27214269

  7. A family of intermediate filament-like proteins is sequentially assembled into the cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-White, Brooke R; Ivey, F Douglas; Cheng, Katherine; Szatanek, Tomasz; Lorestani, Alexander; Beckers, Con J; Ferguson, David J P; Sahoo, Nivedita; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii divides by a unique process of internal budding that involves the assembly of two daughter cells within the mother. The cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma, which is composed of microtubules associated with an inner membrane complex (IMC), has an important role in this process. The IMC, which is directly under the plasma membrane, contains a set of flattened membranous sacs lined on the cytoplasmic side by a network of filamentous proteins. This network contains a family of intermediate filament-like proteins or IMC proteins. In order to elucidate the division process, we have characterized a 14-member subfamily of Toxoplasma IMC proteins that share a repeat motif found in proteins associated with the cortical alveoli in all alveolates. By creating fluorescent protein fusion reporters for the family members we determined the spatiotemporal patterns of all 14 IMC proteins through tachyzoite development. This revealed several distinct distribution patterns and some provide the basis for novel structural models such as the assembly of certain family members into the basal complex. Furthermore we identified IMC15 as an early marker of budding and, lastly, the dynamic patterns observed throughout cytokinesis provide a timeline for daughter parasite development and division.

  8. The apicomplexan inner membrane complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Maya; Prusty, Dhaneswar; Parkinson, John; Gilberger, Tim W

    2013-06-01

    Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans and ciliates are members of the monophyletic supergroup of Alveolata. The protists of this phylogenetic cluster have adapted to various ecological niches and lifestyles. Dinoflagellates and cilates can be found in any aquatic environment, whereas the phylum Apicomplexa solely comprises intracellular parasites. Despite their diversity all alveolates are united by the presence of membranous vesicles, so called alveoli, located beneath the plasma membrane. In addition to strengthening the cytoskeleton, these vesicles appear to possess taxon-specific functionality. In dinoflagellates and ciliates the alveoli predominantly play a structural role and can function as calcium stores. However, for the Apicomplexa, the alveolar vesicles -here jointly called the inner membrane complex (IMC)- are additionally involved in invasion of the host cell and are important scaffold elements during cytokinesis. Recent studies shed light on the architecture of the apicomplexan IMC and the number and diversity of its constituent proteins. This plethora of proteins and their varying evolutionary origin underlines the versatility of the IMC as a result of the adaption to a parasitic lifestyle.

  9. The role of palmitoylation for protein recruitment to the inner membrane complex of the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Johanna; Herrmann, Susann; Swapna, Lakshmipuram Seshadri; Prusty, Dhaneswar; John Peter, Arun T; Kono, Maya; Saini, Sidharth; Nellimarla, Srinivas; Wong, Tatianna Wai Ying; Wilcke, Louisa; Ramsay, Olivia; Cabrera, Ana; Biller, Laura; Heincke, Dorothee; Mossman, Karen; Spielmann, Tobias; Ungermann, Christian; Parkinson, John; Gilberger, Tim W

    2015-01-16

    To survive and persist within its human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a battery of lineage-specific innovations to invade and multiply in human erythrocytes. With central roles in invasion and cytokinesis, the inner membrane complex, a Golgi-derived double membrane structure underlying the plasma membrane of the parasite, represents a unique and unifying structure characteristic to all organisms belonging to a large phylogenetic group called Alveolata. More than 30 structurally and phylogenetically distinct proteins are embedded in the IMC, where a portion of these proteins displays N-terminal acylation motifs. Although N-terminal myristoylation is catalyzed co-translationally within the cytoplasm of the parasite, palmitoylation takes place at membranes and is mediated by palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs). Here, we identify a PAT (PfDHHC1) that is exclusively localized to the IMC. Systematic phylogenetic analysis of the alveolate PAT family reveals PfDHHC1 to be a member of a highly conserved, apicomplexan-specific clade of PATs. We show that during schizogony this enzyme has an identical distribution like two dual-acylated, IMC-localized proteins (PfISP1 and PfISP3). We used these proteins to probe into specific sequence requirements for IMC-specific membrane recruitment and their interaction with differentially localized PATs of the parasite.

  10. Evolution and architecture of the inner membrane complex in asexual and sexual stages of the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Maya; Herrmann, Susann; Loughran, Noeleen B; Cabrera, Ana; Engelberg, Klemens; Lehmann, Christine; Sinha, Dipto; Prinz, Boris; Ruch, Ulrike; Heussler, Volker; Spielmann, Tobias; Parkinson, John; Gilberger, Tim W

    2012-09-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unifying morphological feature of all alveolate organisms. It consists of flattened vesicles underlying the plasma membrane and is interconnected with the cytoskeleton. Depending on the ecological niche of the organisms, the function of the IMC ranges from a fundamental role as reinforcement system to more specialized roles in motility and cytokinesis. In this article, we present a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of IMC components, which exemplifies the adaptive nature of the IMCs' protein composition. Focusing on eight structurally distinct proteins in the most prominent "genus" of the Alveolata-the malaria parasite Plasmodium-we demonstrate that the level of conservation is reflected in phenotypic characteristics, accentuated in differential spatial-temporal patterns of these proteins in the motile stages of the parasite's life cycle. Colocalization studies with the centromere and the spindle apparatus reveal their discriminative biogenesis. We also reveal that the IMC is an essential structural compartment for the development of the sexual stages of Plasmodium, as it seems to drive the morphological changes of the parasite during the long and multistaged process of sexual differentiation. We further found a Plasmodium-specific IMC membrane matrix protein that highlights transversal structures in gametocytes, which could represent a genus-specific structural innovation required by Plasmodium. We conclude that the IMC has an additional role during sexual development supporting morphogenesis of the cell, which in addition to its functions in the asexual stages highlights the multifunctional nature of the IMC in the Plasmodium life cycle.

  11. [A case of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy with pulmonary involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, J; Kaku, M; Mashimoto, H; Fukuda, Y; Asai, S

    1989-11-01

    A 70-year-old woman was admitted complaining of gait disturbance and difficulty in urination. Neurological examination showed myelopathy and both serum and CSF anti ATLA antibodies were positive. A diagnosis of HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM) was made and steroid therapy was initiated. Chest X-ray film on admission showed no abnormality, but three months later, diffuse fine nodular and reticular shadows appeared in both lung fields. The patients had no respiratory symptom. The results of pulmonary function tests were normal, aside from a mild obstructive defect as indicated by reduced V25. Arterial blood gas was also normal. Bronchoalveolar lavage studies showed increased total cell counts and an increased proportion of T-cells. The histological findings of the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen were bronchiolitis and alveolitis. Subsequently, within the next eight months the abnormal shadows on chest X-ray cleared gradually on maintenance dosage of prednisolone, 10 mg/day. Possible relationships between HAM and the pulmonary lesions were discussed. PMID:2625816

  12. [Case of hot tub lung with confirmation of exacerbation following jet bath use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriko; Takayanagi, Noboru; Yoneda, Kouichiro; Miyahara, Yousuke; Morokawa, Nasa; Yamaguchi, Shozaburo; Tokunaga, Daidou; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2008-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation and ill-defined centrilobular nodules scattered in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid showed lymphocytosis. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed bronchiolocentric alveolitis and well-formed non-necrotizing granulomas were present. She had used a jet bath before the onset of symptoms and mycobacterial culture revealed the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in sputum sample, BAL samples and jet bath water. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that the isolated MAC were essentially clonal. She had used the jet bath for the inhalation provocation study, and after the challenge she complained of dyspnea and have body temperature increased. We diagnosed hot tub lung due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Because avoidance of the jet bath caused improvement of her symptoms and reduced her fever and PaO2 increased by 10 Torr but did not improve the CT findings, antimycobacterial drugs were prescribed. The patient recovered fully. This case proves that the cause of hot tub lung is the use of jet bath through the inhalation provocation study. PMID:18939416

  13. Scintiscanning with aerosols of 99Tcm DTPA in the diagnostic strategy for pneumocystosis in aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary clearance of an aerosol of 99Tcm DTPA was measured in 21 non-smoking AIDS and pneumocystosis patients. The results were compared with those of pulmonary scintiscanning with gallium. All the patients exhibited increased clearance, evidence of a considerable alteration in alveolar permeability. This increase was also observed in patients with normal chest X-rays and normal blood gases. The average clearance in these patients was 6 ± 2% min-1 as compared with a normal 1.1 ± 0.3% min-1. Conversely, only four out of eight patients with normal chest X-rays had abnormal gallium scans. Clearance returned to normal after recovery. Measurement of DTPA clearance appears to be a very sensitive indicator for the detection and follow-up of pneumocystosis. However, it is not very specific since it can be increased by tobacco poisoning, drug abuse and the presence of lymphocytic alveolitis. An examination with normal findings can therefore exclude the possibility of opportunistic pneumopathy and make bronchial lavage unnecessary. An examination with abnormal findings should show whether lavage is indicated, even if the chest X-rays, blood gases and gallium scans are normal. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  14. New Insights Into Roles of Ubiquitin Modification in Regulating Plastids and Other Endosymbiotic Organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, W; Ling, Q; Jarvis, P

