Sample records for alveolate perkinsus marinus

  1. Transfection of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. (United States)

    Fernández-Robledo, José A; Lin, Zhuoer; Vasta, Gerardo R


    Ongoing efforts for sequencing the genome of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, together with functional genomic initiatives, have continued to provide invaluable information about genes and metabolic pathways that not only will increase our understanding of its biology, but also have the potential to reveal useful targets for intervention. The lack of molecular tools for the functional characterization of genes of interest, however, has hindered progress in this regard. Here we report the development and validation of transfection methodology for this parasite. We first selected from our P. marinus EST collection a highly expressed gene, which we designated "MOE" (PmMOE), to which we fused at the C-terminus the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene (pPmMOE-GFP). The exogenous DNA was introduced into the trophozoite stage of the parasite by electroporation using the Nucleofector technology. The transfection efficiency was 37.8% with fluorescence detected as early as 14 h after electroporation, with the transfectants still remaining fluorescent after 8 months even in the absence of drug selection. The 5' flanking region was essential for transcription; constructs with 100 and 204 bp flanking the transcription start site also drove transcription effectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses was consistent with integration by non-homologous recombination. This transfection technique, the first one reported for a member of the Perkinsozoa, provides a new tool for studies of gene regulation and expression, protein targeting, and protein-protein interactions, and should significantly contribute to gain further insight into the biology of Perkinsus spp.

  2. Signal recognition particle RNA in dinoflagellates and the Perkinsid Perkinsus marinus. (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Rosenblad, Magnus A; Dungan, Christopher F; Lin, Senjie


    In dinoflagellates and perkinsids, the molecular structure of the protein translocating machinery is unclear. Here, we identified several types of full-length signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA genes from Karenia brevis (dinoflagellate) and Perkinsus marinus (perkinsid). We also identified the four SRP S-domain proteins, but not the two Alu domain proteins, from P. marinus and several dinoflagellates. We mapped both ends of SRP RNA transcripts from K. brevis and P. marinus, and obtained the 3' end from four other dinoflagellates. The lengths of SRP RNA are predicted to be ∼260-300 nt in dinoflagellates and 280-285 nt in P. marinus. Although these SRP RNA sequences are substantially variable, the predicted structures are similar. The genomic organization of the SRP RNA gene differs among species. In K. brevis, this gene is located downstream of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, either as SL RNA-SRP RNA-tRNA gene tandem repeats, or within a SL RNA-SRP RNA-tRNA-U6-5S rRNA gene cluster. In other dinoflagellates, SRP RNA does not cluster with SL RNA or 5S rRNA genes. The majority of P. marinus SRP RNA genes array as tandem repeats without the above-mentioned small RNA genes. Our results capture a snapshot of a potentially complex evolutionary history of SRP RNA in alveolates.

  3. Numerical Quantification of Perkinsus Marinus in the American Oyster Crassostrea virginicata (Gmelin 1791) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) by Modern Stereology (United States)

    Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...


    A colorimetric microbicidal assay was adapted, optimized and applied in experiments to characterize the in vitro capacity of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite causing a highly destructive disease...


    Perkinsus marinus, a pathogen of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is transmitted directly among oysters. Previous studies found viable P. marinus parasites in the feces and pseudofeces of oysters within hours of injection with parasites, suggesting that the parasite ...


    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  7. Identification of MMV Malaria Box inhibitors of Perkinsus marinus using an ATP-based bioluminescence assay.

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    Yesmalie Alemán Resto

    Full Text Available "Dermo" disease caused by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus (Perkinsozoa is one of the main obstacles to the restoration of oyster populations in the USA. Perkinsus spp. are also a concern worldwide because there are limited approaches to intervention against the disease. Based on the phylogenetic affinity between the Perkinsozoa and Apicomplexa, we exposed Perkinsus trophozoites to the Medicines for Malaria Venture Malaria Box, an open access compound library comprised of 200 drug-like and 200 probe-like compounds that are highly active against the erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum. Using a final concentration of 20 µM, we found that 4 days after exposure 46% of the compounds were active against P. marinus trophozoites. Six compounds with IC50 in the µM range were used to compare the degree of susceptibility in vitro of eight P. marinus strains from the USA and five Perkinsus species from around the world. The three compounds, MMV666021, MMV665807 and MMV666102, displayed a uniform effect across Perkinsus strains and species. Both Perkinsus marinus isolates and Perkinsus spp. presented different patterns of response to the panel of compounds tested, supporting the concept of strain/species variability. Here, we expanded the range of compounds available for inhibiting Perkinsus proliferation in vitro and characterized Perkinsus phenotypes based on their resistance to six compounds. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the context of oyster management. The Perkinsus system offers the potential for investigating the mechanism of action of the compounds of interest.

  8. Partial inhibition of hemocyte agglutination by Lathyrus odoratus lectin in Crassotrea virginica infected with Perkinsus marinus

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    Thomas C. Cheng


    Full Text Available Quantitative determinations of agglutination of hemocytes from oysters, Crassostrea virginica, by the Lathyrus odoratus lectin at five concentrations revealed that clumping of hemocytes from oysters infected with Perkinsus marinus is partially inhibited. Although the nature of the hemocyte surface saccharide, which is not D(+-glucose, D(+mannose, or alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, remains to be determined, it may be concluded that this molecule also occurs on the surface of P. marinus. It has been demonstrated that the panning technique (Ford et al. 1990 is qualitatively as effective for determining the presence of P. marinus in C. virginica as the hemolymph assay method (Gauthier & Fisher 1990.

  9. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México. (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A


    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  10. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates (United States)

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.


    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.


    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  12. Polymorphism at the ITS and NTS Loci of Perkinsus marinus isolated from cultivated oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit, Mexico and phylogentic relationship to P. marinus along the Atlantic Coast. (United States)

    Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Arzul, I; Carrasco, N; Gutiérrez-Rivera, J N; Llera-Herrera, R; Vázquez-Juárez, R


    Prevalence of the protozoan Perkinsus spp. in the gills of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from two estuaries in Nayarit, Mexico, was measured. The protozoan was identified by PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA of Perkinsus spp. The pathogen was found in 92% of oysters from Boca de Camichín and 77% of oysters from Pozo Chino. ITS sequences characterized from C. corteziensis showed 96-100% similarity to Perkinsus marinus. The most frequent ITS sequence (GenBank JQ266236) had 100% identity with the ITS locus of P. marinus from New Jersey, Maryland, South Carolina and Texas, and the second most frequent observed sequence (GenBank JQ266240) was 100% identical to ITS sequences of P. marinus from New Jersey, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Bahía Kino, Sonora, Mexico. The 14 sequences from the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) showed 98% similarity to P. marinus from Texas. The most frequent polymorphism identified was at nucleotide 446 of the ITS region; however, the NTS showed the highest nucleotide diversity, thereby suggesting that this region is suitable for genotype identification. Moreover, the most conserved ITS marker is better for species-specific diagnosis. Both the ITS and NTS sequences of P. marinus obtained from C. corteziensis were grouped in two clades, identifying two allelic variants of P. marinus.

  13. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico. (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca


    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed.

  14. Effects of air-exposure gradients on spatial infection patterns of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. (United States)

    Malek, Jennafer C; Breitburg, Denise L


    Spatial distributions of species can be shaped by factors such as parasites, mortality, and reproduction, all of which may be influenced by differences in physical factors along environmental gradients. In nearshore tidal waters, an elevational gradient in aerial exposure during low tide can shape the spatial distributions of benthic marine organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an ecologically and economically important species that can dominate both subtidal and intertidal habitats along the east coast of the USA. Our goal was to determine whether prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus (the causative agent of Dermo disease) infections vary along intertidal to subtidal gradients during summer. We used (1) field experiments conducted at 4 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and a Virginia coastal bay, (2) a controlled air-exposure experiment, and (3) field surveys from 7 sites ranging from Maine to North Carolina to test for effects of tidal exposure on infection. Results from our field surveys suggested that high intertidal oysters tend to have higher infection prevalence than subtidal oysters, but there was no effect on infection intensity. Field experiments rarely yielded significant effects of tidal exposure on infection prevalence and intensity. Overall, our study shows that exposure to air may not be a strong driver of infection patterns in this host-parasite system.

  15. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

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    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  16. The combined influence of sub-optimal temperature and salinity on the in vitro viability of Perkinsus marinus, a protistan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Casas, S.M.; Gayle, W.; La Peyre, Jerome F.


    Perkinsus marinus is a major cause of mortality in eastern oysters along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. It is also well documented that temperature and salinity are the primary environmental factors affecting P. marinus viability and proliferation. However, little is known about the effects of combined sub-optimal temperatures and salinities on P. marinus viability. This in vitro study examined those effects by acclimating P. marinus at three salinities (7, 15, 25. ppt) to 10 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures generally reached in the Gulf of Mexico, and to 2 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures reached along the mid-Atlantic coasts and by measuring changes in cell viability and density on days 1, 30, 60 and 90 following acclimation. Cell viability and density were also measured in 7. ppt cultures acclimated to each temperature and then transferred to 3.5. ppt. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with combined low temperature and salinity, indicating that there is clearly a synergistic effect. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with both low temperature and salinity after 30. days (3.5. ppt, 2 ??C: 0% viability), 60. days (3.5. ppt, 10 ??C: 0% viability) and 90. days (7. ppt, 2 ??C: 0.6 ?? 0.7%; 7. ppt, 10 ??C: 0.2 ?? 0.2%). ?? 2010 .

  17. Diversity of extracellular proteins during the transition from the ‘proto-apicomplexan’ alveolates to the apicomplexan obligate parasites

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    Templeton, Thomas J.


    The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans – namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis ; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus ; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes , as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell–cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate – guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships – in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans.

  18. Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species. (United States)

    Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani


    This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described.

  19. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Costa, Carolina Pereira; de Araújo, Jaíse Paiva Bragante; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Wainberg, Alexandre Alter


    Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE) Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluated Perkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state. Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%), but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%), and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  20. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil

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    Patricia Mirella da Silva


    Full Text Available Abstract Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus andPerkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluatedPerkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state.Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%, but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%, and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  1. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus. (United States)

    Cold, Emma R; Freyria, Nastasia J; Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández Robledo, José A


    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1) Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2) Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3) Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  2. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

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    Emma R Cold

    Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  3. Comparison of protein expression profiles between three Perkinsus spp., protozoan parasites of molluscs, through 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Fernández-Boo, S; Chicano-Gálvez, E; Alhama, J; Barea, J L; Villalba, A; Cao, A


    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of a wide range of marine molluscs worldwide, some of which have been responsible for heavy mollusc mortalities and dramatic economic losses. This study was performed with the aim of increasing the knowledge of Perkinsus spp. proteome. Proteins extracted from in vitro cultured cells of three species of this genus, P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki, were analysed using 2D electrophoresis. Four gels from each species were produced. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons among gels were performed with Proteamweaver software. Cluster analysis grouped the four gels of each Perkinsus sp.; furthermore, P. marinus and P. olseni gels were grouped in a cluster different from P. chesapeaki. Around 2000 spots of each species were considered, from which 213 spots were common to the 3 species; P. chesapeaki and P. marinus shared 310 spots, P. chesapeaki and P. olseni shared 315 spots and P. marinus and P. olseni shared 242 spots. A number of spots were exclusive of each Perkinsus species: 1161 spots were exclusive of P. chesapeaki, 1124 of P. olseni and 895 of P. marinus. A total of 84 spots, including common and species-specific ones, were excised from the gels and analysed using MALDI-TOF and nESI-IT (MS/MS) techniques. Forty-two spots were successfully sequenced, from which 28 were annotated, most of them clustered into electron transport, oxidative stress and detoxification, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, metabolic process and proteolysis.

  4. Identification of Perkinsus-like parasite in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum using DNA molecular marker at ITS region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Genomic DNA was extracted from hypnospores of Perkinsus-like parasite of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected at the fishing grounds in Huanghai Sea coast Shicheng Island and East China Sea coast Ningbo, China. The internal transcribed spacer(ITS)in rDNA was PCR-amplified, cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of five Perkinsus species in GenBank. The fragment amplified from DNA of parasite of either Shicheng Island or Ningbo contained 649 bp, including partial ssrRNA(51 bp) and ITS(+5.8 S)(598 bp) regions. The ITS(+5.8S) sequences of Perkinsus-like parasite of both Shicheng Island and Ningbo were all 99% identical to those ofPerkinsus atlanticus,and were not more than 95% identical to those of other four Perkinsus species including P. marinus, P.andrewsi, P. qugwadi and P. medierraneus.The ITS (+5.8S) sequence of Perkinsus-like parasite of Shicheng Island was 99% identical to that of Ningbo. These facts about nucleotide sequences suggested that the Perkinsus-like parasite in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum collected from either the Huanghai Sea coast or the East China Sea coast was P. atlanticus, and might reflect P. atlanticus strains of distinct geographic distribution.

  5. Development and applications of Ray's fluid thioglycollate media for detection and manipulation of Perkinsus spp. pathogens of marine molluscs. (United States)

    Dungan, Christopher F; Bushek, David


    During the early 1950s, Sammy M. Ray discovered that his high-salt modification of fluid thioglycollate sterility test medium caused dramatic in vitro enlargement of Perkinsus marinus (=Dermocystidium marinum) cells that coincidentally infected several experimentally cultured oyster gill tissue explants. Subsequent testing confirmed that the enlarged cells among some oyster tissues incubated in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) were those of that newly described oyster pathogen. Non-proliferative in vitro enlargement, cell wall thickening, and subsequent blue-black iodine-staining of hypertrophied trophozoites (=hypnospores=prezoosporangia) following incubation in RFTM are unique characteristics of confirmed members of the protistan genus Perkinsus. A number of in vitro assays and manipulations with RFTM have been developed for selective detection and enumeration of Perkinsus sp. cells in tissues of infected molluscs, and in environmental samples. RFTM-enlarged Perkinsus sp. cells from tissues of infected molluscs also serve as useful inocula for initiating in vitro isolate cultures, and cells of several Perkinsus spp. from both in vitro cultures and infected mollusc tissues may be induced to zoosporulate by brief incubations in RFTM. DNAs from RFTM-enlarged Perkinsus sp. cells provide useful templates for PCR amplifications, and for sequencing and other assays to differentiate and identify the detected Perkinsus species. We review the history and components of fluid thioglycollate and RFTM media, and the characteristics of numerous RFTM-based diagnostic assays that have been developed and used worldwide since 1952 for detection and identification of Perkinsus spp. in host mollusc tissues and environmental samples. We also review applications of RFTM for in vitro manipulations and purifications of Perkinsus sp. pathogen cells.

  6. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination]. (United States)

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D


    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety.

  7. [Misting-fountain-alveolitis]. (United States)

    Koschel, D; Sennekamp, J; Schurz, C; Müller-Wening, D


    A 22-year-old woman developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to a misting fountain at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was made by detection of serum antibodies against the fountain water, by culture of Bacillus subtilis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor mucedo, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the water, and by detection of specific IgG antibodies against Bacillus subtilis and the Mucores. The diagnosis was confirmed by a restrictive lung function pattern, and a highly increased total cell count with a lymphocytosis of 39 % in the bronchoalveolar lavage. An inhalation challenge with the misting fountain resulted in a positive reaction. Because this humidifier system has recently become widespread at home, clinicians should be aware of this specific type of EAA which may be called "misting fountain alveolitis".

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  9. [Wood chip alveolitis]. (United States)

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M


    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  10. Arcobacter marinus sp. nov. (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Byung Cheol


    A slightly curved, rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CL-S1(T), was isolated from near Dokdo, an island in the East Sea, Korea. Cells were Gram-negative and grew well under either aerobic or microaerobic conditions. Analyses of the 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequences of strain CL-S1(T) revealed an affiliation with the genus Arcobacter within the class Epsilonproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequences showed that strain CL-S1(T) formed a robust clade with Arcobacter halophilus LA31B(T), with sequence similarities of 96.1 and 88.2 %, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CL-S1(T) and A. halophilus DSM 18005(T) was 44 %, indicating that they represent genomically distinct species. Strain CL-S1(T) grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 3-5 % NaCl. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c (28.4 %), C(16 : 0) (26.2 %) and C(18 : 1)omega7c (22.3 %). The DNA G+C content of strain CL-S1(T) was 28 mol%. Strain CL-S1(T) differed phenotypically from A. halophilus LA31B(T) based on its ability to grow aerobically at 10 degrees C and inability to grow under anaerobic conditions. Based on the data presented, strain CL-S1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Arcobacter, for which the name Arcobacter marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-S1(T) (=KCCM 90072(T) =JCM 15502(T)).

  11. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains. (United States)

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich


    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  12. [Recent advances in extrinsic allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis), especially humidifier lung, has been more frequently diagnosed over the last decades, whereas farmer's lung has decreased over the same time period. Today two types of the chronic course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be distinguished. The recurrent chronic course with a good prognosis may be differentiated from the insidious course with a poor prognosis by means of different histological patterns (UIP, NSIP, BOOP pattern). The characteristic neutrophilic infiltration of the lung in the insidious course cannot be detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) methods. Furthermore, lymphocytosis in the BAL can be absent or present at a low level. The CD4/CD8 ratio is not always decreased and may be normal or even increased in these insidious cases with a poor prognosis. Granulomas in the lung tissue, however, point to a good prognosis. In the diagnostic work-up of machine operator's and humidifier lung, it is advisable not only to look for serum antibodies against bacteria and molds but also for rapid growing mycobacteria in a sample of machine or humidifier water. IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors occur frequently in allergic alveolitis, especially in humidifier lung. The patients, however, do not suffer from arthritis. The IgM rheumatoid factor may simulate IgM antibodies against numerous infectious agents (e. g., Bordetella pertussis or Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Taking this phenomenon into account may improve the current differential diagnosis of allergic alveolitis.

  13. [Cytomorphologic changes detected in bronchial biopsy specimens in patients with alveolitis]. (United States)

    Makhmudova, S Iu


    Eighty-nine patients with alveolitis were followed up. Of them, 60 patients had exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) and 29 had idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA). Transbronchial lung biopsy (TLB) proved to be the most informative method for alveolitis. At the same time a cytomorphologic study of TLB specimens revealed exogenous allergic alveolitis in all phases of the disease in 91.2% of the cases. In idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis, the informative value of TLB was 59.7%.

  14. Radiodiagnosis of yeast alveolitis (a clinicoexperimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amosov, I.S.; Smirnov, V.A.

    A clinicoroetgenological study was made of 115 workers engaged in yeast production for different periods of time. Disorders of respiration biomechanics were revealed depending on the period of service. These data were obtained as a result of the use of roentgenopneumopolygraphy. An experimental study was conducted to establish the nature of lesions in the bronchopulmonary system in allergic alveolitis. The effect of finely divided yeast dust on the bronchopulmonary system was studied on 132 guinea-pigs usinq microbronchography and morphological examination. As a result of the study it has been established that during the inhalation of yeast dust, noticeable dystrophy of the bronchi develops, the sizes of alveoli enlarge and part of them undergo emphysematous distension with rupture of the interalveolar septa. In the course of the study, it has been shown that yeast alveolitis develops after many years of work. The clinical symptoms are non-specific and insignificant. X-ray and morphological changes are followed by the physical manifestations of yeast alveolitis.

  15. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-1505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  16. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis--rarely diagnosed disease]. (United States)

    Lauková, D; Marget, I; Plutinský, J


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), known as hypersensitive pneumonitis, causes interstitial lung involvement by inhaled antigen. The clinical presentation of the disease has been defined as acute, subacute and chronic. The most often symptoms of the acute form of the disease are flu-like symptoms, dyspnoe and cough. The progressive dyspnoe in particullary is characterized for the chronic form of EAA. Dyspnoe is worsed, if the disease is combinied with usual respiratory infection or reexposition of inhaled antigen. It seems the diagnostic definition of EAA should be easy and prevalence of EAA relative high. The disease belongs to the group of interstitial lung diseases and it is underestimated as a matter of fact. The clinic, radiographic, laboratory and histologic abnormalities are results of inhaled antigen contact and support the diagnosis of EAA. Specific IgG antibodies against the offending antigen along with them are consedered to be detected (established) of EAA.

  17. Penicillium allergic alveolitis: faulty installation of central heating.


    Fergusson, R J; Milne, L J; Crompton, G K


    A married couple presented with an illness typical of allergic alveolitis. A careful search of their home revealed a leak in the central heating system with a heavy fungal growth on wet flooring and linoleum. Two species of Penicillium, P chrysogenum and P cyclopium, were isolated from floorboards, linoleum, and settle plates. Antibodies against both these fungi were demonstrated in the serum of both patients by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Allergic alveolitis caused by P chr...

  18. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with IgA deficiency. (United States)

    Sennekamp, J; Morr, H; Behr, J


    Up to now only 3 cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) with IgA deficiency have been published worldwide. We had the opportunity to detect two additional cases which will be presented here. Summarizing all cases IgA deficiency is a risk factor for a severe course of the disease and an increased susceptibility to acquire allergic alveolitis by low dose antigen exposure.

  19. The HRCT features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas E


    Exposure to organic dusts can produce an immune-mediated inflammatory response in sensitized individuals. The pulmonary disease caused by this response has been called extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The clinical phases associated with this process have been termed acute, subacute, and chronic. There are corresponding imaging findings that are characteristic of each of these phases, although there is some overlap between the phases. The acute phase is characterized by confluent opacities that may mimic infection or edema. The subacute phase is characterized by centrilobular nodules, areas of ground-glass attenuation, a mosaic perfusion pattern, and air trapping on expiratory imaging. The chronic phase is characterized by subpleural irregular linear opacities with associated architectural distortion. Honeycombing may sometimes also be present. In the acute and subacute phases, the disease is predominantly in the lower lungs, whereas in chronic EAA the findings are predominant in the mid to upper lungs. Although the high-resolution computed tomography findings individually are nonspecific, the combination of the findings coupled with the distribution of the findings can often narrow the differential or allow a presumptive diagnosis of EAA to be made.

  20. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with an atypical immune expression. (United States)

    Costa, Teresa; Rodrigues, Cidália; Arrobas, Ana


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis are two granulomatosis of the lung characterized by non- -necrotizing granuloma. Both have typical bronchoalveolar lavage immunology, with opposite CD4/CD8 relation. However, sarcoidosis does not have such well defined etiology as extrinsic allergic alveolitis. The authors present two cases with similar clinical course, imagiology, lung function and immunology, although they both had an histology that was not concordant with the bronchoalveolar lavage, and with the peculiarity of being two elements of the same family, co -inhabitants and with a clinical presentation only a few weeks apart.

  1. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in domestic environments (Domestic allergic alveolitis) caused by mouldy tapestry (United States)

    Schwarz; Wettengel; Kramer


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis often occures as bird fancier's lung or is caused by occupational treatment with antigenic materials. In housing environments antigens of allergic alveolitis are also found, especially mould fungi. lf a source of antigens is absent in the anamnesis and the clinical picture as well as the clinical findings are ambiguous, the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolits is delayed or unobtained. The following example shows that in spite of a detailed allergic anamnesis the source of antigens may remain occult and only an inspection of the dwelling rooms leads to an elucidation. - A sixty-one year old non-smoking women was twice admitted to hospital with a temperature of more than 39 degrees C, intense dyspnea on exertion and a strong dry cough under the persumed diagnosis pneumonia. The laboratory values showed nonspecific signs of inflammation, the blood gas analysis was changed to a heavy hypoxemia (pO subset2 49.2 mmHg) and in the chest x-ray there were seen miliary and partly reticular alterations. The chest computed tomography showed extensive densities in both upper and lower parts of the lungs and the pulmonary function test corresponded with a low-grade to middle-grade restriction (VC subsetin = 67%, TLC = 69%). A high dose of corticosteroids produced an improvement of the radiological findings and of the pulmonary function. Also the specialized diagnostic in a hospital for pulmonary diseases yielded no new knowledge, and an interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed. Only the new formation of an acute pneumonic clinical picture on the day of returning to the patients own habitation suggested a noxious substance in the domestic environment. The inspection of the rooms finally showed the source of antigen to be from a condensation water soaked, moulded tapestry on the embrasure of a small unopenable window in the bedroom just on the head of the bed. The nutritive mediums left in the rooms furnished evidence of the mould-species Penicillium

  2. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis after exposure to the yeast Rhodotorula rubra. (United States)

    Siersted, H C; Gravesen, S


    A case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis following exposure to the red yeast Rhodotorula rubra is reported--to our knowledge, for the first time. Extensive growth of the yeast in the patient's environment was demonstrated, explaining an elevated titer of Rhodotorula-specific precipitating antibodies in his serum. A bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis.