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings have revealed important and diverse roles for the ubiquitin modification of proteins in the regulation of endosymbiotic organelles, which include the primary plastids of plants as well as complex plastids: the secondary endosymbiotic organelles of cryptophytes, alveolates, stramenopiles, and haptophytes. Ubiquitin modifications have a variety of potential consequences, both to the modified protein itself and to cellular regulation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) can target individual proteins for selective degradation by the cytosolic 26S proteasome. Ubiquitin modifications can also signal the removal of whole endosymbiotic organelles, for example, via autophagy as has been well characterized in mitochondria. As plastids must import over 90% of their proteins from the cytosol, the observation that the UPS selectively targets the plastid protein import machinery is particularly significant. In this way, the UPS may influence the development and interconversions of different plastid types, as well as plastid responses to stress, by reconfiguring the organellar proteome. In complex plastids, the Symbiont-derived ERAD-Like Machinery (SELMA) has coopted the protein transport capabilities of the ER-Associated Degradation (ERAD) system, whereby misfolded proteins are retrotranslocated from ER for proteasomal degradation, uncoupling them from proteolysis: SELMA components have been retargeted to the second outermost plastid membrane to mediate protein import. In spite of this wealth of new information, there still remain a large number of unanswered questions and a need to define the roles of ubiquitin modification further in the regulation of plastids. PMID:27241217

  15. Protists in the polar regions: comparing occurrence in the Arctic and Southern oceans using pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing discussion of the distribution of protists, whether they are globally distributed or endemic to one or both of the polar regions is the subject of heated debate. In this study, we compared next-generation sequencing data from the Arctic and the Southern oceans to reveal the extent of similarities and dissimilarities between the protist communities in the polar regions. We found a total overlap of operational taxonomic units (OTUs between the two regions of 11.2%. On closer inspection of different taxonomic groups, the overlap ranged between 5.5% (haptophytes and 14.5% (alveolates. Within the different groups, the proportion of OTUs occurring in both regions greatly differed between the polar regions. On the one hand, the overlap between these two regions is remarkable, given the geographical distance between them. On the other hand, one could expect a greater overlap of OTUs between these regions on account of the similar environmental conditions. The overlap suggests a connection between the polar regions for at least certain species or that the evolutionary divergence has been slow, relative to the timescales of isolation. The different proportions of common OTUs among the groups or regions may be a result of different life cycle strategies or environmental adaptations.

  16. Inhalation pathways in relation to infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The respiratory tract is part of a system that conducts oxygen from outside air to the mitochondria in the cells throughout our body. It is, however, also one of the most common entry routes for highly toxic radionuclides from the environment. It consists of the nose, part of the pharynx, larynx, trachea and the lungs with the bronchi, bronchioli, alveolar ducts and alveoli. The complete inhalation pathway from the nose to the last generation of alveolar ducts is probably present at birth. The airways of the conducting zone, i.e. from the nose to the terminal bronchioli, grow in proportion to body mass. In the gas exchange region, however, a tremendous structural transformation occurs, the alveolization, which takes place during the first 18 postnatal months. From then on this region grows in proportion to body mass too. The connective tissue fraction in both regions is reduced during this period of time and perhaps continues to be reduced later in the conductive zone. Alveolar deposition and retention may be the same in infants and in children as in adults due to structural transformations and changes in the breathing pattern during growth. 21 refs.; 13 figs

  17. Alveolar flows of the developing lungs:from embryonic to early childhood airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    At the onset of life in utero the respiratory system is simply a liquid-filled duct. With our first breath, alveoli are filled with air and become a significant port of entry for airborne particles. As such, alveolar lining is nearly fully functional at birth, though lung development continues during childhood as structural changes increase alveolar surface area to optimize ventilation. We hypothesize that such fluid dynamical changes potentially affect two phenomena occurring within alveoli: (i) flow patterns in airspaces at distinct stages of both in- and ex-utero life and (ii) fate of inhaled particles ex-utero. To investigate these phenomena, we combine experimental and numerical approaches where (i) microfluidic in vitro devices mimic liquid flows across the epithelium of fetal airspaces, and (ii) computational simulations are employed to examine particle transport and deposition in the deep alveolated regions of infants' lungs. Our approaches capture anatomically-inspired geometries based on morphometrical data, as well as physiological flows, including the convective-diffusive nature of submicron particle transport in alveolar regions.Overall, we investigate respiratory flows in alveolar regions of developing lungs, from early embryonic stages to late childhood

  18. Bronchopulmonary allergic aspergillosis Aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A series of well defined entitles associated with colonization or invasion by fungi of the genus Aspergillus are grouped under the term Aspergillosis; there are various modalities of pulmonary involvement, namely, extrinsec asthma, extrinsec allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and an invasive form in debilitated terminal patients; besldes there exists a form of food poisoning. We report on the case of a 45 year-old asthmatic woman suffering from allerglc bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sum. maryze the clinical and laboratory features of the different pulmonary forms of aspergillosis.

    El término Aspergllosis reúne una serle de entidades bien definidas, causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una mujer de 45 años con aspergllosis broncopulmonar alérgica, atendida en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín y se hace una somera revisión clínico-patológica de las diferentes formas de aspergllosis pulmonar.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among five marine Catfish species (Pisces: Ariidae from Mexico Relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies de bagres (Pisces: Ariidae de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Tenorio-Colín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the marine catfish of the family Ariidae is controversial because at the present time the number of species and genera in the family, or their relationships, remain uncertain. Phylogenetic relationships among five representative species of marine catfish of the family Ariidae from both the Pacific and the Atlantic coasts of Mexico were assessed by the analysis of the variability in 21 alloenzymatic loci, and by the comparison of the electrophoretic patterns of whole muscle proteins. Interspecific genetic divergence levels obtained by both electrophoretic methods showed a clear separation among the genera Cathorops, Bagre and Ariopsis, as well as in the studied species of Cathorops and Ariopsis, with Bagre marinus showing a greater genetic similarity with the Ariopsis group. Finally, our results contribute to the definition of the presence of this species in the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico.La sistemática de los bagres marinos pertenecientes a la familia Ariidae es controversial, porque hasta la actualidad, no se conoce con exactitud el número de especies y géneros existentes en la familia, ni las relaciones que se establecen entre ellos. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies representativas de bagres marinos de la familia Ariidae, de ambas costas del Pacífico y del Atlántico Mexicano. El mencionado análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el análisis de la variabilidad en 21 loci aloenzimáticos y a través de la comparación de patrones electroforéticos de proteínas totales de músculo. Los niveles de divergencia interespecífica obtenidos por ambos métodos electroforéticos mostraron una clara separación entre los géneros Cathorops, Bagre y Ariopsis, así como entre las especies estudiadas de Cathorops y Ariopsis con Bagre marinus, mostrando una mayor similitud genética con el grupo Ariopsis. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio contribuyen al establecimiento de la

  20. Excrement examination with blood detection tests as a novel method to study the postmetamorphic feeding in lampreys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After several years in freshwater, sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. 1758 ammocoetes undergo metamorphosis that allows postmetamorphic individuals to migrate to the sea and start the haematophagous feeding. Very little and fragmented information, based on scarce captures of lampreys or wounded preys, is available concerning the postmetamorphic phase of the life cycle. For example, although it was previously considered that postmetamorphics do not start feeding until they reach the estuary or the sea, recent studies have shown that in European populations some individuals start feeding in freshwater. Therefore, it is necessary to develop, calibrate and standardize new methods to advance in the knowledge of the trophic ecology of postmetamorphic lampreys. According to that, the aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of a commercial test for blood detection based on an advanced modification of the Kastle-Meyer test (Hemastix, Siemens® as a non invasive method to notice active haematophagous feeding in postmetamorphic lampreys (analysing excrements, and in our particular case to study the onset of feeding in newly transformed P. marinus. For this purpose, 170 postmetamorphic sea lampreys were captured in a fixed trap located in the River Ulla (NW Spain since December 2014 until June 2015. Thirty six individuals presented excrements (21%, which were analyzed. Positive blood tests were obtained in March (1 of 84 individuals; 1.2%, April (5 of 23 individuals; 22%, May (1 individual, 100% and June (1 individual, 100%. Excrements with positive results were characterized by being abundant, usually of dense consistency and white, red, orange or dark green. Less abundant light green faeces of liquid consistency (and dark green faeces in some cases provided negative results. Thus, this study reveals the test for blood detection as a suitable tool to notice active feeding in postmetamorphic lampreys. The presence and visual analysis of excrements

  1. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P-3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  2. Anselm Citron (1923 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Anselm Citron, one of CERN’s pioneers, an enthusiastic scholar and internationally renowned researcher, passed away on 8 December at the age of 91.   Anselm Citron, front, looks at a quadrupole for the muon beam at the SC with, left to right, Bengt Hedin, Marinus van Gulik and Pierre Lapostolle. Born in Germany, Citron went to high school in the Netherlands, where he had been sent to escape the persecution of people with Jewish roots. After abitur and a short period at a technical high school, he took part in the last stages of the Second World War before returning to Freiburg in 1945. There, he studied physics under Wolfgang Gentner, and obtained his PhD. Citron then joined the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, in 1952, to take part in research on accelerator physics. A year later, he came to the newly founded CERN as one of its first 12 staff physicists and contributed to the construction of the Proton Synchrotron, for which he was responsible for the high-frequency powe...