  3. Sulfasalazine-induced extrinsic allergic alveolitis in a patient with psoriatic arthritis. (United States)

    Woltsche, M; Woltsche-Kahr, I; Roeger, G M; Aberer, W; Popper, H


    We report the first case of a well defined extrinsic allergic alveolitis as a complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient treated for psoriatic arthritis. CT of the chest showed small nodular densities over both lungs, BAL demonstrated a highly active lymphocytic alveolitis and transbronchial biopsies revealed lymphoplasmocytic interstitial infiltration. Sulfasalazine as causative agent was proven by an inadvertent rechallenge three years later and a positive lymphocyte transformation test. sulfasalazine; psoriatic arthritis; extrinsic allergic alveolitis

  4. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G


    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  5. [Actualities in extrinsic allergic alveolities or hypersensitivity pneumonitis]. (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Soumah, M; Sow, M L


    Significant advances have been noticed in the pathogenesis and the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis during the last few years. Indeed the immune mechanism and the enabling conditions have been more precisely defined, the clinical stages and the diagnosis criterias clearly defined, new antigens incriminated and some etiological agents have been reclassified. The present pathogenic explanation insists on the type IV hypersensitivity reaction with sensitization of T lymphocytes, activation macrophages, the formation of IgG type antibodies and immune complexes, activation of complement and secretion of cytokines. The involvement of certain HLA classes (HLA2, DR3, DRB1, DQB1), interaction of genetics and environments factors, the role of infections agents and smoking have been demonstrated in several studies. The development of news clinical and biological diagnosis criteria have led the discovery of new extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the work places, a better knowledge of the prognostic elements and an appropriate adaptation of prevention measures.

  6. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis induced by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Osanai, S; Fujiuchi, S; Yamazaki, K; Nakano, H; Ohsaki, Y; Kikuchi, K


    A 65-yr-old female developed cough, fever and dyspnoea following repeated exposure to a home ultrasonic humidifier. High-resolution computed tomography showed ground-glass opacity in both lung fields. Arterial blood gas analysis gave an oxygen tension of 8.38 kPa (63 Torr). Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive ventilatory impairment with a reduction in the diffusing capacity. The diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was confirmed by radiographic findings, pathological evidence of alveolitis and reproductive development by a provocation test to the humidifier water. The yeast Debaryomyces Hansenii was the only microorganism cultured from the water of the humidifier. The double diffusion precipitating test and lymphocyte proliferative response was positive for an extract of D. Hansenii, providing evidence to incriminate this fungus. This is the first described case of EAA caused by D. Hansenii.

  7. Spotlight on the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis). (United States)

    Baur, Xaver; Fischer, Axel; Budnik, Lygia T


    Repeated inhalative exposures to antigenic material from a variety of sources, mainly from moulds, thermophilic Actinomycetes, and avians, respectively, can induce immune responses with the clinical picture of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Delays of years or even decades till the diagnosis is made are not uncommon; frequent misdiagnoses include allergic asthma, COPD, recurrent flue and other infections. We provide here the state of the art references, a detailed case description and recommend a current diagnostics schema.

  8. [Pneumonia or drug-related exogenic allergic alveolitis? Key role of anamnesis in differential diagnosis]. (United States)

    Skipskiĭ, I M; Efimov, N V; Dantsig, I I; Matiukhina, L M; Kostina, O Ia


    A case is reported of an old female patient with exogenic allergic alveolitis which was first diagnosed as pneumonia progressing in the presence of long-term and intensive antibiotic treatment. Detailed analysis of the case history gave grounds for suspected drug-related exogenic allergic alveolitis. Discontinuation of antibiotics, administration of glucocorticoids and antiplatelet drugs led to recovery.

  9. Allergic alveolitis (farmer's lung) caused by looking after a furnace fired with straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsoee Jespersen, T.; Christensen, S.; Lenler-Petersen, P.


    A case of allergic alveolitis resulting from looking after a furnace fired with straw is described. The working procedure and construction of the aggregate were directly responsible for development of the allergic alveolitis. The occupational medical follow up and its consequences are described.

  10. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V


    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  11. Alveolitis seca: una revisión de la literatura



    La alveolitis seca es la complicación posoperatoria más frecuente como resultado de la alteración en la cicatrización de la herida alveolar después de una extracción dental. El manejo de esta afección tiene por objetivo el control del dolor durante el periodo de curación del cuadro, lo cual se logra fundamentalmente mediante medidas paliativas. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura es obtener suficiente información sobre las causas y otros factores que podrían estar involucrados en...

  12. Takes your breath away--the immunology of allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    McSharry, C; Anderson, K; Bourke, S J; Boyd, G


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study.

  13. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: a review for the practitioner]. (United States)

    Pralong, G; Leuenberger, P


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a clinical syndrome characterised by an inflammatory, partly granulomatous, immune disorder involving interstitial and alveolar spaces secondary to inhalation of organic substances. The disorder is mainly due to occupational exposure, farmer's lung being the best-known example. Acute, subacute or chronic forms can be clinically differentiated. Given the fact that chronic forms may present a pattern of irreversible pulmonary fibrosis, clinicians must be aware of the diagnosis of EAA in every situation where the history shows a potential antigenic exposure. Prevention should be reinforced by increasing individual protective measures and by improving techniques used at the workplace.

  14. Defining optimal freshwater flow for oyster production: effects of freshet rate and magnitude of change and duration on eastern oysters and Perkinsus marinus infection (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Gossman, B.; La Peyre, Jerome F.


    In coastal Louisiana, the development of large-scale freshwater diversion projects has led to controversy over their effects on oyster resources. Using controlled laboratory experiments in combination with a field study, we examined the effects of pulsed freshwater events (freshet) of different magnitude, duration, and rate of change on oyster resources. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that low salinity events (oyster growth was positively correlated with salinity. To maximize oyster production, data indicate that both low and high salinity events will be necessary.

  15. Hybridization between previously isolated ancestors may explain the persistence of exactly two ancient lineages in the genome of the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus (United States)

    Large biological populations that have not been subdivided should have accumulated variation in different genetic loci. Population samples should identify some loci lacking in variation, others characterized by a few alleles, and still others by many alleles. Departures from these expectations requi...

  16. [Comparative study of different diagnostic methods in pulmonary alveolitis]. (United States)

    Makhmudova, S Iu


    To evaluate and analyze, clinical and roentgenological manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) 89 patients underwent bronchoscopy survey and functional test of lungs. Average age of patients was 38,3+/-5,8. Among examined 89 patients 31 (34,8%) patients were poultry farmers, 30 (33,7%) - millers, and 28 (31,5%) - tobacco-growers. EAA was found among 22 poultry farmers, 19 tobacco-growers, and 19 millers. IFA was found among 11 millers, 9 tobacco-growers and 9 poultry farmers. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) was found among 58 patients; 38 patients suffer from lung diseases. Control group consisted of 20 healthy people. Along with general blood analysis, all patients underwent - roentgenological analysis of thorax in two shifts. Recent studies show that CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung disease. Comparative analysis allowed concluding that Real-Time CT method is the most effective. CT lung screening is more sensitive than standard lung screening methods in detecting lung diseases.

  17. [New therapy schemes for acute, subacute and chronic variants of extrinsic allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Makar'iants, N N; Shmelev, E I


    In order to improve treatment of patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis morphologically different variants of the disease, i.e. acute, subacute and chronic were identified and confirmed. For each variant of exogenous allergic alveolitis new therapy schemes were proposed. The study included 74 patients who were divided into 5 groups. In the first group with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis inhalation glycocorticosteroids in high doses in combination with plasmapheresis were prescribed, in the second group standard therapy with systemic glycocorticosteroids was prescribed. The third and the fourth group consisted of patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis. The protracted ambroxol inhalation using nebulizers and the reduced dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids were used in the third group; and the standard dose of systemic glycocorticosteroids was used in the fourth. The fifth group consisted of patients with chronic exogenous allergic alveolitis, who received the standard dose of glycocorticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. After one month of therapy, it was ascertained that the use of high doses of inhalation glycocorticosteroids in combination with plasmapheresis in patients with acute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to significant improvements in clinical and CT presentation, physical activity tolerance, as well as the use of systemic glycocorticosteroids. The use of ambroxol inhalation in patients with subacute exogenous allergic alveolitis led to a significant improvement in clinical symptomatology, functional parameters and CT presentation, thus enabling to reduce the dose of glycocorticosteroids used and to avoid unwanted side effects.

  18. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts. (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio


    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre.

  19. La prevención de la alveolitis seca



    La alveolitis seca representa una de las complicaciones más frecuentes de la extracción dentaria. La incidencia de esta patología varía del1% al4%, aunque en casuísticas en las que sólo se incluye la exéresis del tercer molar mandibular los porcentajes ascienden a l20-30%. De acuerdo con la etiopatogenia de la al veo litis seca podemos considerar como válidas las siguientes medidas de prevención: 1) Disminución de los factores de riesgo; 2) asepsia pre-y post-quirúrgica; 3) conducta operatori...

  20. Treatment of allergic alveolitis with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. (United States)

    Chen, Christiane; Kleinau, Irene; Niggemann, Bodo; Weinhold, Nathalie; Wahn, Ulrich; Paul, Karl


    We report on a 13-year-old-boy who had been admitted to our hospital for dyspnea, hypoxia, and pulmonary infiltrates. The diagnosis of allergic alveolitis was based on history (provocation by exposure), lung function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial lung biopsy. No specific allergen could be identified. Five courses of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (15 mg/kg on three consecutive days) stabilized the patient with normalization of lung function and blood gas analysis. Between pulses the boy returned to his home on a farm without relapse. It is estimated that the effect of a single pulse lasted for at least 2-4 weeks. We conclude that pulse therapy can be used instead of continuous therapy in this rare disease in childhood.

  1. Coevolution of plastid genomes and transcript processing pathways in photosynthetic alveolates


    Dorrell, Richard G.


    Following their endosymbiotic uptake, plastids undergo profound changes to genome content and to their associated biochemistry. I have investigated how evolutionary transitions in plastid genomes may impact on biochemical pathways associated with plastid gene expression, focusing on the highly unusual plastids found in one group of eukaryotes, the alveolates. The principal photosynthetic alveolate lineage is the dinoflagellate algae. Most dinoflagellate species harbour unusual plastids derive...

  2. CT and HR-CT of exogenous allergic alveolitis. Exogen allergische Alveolitis in CT und HR-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederer, A.; Kullnig, P. (Graz Univ., Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie (Austria)); Pongratz, M. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Lungenkranke)


    The CT changes on conventional and high resolution CT in 14 patients with exogeneous allergic alveolitis (EAA) were analysed retrospectively. There were 8 patients with clinically subacute disease, 5 patients in a chronic stage and 1 patient with acute EAA. The appearances and their distribution were examined. Seven of the 8 patients in the subacute stage showed a ground glass pattern and multiple nodules of less than 2 mm. All patients in the chronic stage showed a combination of fine infiltrates, small nodules and irregular linear densities; distortion of the pulmonary pattern was present in 3 cases. The patient with acute EAA showed diffuse dense areas of consolidation in both lungs as well as multiple nodules and a ground glass pattern. The CT appearances of EAA correspond with the basic micropathology and, within the clinical context, permit diagnostic classification. (orig.).

  3. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?]. (United States)

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D


    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  4. A complex distribution of elongation family GTPases EF1A and EFL in basal alveolate lineages. (United States)

    Mikhailov, Kirill V; Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mirzaeva, Gulnara S; Diakin, Andrei Yu; Simdyanov, Timur G; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J; Aleoshin, Vladimir V


    Translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1A) and the related GTPase EF-like (EFL) are two proteins with a complex mutually exclusive distribution across the tree of eukaryotes. Recent surveys revealed that the distribution of the two GTPases in even closely related taxa is frequently at odds with their phylogenetic relationships. Here, we investigate the distribution of EF1A and EFL in the alveolate supergroup. Alveolates comprise three major lineages: ciliates and apicomplexans encode EF1A, whereas dinoflagellates encode EFL. We searched transcriptome databases for seven early-diverging alveolate taxa that do not belong to any of these groups: colpodellids, chromerids, and colponemids. Current data suggest all seven are expected to encode EF1A, but we find three genera encode EFL: Colpodella, Voromonas, and the photosynthetic Chromera. Comparing this distribution with the phylogeny of alveolates suggests that EF1A and EFL evolution in alveolates cannot be explained by a simple horizontal gene transfer event or lineage sorting.

  5. Effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe in the treatment of oral alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro de Jesús Nápoles González


    Full Text Available Background: alveolitis is a complication that may appear after the extraction of a tooth. It is considered a dental emergency due to the intense pain. Its prevalence is worrisome for the dental services for the complications and disability that it can provoke in patients.Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe with pharmaceutical use in the treatment of alveolitis.Method: an experimental study was carried out with 100 patients that visited the Provincial Teaching Dental Clinic, “La Vigía” Clinic, and “Julio Antonio Mella” Polycilinic of Camaguey in 2014, and that were diagnosed with alveolitis. The sample was made up of 50 patients in the control group treated with Alvogyl and 50 patients in the study group treated with aloe.Results: most of the patients belonged to the 26 to 45 age group. At 24 hours of treatment the results on pain relief were similar for both groups, with an 18 % for the study group and a 16 % for the control group. At 48 hours the best results were found in the control group, with 62 % of patients with no pain, and only a 30 % in the study group. At 72 hours this tendency was kept with 90 % in the control group and 72 % in the study group. In the study group an 84 % of the patients with wet alveolitis felt pain relief.Conclusions: the aqueous extract of aloe is a natural drug which is effective in the treatment of alveolitis, mainly in wet alveolitis and those affecting the maxillary bones. There were no adverse reactions with none of the used medications.

  6. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L. [Hospital General Universitario, Servicios de Neumologia, Alicante (Spain); Sanchez-Paya, J. [Hospital General Universitario, Epidemiologia, Alicante (Spain); Massuti, B. [Hospital General Universitario, Oncologia, Alicante (Spain)


    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5{+-}15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2{+-}3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5{+-}13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8{+-}16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8{+-}10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2{+-}8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au) 38 refs.

  7. Computer tomographic patterns in extrinsic allergic alveolitis - a comparison with conventional radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieckel, H.G.; Mueller, S.; Luening, M.


    Seventeen patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis or bird-fancier's lung were examined by standard radiological techniques and classified after Hapke's classification. In addition, the patients were examined by CT. The CT patterns have been analysed and compared with standard radiological findings. The methodological advantages of CT are discussed. Radiological investigation is of limited value in the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Conventional radiography remains the standard of initial X-ray examination. In early cases, however, CT may be a valuable addition within the diagnostic strategy of a diagnostic imaging department.

  8. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A


    This study assesses the incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) in a well-defined and stable Norwegian population of 250,000 inhabitants during a period of 15 years. We conducted a file survey of all patients (n = 376) aged 16 years or older with a clinician's diagnosis...

  9. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: An initial form of presentation as a fever of unknown origin]. (United States)

    Peña Irún, A; García Pérez, M; González Santamaría, A


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is characterised by an inflammatory immune process with pulmonary impairment caused by inhalation of organic dust. It is considered an occupational disease and is a very significant cause of temporary and permanent disability that can be prevented. The diagnosis is not often easy, but it is important to make it in the early stages, when the disease is still reversible.

  10. [Computed tomography in the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis and fibrosing alveolitis]. (United States)

    Mursalova, G Kh


    The differential diagnostic signs of disseminated pulmonary processes were defined by computed tomography. A hundred and sixty-seven patients, including 117 (70%) with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis (DPT) and 50 (30%) with alveolitis, were examined. Their mean age was 32.3 +/- 5.1 years; the history of disease averaged 4.6 +/- 1.2 years. Acute, subacute, and chronic DPT was observed in 17 (14.5%), 32 (27.3%), and 68 (58.1%) patients, respectively. Idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) was seen in 38 patients; 12 patients had exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). IFA and EAA were chronic. Patients with DPT had most commonly signs, such as focal masses (45.3%), intra- and interlobular septal thickening (35%), lung tissue reticulation (35%), centrilobular empyema (29%), only focal masses being detected in its acute form, and other signs being more pronounced in its subacute and particularly chronic form. Glassy dark patches, the opal glass syndrome, were a common sign in patients with alveolitis. Septal thickening, lung tissue meshwork, and centrilobular emphysema were encountered only in patients with IDA and small-nodular focal masses and bronchial wall thickening were present in those with EAA.

  11. A family with extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by wild city pigeons: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. du Marchie Sarvaas; P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)


    textabstractWe describe a family in which the mother died of unresolved lung disease and whose 5 children, some of whom had previous signs of asthma, were subsequently affected by extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by contact with wild city pigeon antigens. The children received

  12. [Solcoseryl--dental adhesive paste--in the treatment of postextraction alveolitis]. (United States)

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G


    After a study in three maxillofacial surgery teaching hospital departments the authors evaluated the usefulness of Solcoseryl dental adhesive paste as compared to Apernyl in the treatment of postextraction alveolitis. Solcoseryl paste was found to shorten the healing period by about 50% in comparison with Apernyl.

  13. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.


    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  14. Perkinsus olseni and P. chesapeaki detected in a survey of perkinsosis of various clam species in Galicia (NW Spain) using PCR-DGGE as a screening tool. (United States)

    Ramilo, Andrea; Pintado, José; Villalba, Antonio; Abollo, Elvira


    A survey on perkinsosis was performed involving 15 locations scattered along the Galician coast (NW Spain) and four clam species with high market value (Ruditapes decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Venerupis corrugata and Polititapes rhomboides). The prevalence of Perkinsus parasites was estimated by PCR using genus-specific primers. The highest percentage of PCR-positive cases for perkinsosis corresponded to clams R. decussatus and V. corrugata, while lower values were detected in R. philippinarum and no case was found in P. rhomboides. The discrimination of Perkinsus species was performed by PCR-RFLP and by a new PCR-DGGE method developed in this study. Perkinsus olseni was identified in every clam species, except in P. rhomboides, using both PCR-DGGE and PCR-RFLP. Additionally, Perkinsus chesapeaki was only detected by PCR-DGGE infecting two Manila clams R. philippinarum from the same location, reporting the first case in Galicia. P. chesapeaki identification was further confirmed by in situ hybridisation assay and phylogenetic analysis of ITS region and LSU rDNA.

  15. Distribution of ferric iron in larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L. (United States)

    Hall, S J; Youson, J H


    The distribution and abundance of ferric iron in larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) were investigated using light microscopy and the Prussian blue stain. Animals from various watersheds contained different concentrations of iron, although the sites of deposition were the same for all animals. A major portion of iron is within adipose tissue, while the liver, and cartilage contain predominantly low to trace amounts of iron, respectively. Iron is associated with fibrous connective tissue in several places in the body, and this association may have particular significance in the inner ear. Iron is also located in cells of the meninges. The presence of iron in the epithelial cells of the posterior intestine may reflect elimination of the metal through the extrusion of iron-loaded cells into the intestinal lumen. Iron within mucous cells of the epidermis, suggest elimination of iron during mucous secretion. Iron-loaded cells of bipolar shape are also present in the epidermis, but are particularly prominent around the branchiopore. Low concentrations of iron are observed within in melanin-containing macrophages (melano-macrophages) in regions of iron absorption, erythrophagocytosis, and haemopoiesis. High levels of iron in the epithelia and lumina of pronephric tubules are concomitant with degeneration of this organ. These data are evidence of the wide spread distribution of iron in lamprey tissues and additional evidence for the potential value of lampreys for the study of iron metabolism in vertebrates.

  16. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron. (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Dettmers, John M; Blum, Joel D; Johnson, Marcus W


    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean=46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  17. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Dettmers, John M.; Blum, Joel D.; Johnson, Marcus W.


    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean = 46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  18. [Asthma, alveolitis, aspergillosis, berylliosis. What to do when there is allergic reaction of the lung?]. (United States)

    Vier, H; Protze, M; Brunner, R; Gillissen, A


    Among the major allergic pulmonary disorders are bronchial asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, allergic aspergillosis and berylliosis. Asthma is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms (wheezing, respiratory distress, tight chest, coughing) and lung function tests possibly supplemented by allergic and provocative testing. Asthma treatment is differentiated into long-term medication and as-required medication. Specific immunotherapy is considered the sole causal therapy. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is work- or hobby-related (farmer's/cheese worker's/bird-fancier's lung) and manifests as diffuse pneumonitis with dyspnea, coughing and fever. For the diagnosis, the antigen provocative test in particular plays a major role. In the main, treatment comprises strict avoidance of allergens. The diagnosis of allergic pulmonary aspergillosis is based on the history, clinical findings, skin tests, serology and radiography. Treatment is stage-related by means of immunosuppressive agents. In terms of radiographic and pulmonary function findings, berylliosis is similar to sarcoidosis. Here, too, immunosuppressive agents are to the fore.

  19. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases. (United States)

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B


    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients.

  20. Prevalencia del protozoario Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de ostión japonés Crassostrea gigas en Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Carolina Villanueva-Fonseca


    Full Text Available Crassostrea gigas es un molusco bivalvo de gran importancia comercial. En el noroeste de México su producción es afectada por mortalidades cuyo origen infeccioso no ha sido determinado claramente. En este trabajo se determinó la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de C. gigas en el ciclo 2011-2012. El cultivo se hizo en un sistema de línea suspendida con densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones/canasta y se determinó un tamaño de muestra de 30 ostiones por mes. La detección de Perkinsus sp. se hizo de acuerdo a los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE para Medio Fluido de Tioglicolato y PCR. Con ambos métodos se determinó la prevalencia de Perkinsus sp., que varió entre 3,3 y 40%. La intensidad de la infección estuvo en niveles 1 y 2, de acuerdo a la escala de Mackin. La mortalidad acumulativa en las densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones por canasta fue del 4 y 6%, respectivamente. Las mayores mortalidades del ostión y las mayores prevalencias de Perkinsus sp. ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 y 16,6% y octubre (1,5 y 23,3%, respectivamente, cuando la temperatura fue alta. En conclusión, Perkinsus sp. fue detectado en un cultivo de C. gigas en el estero La Pitahaya con prevalencia moderada, baja intensidad de infección y mayor presencia en los meses más calurosos del ciclo de cultivo.

  1. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos


    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  2. [Lectin histochemistry of the Bufo marinus L. toad tongue]. (United States)

    González Elorriaga, M; Jaloveckas, D; Salazar de Candelle, M


    Lectin histochemistry at light microscope level was used in the tongue of the cane toad Bufo marinus to determine the distribution of sugar residues in glycoconjugates (GCs) previously localized and characterized by conventional histochemical techniques. Five horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) labeled-lectins, namely Con A, PNA, SBA, UEA-1 and WGS were used. Additionally, neuraminidase (N) treated sections before the staining procedures were used in order to dilucidate the presence of terminal sialic acid (SA). Sugar residues in GCs of the taste organ (TO) associated mucous cells stained more intensely with WGA than with Con A and UEA-1. All the sensory cells reacted with Con A and WGA but one type of them were characteristically labeled by UEA-1. The glycocalix (gc) of the TOs resulted intensely stained with Con A and with WGA and UEA-1 before and after N treatment. The GCs in the mucous-supporting cells of dorsal mucosae filiform papillae and folds reacted intensely with WGA and weakly with Con A. The ciliated cells (cic) were intense and characteristically stained with UEA-1 and WGA and moderately with Con A. The gc reacted more intensely with WGA than with Con A. Dorsal mucosae glands secretory cells mucins were characteristically stained with PNA, SBA and WGA besides Con A, while glandular ciliated cells showed the same staining pattern as in the filiform papillae. In the ventral mucosa all epithelium cells resulted stained with WGA and Con A, while differentiated goblet cells only reacted as well with UEA-1 and PNA before and after neuraminidase treatment. Unexpectedly, ciliated ventral mucosae cells did not react with UEA-1 but only with WGA and Con A. The results have shown that lectin histochemistry is an interesting tool to characterize similarities and differences in the lingual GCs sugar residues composition and distribution, particularly those located in epithelial cells.

  3. Hox cluster organization in the jawless vertebrate Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Force, Allan; Amores, Angel; Postlethwait, John H


    Large-scale gene amplifications may have facilitated the evolution of morphological innovations that accompanied the origin of vertebrates. This hypothesis predicts that the genomes of extant jawless fish, scions of deeply branching vertebrate lineages, should bear a record of these events. Previous work suggests that nonvertebrate chordates have a single Hox cluster, but that gnathostome vertebrates have four or more Hox clusters. Did the duplication events that produced multiple vertebrate Hox clusters occur before or after the divergence of agnathan and gnathostome lineages? Can investigation of lamprey Hox clusters illuminate the origins of the four gnathostome Hox clusters? To approach these questions, we cloned and sequenced 13 Hox cluster genes from cDNA and genomic libraries in the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The results suggest that the lamprey has at least four Hox clusters and support the model that gnathostome Hox clusters arose by a two-round-no-cluster-loss mechanism, with tree topology [(AB)(CD)]. A three-round model, however, is not rigorously excluded by the data and, for this model, the tree topologies [(D(C(AB))] and [(C(D(AB))] are most parsimonious. Gene phylogenies suggest that at least one Hox cluster duplication occurred in the lamprey lineage after it diverged from the gnathostome lineage. The results argue against two or more rounds of duplication before the divergence of agnathan and gnathostome vertebrates. If Hox clusters were duplicated in whole-genome duplication events, then these data suggest that, at most, one whole genome duplication occurred before the evolution of vertebrate developmental innovations.