  3. Ecology of the Lake Huron fish community, 1970-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiesz, Norine E.; McLeish, David A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bence, James R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Ebener, Mark P.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Johnson, James E.; Argyle, Ray L.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status of the Lake Huron fish community between 1970 and 1999 and explore the effects of key stressors. Offshore waters changed little in terms of nutrient enrichment, while phosphorus levels declined in inner Saginaw Bay. Introduced mussels (Dreissena spp.) proliferated and may have caused a decline in Diporeia spp. This introduction could have caused a decline in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) growth and condition, with serious repercussions for commercial fisheries. Bythotrephes, an exotic predatory cladoceran, and other new exotics may be influencing the fish community. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) remained prevalent, but intensive control efforts on the St. Mary's River may reduce their predation on salmonines. Overfishing was less of a problem than in the past, although fishing continued to reduce the amount of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) spawning biomass resulting from hatchery-reared fish planted to rehabilitate this species. Massive stocking programs have increased the abundance of top predators, but lake trout were rehabilitated in only one area. Successful lake trout rehabilitation may require lower densities of introduced pelagic prey fish than were seen in the 1990s, along with continued stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout and control of sea lamprey. Such reductions in prey fish could limit Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) fisheries.

  4. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans. PMID:26963515

  6. Downstream migration of recently metamorphosed sea lampreys in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, before and after treatment with lampricides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lee H.; Swink, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness ofchemical treatments of the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, in reducing the number of recently metamorphosed sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus migrating to Lake Huron and to estimate total numbers of migrants produced before and after treatment. Sea lampreys were captured during their downstream migration in a single fyke net fished in the same location from September 1963 through August 1975. The catch, which averaged 3,474 sea lampreys (range, 3,248-3,913) during four migration periods (September-June) before treatment in 1968, declined to 4 during the 1974-1975 migration period. Markrecapture studies were conducted to determine the capture efficiency of the net for recently metamorphosed sea lampreys and to estimate the total downstream migration for each migration period. Estimated downstream migrations before treatment averaged 62,036 sea lampreys (range, 58,000-69,875) for four migration periods and declined to 71 during the 1974-1975 migration period. Catches were usually greater in fall than in spring. The fall peak in migratory activity was in November or December, and the spring peak was in April; both peaks occurred while water levels were high and water temperatures were near 5A?C.

  7. Video evaluation of passage efficiency of American shad and sea lamprey in a modified Ice Harbor fishway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, A.; Kynard, B.

    1997-01-01

    Movement and behavior of adult American shad Alosa sapidissima and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus were monitored by closed-circuit video at several locations within a modified Ice Harbor fishway. American shad ascended and descended the fishway exclusively by surface weirs, while sea lampreys used both surface weirs and submerged orifices. Upstream movement of American shad during the day was higher than at night at both lower and middle fishway observation sites. Peak downstream movement of American shad at both locations was associated with decreasing light levels in the evening. Sea lampreys moved primarily at night at the lower and middle fishway sites. Mean daily passage efficiency was low (1% for American shad, -2% for sea lamprey) at the lower fishway surface weir, but passage efficiency at the middle fishway surface weir was moderate (70% for American shad, 35% for sea lamprey). High water velocity, air entrainment, and turbulence of the modified Ice Harbor fishway design appeared to inhibit American shad and sea lamprey passage by disrupting upstream migratory motivation and visual and rheotactic orientation.

  8. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. K.; Sun, X.; Miracle, A. L.; Litman, G. W.; Rothenberg, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.

  9. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: jan.o.bustnes@nina.no; Helberg, Morten [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Strann, Karl-Birger [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Skaare, Janneche Utne [National Veterinary Institute/Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-12-15

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({beta}-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. - DDE and {beta}-HCH residues were higher in an endangered compared to an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway.

  10. Comparative ultrastructural analysis of two tortoise bladders, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, J M; Danon, D

    1976-01-01

    Urinary bladders from the desert tortoises, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria were removed at specific times during the year and species in all bladders examined: (1) granular cells, (2) mitochondria-rich cells, and (3) basal cells. Cells analogous to these three types have also been observed in amphibian bladders (from toad Bufo marinus and bullfrog, Rana catesbiana) and reptilian bladders (from Pseudemys scripta and Clemmys caspica). Both tortoises have an incomplete layer of basal cells so that the granular and mitochondria-rich cells extend from the lumen to the basement membrane: something was not observed in bladders from bullfrog or turtles. A flask-shaped light cell was observed in the Geochelone carbonaria bladder obtained in April. No counterpart of this cell was seen in the same species sacrificed in January, or in any of the Testudo graeca bladders, although a similar cell has been described in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta (Rosen, Expt. Molec. Path., 12: 286-296, '70). This study was undertaken to characterize the cell types present in tortoise bladder and to compare them with cell types in the bladder of the turtle, bullfrog and toad. PMID:1252017

  11. How might you compare mitochondria from different tissues and different species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, A J; Turner, Nigel; Hinde, Jack; Else, Paul; Guderley, Helga

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondria were isolated from the liver, kidney and mixed hindlimb skeletal muscle of three vertebrate species; the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus, the bearded dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps, and the cane toad Bufo marinus. These vertebrate species are approximately the same body mass and have similar body temperatures. The content of cytochromes B, C, C1, and A were measured in these isolated mitochondria by oxidised-reduced difference spectra. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was measured by titration of mitochondrial respiration with carboxyactractyloside and the protein and phospholipid content of isolated mitochondria were also measured. Fatty acid composition of mitochondrial phospholipids was measured. Mitochondrial respiration was measured at 37 degrees C under states III and IV conditions as well as during oligomycin inhibition. Species differed in the ratios of different mitochondrial cytochromes. Muscle mitochondria differed from kidney and liver mitochondria by having a higher ANT content relative to cytochrome content. Respiration rates were compared relative to a number of denominators and found to be most variable when expressed relative to mitochondrial protein content and least variable when expressed relative to mitochondrial cytochrome A and ANT content. The turnover of cytochromes was calculated and found to vary between 1 and 94 electrons s(-1). The molecular activity of mitochondrial cytochromes was found to be significantly positively correlated with the relative polyunsaturation of mitochondrial membrane lipids. PMID:16408229

  12. Sea lamprey carcasses exert local and variable food web effects in a nutrient-limited Atlantic coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Resource flows from adjacent ecosystems are critical in maintaining structure and function of freshwater food webs. Migrating sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) deliver a pulsed marine-derived nutrient subsidy to rivers in spring when the metabolic demand of producers and consumers are increasing. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of these nutrient subsidies are not well characterized. We used sea lamprey carcass additions in a small stream to examine changes in nutrients, primary productivity, and nutrient assimilation among consumers. Algal biomass increased 57%–71% immediately adjacent to carcasses; however, broader spatial changes from multiple-site carcass addition may have been influenced by canopy cover. We detected assimilation of nutrients (via δ13C and δ15N) among several macroinvertebrate families including Heptageniidae, Hydropsychidae, and Perlidae. Our research suggests that subsidies may evoke localized patch-scale effects on food webs, and the pathways of assimilation in streams are likely coupled to adjacent terrestrial systems. This research underscores the importance of connectivity in streams, which may influence sea lamprey spawning and elicit varying food web responses from carcass subsidies due to fine-scale habitat variables.

  13. Sandeels and clams (Spisula sp.) in the wind turbine park at Horns Reef. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Henrik; Sand Kristensen, P.; Hoffmann, E.

    2003-04-15

    Sandeels were found in the sediment at all of the sample locations in the area of the wind turbine park and in the control area. The mean density of sandeels in the sediment was 0.0102 m{sup -2} (10,200 km{sup -2}) in the control area and 0.0096 m{sup -2} (9,600 km{sup -2}) in the impact area. The most abundant species of sandeel in both the impact and the control area was H. lanceolatus followed by A. marinus and A. tobianus. No G. semisquamatus was caught during the surveys. The construction of the wind turbine park is not supposed to effect the sandeel population in the Horns Reef area because the impact area seems to constitute a small fraction of a larger area with sandeel habitat. However, within the area of the wind turbine park sandeel abundance might be affected if the surface sediment changes due to the construction of the wind turbine park or if the abundance of sandeel predators increases in the impact area after the wind turbine park has been build (the so called artificial reef effect). To investigate if these effects will occur the field programmethat was carried out in February/march 2002 (the subject of this report) will have to be repeated after the wind turbine park has been constructed. (au)

  14. Monitoring sea lamprey pheromones and their degradation using rapid stream-side extraction coupled with UPLC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Johnson, Nicholas; Bernardy, Jeffrey; Hubert, Terry; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones guide adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to suitable spawning streams and mates, and therefore, when quantified, can be used to assess population size and guide management. Here, we present an efficient sample preparation method where 100 mL of river water was spiked with deuterated pheromone as an internal standard and underwent rapid field-based SPE and elution in the field. The combination of field extraction with laboratory UPLC-MS/MS reduced the sample consumption from 1 to 0.1 L, decreased the sample process time from more than 1 h to 10 min, and increased the precision and accuracy. The sensitivity was improved more than one order of magnitude compared with the previous method. The influences of experimental conditions were assessed to optimize the separation and peak shapes. The analytical method has been validated by studies of stability, selectivity, precision, and linearity and by the determination of the limits of detection and quantification. The method was used to quantify pheromone concentration from five streams tributary to Lake Ontario and to estimate that the environmental half-life of 3kPZS is about 26 h.

  15. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  16. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  17. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  18. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Clark, C.S.; Gee, D.E.; Vice, D.; Vice, D.S.; Warner, M.P.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejevarya cf. livinocharis, Fejervarya cancrivora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded from a number of individuals, but it is not known whether these species have established breeding populations. Two species (Kaloula pulchra and Eleutherodactylus coqui) appear to be incidental transportations to the island that have not established. Before 2003, five anuran species, all introductions, had been recorded from Guam. Three of these, Polypedates leucomystax, Pseudacris regilla, and Kaloula picta, were detected on Guam in incoming cargo but destroyed. Two species established: Bufo marinus was deliberately introduced and the Australian hylid Litoria fallax was probably an accidental introduction. Successful establishment of anurans on Guam has increased the risk of frog introductions to nearby islands. By providing additional food sources for the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), anuran introductions have increased the chance that B. irregularis might substantially increase in numbers and in turn increase the risk of the snake being accidentally transported to other islands. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of lethal/effective concentration/dose in the presence of multiple auxiliary covariates and components of variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Predictors of the percentile lethal/effective concentration/dose are commonly used measures of efficacy and toxicity. Typically such quantal-response predictors (e.g., the exposure required to kill 50% of some population) are estimated from simple bioassays wherein organisms are exposed to a gradient of several concentrations of a single agent. The toxicity of an agent may be influenced by auxiliary covariates, however, and more complicated experimental designs may introduce multiple variance components. Prediction methods lag examples of those cases. A conventional two-stage approach consists of multiple bivariate predictions of, say, medial lethal concentration followed by regression of those predictions on the auxiliary covariates. We propose a more effective and parsimonious class of generalized nonlinear mixed-effects models for prediction of lethal/effective dose/concentration from auxiliary covariates. We demonstrate examples using data from a study regarding the effects of pH and additions of variable quantities 2???,5???-dichloro-4???- nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) on the toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol to larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The new models yielded unbiased predictions and root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of prediction for the exposure required to kill 50 and 99.9% of some population that were 29 to 82% smaller, respectively, than those from the conventional two-stage procedure. The model class is flexible and easily implemented using commonly available software. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  20. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  1. Two lamprey Hedgehog genes share non-coding regulatory sequences and expression patterns with gnathostome Hedgehogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungo Kano

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh genes play major roles in animal development and studies of their evolution, expression and function point to major differences among chordates. Here we focused on Hh genes in lampreys in order to characterize the evolution of Hh signalling at the emergence of vertebrates. Screening of a cosmid library of the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis and searching the preliminary genome assembly of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus indicate that lampreys have two Hh genes, named Hha and Hhb. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Hha and Hhb are lamprey-specific paralogs closely related to Sonic/Indian Hh genes. Expression analysis indicates that Hha and Hhb are expressed in a Sonic Hh-like pattern. The two transcripts are expressed in largely overlapping but not identical domains in the lamprey embryonic brain, including a newly-described expression domain in the nasohypophyseal placode. Global alignments of genomic sequences and local alignment with known gnathostome regulatory motifs show that lamprey Hhs share conserved non-coding elements (CNE with gnathostome Hhs albeit with sequences that have significantly diverged and dispersed. Functional assays using zebrafish embryos demonstrate gnathostome-like midline enhancer activity for CNEs contained in intron2. We conclude that lamprey Hh genes are gnathostome Shh-like in terms of expression and regulation. In addition, they show some lamprey-specific features, including duplication and structural (but not functional changes in the intronic/regulatory sequences.

  2. Comparative embryology of five species of lampreys of the upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allen J.; Howell, John H.; Piavis, George W.

    1968-01-01

    The four species of lampreys native to the upper Great Lakes (American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamotteni; chestnut lamprey, Ichthyomyzon castaneus; northern brook lamprey, I. fossor; and silver lamprey, I. unicuspis) were collected in various stages of their life cycle and maintained in the laboratory until sexually mature. Secondary sex characters of the four native species are compared. Several batches of eggs of each species were reared at 18.4A?C and their development was compared to that of the exotic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The temperature of 18.4A?C was previously determined to be optimum for development of the sea lamprey. The high percentage survival of many batches of eggs of native species to prolarvae indicated that 18.4A?C was near the optimum for them. Survival to the burrowing stage varied considerably among different batches of eggs from the same species; some batches failed to produce prolarvae. The staging characteristics used for the sea lamprey were applicable to the native species, except for the end point of the burrowing stage. Embryos of the native species in each stage of development appeared according to the time sequence established for the sea lamprey.

  3. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  4. In silico comparison of bacterial strains using mutual information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Swati

    2007-09-01

    Fast-sequencing throughput methods have increased the number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes to about 400 by December 2006, with the number increasing rapidly. These include several strains. In silico methods of comparative genomics are of use in categorizing and phylogenetically sorting these bacteria. Various word-based tools have been used for quantifying the similarities and differences between entire genomes. The simple di-nucleotide frequency comparison, codon specificity and k-mer repeat detection are among some of the well-known methods. In this paper, we show that the Mutual Information function, which is a measure of correlations and a concept from Information Theory, is very effective in determining the similarities and differences among genome sequences of various strains of bacteria such as the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, marine Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus or animal and human pathogens such as species of Ehrlichia and Legionella. The short-range three-base periodicity, small sequence repeats and long-range correlations taken together constitute a genome signature that can be used as a technique for identifying new bacterial strains with the help of strains already catalogued in the database. There have been several applications of using the Mutual Information function as a measure of correlations in genomics but this is the first whole genome analysis done to detect strain similarities and differences.

  5. Microbial analyses of traditional Italian salami reveal microorganisms transfer from the natural casing to the meat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincenza; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Puglisi, Edoardo; Dallolio, Giuliano; Rebecchi, Annalisa

    2015-08-17

    In this study the bacterial biodiversity, during the maturation process of traditional sausages (Salame Mantovano), produced with two different kinds of casing (hog middle or "Crespone" and hog bung or "Gentile"), was investigated by means of culture-dependent and -independent methods. In order to assess the natural variability linked to the type of casing used in production, the ingredients, as well as ripening conditions, were identical in both productions. The aim of the study was to understand the contribution of casing microflora during sausage ripening by identifying the dominant species and strains. The bacterial ecology of casings and salami at different ripening stages, as determined by plating, revealed higher staphylococci and enterococci counts for Gentile casing and for the entire ripening period of the salami studied. After molecular identification of 219 Lactobacilli and 225 cocci gram positive catalase positive (GPCP) isolates, the species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Some L. sakei and S. saprophyticus strains, coming from casing, were also found in the salami at different times of ripening. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. We also report the first detection, by PCR-DGGE method, of Arcobacter marinus and Brochothrix thermosphacta species in casings and Kokuria salsicia in fresh sausage. Results suggesting that casing can be an important source of bacteria during natural fermentation when starter cultures are not used.