  4. Description of Colponema vietnamica sp.n. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp., two new alveolate phyla (Colponemidia nom. nov. and Acavomonidia nom. nov. and their contributions to reconstructing the ancestral state of alveolates and eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V Tikhonenkov

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and ecological importance of predatory flagellates are too often overlooked. This is not only a gap in our understanding of microbial diversity, but also impacts how we interpret their better-studied relatives. A prime example of these problems is found in the alveolates. All well-studied species belong to three large clades (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates, but the predatory colponemid flagellates are also alveolates that are rare in nature and seldom cultured, but potentially important to our understanding of alveolate evolution. Recently we reported the first cultivation and molecular analysis of several colponemid-like organisms representing two novel clades in molecular trees. Here we provide ultrastructural analysis and formal species descriptions for both new species, Colponema vietnamica n. sp. and Acavomonas peruviana n. gen. n. sp. Morphological and feeding characteristics concur with molecular data that both species are distinct members of alveolates, with Acavomonas lacking the longitudinal phagocytotic groove, a defining feature of Colponema. Based on ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies, which both provide concrete rationale for a taxonomic reclassification of Alveolata, we establish the new phyla Colponemidia nom. nov. for the genus Colponema and its close relatives, and Acavomonidia nom. nov. for the genus Acavomonas and its close relatives. The morphological data presented here suggests that colponemids are central to our understanding of early alveolate evolution, and suggest they also retain features of the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.

  5. Minimal sulfur requirement for growth and sulfur-dependent metabolism of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Hao


    Full Text Available Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon that uses peptides as carbon and energy sources. Elemental sulfur (S° is obligately required for its growth and is reduced to H2S. The metabolic functions and mechanisms of S° reduction were explored by examining S°-dependent growth and activities of key enzymes present in this organism. All three forms of S° tested—sublimed S°, colloidal S° and polysulfide—were used by S. marinus, and no other sulfur-containing compounds could replace S°. Elemental sulfur did not serve as physical support but appeared to function as an electron acceptor. The minimal S° concentration required for optimal growth was 0.05% (w/v. At this concentration, there appeared to be a metabolic transition from H2 production to S° reduction. Some enzymatic activities related to S°-dependent metabolism, including sulfur reductase, hydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and electron transfer activities, were detected in cell-free extracts of S. marinus. These results indicate that S° plays an essential role in the heterotrophic metabolism of S. marinus. Reducing equivalents generated by the oxidation of amino acids from peptidolysis may be transferred to sulfur reductase and hydrogenase, which then catalyze the production of H2S and H2, respectively.

  6. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi. (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C


    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon.

  7. AB041. Case report of extrinsic allergic alveolitis with a “headcheese” CT pattern (United States)

    Rampiadou, Christina; Markopoulou, Aikaterini; Athanasiadou, Anastasia; Kotsifou, Efstathia; Mpismpa, Kalliopi; Tziola, Konstantina; Chloros, Diamantis


    The description of a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. An eighty-year-old female was admitted because of breathlessness and fatigue for the past 15 days. Accompanying diseases: rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine and arterial hypertension. She reported exposure to mould inside the room she was sleeping (her relatives scratched and repainted the walls of the room recently). Physical examination revealed velcro sounds on both lung bases. WBC: 10.7 (78–17–4), ESR 58, CRP 7.9, BNP 128 (allergic alveolitis. She was put on corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 120 mg/day) and she quickly improved. She was released on 32 mg per day after 8 days of hospitalization. Spirometry: FEV1 0.76 L (43%), FVC 0.79 L (36.5%), DlCO 10.13 (60%), TLC 1.29 L (27%). Five months later the spirometry was normal FEV1 1.65 L (123%), FVC 1.89 L (112%), DLCO 10.13 (60%), TLC 2.76 L (63%) and the new chest CT revealed disappearance of the pleural infusions and the crazy paving pattern. Corticosteroids were gradually withdrawn and since then she remains asymptomatic and in a good condition. The grave initial clinical condition of the patient did not allow the performance of a BAL, and the serum precipitins could not be measured in our city. The characteristic image of “headcheese” in conjunction with the exposure history to mold made the diagnosis of extrinsic alveolitis most likely and guided therapeutic decisions.

  8. Involvement of eicosanoids and surfactant protein D in extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Higashi, A; Higashi, N; Tsuburai, T; Takeuchi, Y; Taniguchi, M; Mita, H; Saito, A; Takatori, K; Arimura, K; Akiyama, K


    The pathophysiology of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) involves oxidative lung damage as well as interstitial and alveolar inflammation. Macrophages and mast cells are inflammatory components of EAA that produce both leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). In addition, PGD2 is also produced by the free-radical-catalysed peroxidation of arachidonic acid during oxidative stress. Urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-isoPGF2alpha) and serum surfactant protein D (SP-D) are considered appropriate biomarkers of oxidative stress and interstitial lung disease activity, respectively. The present study aimed to assess the association of these biomarkers with the pathophysiology of EAA. Two cases of acute EAA caused by the inhalation of fungi spores were reported. Eight asthmatic patients and six healthy control subjects were also enrolled in the current study. The serum SP-D and urinary eicosanoid (LTE4, PGD2 metabolite (9alpha,11betaPGF2), 8-isoPGF2alpha) concentrations markedly increased during the acute exacerbation phase. These concentrations decreased following corticosteroid therapy in the EAA patients. There was a significant correlation between serum SP-D and urinary 9alpha,11betaPGF2 concentrations in the EAA patients. In conclusion, although the present study proposes that serum surfactant protein-D and urinary eicosanoids are new biomarkers involved in the various immunological responses in extrinsic allergic alveolitis, further large-scale studies are needed to investigate the role of these compounds, not just as biomarkers, but also as biological potentiators of extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

  9. [Comparative estimation of cytokine profile among patients with exogenous allergic and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis]. (United States)

    Makhmudova, S Iu


    To study some indicators of cytokine status among the patients with pneumonia alveolitis 89 patients have been examined. 60 of those patients suffer from exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) and - 60 from idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA). The average age is 36.4+/-3.0. The patients were devided into three groups: I group - 21 (23.6%) patients with acute disease, II group - 25 (28.1%) patients with subacute disease, III group - 43 (48.3%) patients with chronic disease. The level of IL-1beta and IL-8 in blood serum and bronchoalveolar wash-out (BWO) measured by IFA test system. It is identified that the contents of IL-1beta in blood serum of EAA patients exceeded on 7.2%, the contents of IL-8 exceeded on 14.6% among IFA patients - reliable rise IL-1beta on 35.4% (<0.05) and IL-8 on 31.6% (<0.05). The level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-8) in peripheric blood corresponded with the level of disease. Along with progressing of disease the contents of cytokine in respiratory space, too high, increased among 21 patients with acute disease, in 13 cases (61.9%) BWO was high in IL-1beta and in 80.8% cases of IL-8. in II group among 25 patients with subacute disease high level of IL-1beta marked in 56.0%, Il-8 in 84% cases; patients in III group high concentration of IL-1beta registered in 51.2%; Il-8 in 81.4% of patients.

  10. New occupational and environmental causes of asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Fishwick, David


    Asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) remain prevalent respiratory diseases and the cause of a significant disease burden. This article reviews the recent occupational and environmental causes described for these conditions. Even over the limited time spam addressed by this article, novel agents and new data relating to already suggested causes have been described. Various types of work tasks or exposures are described that appear to cause both asthma and EAA. Isocyanates, the best example of dual potential to cause asthma and EAA are discussed, as is the new understanding of the role metal-working fluids play when causing respiratory diseases.

  11. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory. (United States)

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M


    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  12. Aerobiological analysis in a salami factory: a possible case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis by Penicillium camembertii. (United States)

    Marchisio, V F; Sulotto, F; Botta, G C; Chiesa, A; Airaudi, D; Anastasi, A


    A 39-year-old man was hospitalized with a history of fatigue, dyspnoea and low grade fever which seemed to be related to his working environment. The patient was employed in a salami factory, working near the area where the salami are seasoned with fungal inocula. Chest X-ray showed diffuse initial changes of reticulonodular pattern that disappeared after a brief course of steroids therapy. Precipitating antibodies to Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus fumigatus were found both in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This, together with the finding of a lymphocytic alveolitis with CD4+ depletion and CD8+ increase, suggested the possibility of extrinsic allergic alveolitis of fungal aetiology. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring with an impinger of both the working and outside environment for aerial fungal concentration demonstrated a very high level of contamination (up to 1.14x10(9) fungal propagules m-3 of air) and an inside/outside ratio from 21 to about 2000. Penicillium camembertii was the most common species found in all the indoor sites (60-100% of the fungal load). The patient's BALF and serum both displayed precipitating antibodies to P. camembertii from the powder used for the inoculum and the air samples. These results together with the patient's working history gave some evidence of relationship between the indoor P. camembertii concentration and the patient's symptoms.

  13. 奥尔森帕金虫环介导等温扩增(LAMP)检测方法的建立及应用%Establishment and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for Perkinsus olseni detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲朋; 王崇明; 任伟成; 梁彦韬; 贾志磊; 黄倢; 潘鲁青


    Perkinsus olseni(P. olseni) is one of the important pathogenic parasites of the shellfish. With the purpose of building a rapid, sensitive, accurate and easy to use detection method for P. olseni, we established a P. olseni loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay(LAMP) based on the internal transcribed spacer(ITS) of Perkinsus olseni 5.8S rDNA sequences. We used the online software Primer Explorer V4 ( and designed a set of 4 LAMP primers(Perk-FIP, Perk-BIP, Perk-F3 and Perk-B3) of the P. olseni, then we optimized the reaction conditions, mainly about the reaction temperature, magnesium ion concentration of the reaction system and the reaction time. After that, we got the P. olseni 25 uL LAMP reaction system, including: 2.5 μL l0×ThermoPol Reaction Buffer, 4 μL dNTPs(10 mmol/L each), 5 μL Betaine(5 mol/L), 1.6 uL Perk-FIP(25 umol/L), 1.6 μL Perk-BIP(25 umol/L), 1 μL Perk-B3(5 umol/L), 1 uL Perk-F3(5 umol/L), 4 uL MgCl2(25 mmol/L), 2.3 uL sterile water, 1 μL Bst DNA poly-merse(8 000 U/mL) and 1 μL DNA template, the optimal reaction temperature is 64 ℃ and the optimal reaction time is 60 min. In this research, the LAMP products were detected mainly using agarose gel electrophoresis and visual inspection of a color change due to addition of fluorescent dye. Before confirming the minimum threshold of the LAMP, we constructed P. olseni positive plasmid, also based on P. olseni 5.8S rDNA ITS sequences. The result shows that the minimum threshold of the LAMP assay is approximately 30 copies of plasmid DNA. We proved that the developed LAMP method was highly specific for P. olseni, and no cross-reaction was observed with other pathogens, such as Perkinsus marinus{P. marinus), Bonamia exitiosa(B. exitiosa), Ichthyobodo sp. and Acute Viral Necrosis Virus(AVNV). A comparative evaluation of the LAMP and PCR assays using 20 Ruditapes philippinarum(R. philippinarum) samples showed that LAMP is more sensitive and accurate than PCR and

  14. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum from the water reservoir of a steam iron. (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Engelhart, S; Rolke, M; Sennekamp, J


    A case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) caused by Sphingobacterium spiritivorum is described. The symptoms were associated with the use of a steam iron. The water reservoir was heavily contaminated with S. spiritivorum (10(6) CFU ml(-1)). This is the first report of S. spiritivorum as a causative agent of EAA.

  15. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats. (United States)

    Yi, E S; Lee, H; Suh, Y K; Tang, W; Qi, M; Yin, S; Remick, D G; Ulich, T R


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations.

  16. [The role of pro- and antioxidant processes in the liver tissue of guinea pigs in pathogenesis of allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Shchepans'kyĭ, F I; Reheda, M S


    It was shown that allergic alveolitis development is accompanied by increase of superoxyddismutase and catalase activity as well as an increase of dien conjugates and malonic dialdehyde content in Guinea pig liver. The administration of alfa-tokoferol acetate, an antioxidant resulted in decrease of these indices in the liver tissue that testifies its correcting influence upon PLO and antioxidant system processes.

  17. Cytogenetic evidences of genome rearrangement and differential epigenetic chromatin modification in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). (United States)

    Covelo-Soto, Lara; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J; Pérez-García, Concepción


    This work explores both the chromatin loss and the differential genome methylation in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from a molecular cytogenetic point of view. Fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments on meiotic bivalents and mitotic chromosomes corroborate the chromatin loss previously observed during the development of the sea lamprey and demonstrate that the elimination affects not only to Germ1 sequences but also to the rpt200 satellite DNA and most part of the major ribosomal DNA present on the germinal line. 5-Methylcytosine immunolocation revealed that the GC-rich heterochromatin is highly methylated in the germ line but significantly less in somatic chromosomes. These findings not only support previous observations about genome rearrangements but also give new information about epigenetic changes in P. marinus. The key position of lampreys in the vertebrate phylogenetic tree makes them an interesting taxon to provide relevant information about genome evolution in vertebrates.

  18. Whole genome phylogeny of Prochlorococcus marinus group of cyanobacteria: genome alignment and overlapping gene approach. (United States)

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Rai, Anil


    Prochlorococcus is the smallest known oxygenic phototrophic marine cyanobacterium dominating the mid-latitude oceans. Physiologically and genetically distinct P. marinus isolates from many oceans in the world were assigned two different groups, a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted and a divergent low-light (LL-) adapted clade. Phylogenetic analysis of this cyanobacterium on the basis of 16S rRNA and other conserved genes did not show consistency with its phenotypic behavior. We analyzed phylogeny of this genus on the basis of complete genome sequences through genome alignment, overlapping-gene content and gene-order approach. Phylogenetic tree of P. marinus obtained by comparing whole genome sequences in contrast to that based on 16S rRNA gene, corresponded well with the HL/LL ecotypic distinction of twelve strains and showed consistency with phenotypic classification of P. marinus. Evidence for the horizontal descent and acquisition of genes within and across the genus was observed. Many genes involved in metabolic functions were found to be conserved across these genomes and many were continuously gained by different strains as per their needs during the course of their evolution. Consistency in the physiological and genetic phylogeny based on whole genome sequence is established. These observations improve our understanding about the adaptation and diversification of these organisms under evolutionary pressure.

  19. [Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension]. (United States)

    Navarro, Carmen


    Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension Lung disease is present in most of the patients with systemic sclerosis and is now the most important cause of mortality. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are, so far, the main disorders found and both are difficult to detect at the earliest stages. However, diagnostic tools such as immunological test, lung function test, high resolution CT, bronchoalveolar lavage, echocardiography, right-side cardiac catheterization, or lung biopsy are necessary to accurately evaluate the clinical status and allow to improve the management organ-specific ad hoc. Progress in immunological and vascular therapies as well as other emergence drugs offer new expectations to scleroderma patients.

  20. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Clinical experience at the Instituto National de Enfermedades Respiratorias (INER)]. (United States)

    Chapela-Mendoza, R; Selman-Lama, M


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is an interstitial lung disease caused by exposure to a variety of inhaled antigens. In Mexico, the most frequent form is due to the inhalation of avian antigens, markedly pigeon proteins. Depending on type and time exposure, the disease presents different clinical forms usually characterized by progressive dyspnea, ground glass or reticulonodular images on chest x rays, a restrictive functional pattern, rest hypoxemia worsening with exercise, and increase of T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage with an inversion in the helper/suppressor ratio. In this paper, we discuss a 15-year experience with this pathological problem in Mexico, emphasizing the differences with this disorder in Caucasian populations. Generally, our patients display a chronic form of the disease, which evolves to fibrosis in about one-half of the patients. In this sense, the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic focusing exhibit different elements, and thus the development of clinical and basic research is strongly required.

  1. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model. (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R


    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  2. [Biochemical characteristics of fluid and cells of bronchoalveolar washings in patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Kaminskaia, G O; Abdullaev, R Iu; Filippov, V P


    In 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA), including 30 and 13 in its acute and chronic disease, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, bronchoalveolar washing fluid (BAWF), isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) and unfractionated cellular sediment (NFCS) were separately studied. The BAWF showed high rates of lipid peroxidation (LPO), decreased antiproteolytic defense, and activated local synthesis of haptoglobin (Hp), fibronectin (FN), platelet activation factor (PAF), and enzymes of antioxidative defense (AOD). There was a rise in FN and PAF concentrations in the acute phase of the disease and higher PLO rates and elevated Hp levels in chronic EAA. The rate of oxidative metabolism in AMs was much higher in acute EAA than that in chronic EAA and accompanied by imbalance in the PLO-AOD system. AM levels of PAF was high in patients in both groups. The rate of LPO was higher in NFCS than in AM and was also followed by simultaneous AOD mobilization with preserved imbalance. A particularly significant AOD insufficiency in the NFCS was noted in chronic EAA, which was accompanied by decreased PAF. Thus, local pathochemical processes are of significance in developing the pattern of the process in EAA.

  3. A novel inhalation challenge set to study animal model of allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Lemieszek, Marta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek


    A novel inhalation challenge set for the study of experimental allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) in mice was designed. A finely dispersed aerosol of allergenic extract generated by the commercial ultrasonic nebulizer "TAJFUN MU1" (produced by Medbryt, Warsaw, Poland) was transported to the airtight inhalation chamber. In the chamber were placed 15 perforated containers made of transparent plastic, each containing one mouse. They were coupled in 3 units, each consisted of 5 containers. The constant flow of aerosol through the chamber was assured by commercial vacuum pump "PL 2/3" (AGA LABOR S.C., Warsaw, Poland). The applied set enabled the natural exposure of mice via the inhalation route to known quantities of allergen (usually microbial) suspended in saline, and then dispersed in form of fine aerosol by ultrasonic nebulizer. This method assures the penetration of allergen into the deep parts of lungs, alveoli and bronchioli. The detailed study of histopathological and biochemical changes in the lungs of exposed animals will be the subject of further publications. So far, the retention of endotoxin in the lungs of mice exposed to the extract of a Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and appearance of positive serologic reactions to this extract indicate the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis as an uncommon diagnostic pitfall in lung cytology. (United States)

    Midi, Ahmet; Yener, Neşe Arzu; Orki, Alpay; Cubuk, Rahmi; Ersev, Ayse


    House paints, the industrial products of toxic chemicals are known to be linked with severe respiratory disturbances especially in inadequately ventilated places. In this study, we aimed to report a biopsy-proven case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) who presented with nonspecific respiratory symptoms 1 month after having her whole house interior painted. At CT scanning, we observed the ground glass opacities and the micronodular pattern typical for EAA and also a solid, consolidative lung area, highly suggestive of malignancy. The case initially was misinterpreted as a malignant tumor both radiologically and cytologically at CT-guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The final pathologic diagnosis was given as EAA on frozen section performed during thoracotomy operation. The patient received short-term steroid treatment and has been doing well for the last 7 months after her operation. As a conclusion, when assessing a cytologic material from a patient who has got a solid lung mass and also a history of chemical dye exposure, consolidative mass formation which is a rare form of EAA should always be kept in mind. Another final point is that the appropriate ventilation should be achieved if the exposure with the house paint chemicals is inevitable.

  5. Population dynamics of the gyrinid beetle, Gyrinus marinus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) with special reference to its dispersal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van der R.H.


    Data concerning reproduction, survival and dispersal of the whirligig water beetle Gyrinus marinus Gyll . were collected between 1974 and 1983 by observations and experiments in the laboratory and in a field area with about 10 populations distributed over 15 pools.The purpose of the study was to ass

  6. The biology of Chaetogammarus marinus (Leach) and Eulimnogammarus obtusatus (Dahl) with some notes on other intertidal gammarid species (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, van Marion J.


    The reproductive cycles of Chaetogammarus marinus and Eulimnogammarus obtusatus in northern Brittany are compared, as well as the environmental conditions under which these gammarids live. Both species show reproductive activity throughout the year. The maximum rate of ovigerous ♀ ♀ was established

  7. Survey for protozoan parasites in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from the Gulf of Maine using PCR-based assays. (United States)

    Marquis, Nicholas D; Record, Nicholas R; Robledo, José A Fernández


    Protozoan pathogens represent a serious threat to oyster aquaculture, since they can lead to significant production loses. Moreover, oysters can concentrate human pathogens through filter feeding, thus putting at risk raw oyster consumers' health. Using PCR-based assays in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Maine, we expand the Northeast range in the USA for the protozoans Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, and Haplosporidium nelsoni, and report for the first time the detection of the human pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. Oysters hosting both P. marinus and P. chesapeaki were more than three times as likely to be infected by a non-Perkinsus than those free of Perkinsus infections.

  8. Respiratory syndrome very similar to extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Penicillium verrucosum in workers in a cheese factory. (United States)

    Guglielminetti, M; Valoti, E; Cassini, P; Taino, G; Caretta, G


    A respiratory syndrome very similar to extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Penicillium verrucosum was recognized in 4 workers employed in a Gorgonzola cheese factory. A mycogen allergy to P. verrucosum, used as starter in the production, was demonstrated by positive sputum culture and detection of specific antibodies in the blood. Intense and prolonged exposure to inhalation of fungal spores could have lead to the development of this allergic response. The fact that 2 of the subjects are siblings seems to indicate host susceptibility or immunological constitution in the pathogenesis of the respiratory allergy.

  9. Blood myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells reflect Th1/Th2 balance in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Buczkowski, Jarosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Chocholska, Sylwia; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Kieszko, Robert; Michnar, Marek; Milanowski, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek


    Dendritic cells play a specific regulatory role in the immune system. In this paper, the significance of myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was evaluated. Myeloid dendritic cells are connected with Th1 type of immunological response, whereas lymphoid ones--with Th2 type. The latest findings indicate that both diseases are characterized by serious disturbances of Th1/Th2 response to Th1 dominance. Our studies seem to confirm these suggestions. In the peripheral blood of patients with sarcoidosis as well as with EAA, myeloid dendritic cells outnumbered lymphoid ones.

  10. Prey or predator – expanding the food web role of sandeel (Ammodytes marinus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane;


    We report an unexpected observation of lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus foraging on juveniles and late larval stages of the same species. This recording sheds new light on the cannibalistic and piscivorous capacity of forage fish and raises a number of questions about the role of forage fish...... in marine food webs. In 2012 and 2013 the stomachs of 748 sandeels from 36 different commercial sandeel hauls in the central North Sea were opened. 9% of these stomachs contained late stage sandeel larvae. In order to better understand the cannibalistic nature of sandeels, we made a detailed analysis...... in North Sea sandeel stocks, but it may also add a new element to the complexity of energy flow in marine food chains...

  11. Neuropeptide Y family receptors Y1 and Y2 from sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Larhammar, Dan


    The vertebrate gene family for neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors expanded by duplication of the chromosome carrying the ancestral Y1-Y2-Y5 gene triplet. After loss of some duplicates, the ancestral jawed vertebrate had seven receptor subtypes forming the Y1 (including Y1, Y4, Y6, Y8), Y2 (including Y2, Y7) and Y5 (only Y5) subfamilies. Lampreys are considered to have experienced the same chromosome duplications as gnathostomes and should also be expected to have multiple receptor genes. However, previously only a Y4-like and a Y5 receptor have been cloned and characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two additional receptors from the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Sequence phylogeny alone could not with certainty assign their identity, but based on synteny comparisons of P. marinus and the Arctic lamprey, Lethenteron camtschaticum, with jawed vertebrates, the two receptors most likely are Y1 and Y2. Both receptors were expressed in human HEK293 cells and inositol phosphate assays were performed to determine the response to the three native lamprey peptides NPY, PYY and PMY. The three peptides have similar potencies in the nanomolar range for Y1. No obvious response to the three peptides was detected for Y2. Synteny analysis supports identification of the previously cloned receptor as Y4. No additional NPY receptor genes could be identified in the presently available lamprey genome assemblies. Thus, four NPY-family receptors have been identified in lampreys, orthologs of the same subtypes as in humans (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5), whereas many other vertebrate lineages have retained additional ancestral subtypes.

  12. Caractérisation moléculaire du parasite du genre Perkinsus infectant les palourdes en France et étude du polymorphisme génétique en fonction de son origine géographique


    Michel, Justine


    En 2004 et 2005, une étude menée par le REPAMO (Réseau de Pathologie des Mollusques) a montré que des parasites du genre Perkinsus étaient présentas au sein des principaux domaines français de production de palourdes: La Mer Méditerranée, l'Océan Atlantique et la Manche avec une forte prévalence amis aucun cas de mortalités associées. Cependant, ces résultats doivent être complétés par des analyses moléculaires plus spécifiques de façon à déterminer la ou les espèces de Perkinsus détectés. D'...