  6. Gorgoderina festoni n. sp. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) in Anurans (Amphibia) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2005-11-01

    Gorgoderina festoni n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Gastrophryne usta, Leptodactylus labialis, L. melanonotus and Bufo marinus from localities at low altitude in the states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Colima, Mexico. This species differs from most other species of the genus by a combination of the following characters: lobed vitelline masses, body size 3.45-4.26 (mean 3.75) mm and sucker-ratio 1:1.3-1.52 (mean 1:1.44). The new species shares these three features with G. bilobata Rankin, 1937, G. schistorchis Steelman, 1938, G. tenua Rankin, 1937, G. vitelliloba (Olsson, 1876) and G. cryptorchis Travassos, 1924, but it differs from the first four in having gonads with entire margins. G. festoni most closely resembles G. cryptorchis, but differs from this species in body width at the level of the ventral sucker and in the absence of oesophageal glands. The autapomorphy that distinguishes G. festoni from all other members of the genus is the presence of a tegumental extension (festoon) on the external margin of the ventral sucker.

  7. Using DNA sequencing electrophoresis compression artifacts as reporters of stable mRNA structures affecting gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Divya; Chandrayan, Sanjeev Kumar; Ahmed, Shubbir; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2007-11-01

    The formation of secondary structure in oligonucleotide DNA is known to lead to "compression" artifacts in electropherograms produced through DNA sequencing. Separately, the formation of secondary structure in mRNA is known to suppress translation; in particular, when such structures form in a region covered by the ribosome either during, or shortly after, initiation of translation. Here, we demonstrate how a DNA sequencing compression artifact provides important clues to the location(s) of translation-suppressing secondary structural elements in mRNA. Our study involves an engineered version of a gene sourced from Rhodothermus marinus encoding an enzyme called Cel12A. We introduced this gene into Escherichia coli with the intention of overexpressing it, but found that it expressed extremely poorly. Intriguingly, the gene displayed a remarkable compression artifact during DNA sequencing electrophoresis. Selected "designer" silent mutations destroyed the artifact. They also simultaneously greatly enhanced the expression of the cel12A gene, presumably by destroying stable mRNA structures that otherwise suppress translation. We propose that this method of finding problem mRNA sequences is superior to software-based analyses, especially if combined with low-temperature CE.

  8. Insulin-stimulated Na+ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (∼ 0.5-5.0 μM) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na+ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10μM) of the epithelial Na+ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na+ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10μg/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by 35S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64μM) stimulate Na+ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF1 stimulate Na+ transport in this tissue support the latter contention

  9. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazer-Yost, B.L.; Cox, M.

    1987-05-01

    The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (approx. 0.5-5.0 ..mu..M) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na/sup +/ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10..mu..M) of the epithelial Na/sup +/ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10..mu..g/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64..mu..M) stimulate Na/sup +/ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF/sub 1/ stimulate Na/sup +/ transport in this tissue support the latter contention.

  10. The reach of the genome signature in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuramae Eiko E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increased availability of sequenced genomes there have been several initiatives to infer evolutionary relationships by whole genome characteristics. One of these studies suggested good congruence between genome synteny, shared gene content, 16S ribosomal DNA identity, codon usage and the genome signature in prokaryotes. Here we rigorously test the phylogenetic signal of the genome signature, which consists of the genome-specific relative frequencies of dinucleotides, on 334 sequenced prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Intrageneric comparisons show that in general the genomic dissimilarity scores are higher than in intraspecific comparisons, in accordance with the suggested phylogenetic signal of the genome signature. Exceptions to this trend, (Bartonella spp., Bordetella spp., Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp., which have low average intrageneric genomic dissimilarity scores, suggest that members of these genera might be considered the same species. On the other hand, high genomic dissimilarity values for intraspecific analyses suggest that in some cases (e.g.Prochlorococcus marinus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Buchnera aphidicola and Rhodopseudomonas palustris different strains from the same species may actually represent different species. Comparing 16S rDNA identity with genomic dissimilarity values corroborates the previously suggested trend in phylogenetic signal, albeit that the dissimilarity values only provide low resolution. Conclusion The genome signature has a distinct phylogenetic signal, independent of individual genetic marker genes. A reliable phylogenetic clustering cannot be based on dissimilarity values alone, as bootstrapping is not possible for this parameter. It can however be used to support or refute a given phylogeny and resulting taxonomy.

  11. The Structure of a BamA-BamD Fusion Illuminates the Architecture of the β-Barrel Assembly Machine Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergal, Hans Thor; Hopkins, Alex Hunt; Metzner, Sandra Ines; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) mediates folding and insertion of integral β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Gram-negative bacteria. Of the five BAM subunits, only BamA and BamD are essential for cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of a fusion between BamA POTRA4-5 and BamD from Rhodothermus marinus. The POTRA5 domain binds BamD between its tetratricopeptide repeats 3 and 4. The interface structural elements are conserved in the Escherichia coli proteins, which allowed structure validation by mutagenesis and disulfide crosslinking in E. coli. Furthermore, the interface is consistent with previously reported mutations that impair BamA-BamD binding. The structure serves as a linchpin to generate a BAM model where POTRA domains and BamD form an elongated periplasmic ring adjacent to the membrane with a central cavity approximately 30 × 60 Å wide. We propose that nascent OMPs bind this periplasmic ring prior to insertion and folding by BAM.

  12. Tradeoff between assessment and control of aquatic invasive species: A case study of sea lamprey management in the St. Marys River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Allocating resources between the gathering of information to guide management actions and implementing those actions presents an inherent tradeoff. This tradeoff is evident for control of the Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the St. Marys River, connecting Lakes Huron and Superior and a major source of parasitic Sea Lampreys to Lake Huron and northern Lake Michigan. Larval Sea Lampreys in the St. Marys River are controlled through the application of Bayluscide, which is applied to areas of high larval density. Bayluscide applications are guided with an annual deepwater electrofishing survey to estimate larval Sea Lamprey density at relatively fine spatial scales. We took a resampling approach to describe the effect of sampling intensity on the success of the larval Sea Lamprey management program and explicitly incorporated the economic tradeoff between assessment and control efforts to maximize numbers of larvae killed in the St. Marys River. When no tradeoff between assessment and control was incorporated, increasing assessment always led to more larvae killed for the same treatment budget. When the tradeoff was incorporated, the sampling intensity that maximized the number of larvae killed depended on the overall budget available. Increased sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under medium to large budgets (US \\$0.4 to \\$2.0 million), and intermediate sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under low budgets. Sea Lamprey control actions based on assessment information outperformed those that were implemented with no assessment under all budget scenarios.

  13. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  14. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  15. Fish community response to dam removal in a Maine coastal river tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Gardner, Cory

    2016-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River in Maine, historically has supported several anadromous fishes including Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated in removal of the lowermost dam (Mill Dam) providing access to 4.7 km of lotic habitat and unimpeded passage into the lentic habitat of Fields Pond. In anticipation of these barrier removals, we initiated a modified before-after-control-impact study, and monitored stream fish assemblages in fixed treatment and reference sites. Electrofishing surveys were conducted twice yearly since 2007. Results indicated that density, biomass, and diversity of the fish assemblage increased at all treatment sites upstream of the 2009 dam removal. No distinct changes in these metrics occurred at reference sites. We documented recolonization and successful reproduction of Atlantic Salmon, Alewife, and Sea Lamprey in previously inaccessible upstream reaches. These results clearly demonstrate that dam removal has enhanced the fish assemblage by providing an undisrupted stream gradient linking a small headwater lake and tributary with a large coastal river, its estuary, and the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Microbial analyses of traditional Italian salami reveal microorganisms transfer from the natural casing to the meat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincenza; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Puglisi, Edoardo; Dallolio, Giuliano; Rebecchi, Annalisa

    2015-08-17

    In this study the bacterial biodiversity, during the maturation process of traditional sausages (Salame Mantovano), produced with two different kinds of casing (hog middle or "Crespone" and hog bung or "Gentile"), was investigated by means of culture-dependent and -independent methods. In order to assess the natural variability linked to the type of casing used in production, the ingredients, as well as ripening conditions, were identical in both productions. The aim of the study was to understand the contribution of casing microflora during sausage ripening by identifying the dominant species and strains. The bacterial ecology of casings and salami at different ripening stages, as determined by plating, revealed higher staphylococci and enterococci counts for Gentile casing and for the entire ripening period of the salami studied. After molecular identification of 219 Lactobacilli and 225 cocci gram positive catalase positive (GPCP) isolates, the species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Some L. sakei and S. saprophyticus strains, coming from casing, were also found in the salami at different times of ripening. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. We also report the first detection, by PCR-DGGE method, of Arcobacter marinus and Brochothrix thermosphacta species in casings and Kokuria salsicia in fresh sausage. Results suggesting that casing can be an important source of bacteria during natural fermentation when starter cultures are not used. PMID:26001060

  17. A review of the literature on the use of Bayluscide in fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sandra E.

    1974-01-01

    In the United States Bayluscide has had multiple uses. The 70% wettable powder has been used in Puerto Rico for snail control and the 5% granular formulation has been tested in Michigan and Wisconsin against freshwater snails serving as inter mediate hosts of the trematode causing swimmers' itch. Bayluscide has also been used in field trials as a fish toxicant. Its most important use in North America, however, has been to control sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the Great Lakes, a necessary prerequisite for the restoration of Great Lakes sport and commercial fisheries. Since 1966 the 5% granular formulation has been used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Department of Environment as a toxicant to survey populations of larval sea lampreys in Great Lakes estuaries and deepwater tributaries. The Canadian Government also uses Bayluscide to control sea lampreys, but in the United States the present registration restricts use to population surveys only. Literature on the mixtures of Bayluscide and the selective lamprey toxicant, TFM, used since 1964 by both the U.S. and Canadian agencies to control larval sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, has been reviewed elsewhere and is not included in this review.

  18. Spatial patterns and light-driven variation of microbial population gene expression in surface waters of the oligotrophic open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Poretsky, Rachel S; Tripp, H James; Montoya, Joseph P; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2010-07-01

    Because bacterioplankton production rates do not vary strongly across vast expanses of the ocean, it is unclear how variability in community structure corresponds with functional variability in the open ocean. We surveyed community transcript functional profiles at eight locations in the open ocean, in both the light and in the dark, using the genomic subsystems approach, to understand variability in gene expression patterns in surface waters. Metatranscriptomes from geographically distinct areas and collected during the day and night shared a large proportion of metabolic functional similarity (74%) at the finest metabolic resolution possible. The variability between metatranscriptomes could be explained by phylogenetic differences between libraries (Mantel test, P < 0.0001). Several key gene expression pathways, including Photosystem I, Photosystem II and ammonium uptake, demonstrated the most variability both geographically and between light and dark. Libraries were dominated by transcripts of the cyanobacterium Prochlorocococcus marinus, where most geographical and diel variability between metatranscriptomes reflected between-station differences in cyanobacterial phototrophic metabolism. Our results demonstrate that active genetic machinery in surface waters of the ocean is dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms and their site-to-site variability, while variability in the remainder of assemblages is dependent on local taxonomic composition.

  19. Microbial degradation of the lamprey larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol in sediment-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Lloyd L.

    1973-01-01

    The selective lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), maintained in the water at concentrations of 1 to 6 I?g/ml for several hours, kills larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in tributaries of the Great Lakes. Because the fate of TFM in the environment is a matter of concern, the interactions of this chemical with river and lake sediments were studied in laboratory experiments. In mixtures of TFM, water, and sediment held in aquariums, the TFM decreased progressively and nearly or completely disappeared in 1 to 4 weeks; concentrations of the fluoride ion increased; and the systems became nontoxic for sea lamprey larvae and goldfish (Carassius auratus). If the reduction in TFM ceased before all of the chemical had disappeared, the process resumed when nutrient broth was added. Loss of TFM from the systems was prevented by the addition of an antiseptic (phenol) and by heat sterilization. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms isolated from stream and lake sediments degraded TFM in nutrient broths. I conclude that TFM is degraded by microorganisms that live in sediment-water systems.

  20. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  1. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  2. Regional differences in size-at-age of the recovering burbot (Lota lota) population in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Tost, J.

    2007-01-01

    The burbot Lota lota population in Lake Erie increased dramatically between 1995 and 2003, due mainly to control of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in the late 1980s. We estimated total length- and weight-at-age at capture for burbot caught in annual gillnet surveys of eastern Lake Erie during August 1994–2003. Mean total length was generally greater for burbot age 4–9 years that were caught in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters of Lake Erie. Similarly, mean weight was greater for burbot at ages 4 through 6 years in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters. Age-9 burbot caught in Ontario waters had greater mean weight and mean total length than did age-9 burbot caught in Pennsylvania waters. One possible explanation for greater length- and weight-at-age for New York burbot may be greater abundance of prey fishes, particularly rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus in New York waters. Total lengths at ages 4–10 years were generally greater for burbot caught in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 than those from published studies of other large lakes in North America that we considered, including for Lake Erie in 1946. The regional differences in size-at-age have important management ramifications, particularly because a commercial fishery targeting burbot has been considered for Ontario waters of Lake Erie.

  3. Historic and modern abundance of wild lean lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior: Implications for restoration goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed in the late 1950s due to overfishing and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. A binational effort to restore the lean morphotype of lake trout began with the stocking of hatchery-reared fish followed by the chemical control of sea lampreys and closure of the commercial fishery. Previous comparisons of the contemporary abundance of wild lean lake trout with that from historic commercial fishery statistics indicate that abundance was higher historically. However, this conclusion may be biased because several factors—the inclusion of siscowet (the “fat” morphotype of lake trout) in the catch statistics, the soak time of nets, seasonal effects on catch per effort, and the confounding effects of effort targeted at lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis—were not accounted for. We developed new indices of historic lean lake trout abundance that correct for these biases and compared them with the assessment data from 1984 to 1998 in Michigan waters of Lake Superior. The modern (1984–1998) abundance of wild lean lake trout is at least as high as that during 1929–1943 in six of eight management areas but lower in one area. Measures to promote and protect naturally reproducing populations have been more successful than previously realized.

  4. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane Takayama; Anderson Luiz-Ferreira; Felipe Meira de-Faria; Ana Cristina Alves de Almeida; Ricardo Jose Dunder; Luis Paulo Manzo; Eduardo Augusto Rabelo Socca; Leonia Maria Batista; Marcos Jos e Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained from Ros-marinus officinalis (R. officinalis) in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in vivo. Methods: The antioxidant properties of the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis were evaluated against gastric injury induced by absolute ethanol. Gastric tissues were pre-pared to enzymatic assays. The levels of glutathione, lipid peroxides, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured. Results: Ethanol produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in the stomach with ulcerative lesion of (140.2 ± 37.2) mm2. In animals pretreated with essential oil of R. officinalis (50 mg/kg, p.o.), a significant inhibition of mucosal injury of (21.2 ± 7.1) mm2 (84%inhibition) was observed. The essential oil of R. officinalis protected the gastric mucosa probably by modulating the activities of the enzymes (superoxide dismutase and gluta-thione peroxidase) and increasing or maintaining the levels of glutathione. In addition, lipid peroxides levels were reduced. The essential oil of R. officinalis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and the main constituents were cineole (28.5%), camphor (27.7%) and alpha-pinene (21.3%). Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.

  5. Crystal structure and functional characterization of a light-driven chloride pump having an NTQ motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuglae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Cha, Jeong Seok; Kim, Hoyoung; Lee, Weontae; Kim, Jihyun F.; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    A novel light-driven chloride-pumping rhodopsin (ClR) containing an ‘NTQ motif' in its putative ion conduction pathway has been discovered and functionally characterized in a genomic analysis study of a marine bacterium. Here we report the crystal structure of ClR from the flavobacterium Nonlabens marinus S1-08T determined under two conditions at 2.0 and 1.56 Å resolutions. The structures reveal two chloride-binding sites, one around the protonated Schiff base and the other on a cytoplasmic loop. We identify a ‘3 omega motif' formed by three non-consecutive aromatic amino acids that is correlated with the B–C loop orientation. Detailed ClR structural analyses with functional studies in E. coli reveal the chloride ion transduction pathway. Our results help understand the molecular mechanism and physiological role of ClR and provide a structural basis for optogenetic applications. PMID:27554809

  6. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  7. Thyroglobulin Represents a Novel Molecular Architecture of Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Guillaume; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Lorin, Thibault; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Tohmé, Marie; Deléage, Gilbert; Demeneix, Barbara; Arvan, Peter; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormones modulate not only multiple functions in vertebrates (energy metabolism, central nervous system function, seasonal changes in physiology, and behavior) but also in some non-vertebrates where they control critical post-embryonic developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Despite their obvious biological importance, the thyroid hormone precursor protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), has been experimentally investigated only in mammals. This may bias our view of how thyroid hormones are produced in other organisms. In this study we searched genomic databases and found Tg orthologs in all vertebrates including the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We cloned a full-size Tg coding sequence from western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comparisons between the representative mammal, amphibian, teleost fish, and basal vertebrate indicate that all of the different domains of Tg, as well as Tg regional structure, are conserved throughout the vertebrates. Indeed, in Xenopus, zebrafish, and lamprey Tgs, key residues, including the hormonogenic tyrosines and the disulfide bond-forming cysteines critical for Tg function, are well conserved despite overall divergence of amino acid sequences. We uncovered upstream sequences that include start codons of zebrafish and Xenopus Tgs and experimentally proved that these are full-length secreted proteins, which are specifically recognized by antibodies against rat Tg. By contrast, we have not been able to find any orthologs of Tg among non-vertebrate species. Thus, Tg appears to be a novel protein elaborated as a single event at the base of vertebrates and virtually unchanged thereafter. PMID:27311711