  13. Dyes Extracted from Safflower, Medicago Sativa, and Ros Marinus Oficinalis as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Taya


    Full Text Available In this work, three extracts of plant leaves were used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. These plants are Safflower, Medicago sativa and Ros marinus oficinalis. The natural dyes were extracted before and after grinding the plant leaves. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the three extracts in ethyl alcohol solution were measured. The DSSCs were assembled using TiO2 films on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO coated glass. The DSSCs sensitized with the extracts of grinded leaves showed a better performance compared to those sensitized with un-grinded leaves with the highest efficiency of 0.115 % was obtained for the DSSC sensitized with Medicago sativa. The performance of the DSSCs sensitized with Safflower and Ros marinus oficinalis was significantly improved by acid treatment of the FTO substrates. Impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  14. Gene duplication, loss and selection in the evolution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in alveolates. (United States)

    Murray, Shauna A; Diwan, Rutuja; Orr, Russell J S; Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe


    A group of marine dinoflagellates (Alveolata, Eukaryota), consisting of ∼10 species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense, produce the toxin saxitoxin and its analogues (STX), which can accumulate in shellfish, leading to ecosystem and human health impacts. The genes, sxt, putatively involved in STX biosynthesis, have recently been identified, however, the evolution of these genes within dinoflagellates is not clear. There are two reasons for this: uncertainty over the phylogeny of dinoflagellates; and that the sxt genes of many species of Alexandrium and other dinoflagellate genera are not known. Here, we determined the phylogeny of STX-producing and other dinoflagellates based on a concatenated eight-gene alignment. We determined the presence, diversity and phylogeny of sxtA, domains A1 and A4 and sxtG in 52 strains of Alexandrium, and a further 43 species of dinoflagellates and thirteen other alveolates. We confirmed the presence and high sequence conservation of sxtA, domain A4, in 40 strains (35 Alexandrium, 1 Pyrodinium, 4 Gymnodinium) of 8 species of STX-producing dinoflagellates, and absence from non-producing species. We found three paralogs of sxtA, domain A1, and a widespread distribution of sxtA1 in non-STX producing dinoflagellates, indicating duplication events in the evolution of this gene. One paralog, clade 2, of sxtA1 may be particularly related to STX biosynthesis. Similarly, sxtG appears to be generally restricted to STX-producing species, while three amidinotransferase gene paralogs were found in dinoflagellates. We investigated the role of positive (diversifying) selection following duplication in sxtA1 and sxtG, and found negative selection in clades of sxtG and sxtA1, clade 2, suggesting they were functionally constrained. Significant episodic diversifying selection was found in some strains in clade 3 of sxtA1, a clade that may not be involved in STX biosynthesis, indicating pressure for diversification

  15. Manganese superoxide dismutase, but not CuZn superoxide dismutase, is highly expressed in the granulomas of pulmonary sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (United States)

    Lakari, E; Pääkkö, P; Kinnula, V L


    The role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in the pathogenesis of granulomatous human lung diseases remains open to investigation. In this study we investigated the immunoreactivity of two important superoxide radical scavenging intracellular antioxidant enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and copperzinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), in pulmonary sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In histologically normal lung MnSOD was variable but mostly positive in the cells of bronchial epithelium, alveolar epithelium especially in type II pneumocytes, and alveolar macrophages. Copperzinc SOD showed positive immunoreactivity most markedly in the bronchial epithelium. The biopsies of 22 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 10 with extrinsic allergic alveolitis indicated that MnSOD was highly stained in the granulomas of both diseases, with 60 to 100% of the granulomas showing intensive immunoreactivity. Western blots conducted on the cell samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed significantly higher amounts of MnSOD in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis than in the controls. Immunohistochemistry on the cells obtained from BAL fluid showed positive immunoreactivity of MnSOD in the macrophages but not in the lymphocytes. In contrast, copperzinc SOD was not induced in either of these diseases. We conclude that MnSOD is highly expressed in the granulomas of pulmonary sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, and variable but mostly positive in alveolar macrophages, possibly owing to cytokine mediated induction during the granuloma formation.

  16. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).


    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B


    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and sm...

  17. Behavioural and transcriptional changes in the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus exposed to two antidepressants, fluoxetine and sertraline. (United States)

    Bossus, Maryline C; Guler, Yasmin Z; Short, Stephen J; Morrison, Edward R; Ford, Alex T


    In the past decade, there have been increasing concerns over the effects of pharmaceutical compounds in the aquatic environment, however very little is known about the effects of antidepressants such as the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Many biological functions within invertebrates are under the control of serotonin, such as reproduction, metabolism, moulting and behaviour. The effects of serotonin and fluoxetine have recently been shown to alter the behaviour of the marine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus (Leach, 1815). The purpose of this study was to observe behavioural and transcriptional modifications in this crustacean exposed to the two most prescribed SSRIs (fluoxetine and sertraline) and to develop biomarkers of neurological endocrine disruption. The animals were exposed to both drugs at environmentally relevant concentrations from 0.001 to 1μg/L during short-term (1h and 1day) and medium-term (8 days) experiments. The movement of the amphipods was tracked using the behavioural analysis software during 12min alternating dark/light conditions. The behavioural analysis revealed a significant effect on velocity which was observed after 1h exposure to sertraline at 0.01μg/L and after 1 day exposure to fluoxetine as low as 0.001μg/L. The most predominant effect of drugs on velocity was recorded after 1 day exposure for the 0.1 and 0.01μg/L concentrations of fluoxetine and sertraline, respectively. Subsequently, the expression (in this article gene expression is taken to represent only transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated at translation, mRNA and protein stability levels) of several E. marinus neurological genes, potentially involved in the serotonin metabolic pathway or behaviour regulation, were analysed in animals exposed to various SSRIs concentrations using RT-qPCR. The expression of a tryptophan hydroxylase (Ph), a neurocan core protein (Neuc), a Rhodopsin (Rhod1) and an Arrestin

  18. 贝类包拉米虫和派琴虫二重荧光定量PCR方法的建立%Development of Duplex Real-time PCR Assay for Detection of Bonamia and Perkinsus in Shellfsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two pairs of specific oligonucleotide primers for Bonamia and Perkinsus,and two TaqMan probes specific for each protozoan parasite were designed with Primer Express 3.0 software. The reaction parameters such as the concentration of two pairs of primers,two TaqMan probes and the reaction buffer were optimized to develop a duplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid detection of Bonamia and Perkinsus. The sensitivity of the duplex real-time PCR assay was 200 template copies for Bonamia and Perkinsus .The duplex real-time PCR assay was found to be specific and to be able to detect and differentiate Bonamia and Perkinsus,and no positive results were observed when nucleic acids from Haplosporidium,Marteilia refringens,Vibrio parahaemolyticu,V. Alginolyticu,and V.Fluvialisand were used as duplex real-time PCR templates. This duplex real-time PCR assay was a rapid,sensitive,and specific test fo detection of Bonamia and Perkinsus and could be useful for the control of these protozoan parasites in shellfish.%  根据GenBank中包拉米虫和派琴虫保守基因序列,用Primer Express 3.0软件设计合成了两对引物和两条TaqMan探针。对反应条件和试剂浓度进行优化,建立了能够同时检测包拉米虫和派琴虫的二重荧光定量PCR方法。该方法对包拉米虫和派琴虫的检测敏感性达到200个模板拷贝数;此外抗干扰能力强,对包拉米虫和派琴虫不同模板浓度进行组合,仍可有效同时检测到这两个原虫。该方法对单孢子虫、马尔太虫、副溶血弧菌、溶藻弧菌和河弧菌等病原体的检测,结果全为阴性。研究建立的包拉米虫和派琴虫荧光定量PCR具有特异、敏感、快速、定量、重复性好等优点,可用于贝类包拉米虫和派琴虫感染的检测。

  19. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511. (United States)

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Donaldson, Robert P; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús


    Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples). Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen) in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22%) upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed.

  20. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release (United States)

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming


    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  1. The role of hind limb flexor muscles during swimming in the toad, Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Gillis, Gary B


    Most work examining muscle function during anuran locomotion has focused largely on the roles of major hind limb extensors during jumping and swimming. Nevertheless, the recovery phase of anuran locomotion likely plays a critical role in locomotor performance, especially in the aquatic environment, where flexing limbs can increase drag on the swimming animal. In this study, I use kinematic and electromyographic analyses to explore the roles of four anatomical flexor muscles in the hind limb of Bufo marinus during swimming: m. iliacus externus, a hip flexor; mm. iliofibularis and semitendinosus, knee flexors; and m. tibialis anticus longus, an ankle flexor. Two general questions are addressed: (1) What role, if any, do these flexors play during limb extension? and (2) How do limb flexors control limb flexion? Musculus iliacus externus exhibits a large burst of EMG activity early in limb extension and shows low levels of activity during recovery. Both m. iliofibularis and m. semitendinosus are biphasically active, with relatively short but intense bursts during limb extension followed by longer and typically weaker secondary bursts during recovery. Musculus tibialis anticus longus becomes active mid way through recovery and remains active through the start of extension in the next stroke. In conclusion, flexors at all three joints exhibit some activity during limb extension, indicating that they play a role in mediating limb movements during propulsion. Further, recovery is controlled by a complex pattern of flexor activation timing, but muscle intensities are generally lower, suggesting relatively low force requirements during this phase of swimming.

  2. An electrophoretic study of myosin heavy chain expression in skeletal muscles of the toad Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M


    In this study we developed an SDS-PAGE protocol which for the first time separates effectively all myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms expected to be expressed in iliofibularis (IF), pyriformis (PYR), cruralis (CRU) and sartorius (SAR) muscles of the toad Bufo marinus on the basis of previously reported fibre type composition. The main feature of the method is the use of alanine instead of glycine both in the separating gel and in the running buffer. The correlation between the MHC isoform composition of IF, SAR and PYR muscles determined in this study and the previously reported fibre type composition of IF and SAR muscles in the toad and of PYR muscle in the frog was used to tentatively identify the MHC isoforms expressed by twitch fibre types 1, 2 and 3 and by tonic fibres. The alanine-SDS electrophoretic method was employed to examine changes in the MHC composition of IF, PYR, CRU and SAR muscles with the ontogenetic growth of the toad from post-natal life (body weight muscle observed in this study are in very good agreement with those in the fibre type composition of the developing IF muscle reported in the literature.

  3. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming


    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  4. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (United States)

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.


    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  5. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming


    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  6. Guiding out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) with pulsed direct current (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott M.


    Non-physical stimuli can deter or guide fish without affecting water flow or navigation and therefore have been investigated to improve fish passage at anthropogenic barriers and to control movement of invasive fish. Upstream fish migration can be blocked or guided without physical structure by electrifying the water, but directional downstream fish guidance with electricity has received little attention. We tested two non-uniform pulsed direct current electric systems, each having different electrode orientations (vertical versus horizontal), to determine their ability to guide out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both systems guided significantly more juvenile sea lamprey to a specific location in our experimental raceway when activated than when deactivated, but guidance efficiency decreased at the highest water velocities tested. At the electric field setting that effectively guided sea lamprey, rainbow trout were guided by the vertical electrode system, but most were blocked by the horizontal electrode system. Additional research should characterize the response of other species to non-uniform fields of pulsed DC and develop electrode configurations that guide fish over a range of water velocity.

  7. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Sghaier, Haïtham


    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism’ as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.

  8. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.


    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  9. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.


    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  10. Private specificities can dominate the humoral response to self-antigens in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Richard A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie the interstitial lung disease cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA may involve an immunological reaction to unidentified antigens in the lung, resulting in tissue damage. Method In order to identify the range of target autoantigens, we used expression cloning, employing serum from an index patient as the probe against an expressed cDNA library that was derived from a tumour cell line. We screened over 5 × 105 recombinants and obtained sequence information on three antigens that had provoked strong responses with immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching, presumably as a consequence of T-cell recognition. Results All of the antigens were identifiable by comparison with sequence data from the US National Center for Biotechnology Information. Alanyl tRNA synthetase (ATS was picked on six occasions; five of these incidences reflected independent recombination events, indicating that the library was not biased. Antibodies to ATS (anti-PL-12 represent the most common reactivity that defines the antisynthetase syndrome, which is typically expressed as polymyositis, dermatomyositis and interstitial lung disease (ILD. The index patient never showed symptoms other than those associated with alveolitis, even though sera obtained from him over a period of 2 years contained antibodies with the same specificity. Autoantibodies to ATS were never detected in serial bleeds from 11 other patients with CFA, and neither did we detect antibodies to the other two antigens identified from the serum of the index patient. Conclusion The humoral response in patients with CFA can be dominated by autoantibodies with private specificities. This suggests that the antibodies are epiphenomenal and are a secondary feature of tissue damage induced by some other mechanism.

  11. Predicting the variation in Echinogammarus marinus at its southernmost limits under global warming scenarios: can the sex-ratio make a difference? (United States)

    Guerra, Alexandra; Leite, Nuno; Marques, João Carlos; Ford, Alex T; Martins, Irene


    Understanding the environmental parameters that constrain the distribution of a species at its latitudinal extremes is critical for predicting how ecosystems react to climate change. Our first aim was to predict the variation in the amphipod populations of Echinogammarus marinus from the southernmost limit of its distribution under global warming scenarios. Our second aim was to test whether sex-ratio fluctuations - a mechanism frequently displayed by amphipods - respond to the variations in populations under altered climate conditions. To achieve these aims, scenarios were run with a validated model of E. marinus populations. Simulations were divided into: phase I - simulation of the effect of climate change on amphipod populations, and phase II - simulation of the effect of climate change on populations with male and female proportions. In both phases, temperature (T), salinity (S) and temperature and salinity (T-S) were tested. Results showed that E. marinus populations are highly sensitive to increases in temperature (>2 °C), which has adverse effects on amphipod recruitment and growth. Results from the climate change scenarios coupled with the sex-ratio fluctuations depended largely on the degree of female bias within population. Temperature increase of 2 °C had less impact on female-biased populations, particularly when conjugated with increases in salinity. Male-biased populations were highly sensitive to any variation in temperature and/or salinity; these populations exhibited a long-term decline in density. Simulations in which temperature increased more than 4 °C led to a continuous decline in the E. marinus population. According to this work, E. marinus populations at their southernmost limit are vulnerable to global warming. We anticipate that in Europe, temperature increases of 2 °C will incite a withdrawal of the population of 5°N from the amphipod species located at southernmost geographical borders. This effect is discussed in relation to the

  12. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus). (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B


    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration.

  13. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D


    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport.

  14. Ionoregulatory changes during metamorphosis and salinity exposure of juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.) (United States)

    Reis-Santos, P.; McCormick, S.D.; Wilson, J.M.


    Ammocoetes of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. spend many years in freshwater before metamorphosing and migrating to sea. Metamorphosis involves the radical transformation from a substrate-dwelling, filter feeder into a free-swimming, parasitic feeder. In the present work we examined osmoregulatory differences between ammocoetes and transformers (metamorphic juveniles), and the effects of salinity acclimation. We measured the expression of key ion-transporting proteins [Na+/K+-ATPase, vacuolar (V)-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA)] as well as a number of relevant blood parameters (hematocrit, [Na+] and [Cl -]). In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify and characterize the distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and CA immunoreactive cells in the gill. Ammocoetes did not survive in the experiments with salinities greater than 10???, whereas survival in high salinity (???25-35???) increased with increased degree of metamorphosis in transformers. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl -] of ammocoetes in freshwater was lower than transformers and increased markedly at 10???. In transformers, plasma ions increased only at high salinity (>25???). Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase levels were ??? tenfold higher in transformers compared to ammocoetes and salinity did not affect expression in either group. However, branchial H +-ATPase expression showed a negative correlation with salinity in both groups. Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity was strongest in transformers and associated with clusters of cells in the interlamellar spaces. H+-ATPase (B subunit) immunoreactivity was localized to epithelial cells not expressing high Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and having a similar tissue distribution as carbonic anhydrase. The results indicate that branchial Na+/K+-ATPase and salinity tolerance increase in metamorphosing lampreys, and that branchial H+-ATPase is downregulated by salinity.

  15. Differentiation of the ILO boundary chest roentgenograph (0/1 to 1/0) in asbestosis by high-resolution computed tomography scan, alveolitis, and respiratory impairment. (United States)

    Harkin, T J; McGuinness, G; Goldring, R; Cohen, H; Parker, J E; Crane, M; Naidich, D P; Rom, W N


    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans have been advocated as providing greater sensitivity in detecting parenchymal opacities in asbestos-exposed individuals, especially in the presence of pleural fibrosis, and having excellent inter- and intraobserver reader interpretation. We compared the 1980 International Labor Organization (ILO) International Classification of the Radiographs of the Pneumoconioses for asbestosis with the high-resolution CT scan using a grid scoring system to better differentiate normal versus abnormal in the ILO boundary 0/1 to 1/0 chest roentgenograph. We studied 37 asbestos-exposed individuals using the ILO classification, HRCT grid scores, respiratory symptom questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. We used Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the linear relationship between outcome variables and each roentgenographic method. The normal HRCT scan proved to be an excellent predictor of "normality," with pulmonary function values close to 100% for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and no increase in BAL inflammatory cells. Concordant HRCT/ILO abnormalities were associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, reduced diffusing capacity, and alveolitis consistent with a definition of asbestosis. In our study, the ILO classification and HRCT grid scores were both excellent modalities for the assessment of asbestosis and its association with impaired physiology and alveolitis, with their combined use providing statistical associations with alveolitis and reduced diffusing capacity.

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in the lungs of patients with systemic sclerosis, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and other lung disorders. (United States)

    Corrin, B; Butcher, D; McAnulty, B J; Dubois, R M; Black, C M; Laurent, G J; Harrison, N K


    To study the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis we have examined lung biopsies from nine patients with systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung disease, eight with 'lone' cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, two with cystic fibrosis, two with extrinsic allergic alveolitis, two with Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, one with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, one with giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and one adenocarcinoma of the lung. In cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, both 'lone' and associated with systemic sclerosis alveolar macrophages, bronchial epithelium and hyperplastic type II pneumonocytes expressed intracellular TGF-beta 1. Extracellular TGF-beta 1 was found in the fibrous tissue immediately beneath the bronchial and hyperplastic alveolar epithelium. In normal lung, however, the alveolar epithelium and alveolar interstitium were negative for both forms of TGF-beta 1. There was strong expression of TGF-beta 1 in hyperplastic mesothelium and its underlying connective tissue and in Langerhans' cells in the two cases of histiocytosis. In the organizing pneumonia in cystic fibrosis, the intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue reacted strongly for the extracellular form of TGF-beta 1 and the overlying hyperplastic epithelium expressed the intracellular form. In lymphangioleiomyomatosis, the aberrant smooth muscle cells strongly expressed intracellular TGF-beta 1 and the extracellular form was expressed in the adjacent connective tissue. In giant cell interstitial pneumonia, the numerous alveolar macrophage including the multinucleate forms, expressed intracellular TGF-beta 1, as did the hyperplastic alveolar epithelium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. (Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX (USA))


    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  18. Radiographic grading of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. A comparison between a modified ILO classification and a descriptive method. (United States)

    Jaakkola, J; Partanen, K; Terho, E O; Niemitukia, L; Soimakallio, S


    We analyzed the acute phase radiographs of 107 consecutive patients with clinically confirmed extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Three readers independently recorded the profusion and the type of opacities according to the standard ILO criteria extended with categories x, y, z, and ground glass for description as proposed by McLoud et al. The profusion of the changes was grade 0 in 13%, grade 1 in 37%, grade 2 in 35%, and grade 3 in 15% of the interpretations. The type of predominant small opacities was p in 33%, x in 22%, s in 13%, t in 10%, q in 9%, and 0, r, u, y, and z in 13% of the interpretations. Ground glass density was seen in 8% of the recordings. The changes were predominantly located in the middle and lower lung zones. For comparison, according to the classification of Hapke et al. miliary changes (68%) predominated over fibrotic (27%) and normal (11%) recordings. The intraobserver agreement was good by both methods, but there was less interobserver variation with the ILO method. The semiquantitative standardized modified ILO scheme was considered more informative than Hapke's descriptive classification for epidemiologic and research purposes.

  19. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis with eosinophil infiltration induced by 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a): a case report. (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Yasui, Masahide; Nakade, Yusuke; Kimura, Hideharu; Katayama, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Kazuo; Fujimura, Masaki


    A 22-year-old woman was admitted with symptoms of dyspnea and fever with pulmonary infiltrates noted on her chest X-ray study. She developed these symptoms in the workplace; her job included the removal of body hair using a diode-laser with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a, an alternative to chlorofluorocarbon) as a coolant. A chest X-ray examination revealed ground-glass opacities in the lower lung fields, and a chest computed tomographic study showed diffuse centrilobular opacities. An examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed increased lymphocytes with a slight increase in the number of eosinophils. An examination of the transbronchial biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration. A peripheral blood eosinophilia was also seen. The patient's symptoms, chest X-ray findings, and arterial blood gas analysis all returned to normal within a week. A challenge test of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a) inhalation was performed, which resulted in an elevation of body temperature, the development of a cough, and laboratory data indicating increased inflammation. We then determined the patient's diagnosis to be extrinsic allergic alveolitis with eosinophil infiltration, caused by HFC134a.

  20. Angiogenic activity of sera from extrinsic allergic alveolitis patients in relation to clinical, radiological, and functional pulmonary changes. (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Demkow, Urszula; Filewska, Małgorzata; Bialas, Beata; Zycinska, Katarzyna; Radzikowska, Elzbieta; Wardyn, Andrzej K; Skopinska-Rozewska, Ewa


    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) caused by inhaled organic environmental allergens can progress to a fibrotic end-stage lung disease. Neovascularization plays an important role in pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sera from EAA patients on the angiogenic capability of normal peripheral human mononuclear cells (MNC) in relation to the clinical, radiological, and functional changes. The study population consisted of 30 EAA patients and 16 healthy volunteers. Routine pulmonary function tests were undertaken using ERS standards. As an angiogenic test, leukocyte-induced angiogenesis assay according to Sidky and Auerbach was used. Compared with sera from healthy volunteers, sera from our EAA patients significantly stimulated angiogenesis (P < 0.001). However, sera from healthy donors also stimulated angiogenesis compared to PBS (P < 0.001). No correlation was found between serum angiogenic activity and clinical symptoms manifested by evaluated patients. A decrease in DLco and in lung compliance in EAA patients was observed but no significant correlation between pulmonary functional tests and serum angiogenic activity measured by the number of microvessels or an angiogenesis index was found. However, the proangiogenic effect of sera from EAA patients differed depending on the stage of the disease and was stronger in patients with fibrotic changes. The present study suggests that angiogenesis plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAA. It could be possible that the increase in the angiogenic activity of sera from EAA patients depends on the phase of the disease.

  1. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik


    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  2. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik


    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  3. [Study of cellular inflammatory response with bronchoalveolar lavage in allergic asthma, aspirin asthma and in extrinsic infiltrating alveolitis]. (United States)

    Muiño, Juan C; Garnero, Roberto; Caillet Bois, Ricardo; Gregorio, María J; Ferrero, Mercedes; Romero-Piffiguer, Marta


    The asthmatic inflammatory responses present different type of cells involved in this process, such as: Lymphocytes and Eosinophils. In experienced hands the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-tolerated and valuable tool for investigation of basic mechanisms in asthma and other immunological respiratory diseases. The purpose of this work was to study the different cells involved in asthmatic inflammatory responses in allergic and aspirin sensitivity patients and compared with Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis patients (EAA) by BAL procedure. We studied 27 asthmatic patients. This group was divided by etiological conditions in: allergic asthmatic patients (a) (n: 19), (9 male and 10 female) demonstrated by reversible fall of FEV 1 (3) 20% and 2 or more positive skin test for common aeroallergens. The aspirin asthmatic patients (b) (n: 8) (5 male and 3 female) demonstrated by progressive challenge with aspirin and fall of FEV 1 (3) 20%. The third group with compatible symptoms and signs of EAA, demonstrated by lung biopsy, (n: 9) (8 male and 1 female) (c). We determined in all patients: Total IgE serum level by ELISA test. BAL was performed by standard procedure in all patients. The cells count were performed in BAL and were separated in Eosinophils, T lymphocytes defined by monoclonal anti CD 3 antibody, Lymphocytes CD 4 and CD 8 by monoclonal anti CD 4 and CD 8 antibodies respectively. The B lymphocytes defined by surface immunoglobulin isotypes IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE. The IgE level was in (a) 630 +/- 350 kU/L, in (b) it was 85 +/- 62 kU/L and in EAA (c) 55 +/- 23 kU/L, p allergic asthmatic patients as well as in aspirin sensitivity asthmatic patients. The LBA cellular profile of E.AA patients presented eosinophilia and CE8+ Lymphocite predominance when compared with both asthmatic cellular profile.