  8. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  9. THE CURATIVE EFFECT ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTION OF IMPACTED WISDOM TEETH BY MINIMALLY INVASIVE BONED BICUSPIDIZATION IN BASIC HOSPITAL%微创去骨分牙法拔除下颌阻生智齿在基层医院应用的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史勇勇; 邓智明; 周仕宏; 张铁柱; 彭柏松

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effect analysis of extraction of impacted wisdom teeth by high speed turbine bodkin minimally invasive boned bicuspidization in basic hospital .Methods 164 outpatient service cases of Low ambush third molars were collected at The Red Cross Hospital of Lianzhou City from May 2013 to May 2015.All the cases were randomly divided into two groups , minimally invasivation group ( MI group) including 82 ca-ses and Conventional surgery group ( CS group ) including 82 cases.Minimally invasive boned bicuspidization was choosed in MI group , and traditional chisel was choosed in CS group .The duration of operations were recorded in all cases.Followed out-patient review at 1, 3, 7 day after operation.We compared the duration of operation , pain, limitation of mouth opening , swelling degree , and the incidence rates of alveolities and congestion and subcutaneous emphysema between two groups .Results The average duration of operation of MI group was less than CS group ( p0.05).The degree of mouth opening limitation of MI group is less than CS group at 1, 3, 7 day after operation.The incidence rates of alveolities congestion and subcutaneous emphyse-ma were no difference between two groups ( p>0.05 ) .Conclusion Extraction of impacted wisdom teeth by mini-mally invasive boned bicuspidization can shorten the duration of operation , and reduce the postoperative complica-tions, and can be applied in basic hospitals .%目的:探讨高速涡轮钻微创去骨分牙法拔除下颌阻生智齿在基层医院应用的疗效。方法收集连州市红十字会医院2013年5月~2015年5月门诊低位埋伏第三磨牙共164例,按随机数字法分为两组:微创组82例;常规组82例。微创组应用高速涡轮钻微创去骨分牙法,常规组应用凿骨劈冠法。所有手术病例均记录手术时间,并于术后第1、3、7天复查。对比分析两组患者手术时间,疼痛、张口受限、肿胀程度,淤血、皮下气

  10. Paracoccidioidomicose: estudo radiológico e pulmonar de 58 casos Pulmonary and radiological studies in 58 paracoccidioidomycosis patients

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    E.P. Campos

    1991-08-01

    in 18 patients. The pulmonary function revealed: normal spyrographic findings in 17, pure obstructive type in 32 and mixed form in 9 of them. Hyperventilation was described in 54 individues and all of them showed an increasing of the alveole-arterial difference. Pa02 less than 80 mm/Hg observed in 36 of them. Statistical analysis demonstrated significative association between clinical evolution and radiological interpretation. Similar data were obtained in radiology evaluations, clinical evolutive studies and pulmonary functions described in these patients. The granulomatous reaction due to Paracoccidioidomycosis, in heavy smokers patients, gave origin to the alterations in small airways predisposing the interalveolar dissemination an impaired alveole-arterial diffusion.

  11. 博来霉素致肺纤维化大鼠不同时间点吸人STAT1反义寡核苷酸的疗效比较%Therapeutic effects of aerosolized signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 antisense oligonucleotide administered at different time points on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis: experiment with rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 曾鸣; 朱晨; 王文军; 湛晓勤; 范贤明

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨雾化吸入信号转导和转录活化因子1(STAT1)反义寡核苷酸(ASON)干预肺纤维化的最佳给药时机.方法 Wistar雌性大鼠25只随机均分为博来霉素(BLM)组、ASON 0 d组、ASON 7 d组、ASON 14 d组和生理盐水(NS)组,前4组气管内灌注BLM建立肺纤维化模型,NS组气管内灌注NS.ASON 0、7、14 d组分别于气管内灌注BLM后立即、第7和14天开始雾化吸入STATI ASON;NS组和BLM组雾化吸入NS.气管内灌注BLM后第28天处死各组大鼠,取肺组织分别行HE和Masson染色,观察肺泡炎和纤维化情况并评分;酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)测定支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中转化生长因子β(TGF-β)和肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)浓度.结果 肺组织病理学观察显示ASON 0 d组大鼠肺泡炎和肺纤维化程度明显轻于BLM组和ASON 14 d组,肺泡炎评分(1.80±0.84)和肺纤维化评分(2.60±0.55)均明显低于BLM组(2.40±0.55、4.40±0.55)、ASON 7 d组(2.20±0.45、3.00 ±0.71)和ASON 14 d组(2.20±0.84、4.00±1.00)(均P<0.05);ASON 7 d组肺纤维化评分也明显低于BLM组和ASON 14 d组(均P<0.05).ASON 0 d组BALF中TGF-β与TNF-α浓度[(48.11±3.46)pg/ml、(1.93±0.14)ng/ml]均明显低于BLM组[(57.67±2.46)pg/ml、(2.45±0.25)ng/ml,均P<0.05],TGF-β浓度明显低于ASON 7 d组[(51.42±3.57)pg/ml]和ASON 14 d组[(55.83±1.79)pg/ml](均P<0.05);ASON 7 d组BALF中TGF-β浓度也明显低于BLM组和ASON 14d组(均P<0.05).结论 早期雾化吸入STAT1 ASON对BLM致肺纤维化大鼠的肺纤维化形成有明显阻抑作用,用药越早效果越好,提示雾化吸入STAT1 ASON有可能成为肺纤维化的早期干预手段.%Objective To investigate the curative effects of inhaling signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) on alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis and the best administration time. Methods Twenty-five adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: BLM group, undergoing intra

  12. Efficacy of immunosoppressive therapy and steroid sparing effect in interstitial lung disease associated to antisynthetase syndrome

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    G. De Marchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL in patients with interstitial lung disease associated to antisynthetase syndrome. Methods: We describe 5 patients, anti-Jo1 positive, with interstitial lung disease (lung fibrosis and/or diffusion capacity of CO <80%. Patients were monitored with lung function tests every 6 months, with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT every 12 months, and with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL at baseline and in the subsequent follow-up. Patients were treated as follows: a azathioprine with colchicine, or cyclosporine alone b cyclophosphamide when high neutrophil or eosinophil count on BAL was observed. Only low-dose steroids were used for mild muscular or articular involvement. Results: Pulmonary involvement remained stable in all patients at months +24. Lung function remained unchanged compared to the baseline evaluation; HRCT was stable in patients with fibrosis and no progression into fibrosis was observed in patients with ground glass areas at baseline. Bacterial pneumonia occurred in one patient treated with cyclophosphamide and resolved after antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Clinical manifestations, instrumental tests and BAL may be of value to choice the best immunosuppressive therapy in the single case. An early less aggressive approach (azathioprine with colchicine, or cyclosporine alone may be useful. BAL could be performed when a progression of the lung involvement is demonstrated in the subsequent follow-up. Cyclophosphamide may be a valid alternative treatment in the presence of a neutrophilic or eosinophilic alveolitis. Efficacy and safety of the aforementioned immunosuppressive approach were observed in our series, avoiding prolonged high-dose steroid administration.

  13. 急性间质性肺炎%Acute interstitial pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 谢风

    2008-01-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia is clinically characterized by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is different from other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. Histopathological finding is diffuse alveolar damage. Acute interstitial pneumonia radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome and is considered to represent a part of idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbation and accelerated forms of crytogenic fibrosing alveolitis. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues.%急性间质性肺炎是一种临床上引起快速呼吸衰竭的间质性肺疾病,可区别于其他慢性间质性肺炎,又称为Hamman-Rich综合征,主要发生在没有肺基础疾病的患者.组织病理学表现为弥漫性肺损伤.急性间质性肺炎的放射学和生理学改变与急性呼吸窘迫综合征相似,并且被认为代表了一小部分特发性急性呼吸窘迫综合征.急性间质性肺炎经常与其他快速进展的间质性肺炎相混淆,特别是继发性急性间质性肺炎、急性加重的隐源性机化性肺炎.本文阐述了急性间质性肺炎相关的临床和病理学问题.