  4. Alveolate mitochondrial metabolic evolution: dinoflagellates force reassessment of the role of parasitism as a driver of change in apicomplexans. (United States)

    Danne, Jillian C; Gornik, Sebastian G; Macrae, James I; McConville, Malcolm J; Waller, Ross F


    Mitochondrial metabolism is central to the supply of ATP and numerous essential metabolites in most eukaryotic cells. Across eukaryotic diversity, however, there is evidence of much adaptation of the function of this organelle according to specific metabolic requirements and/or demands imposed by different environmental niches. This includes substantial loss or retailoring of mitochondrial function in many parasitic groups that occupy potentially nutrient-rich environments in their metazoan hosts. Infrakingdom Alveolata comprises a well-supported alliance of three disparate eukaryotic phyla-dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates. These major taxa represent diverse lifestyles of free-living phototrophs, parasites, and predators and offer fertile territory for exploring character evolution in mitochondria. The mitochondria of apicomplexan parasites provide much evidence of loss or change of function from analysis of mitochondrial protein genes. Much less, however, is known of mitochondrial function in their closest relatives, the dinoflagellate algae. In this study, we have developed new models of mitochondrial metabolism in dinoflagellates based on gene predictions and stable isotope labeling experiments. These data show that many changes in mitochondrial gene content previously only known from apicomplexans are found in dinoflagellates also. For example, loss of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and changes in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme complement are shared by both groups and, therefore, represent ancestral character states. Significantly, we show that these changes do not result in loss of typical TCA cycle activity fueled by pyruvate. Thus, dinoflagellate data show that many changes in alveolate mitochondrial metabolism are independent of the major lifestyle changes seen in these lineages and provide a revised view of mitochondria character evolution during evolution of parasitism in apicomplexans.

  5. 外源性过敏性肺泡炎一例及文献复习%Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis: A Case Report and the Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韶华; 杨小东; 王妍亭; 黄燕花; 刘正满


    目的 提高对外源性过敏性肺泡炎的认识.方法 回顾分析2011年10月报道1例外源性过敏性肺泡炎(过敏性肺炎)患者的诊断及治疗经过,总结其临床特征、诊疗要点及预后评价.结果 患者数次误诊后最终诊断为外源性过敏性肺泡炎,予脱离变应原及激素治疗后痊愈,随访半年无复发.结论 该病临床表现无特异性,需结合患者病史、临床症状、血清学检查、影像学表现,甚至肺泡灌洗液及肺活检综合判断:脱离变应原为该病治疗的最根本、最重要措施;对于病情严重患者,短期全身性使用糖皮质激素可缩短病程或改善症状.%Objective To enhance the understanding of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Methods The experience of diagnosing and treating one case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis was reported in October 2011 in the present study, and the related literature was reviewed. Results The 36-year-old patient was finally diagnosed to have extrinsic allergic alveolitis after several times of misdiagnosis. He recovered by avoidance of contact with the antigen and corticosteroid therapy. After thirteen-month follow-up, his condition was stable and no recurrence happened. Conclusions The clinical manifestation of extrinsic allergic alveolitis is nonspecific, and the diagnosis usuatty rests on a variable combination of findings through history, clinical symptoms, serology, radiography, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung biopsy. Avoidance of contact with antigen is the most obvious treatment, and in severe cases, a short-term regimen of systemic corticosteroid therapy is necessary.

  6. Estudio de la efectividad del gel bioadhesivo de clorhexidina en la prevención de la alveolitis y su valor coadyuvante en el postoperatorio tras la extracción de terceros molares inferiores retenidos


    Torres-Lagares, Daniel


    La alveolitis es una complicación bastante frecuente tras la extracción, más aún cuando hablamos de la extracción de los terceros molares retenidos. En estos casos la osteítis alveolar es una patología de alto coste social, en forma de días de trabajo perdidos, baja de productividad, consultas de revisión por parte del cirujano y visitas al hospital. El 45% de los pacientes que desarrollan una alveolitis necesitan un mínimo de 4 visitas postoperatorias para diagnosticarla, tratarla y recupera...

  7. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact. (United States)

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A


    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes.

  8. Subcellular localization of the magnetosome protein MamC in the marine magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 using immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde-Tercedor, C [Universidad de Granada; Abada-Molina, F [Universidad de Granada; Martinez-Bueno, M [Universidad de Granada; Pineda-Molina, Estela [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalograficos; Chen, Lijun [Ohio State University; Oestreicher, Zachery [Ohio State University; Lower, Brian H [Ohio State University; Lower, Steven K [Ohio State University; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Jimenez-Lopez, C [Universidad de Granada


    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular magnetosomes, composed of magnetic (Fe3O4) crystals each enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane that contains proteins not found in other parts of the cell. Although partial roles of some of these magnetosome proteins have been determined, the roles of most have not been completely elucidated, particularly in how they regulate the biomineralization process. While studies on the localization of these proteins have been focused solely on Magnetospirillum species, the goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the localization of the most abundant putative magnetosome membrane protein, MamC, in Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. MamC was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against MamC and immunogold labeling TEM was used to localize MamC in thin sections of cells of M. marinus. Results show that MamC is located only in the magnetosome membrane of Mc. marinus. Based on our findings and the abundance of this protein, it seems likely that it is important in magnetosome biomineralization and might be used in controlling the characteristics of synthetic nanomagnetite.

  9. Mollusk Distribution and Habitat, Rhode Island Oyster Disease Sampling Sites; Twenty sites were surveyed in the spring and fall of each year to assess the levels of Dermo Disease (Perkinsus marinus) and Haplosporidian infections (H. nelsoni and H. costale)., Published in 2003, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mollusk Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003. It is...

  10. 外源性过敏性肺泡炎3例临床分析及治疗%Clinical analysis and treatment of 3 patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 李琦; 胡明冬; 韦球; 王建春


    Objective To study the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Methods 3 cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis were summarized, and their clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnosis and treatment were analyzed. Results Extrinsic allergic alveolitis was usually performed with special environmental exposure history, and its main symptoms were cough and short hreath after activity. There was no specificity of pulmonary symptoms, but it had typical CT manifestations. The confirmed diagnosis were based on bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy. Conclusion BAL and lung biopsy can help to extrinsic allergic alveolitis. The key of treatment is to keep the patients away from anaphylactogen, and glucocorticoid has a significant curative effect in the treatment of patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis.%目的 探讨外源性过敏性肺泡炎的临床特点、诊断和治疗.方法 总结外源性过敏性肺泡炎3例,对其临床表现、影像学特点、诊断及治疗方法进行分析.结果 外源性过敏性肺泡炎有特殊环境暴露史,主要症状为咳嗽、活动后气短等.肺部症状无特异性,有较为典型的CT表现,确诊需依靠纤维支气管镜检查,支气管肺泡灌洗及肺活检.结论 支气管肺泡灌洗液检查及肺活检有利于外源性过敏性肺泡炎的诊断.避免接触过敏原是治疗的关键,糖皮质激素疗效明显.

  11. Direct behavioral evidence that unique bile acids released by larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) function as a migratory pheromone (United States)

    Bjerselius, R.; Li, W.; Teeter, J.H.; Seelye, J.G.; Johnsen, P.B.; Maniak, P.J.; Grant, G.C.; Polkinghorne, C.N.; Sorensen, P.W.


    Four behavioral experiments conducted in both the laboratory and the field provide evidence that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) select spawning rivers based on the odor of larvae that they contain and that bile acids released by the larvae are part of this pheromonal odor. First, when tested in a recirculating maze, migratory adult lamprey spent more time in water scented with larvae. However, when fully mature, adults lost their responsiveness to larvae and preferred instead the odor of mature individuals. Second, when tested in a flowing stream, migratory adults swam upstream more actively when the water was scented with larvae. Third, when migratory adults were tested in a laboratory maze containing still water, they exhibited enhanced swimming activity in the presence of a 0.1 nM concentration of the two unique bile acids released by larvae and detected by adult lamprey. Fourth, when adults were exposed to this bile acid mixture within flowing waters, they actively swam into it. Taken together, these data suggest that adult lamprey use a bile acid based larval pheromone to help them locate spawning rivers and that responsiveness to this cue is influenced by current flow, maturity, and time of day. Although the precise identity and function of the larval pheromone remain to be fully elucidated, we believe that this cue will ultimately prove useful as an attractant in sea lamprey control.

  12. Identification of squalamine in the plasma membrane of white blood cells in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming


    It is well established that innate mechanisms play an important role in the immunity of fish. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from several species of teleosts. Here, we report the isolation of an antimicrobial compound from the blood of bacterially challenged sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. An acetic acid extract from the blood cells of challenged fish was subjected to solid-phase extraction, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the purified fractions assayed for antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, antimicrobial activity in these fractions originated from squalamine, an aminosterol previously identified in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the identity of squalamine, an antimicrobial and antiangiogenic agent, in the active fraction from the sea lamprey blood cells. Immunocytochemical analysis localized squalamine to the plasma membrane of white blood cells. Therefore, we postulate that squalamine has an important role in the innate immunity that defends the lamprey against microbial invasion. The full biochemical and immunological roles of squalamine in the white blood cell membrane remain to be investigated.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility. (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H


    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  14. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior (United States)

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.


    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  15. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location (United States)

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael


    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  16. Relation of concentration and exposure time to the efficacy of niclosamide against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

    Scholefield, R.J.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Bills, T.D.


    The efficacy of 2’, 5-dichloro-4’-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) at various concentrations and exposure times was tested against free-swimming larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) at 12°C and 17°C in Lake Huron water. Concentrations of niclosamide in test solutions ranged from 0.46 to 4.7 mg/L with pH 7.8 to 8.3, total alkalinity 78 to 88 mg/L as CaCO3, and total hardness 95 to 105 mg/L as CaCO3. In each test, six groups of larvae were exposed to a single concentration of niclosamide for times ranging from 30 s to 30 min. Exposure time was treated as the dose and, for each concentration tested, the exposure time necessary to kill 50 and 99.9% of larvae (ET50 and ET99.9) was determined. Linear regressions of the log10-transformed ET50 and ET99.9 on the log10-transformed niclosamide concentrations were significant at both temperatures with r2ranging from 0.94 to 0.98. The predicted ET50 ranged from 58 sec to 21.7 min and the ET99.9 ranged from 2.5 to 43.5 min across the concentrations and temperatures tested. Niclosamide required a significantly longer time to kill larvae at 12°C than at 17°C.

  17. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis): high-resolution computed tomography findings; Pneumonite por hipersensibilidade (alveolite alergica extrinseca): achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Guiomar de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho. Servico de Radiologia


    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologic disease of the lungs caused by inhaled chemicals or organics allergens. A lymphocytic inflammatory response in the peripheral airways and surrounding interstitial tissue occurs. In this study the high-resolution computed tomography findings of 13 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analyzed and discussed. The most frequent high-resolution computed tomography findings were: ground-glass opacities (92.3%), centrilobular nodules (38.4%) and air trapping (38.4%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (23.1%), consolidation (23.1%), crazy paving (7.7%), parenchymal bands (15.4%), linear opacities (7.7%), architectural distortion (7.7%), tracheal dilatation (7.7%), intralobular reticulate (7.7%), honeycombing (7.7%), emphysema (7.7%) and atelectasis (7.7%). In two of the 13 patients there was fibrosis (architectural distortion and honeycombing), which represents the chronic phase of the disease. (author)

  18. Effects of inhibition gastric acid secretion on arterial acid-base status during digestion in the toad Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias


    Digestion affects acid-base status, because the net transfer of HCl from the blood to the stomach lumen leads to an increase in HCO3(-) levels in both extra- and intracellular compartments. The increase in plasma [HCO3(-)], the alkaline tide, is particularly pronounced in amphibians and reptiles, but is not associated with an increased arterial pH, because of a concomitant rise in arterial PCO2 caused by a relative hypoventilation. In this study, we investigate whether the postprandial increase in PaCO2 of the toad Bufo marinus represents a compensatory response to the increased plasma [HCO3(-)] or a state-dependent change in the control of pulmonary ventilation. To this end, we successfully prevented the alkaline tide, by inhibiting gastric acid secretion with omeprazole, and compared the response to that of untreated toads determined in our laboratory during the same period. In addition, we used vascular infusions of bicarbonate to mimic the alkaline tide in fasting animals. Omeprazole did not affect blood gases, acid-base and haematological parameters in fasting toads, but abolished the postprandial increase in plasma [HCO3(-)] and the rise in arterial PCO2 that normally peaks 48 h into the digestive period. Vascular infusion of HCO3(-), that mimicked the postprandial rise in plasma [HCO3(-)], led to a progressive respiratory compensation of arterial pH through increased arterial PCO2. Thus, irrespective of whether the metabolic alkalosis is caused by gastric acid secretion in response to a meal or experimental infusion of bicarbonate, arterial pH is being maintained by an increased arterial PCO2. It seems, therefore, that the elevated PCO2, occuring during the postprandial period, constitutes of a regulated response to maintain pH rather than a state-dependent change in ventilatory control.

  19. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming


    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  20. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil. (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella


    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  1. BN 52021 (a platelet activating factor-receptor antagonist decreases alveolar macrophage-mediated lung injury in experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L. Pérez-Arellano


    Full Text Available Several lines of research indirectly suggest that platelet activating factor (PAF may intervene in the pathogenesis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA. The specific aim of our study was to evaluate the participation of PAF on macrophage activation during the acute phase of EAA in an experimental model of this disease developed in guinea pigs. Initially we measured the concentration of PAF in bronchoalvedar lavage fluid, blood and lung tissue. In a second phase we evaluate the participation of PAF on alveolar macrophage activation and parenchymal lung injury. The effect of PAF on parenchymal lung injury was evaluated by m easuring several lung parenchymatous lesion indices (lung index, bronchoalvedar lavage fluid (BALF lactic hydrogenase activity and BALF alkaline phosphatase activity and parameters of systemic response to the challenge (acute phase reagents. We observed that induction of the experimental EAA gave rise to an increase in the concentration of PAF in blood and in lung tissue. The use of the PAF-receptor antagonist BN52021 decreases the release of lysosomal enzymes (β-glucuronidase and tartrate-sensitive acid phosphatase to the extracellular environment both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, antagonism of the PAF receptors notably decreases pulmonary parenchymatous lesion. These data suggest that lung lesions from acute EAA are partly mediated by local production of PAF.

  2. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C


    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  3. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-β and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis. (United States)

    Matěj, Radoslav; Smětáková, Magdalena; Vašáková, Martina; Nováková, Jana; Sterclová, Martina; Kukal, Jaromír; Olejár, Tomáš


    Sarcoidosis (SARC) and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) share certain markers, making a differential diagnosis difficult even with histopathological investigation. In lung tissue, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is primarily investigated with regard to epithelial and inflammatory perspectives. Varying levels of certain chemokines can be a useful tool for distinguishing EAA and SARC. Thus, in the present study, differences in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) and PAR-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared, using an ELISA method, between 14 patients with EAA and six patients with SARC. Statistically significant higher levels of IL-4R, PAR-2 and the PAR-2/TGF-β1 and PAR-2/TNF-α ratios were observed in EAA patients as compared with SARC patients. Furthermore, the ratios of TNF-α/total protein, TGF-β1/PAR-2 and TNF-α/PAR-2 were significantly lower in EAA patients than in SARC patients. The results indicated a higher detection of PAR-2 in EAA samples in association with TNF-α and TGF-β levels. As EAA and PAR-2 in parallel belong to the Th2-mediated pathway, the results significantly indicated an association between this receptor and etiology. In addition, the results indicated that SARC is predominantly a granulomatous inflammatory disease, thus, higher levels of TNF-α are observed. Therefore, the detection of PAR-2 and investigated chemokines in BALF may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between EAA and SARC.

  4. The modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus is cell-attached, and its C-terminal domain has several putative homologues among cell-attached proteins within the phylum Bacteroidetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Hachem, Maher Abou; Ramchuran, Santosh


    cell attachment. To confirm this theory, R. marinus was grown, and activity assays showed that the major part of the xylanase activity was connected to whole cells. Moreover, immunocytochemical detection using a Xyn10A-specific antibody proved presence of Xyn10A on the R. marinus cell surface......-termini of proteins that were predominantly extra-cellular/cell attached. A primary structure motif of three conserved regions including structurally important glycines and a proline was also identified suggesting a conserved 3D fold. This bioinformatic evidence suggested a possible role of this domain in mediating....... In the light of this, a revision of experimental data present on both Xyn10A and Man26A was performed, and the results all indicate a cell-anchoring role of the domain, suggesting that this domain represents a novel type of module that mediates cell attachment in proteins originating from members of the phylum...

  5. Evaluation of Salinity-Related Habitat Impacts in the Lower Chesapeake Bay and James River for the Norfolk Harbor and Channels Deepening Study. (United States)


    and by two protozoan parasites , Minchinia nelsoni ("MSX") and Perkinsus marinus ("dermo"). Salinity Relationships - Crassostrea virginica is an...affecting density and abundance of oysters in Chesapeake Bay are predation and disease (actually, protozoan parasites ). Minchinia nelsoni ("MSX") was

  6. The performance of oyster families exposed to Dermo disease is contingent on the source of pathogen exposure (United States)

    Here we report preliminary results from a course of research integrating pathology, feeding ecology, genetics and genomics to address resistance to Dermo disease in eastern oysters. We challenged six oyster families with Perkinsus marinus, the etiological agent of Dermo disease, through either direc...

  7. Evidence that sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) complete their life cycle within a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes by parasitizing fishes in inland lakes (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Twohey, Michael B.; Miehls, Scott M.; Cwalinski, Tim A; Godby, Neal A; Lochet, Aude; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Jubar, Aaron K.; Siefkes, Michael J.


    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) invaded the upper Laurentian Great Lakes and feeds on valued fish. The Cheboygan River, Michigan, USA, is a large sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron and despite having a renovated dam 2 km from the river mouth that presumably blocks sea lamprey spawning migrations, the watershed upstream of the dam remains infested with larval sea lamprey. A navigational lock near the dam has been hypothesized as the means of escapement of adult sea lampreys from Lake Huron and source of the upper river population (H1). However, an alternative hypothesis (H2) is that some sea lampreys complete their life cycle upstream of the dam, without entering Lake Huron. To evaluate the alternative hypothesis, we gathered angler reports of lamprey wounds on game fishes upstream of the dam, and captured adult sea lampreys downstream and upstream of the dam to contrast abundance, run timing, size, and statolith microchemistry. Results indicate that a small population of adult sea lampreys (n life cycle upstream of the dam during 2013 and 2014. This is the most comprehensive evidence that sea lampreys complete their life history within a tributary of the upper Great Lakes, and indicates that similar landlocked populations could occur in other watersheds. Because the adult sea lamprey population upstream of the dam is small, complete elimination of the already low adult escapement from Lake Huron might allow multiple control tactics such as lampricides, trapping, and sterile male release to eradicate the population.

  8. Life stage dependent responses to the lampricide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), provide insight into glucose homeostasis and metabolism in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). (United States)

    Henry, Matthew; Birceanu, Oana; Clifford, Alexander M; McClelland, Grant B; Wang, Yuxiang S; Wilkie, Michael P


    The primary method of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes is the treatment of streams and rivers with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which targets larval sea lamprey. However, less is known about the effects of TFM on other stages of the sea lamprey's complex life cycle. The goal of this study was to determine how TFM affected internal energy stores, metabolites, and ion balance in larval, juvenile (parasitic) and adult sea lamprey. The larvae were more tolerant to TFM than the adults, with a 2-fold higher 12h TFM LC50 and a 1.5-fold higher LC99.9. Acute (3h) exposure of the larvae, parasites and adults to their respective 12h TFM LC99.9 led to marked reductions in glycogen and phosphocreatine in the adult brain, with lesser or no effect in the larvae and parasites. Increased lactate in the brain, at less than the expected stoichiometry, suggested that it was exported to the blood. Kidney glycogen declined after TFM exposure, suggesting that this organ plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. TFM-induced disturbances to ion balance were minimal. In conclusion, TFM perturbs energy metabolism in all major stages of the sea lamprey life cycle in a similar fashion, but the adults appear to be the most sensitive. Thus, the adult stage could be a viable and effective target for TFM treatment, particularly when used in combination with other existing and emerging strategies of sea lamprey control.

  9. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.


    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  10. Use of the duplex TaqMan MGB probe for simultaneous detection of Perkinsus and Bonamia in marine shellfish%同时检测海洋贝类包纳米虫和派琴虫的双重TaqMan MGB探针实时荧光 PCR方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书林; 陈信忠; 肖懿哲; 朱苏琴; 龚艳清; 杨俊萍


    A duplex TaqMan MGB real-time PCR method was optimized to simultaneously detect Perkinsus sp.and Bonamia sp..The primers and TaqMan MGB probes were designed and chosen to amplify the conserved SSU seg-ment of genus Bonamia sp.ribosomal DNA and ITS segment of genus Perkinsus sp.ribosomal DNA.The duplex real-time PCR identified and differentiated the two protozoan parasite groups.The sensitivity of the duplex real-time PCR assay was 446 and 171 template copies and it had higher sensitivity.Tenfold serial dilutions of the plasmid DNAs of Bonamia sp.and Perkinsus sp.were quantified the actual copy numbers using the duplex real-time PCR.The corre-lation coefficient of calibration curves were 0.999 and 1 .000,respectively.Meanwhile,this method had no cross reaction with other species of protozoa in mollusks and the common pathogenic bacteria in mariculture.The method showed advantages of rapid and high efficiency when applied to detect 296 clinical specimens from Meizhou bay, Pinghai bay and Xinghua bay of Fujian.This assay is proved to be sensitive and specific and can be widely used for the protozoan infection survey,disease surveillance and the quarantine of shell fish.%根据包纳米虫(Bonamia sp.)SSU rDNA和派琴虫(Perkinsus sp.)ITS rDNA的保守区序列,设计特异性引物和Taqman MGB探针,建立了同时检测上述两种贝类原虫的双重实时荧光PCR方法.该方法可检测到包纳米虫基因的446拷贝质粒,以及派琴虫基因的171拷贝质粒,具有较高的灵敏度.以10倍系列稀释的包纳米虫阳性标准品质粒和派琴虫阳性标准品质粒为模板,测得该方法的定量标准曲线相关系数分别为0.999和1.000,显示出很好的扩增效率.同时该方法与尼氏单孢子虫(Haplosporidium nelsoni)、沿岸单孢子虫(H.costale)等其他贝类原虫,以及副溶血性弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)、迟缓爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda)和#爱德华氏菌

  11. Richness and distribution of tropical oyster parasites in two oceans. (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Fleischer, Robert C; Ruiz, Gregory M


    Parasites can exert strong effects on population to ecosystem level processes, but data on parasites are limited for many global regions, especially tropical marine systems. Characterizing parasite diversity and distributions are the first steps towards understanding the potential impacts of parasites. The Panama Canal serves as an interesting location to examine tropical parasite diversity and distribution, as it is a conduit between two oceans and a hub for international trade. We examined metazoan and protistan parasites associated with ten oyster species collected from both Panamanian coasts, including the Panama Canal and Bocas del Toro. We found multiple metazoan taxa (pea crabs, Stylochus spp., Urastoma cyrinae). Our molecular screening for protistan parasites detected four species of Perkinsus (Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus olseni, Perkinsus beihaiensis) and several haplosporidians, including two genera (Minchinia, Haplosporidium). Species richness was higher for the protistan parasites than for the metazoans, with haplosporidian richness being higher than Perkinsus richness. Perkinsus species were the most frequently detected and most geographically widespread among parasite groups. Parasite richness and overlap differed between regions, locations and oyster hosts. These results have important implications for tropical parasite richness and the dispersal of parasites due to shipping associated with the Panama Canal.

  12. [Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis)]. (United States)

    Cebollero, P; Echechipía, S; Echegoyen, A; Lorente, M P; Fanlo, P


    Farmer's lung was first described in 1932. We can define hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a pulmonary and systemic disease that is accompanied by dyspnoea and coughing; it is caused by an immunological type of inflammation of the alveolar walls and the terminal airways and it is secondary to the repeated inhalation of a variety of antigens by a susceptible host. It can be said that it is an underdiagnosed disease and only a high degree of clinical manifestations and a detailed history of exposure can lead to an early diagnosis and satisfactory treatment. A combination among clinical-radiological, functional, cytological or pathological findings leads in some cases to a diagnosis. Treatment is based on avoiding further exposure to the causal agent and in the more serious cases the administration of systemic corticoid treatment.

  13. Sarcoidosis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, G.; Baur, X.; Fruhmann, G.


    Of 46 patients with sarcoidosis, there was an exposure to type III allergens in 14 subjects. On closer examination of 2 patients diagnosed as having sarcoidosis there were distinct features suggesting farmer's lung too. Inhalative challenge recording airway resistance, CO transfer factor and other clinical features confirmed farmer's lung disease in these patients. Because there are sometimes poor clinical and uncertain histological differences, inhalative challenge is considered an important diagnostic procedure to differentiate hypersensitivity pneumonitis from sarcoidosis.

  14. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis:three cases report and literature review%外源性过敏性肺泡炎3例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳军; 张淑红; 徐秋芬; 王浩彦; 姚志刚


    Objective To improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment of patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis(EAA)upon the analysis of its clinical features.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of three patients with EAA in our hospital,including pathogenesis,clinical manifestation,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis evaluation.Results One case had a clear allergen exposure history,the remaining two cases had the hidden history of indirect contact.Clinical symptoms mainly contained cough,sputum,fever,and wheezing.One patient had acute onset,and the other two cases had chronic onset.High-resolution CT lung manifestation mainly contained streaks shadow,diffuse or patchy ground-glass opacities and so on,the CD4/CD8 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of one patient was 4.13,while that in the remaining two cases was 0.72 and 0.84.Three patients were alleviated in symptoms after treatment.Conclusion The clinical manifestation,severity and natural history of patients with EAA have a variety of performances.Clinicians need high recognised ability especially when patients have atypical clinical manifestations or the exposure factors of patients are not clear.%目的:分析外源性过敏性肺泡炎(EAA)的临床特点,提高对 EAA 的诊断和治疗能力。方法回顾性分析我院3例 EAA 患者的临床资料,分析和讨论 EAA 的发病机制、临床表现、诊断、治疗及预后等。结果3例患者中1例有明确的过敏原接触史,其余2例为较隐匿的间接接触史。临床症状主要有咳嗽、咳痰、发热和喘憋,其中1例为急性起病,其余2例为慢性起病。肺部高分辨 CT 主要表现为索条影、弥漫性斑片状或磨玻璃样影等。其中1例支气管肺泡灌洗液 CD4/CD8为4.13,其余2例分别为0.72和0.84。3例患者经治疗后症状均缓解。结论 EAA 患者临床表现、严重程度和自然病史差异性很大,起病缓急不一。当临床表现不典型,暴露因素不明确时需临床医师高度的识别能力。

  15. Gelatiniphilus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium from the culture broth of a microalga, Picochlorum sp. 122, and emended description of the genus Hwangdonia. (United States)

    Tang, Mingxing; Tan, Li; Wu, Hualian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; Li, Jiaying; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang; Wang, Guanghua


    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain GYP-24T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochlorum sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain GYP-24T forms a robust cluster with H.wangdoniaseohaensis KCTC 32177T (95.8 % sequence similarity) in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Growth of strain GYP-24T was observed at 15, 22, 28, 30, 33 and 37 °C (optimal 30-33 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimal pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0.5-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal 2-3 %). The only menaquinone of strain GYP-24T was MK-6, and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.9 mol%. The major fatty acid profile comprised iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/ω6c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids of strain GYP-24T were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. Comprehensive analyses based on polyphasic characterization of GYP-24T indicated that it represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Gelatiniphilus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GYP-24T (=KCTC 42903T=MCCC 1K01730T). An emended description of the genus Hwangdonia is also given.

  16. Description of two species of early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. (United States)

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J


    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone-hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina-like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates.

  17. Clinicopathological features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis:an analysis of 21 cases%外源性过敏性肺泡炎21例病理和临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗本涛; 宇小婷; 易祥华


    目的 探讨外源性过敏性肺炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA)的临床病理特点,提高临床和病理的诊断水平.方法 回顾性分析经肺活检病理诊断的21例EAA的临床、影像和病理特点并进行随访.结果 21例中女14例、男7例,年龄范围24 ~79岁(中位年龄51岁).14例(66.7%)有过敏原接触史,其中7例为有机和无机物,5例有养猫、狗和鸽子史,2例有羊毛和皮革化纤接触史,4例(19.0%)无明显过敏原接触史,3例(14.3%)不详.主要症状是间断性咳嗽、咳痰、气喘.胸部CT均显示双肺弥漫性或者片状磨玻璃影.13例经电视胸腔镜(VATS)/小切口开胸肺活检、8例经TBLB肺活检,病理形态学表现为细支气管炎、间质淋巴细胞浸润、上皮样细胞或者多核巨细胞聚集(14例,66.7%)、非干酪性上皮样肉芽肿形成(8例,38.1%).9例(42.9%)分别误诊为细菌性肺炎、肺结核和真菌感染.脱离过敏原和糖皮质激素治疗效果好.结论 EAA的临床和影像表现缺乏特征性,宠物以及其他过敏原接触史对诊断有重要的提示作用;病理组织学上部分患者缺乏特征性的上皮样结节形成,病理诊断需要结合临床和胸部影像学的表现.

  18. Clinical and pathological features and imaging manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis%外源性变应性肺泡炎的临床病理特征和影像学表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩锋锋; 郭雪君; 郏琴; 张悦; 王妍敏; 李惠民; 管雯斌


    Objective To study the clinical and pathological features and imaging manifestations of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). Methods 5 patients with EAA were selected in this study, and their clinical features, imaging manifestations, and pathological features were analyzed. Results The most common clinical manifestations of EAA were cough, progressive dyspnea, sputum, fever, and slight cyanosis. The main positive signs were slight cyanosis, bilateral crackles or velcro rales on chest auscultation. The primary abnormalities of pulmonary function were restriction and reduction in diffusing capacity. The most common findings on high-resolution computed tomography ( 11RCT ) were ground-glass opacities, interlobular septum thickening, centrilobular nodules and reticular or honeycombing lesions. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALE ) showed lymphocytosis. Pathologic examination of lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, small uncharacteristic granuloma and multinucleated giant cells surrounding the bronchioles. Corticosteroids was effective to the patients. Conclusion Clinical diagnosis of EAA can be suggested by the clinical characteristics and typical imaging features. Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy is an effective method in the diagnosis of patients with EAA.%目的 探讨外源性变应性肺泡炎(EAA)的临床病理特征和影像学表现.方法分析5例外源性变应性肺泡炎病例的临床特点、影像学表现、肺活检的病理特征.结果 EAA常见的临床表现为咳嗽、呼吸困难、咳痰、发热;主要阳性体征为轻度紫绀、肺部听诊湿啰音或Velcro啰音;肺功能检查显示限制性通气功能障碍和弥散功能障碍.HRCT表现为磨玻璃影、小叶间隔增厚、小叶中心性结节、网格影和蜂窝肺等.支气管肺泡灌洗液显示淋巴细胞增多.肺活检组织病理学示淋巴细胞性间质性肺炎,细支气管周围可见小的不典型肉芽肿和多核巨细胞.

  19. Chest high resolution CT features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis and its diagnostic value%外源性过敏性肺泡炎高分辨率CT特点及其诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班承钧; 代华平; 张曙; 张镭; 叶俏; 朱敏


    Objective To summarize the chest high-resolution CT(HRCT) features of the patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). Methods We analyzed the images of chest HRCT of 34 patients diagnosed as EAA at our hospital from February 2001 to August 2009. Results All patients had a history of environmental exposure. The duration of intermittent or continuous antigen exposure was from 3 months to 13 years. Two patients showed acute clinical manifestations. There were 22 sub-acute and 10 chronic cases.Acute EAA was characterized by ground-glass opacities, air trapping and/or mosaic sign on HRCT. The HRCT features of subacute EAA included patchy ground-glass opacities with mosaic sign (n =11, 50. 0% )and diffusely distributed centrilobular nodules ( n = 7, 31.8% ) with mosaic sign ( n = 4, 18. 2% ). All patients with chronic EAA had reticular and honeycombing lesions on HRCT. There were 3 cases with ground-glass opacities, 3 with mosaic sign, and 3 with centrilobular nodules. Conclusion The typical findings of chest HRCT are helpful for making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis of EAA.%目的 探讨外源性过敏性肺泡炎(EAA)的高分辨率CT(HRCT)特征及其诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析2001年2月至2009年8月在首都医科大学附属北京朝阳医院确诊的34例EAA患者的胸部HRCT影像学表现及相关临床资料.结果 34例患者均有明确的环境抗原暴露史,间歇或持续抗原暴露时间为3个月~13年.临床表现2例呈急性,22例呈亚急性,10例呈慢性.2例急性EAA胸部HRCT分别表现弥漫磨玻璃影和磨玻璃影伴马赛克征;亚急性者主要表现弥漫分布的斑片磨玻璃影伴马赛克征(11例,50.0%)、弥漫分布的小叶中心结节(7例,31.8%)和马赛克征(4例,18.2%);慢性者均表现网格影或伴蜂窝肺,其中3例伴斑片磨玻璃影,3例伴马赛克征,3例伴小叶中心结节.结论 EAA的胸部HRCT有比较特征性的表现,对EAA的诊断和鉴别诊断具有重要的提示作用.

  20. Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis Induced by Suction Isocyanate:A Case Report and Literature Review%吸入异氰酸酯致外源性变应性肺泡炎报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晋渊; 韩锋锋; 黄雁西; 管雯斌; 李惠民; 郭雪君


    目的:探讨外源性变应性肺泡炎( extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA)的临床特点及诊疗思路。方法回顾分析1例吸入异氰酸酯所致 EAA的诊治经过,并复习相关文献。结果患者表现为反复咳嗽、发热及活动后气促。外院胸部高分辨率 CT( HRCT)检查示双肺弥漫性间质病变,诊断为间质性肺炎,予相应治疗病情无好转。入我科后追问病史,发现有异氰酸酯吸入史。支气管肺泡灌洗液( BALF)细胞分类淋巴细胞增多。转胸外科行右下肺楔形切除术,术后病理检查确诊 EAA。予甲泼尼龙治疗14个月,临床症状及胸部 HRCT 表现均得到明显改善。结论胸部HRCT检查对 EAA的诊断和鉴别诊断有较大价值,肺活组织病理检查是其确诊手段。随着工业发展,临床医师应警惕吸入异氰酸酯等小分子化合物所致 EAA。%Objective To explore the clinical features and treatment of extrinsic allergic alveolitis( EAA). Methods The diagnosis and treatment of one patient with EAA induced by isocyanate suction was reviewed,and the relevant literature was also reviewed. Results The patient suffered chronic cough,fever and accelerated breathing after activities. In other hos-pitals,the chest high-resolution computed tomography( HRCT)showed diffuse interstitial substance pathological changes in hibateral pulmones,and the patient was diagnosed as having interstitial pneumonia,but the patient′s condition did not improve after corresponding treatment. In our department,the patient was found to have a history of isocyanate suction after history en-quiry. Lymphocytosis was found after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)cell classification. After the thoracic surgery,right pulmonary wedge resection was performed,and then the diagnosis of EAA was confirmed by postoperative pathological exami-nation. The patient′s manifestations and chest HRCT symptoms significantly improved after methylprednisolone

  1. Pathologic diagnosis and clinical analysis of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis%慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎七例病理诊断和临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁小莉; 金木兰; 代华平; 李雪; 韦萍; 张云岗


    目的 探讨慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎的病理诊断及其诊断思路.方法 收集首都医科大学附属北京朝阳医院2006年10月至2009年3月收治的、经病理确诊且有完整临床资料的慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎7例,对其病理组织学形态和临床资料进行综合分析,并对文献进行复习.结果 7例慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎患者,男性4例,女性3例,年龄30~65岁,平均年龄48岁,均表现为慢性起病,5例因近期加重入院,其中4例有刺激性气体或粉尘、宠物接触史;2例常见过敏原检测阳性;胸部高分辨CT显示小叶中心性小结节影及纤维条索影、磨玻璃影和小叶间隔增厚;支气管肺泡灌洗液淋巴细胞数量增高,CD4+/CD8+细胞比值<1;肺功能检查均显示肺活量降低、肺总量降低、呼吸总气道阻力增高及周边气道阻力增高为主.5例行开胸肺活检,2例行肺移植手术.病理组织学均表现为:细支气管周围慢性炎及间质纤维化,不典型非干酪性上皮样肉芽肿,支气管腔内可见上皮样吞噬细胞渗出和新生的纤维息肉样组织形成;5例开胸肺活检的病例支气管腔内可见中性粒细胞渗出,5例均确诊为慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎伴急性发作;2例慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎终末纤维化期行肺移植手术.结论 慢性外源性过敏性肺泡炎组织病理学表现具有一定的诊断特征,但与其他诸多弥漫性肺实质性疾病具有相似的病理改变,须结合病史、影像学等临床信息综合分析,从而明确诊断,进行有效治疗.%Objective To study the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic approach of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA).Methods Seven cases of chronic EAA diagnosed by open lung biopsy or lung transplant were enrolled into the study.The clinical and pathologic features were analyzed and the literature was reviewed.Results There were altogether 4 men and 3 women.The age of the

  2. IL-12、IL-18和TNF-α在外源性过敏性肺泡炎发病中的作用%Production of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-α by Alveolar Macrophages in Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童朝辉; 陈宝敏; 王辰; Guzman; Josune; Costabel; Ulrich


    目的从临床的角度出发、评价肺泡巨噬细胞(alveolar macrophages,AM)的产物白介素-12(IL-12)、白介素-18(IL-18)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)在外源性过敏性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis, EAA)炎症形成及发病中的作用.方法收集11例EAA 患者和10例正常对照的AM,以10%RPMI(含有10%热灭活胎牛血清、2 mmol/L L-谷氨酰胺、200 kU/L青霉素及200 mg/L链霉素) 为培养液,加或不加内毒素(LPS,100 μg/L)进行AM培养24 h.用ELISA方法测定培养上清液中细胞因子含量.结果与对照组相比,无论有无内毒素刺激,IL-18和TNF-α的水平在EAA患者中均明显增加(P<0.05或P<0.01).EAA 患者自发释放的IL-12的水平很低,内毒素刺激后明显升高(P<0.01).结论 IL-12、IL-18和TNF-α可能参与EAA炎症和肉芽肿形成过程,在其发病中起重要作用.

  3. Parasites of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis cultured in Nayarit, Mexico. (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Vasquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria


    The pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is collected and cultured in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and the improvement and promotion of its culture are seen as a possible source for the economic development of coastal populations. However, information about the parasite fauna of the pleasure oyster is almost completely lacking. A histopathological survey carried out in two estuaries, Boca del Camichín and Pozo Chino, revealed the presence of hypertrophied gametes, rickettsiales-like prokaryotes (RLPs), the protozoan Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan Nematopsis sp., Ancistrocoma-like ciliates (ALCs), Sphenophrya-like ciliates, a turbellarian Urastoma sp., and encysted crustaceans. In general, prevalence and intensity of parasites were similar in both localities except that ALCs and encysted crustaceans were more prevalent in Pozo Chino than in Boca del Camichín. Perkinsus marinus and RLPs seem to represent a more significant risk for the health of pleasure oysters than do the other parasites, and surveillance and control of these parasites are needed for the development of pleasure oyster culture.

  4. [Roentgenographic pattern of interstitial pneumonia and allergic alveolitis (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Stender, H S


    Roentgenographic examination of the lungs permits diagnosis of inflammatory and allergic pulmonary disease with predominantly interstitial and less alveolar involvement in which pulmonary fibrosis may develop. Reaction of the sensitised lung to allergic exposure causes typical roentgenological patterns. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in interstitial lung disease can be prevented be early cortison therapy.

  5. [Radiological methods in the diagnostics of extrinsic allergic alveolitis]. (United States)

    Makhmudova, S


    There were 77 patients with EAA under our observation with the following X-ray symptom groups: emphysematous-interstitial; parenchymatous-interstitial; pneumonic. The emphysematous-interstitial X-ray symptom group is the most non-specific for the X-ray diagnostics. The changes indicate to symptoms of impaired bronchial conductance of different expression and are relevant to clinical EAA options characteristic for the obstructive syndrome. The parenchymatous-interstitial X-ray symptom group is more characteristic for occupational EAA. In such cases the most important are changes in the lung parenchyma that have a diffusive character and are accompanied by general symptoms indicating to bronchial impairments of different severity. In pneumatic X-ray symptom group, the major X-ray symptom is presence of local sites of lung tissue consolidation of hypoventilation-infiltrative character that can be bilateral, multiple with a trend to migration.

  6. Alveolitis seca: una revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vergara Buenaventura


    El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura es obtener suficiente información sobre las causas y otros factores que podrían estar involucrados en esta complicación postoperatoria, así como las opciones de tratamiento que existen actualmente.

  7. Neumonitis por hipersensibilidad (alveolitis alérgica extrínseca Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero


    Full Text Available El pulmón del granjero se describió por primera vez en 1932. Podemos definir la neumonitis por hipersensibilidad como una enfermedad pulmonar y sistémica que cursa con disnea y tos, y que se produce por la inflamación de tipo inmunológico de las paredes alveolares y vías aéreas terminales y que es secundaria a la inhalación repetida de una variedad de antígenos por un huésped susceptible. Puede decirse que es una enfermedad infradiagnosticada y sólo un alto grado de sospecha clínica y una historia detallada de la exposición pueden llevar a un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento satisfactorio. Una combinación entre los hallazgos clínico-radiológicos, funcionales, citológicos o anatonomopatológicos, en algunos casos, nos llevarán al diagnóstico. El tratamiento se funda en la evitación del agente causal y, en los casos más graves, la administración de tratamiento corticoideo sistémico.Farmer’s lung was first described in 1932. We can define hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a pulmonary and systemic disease that is accompanied by dyspnoea and coughing; it is caused by an immunological type of inflammation of the alveolar walls and the terminal airways and it is secondary to the repeated inhalation of a variety of antigens by a susceptible host. It can be said that it is an underdiagnosed disease and only a high degree of clinical manifestations and a detailed history of exposure can lead to an early diagnosis and satisfactory treatment. A combination among clinical-radiological, functional, cytological or pathological findings leads in some cases to a diagnosis. Treatment is based on avoiding further exposure to the causal agent and in the more serious cases the administration of systemic corticoid treatment.

  8. Critical threshold size for overwintering sandeels (Ammodytes marinus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Hartvig, Martin; Steffensen, John Fleng


    : (1) Fish smaller than Lth display winter feeding activity, and (2) size at maturation of iteroparous species is larger than Lth to ensure sufficient energy reserves to accommodate both the metabolic cost of passive overwintering and reproductive investments. Both predictions were found......Several ecologically and commercially important fish species spend the winter in a state of minimum feeding activity and at lower risk of predation. To enable this overwintering behaviour, energetic reserves are generated prior to winter to support winter metabolism. Maintenance metabolism in fish...

  9. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A


    of pulmonary fibrosis (ICD 8: 517 and ICD 9: 515 and 516). Cases with a history of exposure to fibrogenic agents or with collagen vascular disease were excluded and the remaining 158 cases were defined as CFA. The average annual incidence of hospitalised CFA was 4.3 per 100,000. No change was observed...

  10. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and asthma in a sawmill worker: case report and review of the literature.


    Halpin, D M; Graneek, B J; Turner-Warwick, M; Newman Taylor, A J


    A 34 year old sawmill maintenance engineer developed a dry cough that was associated with widespread wheezes and crackles in his lungs. His symptoms worsened, with work related lethargy, fever, and breathlessness, and the loss of a stone in weight. At that time, while still at work, he had a neutrophil leucocytosis and increased concentration of gamma globulins. When seen subsequently some two months after stopping work, his chest radiograph and lung function tests were normal, but the cells ...

  11. EFL GTPase in cryptomonads and the distribution of EFL and EF-1alpha in chromalveolates. (United States)

    Gile, Gillian H; Patron, Nicola J; Keeling, Patrick J


    EFL (EF-like protein) is a member of the GTPase superfamily that includes several translation factors. Because it has only been found in a few eukaryotic lineages and its presence correlates with the absence of the related core translation factor EF-1alpha, its distribution is hypothesized to be the result of lateral gene transfer and replacement of EF-1alpha. In one supergroup of eukaryotes, the chromalveolates, two major lineages were found to contain EFL (dinoflagellates and haptophytes), while the others encode EF-1alpha (apicomplexans, ciliates, heterokonts and cryptomonads). For each of these groups, this distribution was deduced from whole genome sequence or expressed sequence tag (EST) data from several species, with the exception of cryptomonads from which only a single EF-1alpha PCR product from one species was known. By sequencing ESTs from two cryptomonads, Guillardia theta and Rhodomonas salina, and searching for all GTPase translation factors, we revealed that EFL is present in both species, but, contrary to expectations, we found EF-1alpha in neither. On balance, we suggest the previously reported EF-1alpha from Rhodomonas salina is likely an artefact of contamination. We also identified EFL in EST data from two members of the dinoflagellate lineage, Karlodinium micrum and Oxyrrhis marina, and from an ongoing genomic sequence project from a third, Perkinsus marinus. Karlodinium micrum is a symbiotic pairing of two lineages that would have both had EFL (a dinoflagellate and a haptophyte), but only the dinoflagellate gene remains. Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early diverging sister-groups to dinoflagellates, and together show that EFL originated early in this lineage. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these genes are all EFL homologues, and showed that cryptomonad genes are not detectably related to EFL from other chromalveolates, which collectively form several distinct groups. The known distribution of EFL now includes a third group

  12. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming


    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  13. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming


    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1h exposure. After 2h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRH-I and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  14. Assessments of the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) in the North Sea based on revised stock divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Lewy, Peter; Wright, P.


    for the different aggregations. Based on a geographical division of the North Sea in a number of proposed assessment regions, regional as well as whole North Sea sandeel assessments are presented based on revised data (e.g, catch in numbers at age and effort). The assessments suggest regional differences in fishing...... effort, catch per unit effort, yield, fishing and natural mortality. A better understanding of sandeel growth is important for stock and catch predictions because previous studies indicate that the variability of mean weight-at-age is one of the most important factors influencing the precision...

  15. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  16. Breakdown products of heme catabolism as senescence index in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barca


    No significant differences were observed between sexes in the livers of recent migratory individuals. Nevertheless highest values of biliverdin/bilirrubin ratio were reached by females belonging to the group of older upstream migrants (mean: 2.33, sd: 0.53, Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05, but the liver weight of males was significantly higher than in females (mean males: 30.36 g, sd: 5.67; mean females: 17.38 g, sd: 5.87; Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05.

  17. Significance of Radiological Variables Studied on Orthopantamogram to Pridict Post-Operative Inferior Alveoler Nerve Paresthesia After Third Molar Extraction


    Pathak, Sachin; Mishra, Nitin; Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Sharma, Shalini


    Context: Removal of impacted third molar is a procedure that is often associated with post-operative complications. The rate of complications is somewhat high because of its proximity to the vital structures. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia is one of the common complications of impacted their molar surgery. This is due to intimate relationship between roots of mandibular third molar and inferior alveolar canal. To access the proximity of inferior alveolar canal to third molar many diagnos...

  18. Significance of specific IgG against sensitizing antigens in extrinsic allergic alveolitis: serological methods in EAA. (United States)

    Sterclova, M; Vasakova, M; Metlicka, M


    The aim of our study is to find differences in IgG in sera of potentially exposed and nonexposed individuals and to detect differences in concentrations of specific serum IgG among subjects with and without EAA. Seventy-two patients being followed for suspected interstitial lung disease were included. Specific IgG in sera were established by ImmunoCAP. Serum concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans IgG and mixture of moulds IgG were higher in subjects with exposure to relevant inhalation antigens (p<0.05). Patients exposed to parrot and mammal hair mixture had higher serum concentration of specific IgG (p<0.05). Subjects without exposure to mites had lower serum IgG to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides microceras and Glycophagus domesticus (p<0.05). Higher concentration of serum specific IgG may show previous exposure to this antigen. Even though mite specific IgG are not commonly tested in EAA patients, we suggest their immunomodulatory activity may influence susceptibility to other inhalation antigens.

  19. Size control of in vitro synthesized magnetite crystals by the MamC protein of Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Tercedor, C; Montalbán-López, M; Perez-Gonzalez, T; Sanchez-Quesada, M S; Prozorov, T; Pineda-Molina, E; Fernandez-Vivas, M A; Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Trubitsyn, D; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C


    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that share the unique ability of biomineralizing magnetosomes, which are intracellular, membrane-bounded crystals of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). Magnetosome biomineralization is mediated by a number of specific proteins, man

  20. Albirhodobacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from sea shore water of Visakhapatnam, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two aminophospholipids, two phospholipids and four unidentified lipids as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain N9 sup(T) was found to be 63 mol percent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Rhodobacter...

  1. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene, 3, 20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Didier, Wes; Satbir, Rai; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Libants, Scot V.; Sang-Seon, Yun; Close, David


    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100 lg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  2. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicolas S; Fritzsch, Bernd


    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  3. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd


    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  4. The neuroanatomical organization of projection neurons associated with different olfactory bulb pathways in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W Green

    Full Text Available Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb. While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.

  5. The neuroanatomical organization of projection neurons associated with different olfactory bulb pathways in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Green, Warren W; Basilious, Alfred; Dubuc, Réjean; Zielinski, Barbara S


    Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs) of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb). While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.