  14. The highly reduced and fragmented mitochondrial genome of the early-branching dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina shares characteristics with both apicomplexan and dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamovits, Claudio H; Saldarriaga, Juan F; Larocque, Allen; Keeling, Patrick J

    2007-09-14

    The mitochondrial genome and the expression of the genes within it have evolved to be highly unusual in several lineages. Within alveolates, apicomplexans and dinoflagellates share the most reduced mitochondrial gene content on record, but differ from one another in organisation and function. To clarify how these characteristics originated, we examined mitochondrial genome form and expression in a key lineage that arose close to the divergence of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, Oxyrrhis marina. We show that Oxyrrhis is a basal member of the dinoflagellate lineage whose mitochondrial genome has some unique characteristics while sharing others with apicomplexans or dinoflagellates. Specifically, Oxyrrhis has the smallest gene complement known, with several rRNA fragments and only two protein coding genes, cox1 and a cob-cox3 fusion. The genome appears to be highly fragmented, like that of dinoflagellates, but genes are frequently arranged as tandem copies, reminiscent of the repeating nature of the Plasmodium genome. In dinoflagellates and Oxyrrhis, genes are found in many arrangements, but the Oxyrrhis genome appears to be more structured, since neighbouring genes or gene fragments are invariably the same: cox1 and the cob-cox3 fusion were never found on the same genomic fragment. Analysing hundreds of cDNAs for both genes and circularized mRNAs from cob-cox3 showed that neither uses canonical start or stop codons, although a UAA terminator is created in the cob-cox3 fusion mRNA by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation. mRNAs from both genes also use a novel 5' oligo(U) cap. Extensive RNA editing is characteristic of dinoflagellates, but we find no editing in Oxyrrhis. Overall, the combination of characteristics found in the Oxyrrhis genome allows us to plot the sequence of many events that led to the extreme organisation of apicomplexan and dinoflalgellate mitochondrial genomes.

  15. High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Chest X-Ray Findings of Interstitial Lung Disease Related to Systemic Sclerosis

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    V. Sheikh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Interstitial lung disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with scleroderma. For this reason an early diagnosis of lung involvement is warranted. The best approach to detect pulmonary disease particularly alveolitis (inflammatory NSIP as a reversible phase is controversial. The aim of this study is estimating the advantage of HRCT as a noninvasive screening test to detect the pattern of ILD related to systemic sclerosis.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 52 patients with scleroderma who referred to rheumatologic medical center from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated for ILD by the use of history, physical examination, CXR and HRCT. Finally, all the data were analyzed using SPSS13 software.Results: HRCT was normal in 21 patients (40.4%, and NSIP in 19 patients (36.5% and UIP in 12 patients (23.1% were reported. CXR was normal in 19 (36.5% and mild reticular pattern in 15 (28.8%, overt reticular pattern in 14 (26.9% and honey combing in 4 (7.7% were seen. HRCT findings were abnormal in 6(11.5% patients without dyspnea, 22(42.3% without cough, 20(38.4% without crackle in lung auscultation and 26(50% without clubbing in physical examination. In 2(3.8% patients no pulmonary signs and symptoms UIP were reported.Conclusion: HRCT is a noninvasive method to detect lung involvement in early phases independent of presence or absence of pulmonary signs and symptoms.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:16-22

  16. mRNA Expression of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor from A Single Intratracheal Instillation of Papain-induced Emphysema in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU; Juan(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Snider G L Boston M A Kleinerman J et al.The definition of emphysema.Report of a national heart lung and blood institute.Division of lung disease workshop.Am Rev Respir Dis 1985 132:182[2]杜敏捷 王辰 曹大德等.慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺间质纤维化的病理学研究.中华结核和呼吸杂志 1999 22:30[3]单兆运 陈治安 马文富等.慢性阻塞性肺疾病的光镜、电镜及免疫病理研究.中华结核和呼吸杂志 1990 13:311[4]Kobrle V Hurych J Halusa R et al.Changes in pulmonary connective tissue after a single intratracheal instillation of papain in the rat.Am Rev Respir Dis 1982 125:239[5]Gospodarowicz D.Fibroblast growth factor chemical structure and biologic function.Clin Orthop Relat Res 1990 257:231[6]Sannes P L Khosla J Johnson S et al.Basic fibroblast growth factor in fibrosing alveolitis induced by oxygen stress.Chest 1996 109 (Suppl):44[7]Jay M Schlessinger J Graig A et al.FGFR tyrosine kinases molecular analysis and signal transduction.Biochem Biophy Acta 1992 1135:185[8]Edgar C Ronald H Phillip J et al.Remodeling of alveolar walls after elastase treatment of hamsters.Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998 158:555

  17. A unique protein phosphatase with kelch-like domains (PPKL in Plasmodium modulates ookinete differentiation, motility and invasion.

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    David S Guttery

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation (catalysed by kinases and phosphatases, respectively are post-translational modifications that play key roles in many eukaryotic signalling pathways, and are often deregulated in a number of pathological conditions in humans. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium, functional insights into its kinome have only recently been achieved, with over half being essential for blood stage development and another 14 kinases being essential for sexual development and mosquito transmission. However, functions for any of the plasmodial protein phosphatases are unknown. Here, we use reverse genetics in the rodent malaria model, Plasmodium berghei, to examine the role of a unique protein phosphatase containing kelch-like domains (termed PPKL from a family related to Arabidopsis BSU1. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the family of BSU1-like proteins including PPKL is encoded in the genomes of land plants, green algae and alveolates, but not in other eukaryotic lineages. Furthermore, PPKL was observed in a distinct family, separate to the most closely-related phosphatase family, PP1. In our genetic approach, C-terminal GFP fusion with PPKL showed an active protein phosphatase preferentially expressed in female gametocytes and ookinetes. Deletion of the endogenous ppkl gene caused abnormal ookinete development and differentiation, and dissociated apical microtubules from the inner-membrane complex, generating an immotile phenotype and failure to invade the mosquito mid-gut epithelium. These observations were substantiated by changes in localisation of cytoskeletal tubulin and actin, and the micronemal protein CTRP in the knockout mutant as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Finally, increased mRNA expression of dozi, a RNA helicase vital to zygote development was observed in ppkl(- mutants, with global phosphorylation studies of ookinete differentiation from 1.5-24 h post-fertilisation indicating major changes

  18. [Headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, O

    1976-01-01

    Headache is an alarm symptom, whether there is an organic disease (lesional headache) or a perturbation of one of the various functions of the head (functional headache). Lesional headaches follow a sinusitis or an arthrosis, or accompany a "temporal arteritis of Horton". Functional headaches include several varieties. 1. Trigemellar neuralgia. 2. Vascular algia originating from the basal arteries, the large cerebral venous sinuses or the branches of the external carotid. Among these are: a) headaches due to a dilatation of the internal wall, causing "Horton headache", migrain-like psychosomatic migraine and hormonal migraines (premenstrual, menstrual, menopausal or linked to the use of contraceptive pills); b) headaches caused by an angiospasm of the arteriole, which is the case in exposure to the cold, in traumatic headaches (malfunction of temporomandibular articulation, dry alveolitis), in psychosomatic angiospastic algias and in ethmoidal artery algias previously described by the author in 1949 (Godin's disease). 3. Headaches due to psychic hypertension. 4. Postconcussional psychogenic headaches. 5. Neurotic headaches. The author gives a detailed description of the subjective symptoms in each case, including localisation, form, intensity, duration course and associated phenomenons. This facilitates greatly the differential diagnosis and the choice of complementary examinations. Necessary biological investigations should be performed (e.g. hormonal balance). One should however avoid to increase the number of complementary examinations which would only delay treatment and would expose patients to somatisation. Furthermore, in each case drug treatment, periarterial infiltration technics of the temporal, internal frontal, facial, mastoid and occipital arteries are described. The necessity of questioning the patient at length and to listen to him to enable him to verbalise conscious conflicts is emphasized. A serious medicopsychological examination and a relaxation

  19. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Presence of multiple lesion types with vastly different microenvironments in C3HeB/FeJ mice following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Irwin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effective animal models that accurately reflect the pathological progression of pulmonary tuberculosis are needed to screen and evaluate novel tuberculosis drugs and drug regimens. Pulmonary disease in humans is characterized by a number of heterogeneous lesion types that reflect differences in cellular composition and organization, extent of encapsulation, and degree of caseous necrosis. C3HeB/FeJ mice have been increasingly used to model tuberculosis infection because they produce hypoxic, well-defined granulomas exhibiting caseous necrosis following aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A comprehensive histopathological analysis revealed that C3HeB/FeJ mice develop three morphologically distinct lesion types in the lung that differ with respect to cellular composition, degree of immunopathology and control of bacterial replication. Mice displaying predominantly the fulminant necrotizing alveolitis lesion type had significantly higher pulmonary bacterial loads and displayed rapid and severe immunopathology characterized by increased mortality, highlighting the pathological role of an uncontrolled granulocytic response in the lung. Using a highly sensitive novel fluorescent acid-fast stain, we were able to visualize the spatial distribution and location of bacteria within each lesion type. Animal models that better reflect the heterogeneity of lesion types found in humans will permit more realistic modeling of drug penetration into solid caseous necrotic lesions and drug efficacy testing against metabolically distinct bacterial subpopulations. A more thorough understanding of the pathological progression of disease in C3HeB/FeJ mice could facilitate modulation of the immune response to produce the desired pathology, increasing the utility of this animal model.