  6. Ultrastructure of a novel tube-forming, intracellular parasite of dinoflagellates: Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov. (Alveolata, Myzozoa). (United States)

    Leander, Brian S; Hoppenrath, Mona


    We have characterized the intracellular development and ultrastructure of a novel parasite that infected the marine benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum fukuyoi. The parasite possessed a combination of features described for perkinsids and syndineans, and also possessed novel characters associated with its parasitic life cycle. Reniform zoospores, about 4 microm long, possessed a transverse flagellum, alveoli, a refractile body, a mitochondrion with tubular cristae, a syndinean-like nucleus with condensed chromatin, micronemes, bipartite trichocysts with square profiles (absent in perkinsids) and oblong microbodies. Like Parvilucifera, the zoospores also possessed a shorter posterior flagellum, a heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme and a reduced pseudoconoid positioned directly above an orthogonal pair of basal bodies. Early developmental stages consisted of a sporangium about 5-15 microm in diam that contained spherical bodies and amorphous spaces. The undifferentiated sporangium increased to about 20-25 microm in diam before being enveloped by a wall with a convoluted mid-layer. The sporangium differentiated into an unordered mass of zoospores that escaped from the cyst through a pronounced germ tube about 4-5 microm in diam and 10-15 microm long. Weakly developed germ tubes have been described in Perkinsus but are absent altogether in Parvilucifera and syndineans. Comparison of these data with other myzozoans led us to classify the parasite as Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov., Myzozoa. Although we were hesitant to erect a new genus name in the absence of molecular sequence data, our ultrastructural data strongly indicated that this parasite is most closely related to perkinsids and syndineans, and represents an intriguing candidate for the cellular identity of a major subclade of Group I alveolates.

  7. Cryptic infection of a broad taxonomic and geographic diversity of tadpoles by Perkinsea protists. (United States)

    Chambouvet, Aurélie; Gower, David J; Jirků, Miloslav; Yabsley, Michael J; Davis, Andrew K; Leonard, Guy; Maguire, Finlay; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M; Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela Bueno; Wilkinson, Mark; Richards, Thomas A


    The decline of amphibian populations, particularly frogs, is often cited as an example in support of the claim that Earth is undergoing its sixth mass extinction event. Amphibians seem to be particularly sensitive to emerging diseases (e.g., fungal and viral pathogens), yet the diversity and geographic distribution of infectious agents are only starting to be investigated. Recent work has linked a previously undescribed protist with mass-mortality events in the United States, in which infected frog tadpoles have an abnormally enlarged yellowish liver filled with protist cells of a presumed parasite. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this infectious agent was affiliated with the Perkinsea: a parasitic group within the alveolates exemplified by Perkinsus sp., a "marine" protist responsible for mass-mortality events in commercial shellfish populations. Using small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, we developed a targeted PCR protocol for preferentially sampling a clade of the Perkinsea. We tested this protocol on freshwater environmental DNA, revealing a wide diversity of Perkinsea lineages in these environments. Then, we used the same protocol to test for Perkinsea-like lineages in livers of 182 tadpoles from multiple families of frogs. We identified a distinct Perkinsea clade, encompassing a low level of SSU rDNA variation different from the lineage previously associated with tadpole mass-mortality events. Members of this clade were present in 38 tadpoles sampled from 14 distinct genera/phylogroups, from five countries across three continents. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that Perkinsea-like protists infect tadpoles across a wide taxonomic range of frogs in tropical and temperate environments, including oceanic islands.

  8. Differential modulation of eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) disease parasites by the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.


    The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences climate along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which influences climate along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In this study, a 10-year time series of temperature and salinity and P. marinus infection intensity for a site in Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico coast and a 52-year time series of air temperature and freshwater inflow and oyster mortality from Delaware Bay on the Atlantic coast of the United States were analyzed to determine patterns in disease and disease-induced mortality in C. virginica populations that resulted from ENSO and NAO climate variations. Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the environmental, disease infection intensity and oyster mortality time series into a time-frequency space to determine the dominant modes of variability and the time variability of the modes. For the Louisiana site, salinity and Dermo disease infection intensity are correlated at a periodicity of 4 years, which corresponds to ENSO. The influence of ENSO on Dermo disease along the Gulf of Mexico is through its effect on salinity, with high salinity, which occurs during the La Niña phase of ENSO at this location, favoring parasite proliferation. For the Delaware Bay site, the primary correlation was between temperature and oyster mortality, with a periodicity of 8 years, which corresponds to the NAO. Warmer temperatures, which occur during the positive phase of the NAO, favor the parasites causing increased oyster mortality. Thus, disease prevalence and intensity in C. virginica populations along the Gulf of Mexico

  9. A restoration suitability index model for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Beseres Pollack

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs are one of the most threatened marine habitats on earth, with habitat loss resulting from water quality degradation, coastal development, destructive fishing practices, overfishing, and storm impacts. For successful and sustainable oyster reef restoration efforts, it is necessary to choose sites that support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Selection of suitable sites is critically important as it can greatly influence mortality factors and may largely determine the ultimate success of the restoration project. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS provides an effective methodology for identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration and removes much of the uncertainty involved in the sometimes trial and error selection process. This approach also provides an objective and quantitative tool for planning future oyster reef restoration efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a restoration suitability index model and reef quality index model to characterize locations based on their potential for successful reef restoration within the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. The restoration suitability index model focuses on salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and depth, while the reef quality index model focuses on abundance of live oysters, dead shell, and spat. Size-specific Perkinsus marinus infection levels were mapped to illustrate general disease trends. This application was effective in identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration, is flexible in its use, and provides a mechanism for considering alternative approaches. The end product is a practical decision-support tool that can be used by coastal resource managers to improve oyster restoration efforts. As oyster reef restoration activities continue at small and large-scales, site selection criteria are critical for assisting stakeholders and managers and for maximizing long-term sustainability of oyster resources.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen M Klinger

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs, factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during

  11. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 58236 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 433741 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 340172 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423034 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423038 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423039 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423043 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423033 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423041 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423042 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423037 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 423040 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  3. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 425351 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  4. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 310121 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 433745 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 432519 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  7. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 432531 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  8. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 273282 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  9. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 352017 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  10. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 433200 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

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  11. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 338715 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 337863 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 470846 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 353728 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 186568 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  16. Clinical analysis of 12 cases of exogenous allergic alveolitis%蘑菇过敏性肺泡炎12例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷李美; 周娇妹; 卢芹芳; 何雪梅


    @@外源性过敏性肺泡炎是一组由于吸入具有抗原性的有机粉尘所引起的肺泡壁变态反应性炎症性疾患,常同时累及细支气管.吸入的抗原物质虽然不同,但都具有共同的免疫致病机理、组织病理学改变及临床表现.蘑菇肺属于本病的一种. 临床资料 1.一般资料:12例患者中,男性5例,女性7例,年龄14~56岁,平均年龄32岁.所有患者均系种蘑菇农民.种植蘑菇至发病时间8 h~1年不等.

  17. The Imaging Features of Extrimic Allergic Alveolitis on HRCT%外源性过敏性肺泡炎的HRCT影像特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 分析外源性过敏性肺泡炎的高分辨率CT(HRCT)的影像学特点,进一步提高其HRCT诊断的准确性.方法 12例外源性过敏性肺泡炎的HRCT表现,急性期3例,亚急性期5例,慢性期4例.结果 外源性过敏性肺泡炎HRCT主要表现为微结节或结节8例,气腔实变10例,磨玻璃样变8例,局限性的空气残留(air trapping)并形成"马赛克"样灌注4例,局限性肺气肿1例,小叶间隔增厚及蜂窝状改变4例.发病的不同时期,其表现不同.结论 HRCT是诊断外源性过敏性肺泡炎的具有重要价值的无创性检查,可以清晰显示过敏性肺泡炎的类型及分布.

  18. 外源性过敏性肺泡炎的HRCT诊断价值%The Evaluation of HRCT in Diagnosis of Extrinic Allergic Alveolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 吉金钟; 翟耀杰; 于红光; 杨义军; 张黛维


    目的:评价高分辨率CT(HRCT)对外源性过敏性肺泡炎的诊断价值.方法:回顾性分析经纤维支气管镜检查和肺泡灌洗术证实的16例外源性过敏性肺泡炎的HRCT表现,急性期2例,亚急性期10例,慢性期4例.[ HT5"H〗结果:外源性过敏性肺泡炎HRCT主要表现为:微结节和/或结节,气腔实变,磨玻璃样变,小叶间隔增厚及蜂窝状改变.发病的不同时期其主要改变各异.结论:HRCT是诊断外源性过敏性肺泡炎最有价值的无创性检查,根据本病的HRCT特征,结合临床病史,可不依赖支气管镜或肺活检而明确诊断.

  19. 外源性过敏性肺泡炎14例临床分析%Clinical analysis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in 14 patients.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方旭; 万鹏; 何志义


    目的 探讨外源性过敏性肺泡炎的临床特征及防治手段.方法 分析湖北省宜都市第一人民医院呼吸内科21303年收治的14例外源性过敏性肺泡炎患者的临床表现、影像学及流行病学特点.结果 14例患者发病前均有职业环境接触史,发热、咳嗽、咳痰、呼吸困难、肺部干性及湿性哆音是主要的症状和体征.肺功能显示限制性通气功能障碍4例(28.6%).血气分析显示低氧血症4例(28.6%).肺部CT表现为双中下肺野改变12例(85.7%),其中9例(64.3%)双肺见斑片状磨玻璃影,1例(7.1%)伴有局限性的肺气肿,2例(14.3%)左上肺野出现网格状条索影.14例患者支气管肺泡灌洗液中淋巴细胞占细胞总数的比例增高(>20%),CD4/CD8平均值为0.64±0.21,IgM、IgG阳性13例(92.9%).10例患者给予糖皮质激素治疗,4例患者给予抗感染治疗,30~40 d后复查CT显示12例(85.7%)患者肺部阴影完全消失,2例(14.3%)患者肺部阴影部分吸收.结论 外源性过敏性肺泡炎的临床特征、影像学改变、肺功能及免疫学检查无特异性.支气管肺泡灌洗液检查对其诊断有较高的价值.避免接触过敏原是治疗的关键,糖皮质激素疗效明显.

  20. Progress in Mechanism,Diagnosis and Therapy of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis%外源性过敏性肺泡炎发病机制及诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中卫; 王良兴



  1. Structural lipid changes and NKA activity of gill cells´ basolateral membranes as response to increasing salinity and atrazine stressors in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L. juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Lança


    Modulation of BLM lipids associated with NKA activity seems to be the strategy adopted by gill cells of juveniles to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors and for contact/resistance to ATZ exposure.

  2. Structural lipid changes and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity of gill cells' basolateral membranes during saltwater acclimation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) juveniles. (United States)

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo


    Seawater acclimation is a critical period for anadromous species and a process yet to be understood in lampreys. Considering that changes in lipid composition of the gill cells' basolateral membranes may disrupt the major transporter Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, the goal of this study was to detect changes at this level during juvenile sea lamprey seawater acclimation. The results showed that saltwater acclimation has a direct effect on the fatty acid composition of gill cells basolateral membrane's phospholipids. When held in full-strength seawater, the fatty acid profile of basolateral membrane's phospholipids suffered a restructure by increasing either saturation or the ratio between oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Simultaneously, the activity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase revealed a significant and positive correlation with basolateral membrane's cholesterol content in the presence of highest salinity. Our results pointed out for lipid adjustments involving the functional transporter present on the gill cell basolateral membranes to ensure the role played by branchial Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in ion transport during saltwater acclimation process. The responses observed contributed to the strategy adopted by gill cell's basolateral membranes to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors, to ensure the success of the process of seawater acclimation associated with the downstream trophic migration of juvenile sea lamprey.

  3. Details of the structure determination of the sulfated steroids PSDS and PADS: new components of the sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus) migratory pheromone. (United States)

    Hoye, Thomas R; Dvornikovs, Vadims; Fine, Jared M; Anderson, Kari R; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Muddiman, David C; Shao, Feng; Sorensen, Peter W; Wang, Jizhou


    The discovery of two new components of the migratory pheromone used by sea lamprey to guide adults to spawning grounds was recently reported. These hold promise for use in a pheromone-based control program for this species, an invasive pest in the Great Lakes. Details of the structure determination of these steroidal bis-sulfates [petromyzosterol disulfate (PSDS, 2) and petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS, 3)] are described here. Pattern matching of 1H NMR data was particularly valuable. This involved comparison of spectra of the natural samples of 2 and 3 with those of appropriate steroidal analogues [e.g., petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1, a previously known sea lamprey bile acid derivative that is a third component of the migratory pheromone), cholesterol sulfate (6), and squalamine (8)] and model compounds containing the unprecedented aminolactam substructure present in 3. The logic underlying the iterative analyses used is presented.

  4. Cloning, phylogeny, and regional expression of a Y5 receptor mRNA in the brain of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A


    The NPY receptors known as Y receptors are classified into three subfamilies, Y1, Y2, and Y5, and are involved in different physiological functions. The Y5 receptor is the only member of the Y5 subfamily, and it is present in all vertebrate groups, except for teleosts. Both molecular and pharmacological studies show that Y5 receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Furthermore, this receptor is widely expressed in the mammalian brain, including the hypothalamus, where it is thought to take part in feeding and homeostasis regulation. Lampreys belong to the agnathan lineage, and they are thought to have branched out between the two whole-genome duplications that occurred in vertebrates. Therefore, they are in a key position for studies on the evolution of gene families in vertebrates. Here we report the cloning, phylogeny, and brain expression pattern of the sea lamprey Y5 receptor. In phylogenetic studies, the lamprey Y5 receptor clusters in a basal position, together with Y5 receptors of other vertebrates. The mRNA of this receptor is broadly expressed in the lamprey brain, being especially abundant in hypothalamic areas. Its expression pattern is roughly similar to that reported for other vertebrates and parallels the expression pattern of the Y1 receptor subtype previously described by our group, as it occurs in mammals. Altogether, these results confirm that a Y5 receptor is present in lampreys, thus being highly conserved during the evolution of vertebrates, and suggest that it is involved in many brain functions, the only known exception being teleosts.

  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 308845 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 470883 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  7. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 528 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  8. 己酮可可碱对外源性过敏性肺泡炎治疗作用的初步研究%Preliminary study on effect of pentoxifylline in treatment of extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童朝辉; 陈宝敏; 代华平; 王辰; Josune Guzman; Ulrich Costabel


    目的通过研究己酮可可碱(POF)对外源性过敏性肺泡炎(EAA)患者肺泡巨噬细胞(AM)产生的细胞因子的作用,探讨其治疗EAA的可能性,并与地塞米松(DEX)的作用进行比较.方法入选EAA患者9例,通过支气管肺泡灌洗收AM,并以10%RPMI为培养液或10%RPMI加内毒素(LPS,100μg/L);或分别加入浓度为0.01 mmol/L、0.1 mmol/L、1 mmol/L的POF;或加入0.1mmol/L DEX进行AM培养24h.用ELISA方法测定培养上清液中细胞因子含量.结果POF可抑制EAA患者AM自发释放的TNFα和IL-10,此作用有剂量依赖关系(P<O.001和P<0.05).POF对其他自发释放的细胞因子则无影响.0.1 mmol/L DEX只抑制自发释放的TNFα(P<0.05).除IL-1β和可溶性肿瘤坏死因子受体外,POF和0.1 mmoL/L DEX均抑制LPS刺激的其他细胞因子的释放(P<0.001或P<0.01或P<0.05).结论POF对EAA的炎症有一定的抑制作用,然而POF治疗EAA及其他肺部疾病的临床价值,需要进一步的临床试验来评价.

  9. Etiology Related to Environment and Vocational Contact of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis%外源性过敏性肺泡炎的环境和职业接触病原研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓云; 李振华



  10. Analysis on Imaging Feature of High Resolution CT of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis%外源性过敏性肺泡炎的高分辨率CT征象(附24例分析)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴茂铸; 应琦; 赵年家; 王远


    目的分析过敏性肺泡炎高分辨率CT(HRCT)的影像特征,以期进一步提高其诊断的准确性.方法回顾性分析经临床及病理证实的24例外源性过敏性肺泡炎的HRCT表现,其中,急性期7例,亚急性期13例,慢性期4例.结果 24例HRCT图像上18例表现为数量不等的边界模糊的小叶中心结节,13例见磨玻璃样密度影,呈散在分布或均匀分布,其中11例磨玻璃样影内见低密度影,按2级小叶分布,2例见气腔实变影,4例见肺外围的低密度区,5例显示局限性空气残留,2例肺内见薄壁囊性损害,2例发生肺纤维化并形成蜂窝状改变.结论 HRCT可以清晰显示过敏性肺泡炎病变的类型和分布范围.HRCT上表现为边界模糊的小叶中心结节与磨玻璃影同时存在磨玻璃影内出现低密度影且呈2级小叶分布时,应考虑外源性过敏性肺泡炎的诊断.

  11. Ninth International Conference on Sarcoidosis. (United States)


    some neoplasms, extrinsic allergic alveolitis (e.g., farmer’s lung, bird fancier’s lung, bagassosis) and miscellaneous disorders such as sebaceous...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necesery mnd identify by block nuatbor) ACE lymphocytes alveolitis sarcoidosis...emphasis on immunologic aspects. Confining discussion to the lung, he pointed out that the granuloma there is preceded by alveolitis , an inflammatory

  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 308843 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1259 ref|YP_001484461.1| Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-proteinmannosyltra...nsferase [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9215] gb|ABV50875.1| Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-proteinmannosyltransferase [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9215] YP_001484461.1 0.54 23% ...

  14. Correlation between perkinsosis and growth in clams Ruditapes spp. (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Binias, Cindy; Salvo, Flora; Caill-Milly, Nathalie; Bald, Juan; Soudant, Philippe


    Perkinsosis is one of the most widespread diseases affecting commercially important species of molluscs globally. We examined the impact of Perkinsus spp. on shell growth at the individual scale in 2 clam species: Ruditapes decussatus from Mundaka Estuary (Spain) and R. philippinarum from Arcachon Bay (France). At Arcachon, 2 contrasting sites in terms of environment and Perkinsus olseni presence were chosen: Arguin (disease-free) and Ile aux Oiseaux (infected site). We monitored the dynamics of perkinsosis over the course of the experiment at Mundaka and Ile aux Oiseaux. Prevalences were high (>70%), and intensities were around 105 cells g-1 wet gills at Ile aux Oiseaux, and 106 cells g-1 at Mundaka. No significant differences in prevalence or intensity were observed over time. A 2 yr field growth experiment of tagged-recaptured clams was performed to determine individual clam growth rate, condition index (CI), and Perkinsus spp. infection intensity. Clams were collected at Ile aux Oiseaux and transplanted to Arguin. The growth rate was always significantly and negatively correlated with Perkinsus spp. infection, and positively correlated with CI. CI and Perkinsus spp. infection explained 19% and 7% of the variability of the growth rate at Mundaka and Ile aux Oiseaux, respectively. In experimental clams at Arguin, P. olseni infection explained 26% of the variability of the growth rate at the lower tidal level. Our results suggest that at a concentration of between 105 and 106 cells g-1, perkinsosis affects the physiological functions of the clams, highlighted by its impact on the growth rate.

  15. Pulmonary Embolism and Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis Following Breast Augmentation with Subcutaneous Injection of Silicone Gel:A Case Report and Literature Review%硅胶注射隆乳术后导致肺栓塞并外源性过敏性肺泡炎一例及文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪东; 陈建东; 严一核; 应利君



  16. Mercury in fishes of the J.N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From June 26 to 30,1990 spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and largemouth bass...

  17. Mercury in fishes of the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 24 to 28, 1990, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) were collected from...

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 157413751 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available biotics/polyketide fumonisin biosynthesis protein Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT ... YP_001484617.1 NC_009840 1117:13736 ... 1212:2458 ... 1217:3581 1218:3581 1219:3751 93060:1222 ... mitomycin anti

  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 174468 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s with different specificities Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9202 MINSTKNDKTIGITGASGALGKELTKLFRQKGYKVIGFS...ZP_05138363.1 1117:3468 1212:440 1217:440 1218:440 1219:440 93058:866 dehydrogenase

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 158688 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_397847.1 1117:3219 1212:425 1217:425 1218:425 1219:425 74546:294 dehydrogenase with different Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MNLDLKDKFIIIAGGLGGIGLETVKDLISEGAEISILTQNES

  1. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 233802 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LLEAKVPLHGMAHITGGGLPENLPRCCPKDLVTVIDPSSWTRPELFQWLQDAGQIPEHDLWHTFNLGVGFCLVVAEEAVRDVLQVCKEQALQAWPIGQVETASPSTGERLRGLPS ... ...YP_001018249.1 1117:4494 1212:797 1217:797 1218:797 1219:797 59922:1842 phosphoribo...sylaminoimidazole synthetase Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9303 MDYKTAGVDVQAGRAFIERIRSSVEATHRPEVIGGLGGFGG

  3. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  4. Ekspresi Gen CYP19 Aromatase, Estrogen, Androgen pada penderita Periodontitis Agresif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Herawati


    Full Text Available Kepadatan tulang tubuh ditentukan oleh gen CYP19 aromatase, hormon estrogen dan androgen. Pada periodontitis agresif terjadi perkembangan cepat kerusakan tulang alveolar, dan kerusakan tulang alveoler tersebut tidak diimbangioleh regenerasi tulang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menunjukkan ekspresi gen CYP19 aromatase, estrogen, androgen pada penderita periodontitis agresif agar dapat untuk menjadi pertimbangan pada saat melakukan perawatan periodontal. Metode penelitian, pemeriksaan ekspresi gen aromatse CYP19 berasal dari spesimen tulang alveolar menggunakan imunohistokimia, pengukuran hormon estrogen dan androgen dari serum menggunakan Vidas: Elfa. Hasil penelitian ekspresi gene CYP19 aromatase pada periodontitis agresif menunjukkan gambaran lebih rendah densitasnya dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Estrogen dan androgen pad aperiodontitis agresif ada kecenderungan lebih rendah dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Kesimpulan regenerasi tulang alveoler pad a periodontitis agresif terhambat karena sedikitnya gen CYP19 aromatase dan hormon estrogen dan androgen yang berperan pada pembentukan tulang alveoler kurang memadai.

  5. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.


    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  6. Maintenance of air humidification systems; Wartung von Luftbefeuchtungseinrichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G. [Fachinstitut Gebaeude-Klima e.V., Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)


    After the exogenous allergic alveolitis has been recognized as occupational disease and a first death occured in the printing and paper industry the responsible professional associations which have to bear the resulting high (insurance) costs had to react quickly: In this article the consequences of this enormous task are described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nachdem die Befeuchterlunge, die exogen allergische Alveolitis, als Berufskrankheit anerkannt wurde und ein erster Todesfall in der Druck- und Papierbranche zu beklagen war, sahen sich die zustaendigen Berufsgenossenschaften, die die daraus entstehenden, hohen (Versicherungs-)Kosten zu tragen haben, einem enormen Handlungsbedarf ausgesetzt: Im folgenden werden die Konsequenzen beschrieben. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  8. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (USA))


    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease.

  9. How Building Systems Affect Worker Wellness (United States)


    humidity fever ( allergic alveolitis ), and aspergillosis. A number of allergens can be found in indoor air. Pollen found indoors is primarily produced...These mites can flourish in climates where the winters are humid and mild. Health Effects. Airborne microorganisms and allergens can cause allergic

  10. Experiment list: SRX471976 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s || biomaterial_provider=ENCODE - Broad || sex=male || tissue=human alveolar basal epithelial cells || cell..._line=A549 || cell_subtype=alveolar basal epithelial cells || cell_type=epithelial cells || adenocarcinoma || ethnicity=caucausian || ChIPtarget=H3K4me3

  11. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning? (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric


    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  12. Tocqueville's Christian Citzen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus


    Tocqueville's Christian Citizen Marinus Ossewaarde Introduction Alexis De Tocqueville is well known for his critique of democracy. A French statesman, he was left with the legacy of the French Revolution that had torn his fatherland and had changed the course of human history for good. Tocqueville,

  13. Evaluation of the role of Carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Dalgaard, Paw; Huss, Hans Henrik;


    -packed salmon was dominated by a Vibrio sp., resembling V. marinus, Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter agglomerans, Serratia liquefaciens and Rahnella aquatilis) and occasionally Aeromonas hydrophila. Irrespective of the addition of nisin and/or CO2- atmosphere, the LAB microflora was dominated by Carnobacterium...

  14. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia


    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  15. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0460 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available myzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to ref|NP_063972.1| postsynaptic protein CRIPT [Rattus norvegicus] ref|NP_064320.1| postsynaptic... protein Cript; CRIPT protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAC40102.1| postsynaptic protein C> /clone_end=5' /gb=EE743088 /gi=114318376 /ug=Pma.1970 /len=762 5.1 40% ...

  16. Apuntes sobre la reproduccion de algunos Bagres marinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo, José A.


    Mouthbreeding in the male, and modifications of the pelvic fins of the female are recorded for the first time in Selenaspis herzbergii. The pelvic girdle of Selenaspis herzbergii is compared with those of Sciadeichthys proops, Arius spixii, and Bagre marinus. Data are given on eggs and fry in the bu

  17. Postmortem proteome degradation profiles of longissimus muscle in Yorkshire and Duroc pigs and their relationship with pork quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Pas, M.F.W.; Jansen, J; Broekman, K.C.J.A.; Reimert, H.; Heuven, H.C.M.


    doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.030 Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Postmortem proteome degradation profiles of longissimus muscle in Yorkshire and Duroc pigs and their relationship with pork quality traits Marinus F.W. te Pasa, , , Jaap Jansena, Konrad C.J.A. Broekmanb, Henny Reime

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13289-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 4.7 AC012562_4( AC012562 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 3 ... 34 6.1 AB060728_1( AB060728 |pid:none) Viral hemorrhagi...( CP000552 |pid:none) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT... 34 6.1 AF143862_2( AF143862 |pid:none) Viral hemorrhagic

  19. Patchy zooplankton grazing and high energy conversion efficiency: ecological implications of sandeel behavior and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Asbjørn; Rindorf, Anna


    of prey. Here we studied zooplankton consumption and energy conversion efficiency of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the central North Sea, using stomach data, length and weight-at-age data, bioenergetics, and hydrodynamic modeling. The results suggested: (i) Lesser sandeel in the Dogger area depend...... sandeel densities and growth rates per area than larger habitats...

  20. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,660) /gb=EF094756 /gi=126570624 /ug=Pma.9410 /len=660 4.8 43% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438257 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.C6 variabl

  1. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,666) /gb=EF094716 /gi=126570506 /ug=Pma.9450 /len=666 2.2 35% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0149 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438297 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.9 variable

  2. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,663) /gb=EF094798 /gi=126570709 /ug=Pma.9369 /len=663 0.006 31% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0203 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438215 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.G7 variabl

  3. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e lymphocyte receptor A diversity region (VLRA) mRNA, partial cds /cds=p(1,660) /gb=EF094807 /gi=126570727 /ug=Pma.9360 /len=660 0.049 27% ... ...CBRC-PMAR-01-0572 gnl|UG|Pma#S38438206 Petromyzon marinus isolate PmVLRA.H7 variabl

  4. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0313 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0313 pseudo Novel UN B UNKNOWN ARP_PLAFA 1e-41 35% ref|XP_001349919.1|... falciparum 3D7] 1e-74 55% gnl|UG|Pma#S35056937 PMAM-aaa17e08.g1 Lamprey_EST_Brain Petromyzon marinus cDNA 5

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06827-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zon marinus Petromyzon ... 52 0.019 1 ( AC178407 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3112E3, WO... 46 0.072 2 ( DQ435000 ) Prome...rops cafer microsatellite Pro24 sequence. 50 0.074 1 ( CT030713 ) Mouse DNA sequenc

  6. Differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, M.; Jensen, Henrik; Daunt, F.;


    fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (Ammodytes marinus) fishery off the North Sea coast of the United Kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental fashion, on sand-lance-dependent breeding seabirds. Controlling for environmental variation ( sea surface...

  7. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _WGS_pCMV-sport6 Petromyzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to ref|NP_789783.1| breast cancer membrane protein 11; anterior gradient... protein 3 [Homo sapiens] >gb|AAL55402.1| anterior gradient prote

  8. A Histologically Distinctive Interstitial Pneumonia Induced by Overexpression of the Interleukin 6, Transforming Growth Factor β1, or Platelet-Derived Growth Factor B Gene (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sakuma, Junko; Hayashi, Seiji; Abe, Kin'ya; Saito, Izumu; Harada, Shizuko; Sakatani, Mitsunoir; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsumoto, Norinao; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Kishmoto, Tadamitsu


    Interstitial pneumonia is characterized by alveolitis with resulting fibrosis of the interstitium. To determine the relevance of humoral factors in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia, we introduced expression vectors into Wistar rats via the trachea to locally overexpress humoral factors in the lungs. Human interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-6 receptor genes induced lymphocytic alveolitis without marked fibroblast proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of human transforming growth factor β1 or human platelet-derived growth factor B gene induced only mild or apparent cellular infiltration in the alveoli, respectively. However, both factors induced significant proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen fibrils. These histopathologic changes induced by the transforming growth factor β1 and platelet-derived growth factor B gene are partly akin to those changes seen in lung tissues from patients with pulmonary fibrosis and markedly contrast with the changes induced by overexpression of the IL-6 and IL-6 receptor genes that mimics lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

  9. PAS staining of bronchoalveolar lavage cells for differential diagnosis of interstital lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a useful diagnostic tool in interstitial lunge diseases (ILD. However, differential cell counts are often non specific and immunocytochemistry is time consuming. Staining of glyoproteins by periodic acid Schiff (PAS reaction may help in discriminating different forms of ILD. In addition, PAS staining is easy to perform. BAL cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF (n = 8, sarcoidosis (n = 9, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA (n = 2 were investigated. Cytospins from BAL cells were made and cells were stained using Hemacolor quick stain and PAS staining. Lymphocytic alveolitis was found in sarcoidosis and EAA whereas in IPF both lymphocytes and neutrophils were increased. PAS positive cells were significantly decreased in EAA compared to IPF and sarcoidosis (25.5% ± 0.7% vs 59.8% ± 25.1% and 64.0% ± 19.7%, respectively (P

  10. The Mustard Consortium’s Elucidation of the Pathophysiology of Sulfur Mustard and Antidote Development (United States)


    pulmonitis with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, neutrophilic alveolities and increased amount of visualized collagen. CEES exposure caused...2x above the levels of the control lungs. CEES exposure causes interstitial pulmonitis with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, neutrophilic...regulated within 1 hr. in the mustard gas exposed lungs, 1.5-fold above the control vehicle treated lungs. CEES exposure causes interstitial pulmonitis

  11. A description of the Larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) from the Restinga Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera: Lycidae, Calopterini). (United States)

    Ferreira, Vinicius De Souza; Costa, Cleide


    The last instar larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) is described. This is the first description of a larva for the genus. Two live larvae collected in the Brazilian Atlantic coast Restinga Forest of Itanhaém, São Paulo, were reared, one to adult and one was fixed in the last instar. This larva differs from the known Calopterini larvae by the absence of urogomphi, the dorsal abdominal segments undivided and strongly alveolate ornamentation on the head. 

  12. Lung Regeneration Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


    Oh, Dong Kyu; Kim, You-sun; Oh, Yeon-Mok


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a critical condition with high morbidity and mortality. Although several medications are available, there are no definite treatments. However, recent advances in the understanding of stem and progenitor cells in the lung, and molecular changes during re-alveolization after pneumonectomy, have made it possible to envisage the regeneration of damaged lungs. With this background, numerous studies of stem cells and various stimulatory molecules have...

  13. Multi-Scale Computational Analyses of JP-8 Fuel Droplets and Vapors in Human Respiratory Airway Models (United States)


    Li et al. (2007), and Kleinstreuer & Zhang (2003). The alveolated duct model is based on the geometric data provided by Haefeli and Weibel (1988...generation (i.e., triple bifurcation) airway units are similar to those given by Weibel (1963) for adults with a lung volume of 3500ml. The...2000). Particle-Lung Interaction, New York: Marcel Dekker. Haefelibleuer, B., Weibel , E.R., 1988. Morphometry of the Human Pulmonary Acinus. Anatomical

  14. [Mediastino-pulmonary localizations of sarcoidosis]. (United States)

    Battesti, J P; Valeyre, D


    This study discusses mediastinal and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis. The main points of discussion are the clinical consequences of the histopathological changes of the disease, especially the alveolitis, the initial lesion preceding granuloma formation and, new methods of investigation such as measurement of the angiotensin converting enzyme, Gallium 67 scintigraphy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Assessment of the activity of the disease and the indications of steroid therapy are analysed with respect to these informations.

  15. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases; HRCT der Lunge bei Kollagenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Roos, N. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Schmitz-Linneweber, B. [Medizinische Klinik B, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Gaubitz, M. [Medizinische Klinik B, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)


    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Kollagenosen koennen als systemische Bindegewebserkrankungen auch zu einem breiten Spektrum pathologischer Veraenderungen am Respirationstrakt fuehren, wobei sich Art und Ausmass der Manifestationen innerhalb einzelner Entitaeten und zwischen verschiedenen Krankheitsbildern erheblich unterscheiden koennen. In der vorliegenden Uebersicht werden die entsprechenden Befunde von Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und insbesondere hochaufloesender Computertomographie (HRCT) beschrieben. Beruecksichtigt werden dabei die fibrosierende Alveolitis (Alveolitis, interstitielle Pneumonie, Lungenfibrose), bronchiale (Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis, Bronchiektasen), pleurale und vaskulaere Manifestationen sowie Lymphadenopathie und therapie-induzierte Befunde. Typische Befundmuster

  16. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Sulfur Dioxide. (United States)


    days, starting with 250 ppm on day 1. 24 𔄁 doses of sulfur dioxide, with inflammation, bronchiectasis, I bronchiolectasis, and alveolitis , but, unlike...dioxide inhalation was discontinued. The second subject had a previous history of allergic response to sulfur-containing medications. When she was sulfur dioxide from a drainpipe near her home, extreme skin reactions resulted. Clinical tests revealed allergic response to a variety of sulfur

  17. Hyaluronic Acid is Overexpressed in Fibrotic Lung Tissue and Promotes Collagen Expression (United States)


    injured adult tissue (1-4). Periostin has also been shown to regulate inflammatory cell infiltration in allergic disease in the esophagus and lung (5...model for scleroderma lung disease because both bleomycin treatment and scleroderma lung disease produce inflammatory alveolitis and overproduction...t, a fibroblastic lineage 4. essential for cardiac healing after 5. ., ltration in allergic lung and esophageal responses. 6. r, D.E

  18. 过敏性肺炎的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 过敏性肺炎(hypersensitivity pneumonitis,HP)是由于吸入各种抗原性有机物质所引起的一种间质性肺病[1,2].又称为外源性过敏性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA),HP不仅累及肺泡,还累及肺间质和气道,故亦可认为是一种症状群.

  19. Biomarkers for Pulmonary Injury Following Deployment (United States)


    in allergic inflammation23 and the 200bc429 and miR21 were reported in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis11. These findings are summarized in Table BALF and subsequently confirmed in lung tissue at longer exposure stages when alveolitis , granuloma formation, and interstitial fibrosis after...silica1 BALF, IR8 dust2 BALF, silica2 Allergic inflammation23 Fibrotic lung disease11 miRNA species or group 200bc429 x x x x x 200a141

  20. Indoor allergens: identification and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, C.E.; Swanson, M.C.


    A large number of allergens occur in the air of the home and many work sites. Almost any organic dust or volatile chemical reactive with proteins can cause allergic respiratory disease: allergic rhinitis, asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis). If the exposure continues several years after the disease begins there may be permanent disability, so recognition and control of exposure are important. Techniques now exist to sample the particulate antigens suspended in the air and assay them by sensitive immunochemical methods.

  1. Targeting flatworm signaling cascades for the development of novel anthelminthic drugs


    Gelmedin, Verena Magdalena


    Echinococcus multilocularis verursacht die Alveoläre Echinokokkose (AE), eine lebendsbedrohliche Krankheit mit limitierten chemotherapeutischen Möglichkeiten. Die jetzige Anti-AE Chemotherapie basiert auf einer einzigen Wirkstoffklasse, den Benzimidazolen. Obwohl Benzimidazole in vitro parasitozid wirken, wirken sie in vivo bei AE-Behandlung lediglich parasitostatisch und rufen schwere Nebenwirkungen hervor. In Fällen operabler Läsionen erfordert die Resektion des Parasitengewebes über einen ...

  2. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome architecture et gestion du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  3. Lateral transfer of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes: an emerging concern for molecular ecology of microbial eukaryotes. (United States)

    Yabuki, Akinori; Toyofuku, Takashi; Takishita, Kiyotaka


    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are widely utilized in depicting organismal diversity and distribution in a wide range of environments. Although a few cases of lateral transfer of rRNA genes between closely related prokaryotes have been reported, it remains to be reported from eukaryotes. Here, we report the first case of lateral transfer of eukaryotic rRNA genes. Two distinct sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were detected from a clonal culture of the stramenopile, Ciliophrys infusionum. One was clearly derived from Ciliophrys, but the other gene originated from a perkinsid alveolate. Genome-walking analyses revealed that this alveolate-type rRNA gene is immediately adjacent to two protein-coding genes (ubc12 and usp39), and the origin of both genes was shown to be a stramenopile (that is, Ciliophrys) in our phylogenetic analyses. These findings indicate that the alveolate-type rRNA gene is encoded on the Ciliophrys genome and that eukaryotic rRNA genes can be transferred laterally.

  4. Effect of expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha with Qidan granule treatment in rats by bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛洪涛; 宋秀杰; 靳长俊; 王静; 黄琛; 张欣; 王建平; 姜淑娟


    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Qidan granule in blemycinA5-induced pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (PIF)in rats. Methods: PIF models were established by blemycinA5-induced in rats. They were treated by Qidan granule and Hydrocortisone respectively. The pathological changes and collagen protein disposition were observed, and the expression of TGF-β, TNF-α proteins were measured by immunohistochemical technique. Results: The pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis were alleviated remarkably in Qidan granule group compared with those in the model control group and hydrocortisone group (P<0.01). The expression of TGF-β and TNF-α protein were higher in Qidan granule group than those in normal group ,and were significantly less than those in the model control group and in hydrocortisone group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Qidan granule would ameliorate the pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. TGF-β and TNF-α might play an important role in the development of alveolitis and fibrosis in rats.

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage for evaluation and management of scleroderma disease of the lung. (United States)

    Behr, J; Vogelmeier, C; Beinert, T; Meurer, M; Krombach, F; König, G; Fruhmann, G


    Fibrosing alveolitis (FA) is a frequent and often fatal complication of systemic sclerosis (SSC). Alveolar inflammation has been recognized as a primary event in the pulmonary manifestation of SSC. To evaluate the significance of the alveolitis in SSC, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and correlated the generated data with changes in lung function over time. Seventy nine SSC patients with pulmonary involvement were followed for 56.8 +/- 3.1 wk (mean +/- SEM) with a repeat lung function test at the end of the follow-up period. During follow-up, 38 patients were treated with a systemic immunosuppressive regimen. For evaluation, patients were assigned to two groups according to whether their BAL cell differential was normal (inactive BAL) or abnormal (active BAL: i.e., polymorphonuclear leukocytes > 5% and/or lymphocytes > 15%). Active BAL was associated with more severe lung function impairment than was inactive BAL, and patients with active BAL deteriorated during follow-up if untreated. In contrast, treated patients with active BAL stabilized or improved. In summary, active alveolitis as characterized by BAL is associated with progressive pulmonary disease in SSC patients, and a significant positive effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the course of pulmonary disease was observed in patients with active BAL.

  6. Do indium 111-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes detect neutrophil-prominent, fibrosing lung disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.H. Jr.; Hartman, T.M.; Lichter, J.; Moser, K.M.


    The role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in fibrotic lung disease remains poorly defined, but PMN prominence may predict a poor response to therapy in some patients. The bleomycin injury to rats represents a model of PMN-prominent alveolitis leading to fibrosis. We examined a method of identifying the alveolitis during its PMN-prominent phase with indium 111-labeled homologous PMNs (In-PMNs). When pairs of injured and uninjured rats were compared, greater activity was consistently found persisting in the lung images of the injured rats, both several hours (early) and a day (late) after injection of In-PMNs. Differences could likewise be identified when lung activity was normalized to activity of the injectate, the spleen, and variably the liver, as determined from organ images. These differences in gamma camera images were supported by direct measurement of activity in organs obtained by killing the animals after scanning. When groups of animals were compared, lung/spleen ratios appeared to most consistently differentiate the group of normal animals from those with alveolitis. These methods may provide a noninvasive means of identifying PMN prominence in the lung, which occurs in some fibrotic processes.

  7. A Pre-Restoration Fishery Resource Utilization Assessment of an Estuarine Borrow Pit in Mobile Bay, Alabama (United States)


    felis Hardhead Catfish - - 7 7 14 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Cynoscion arenarius White Trout 2 4 - 6 12 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Bairdiella chrysoura...Bagre marinus Gafftopsail Catfish - - 1 1 2 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Brevoortia patronus Gulf Menhaden - - - 1 2 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Larimus...arenarius White Trout 2 1 - 3 6 - - - 0 0 - 1 3 4 8 Bairdiella chrysoura Silver Perch 1 1 4 6 12 - - - 0 0 - - - 0 0 Arius felis Hardhead Catfish

  8. Side‐of‐onset of Parkinson's disease in relation to neuropsychological measures


    Modestino, Edward J.; Amenechi, Chioma; Reinhofer, AnnaMarie; O'Toole, Patrick


    Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side‐of‐onset (left‐onset: LOPD; right‐onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain, 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e.g., Verreyt et al., Neuropsychology Review, 21, 2011, 405). Methods Thirty ROPD and 14 LOPD c...

  9. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential



    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacit...

  10. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 67, Number 4, October 1927 (United States)


    THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL Volume 67 OCTOBER, 1927 Number 4 The Beginnings of Coast Fortifications By EDGAR B. WESLEY THE general policy of...the time were withdrawing from l\\ew York to Boston to reinforce the troops there, Marinus Willett, aided by John Morin Scott and others, seized the...Long Island. On September 15, the battalion, as part of General John Morin Scott’s brigade, participated in the retreat from l\\ew York. In October and

  11. Presencia de Arius grandicassis en el Caribe colombiano, incluyendo una clave para la identificación de los peces de la familia Ariidae en el área


    Mejía-Ladino, L.M.; Betancur-R., R.; Acero-P., A.; Zarza-G-, E.


    The family Ariidac in the Colombian Caribbean coast includes five well known species (Ariopsis bonillai, Arius props, Bagre bagre, B. marinus and Selenaspis herzbergii) and at least two undescribed of the genus Cathorops. In this paper we report by the first time the presence of Arius gandicassis Valenciennes, 1840 in the region, based on three specimens of 342 - 495 mm total length captured in offshore waters at San Lorenzo de Camarones (La Guajira), widening in this way the species distribu...

  12. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available romyzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to ref|NP_789783.1| breast cancer membrane protein 11; anterior gradient pro...tein 3 [Homo sapiens] >gb|AAL55402.1| anterior gradient protein 3 [Homo sapiens], mRNA sequence /clone_end=5' /gb=DW022683 /gi=83672275 /ug=Pma.4039 /len=901 0.043 44% ...

  13. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0828 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available romyzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to ref|NP_789783.1| breast cancer membrane protein 11; anterior gradient pro...tein 3 [Homo sapiens] >gb|AAL55402.1| anterior gradient protein 3 [Homo sapiens], mRNA sequence /clone_end=5' /gb=DW022683 /gi=83672275 /ug=Pma.4039 /len=901 0.85 45% ...

  14. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0107 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available romyzon marinus cDNA 5' similar to ref|NP_789783.1| breast cancer membrane protein 11; anterior gradient pro...tein 3 [Homo sapiens] >gb|AAL55402.1| anterior gradient protein 3 [Homo sapiens], mRNA sequence /clone_end=5' /gb=DW022683 /gi=83672275 /ug=Pma.4039 /len=901 0.57 34% ...

  15. Molecular environments of divinyl chlorophylls in Prochlorococcus and Synechocystis: differences in fluorescence properties with chlorophyll replacement. (United States)

    Mimuro, Mamoru; Murakami, Akio; Tomo, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Watabe, Kazuyuki; Yokono, Makio; Akimoto, Seiji


    A marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, is a unique oxygenic photosynthetic organism, which accumulates divinyl chlorophylls instead of the monovinyl chlorophylls. To investigate the molecular environment of pigments after pigment replacement but before optimization of the protein moiety in photosynthetic organisms, we compared the fluorescence properties of the divinyl Chl a-containing cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus marinus (CCMP 1986, CCMP 2773 and CCMP 1375), by a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) mutant in which monovinyl Chl a was replaced with divinyl Chl a. P. marinus showed a single fluorescence band for photosystem (PS) II at 687nm at 77K; this was accompanied with change in pigment, because the Synechocystis mutant showed the identical shift. No fluorescence bands corresponding to the PS II 696-nm component and PS I longer-wavelength component were detected in P. marinus, although the presence of the former was suggested using time-resolved fluorescence spectra. Delayed fluorescence (DF) was detected at approximately 688nm with a lifetime of approximately 29ns. In striking contrast, the Synechocystis mutant showed three fluorescence bands at 687, 696, and 727nm, but suppressed DF. These differences in fluorescence behaviors might not only reflect differences in the molecular structure of pigments but also differences in molecular environments of pigments, including pigment-pigment and/or pigment-protein interactions, in the antenna and electron transfer systems.

  16. Evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues in lampreys (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Ke; Huertas, Mar; Baker, Cindy F.; Jia, Liang; Hayes, Michael C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.


    Animals rely on a mosaic of complex information to find and evaluate mates. Pheromones, often comprised of multiple components, are considered to be particularly important for species-recognition in many species. While the evolution of species-specific pheromone blends is well-described in many insects, very few vertebrate pheromones have been studied in a macro-evolutionary context. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparison of multi-component male odours that guide reproduction in lampreys. Chemical profiling of sexually mature males from eleven species of lamprey, representing six of ten genera and two of three families, indicated the chemical profiles of sexually mature male odours are partially shared among species. Behavioural assays conducted with four species sympatric in the Laurentian Great Lakes indicated asymmetric female responses to heterospecific odours, where Petromyzon marinus were attracted to male odour collected from all species tested but other species generally preferred only the odour of conspecifics. Electro-olfactogram recordings from P. marinusindicated that although P. marinus exhibited behavioural responses to odours from males of all species, at least some of the compounds that elicited olfactory responses were different in conspecific male odours compared to heterospecific male odours. We conclude that some of the compounds released by sexually mature males are shared among species and elicit olfactory and behavioural responses in P. marinus, and suggest that our results provide evidence for partial overlap of male olfactory cues among lampreys. Further characterization of the chemical identities of odour components is needed to confirm shared pheromones among species.

  17. Development of a Fluorescence Quantitative PCR Method for Detection of Marteilia refringens in Shellfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liji XIE; Zhixun XIE; Yaoshan PANG; Jiabo LIU; Xianwen DENG; Zhiqin XIE


    Abstract [Objective] This paper was to develop a fluorescence quantitative PCR method for detection of M. refringens in shellfish. [Method] A pair of primers and a TaqMan probe were designed and synthesized according to the conserved gene se- quences of M. refringens in GenBank, so as to develop a fluorescence quantitative PCR method for detection of M. refringens. The developed fluorescence quantitative PCR method was compared with conventional PCR detection. [Result] The fluores- cence quantitative PCR could detect 40 template copies of plasmid DNA, and its sensitivity was 100 times higher than the conventional PCR. The detection results of Perkinsus sp, Haplosporidium sp, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio parahaemolyticu, Vibrio alginolyticu, Vibrio rluvialis and Vibrio mimicus were negtive. [Conclusion] The fluorescence quantitative PCR method for M. refringens es- tablished in this paper is specific, sensitive, rapid and quantitative with good re- peatability, which can be used for clinical detection of M. refringens infection.

  18. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che


    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  19. Diversity of Picoeukaryotes at an Oligotrophic Site off the Northern Red Sea Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa, Francisco Jose Acosta


    Picoeukaryotes are protist 3 µm belonging to a wide diversity of taxonomic groups, and they are an important constituent of the ocean microbiota, performing essential ecological roles in marine trophic chains and in nutrient and carbon budgets. Despite this, the true extent of their diversity is currently unknown, and in the last decade molecular surveys have uncovered a substantial number of previously unknown groups from all taxonomic levels. No studies on this group have been done so far on the Red Sea, a unique marine environment characterized by oligotrophic conditions and high irradiance, salinity and water temperature. We sampled the surface waters of a site near the northern Red Sea coast, and analyzed the picoeukaryotic diversity through the construction of PCR clone libraries using the 18S ribosomal gene. The community captured by our library is dominated by three main groups, the alveolates (32%), chlorophytes (32%) and Stramenopiles (20.55%). Members of Radiolaria, Cercozoans and Haptophyta were also found, although in low abundances. Photosynthetic organisms are especially diverse and abundant in the sample, with heterotrophic organism mostly composed by the mostly parasitic novel alveolates and bacterivorous stramenopiles. Novel clades were detected among the Novel Alveolates- II and the photosynthetic stramenopiles taxa, which suggests that they may be part of a number of groups unique to the basin and adapted to the high salinity and temperature conditions. This is the first study done on the Red Sea focusing on the diversity of the complete picoeukaryotic fraction, and provides a stepping stone in the characterization of the picoeukaryotic component of the microbial diversity of the basin.

  20. CXC Receptor 1 and 2 and Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitors Alter Radiation-induced Lung Disease in the Mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Jessica [Department of Medicine and the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Haston, Christina K., E-mail: [Department of Medicine and the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)


    Purpose: We previously reported increased numbers of neutrophils to be associated with the development of the radiation-induced lung responses of alveolitis (pneumonitis) and fibrosis in mice. In the present study we investigated whether CXC receptor 1 and 2 antagonism with DF2156A, a small molecule inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis, or the neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat decreases the lung response to irradiation. Methods and Materials: KK/HIJ mice received 14 Gy whole-thorax irradiation, and a subset of them received drug treatment 3 times per week from the day of irradiation until they were killed because of respiratory distress symptoms. Results: Irradiated mice receiving sivelestat survived 18% longer than did mice receiving radiation alone (73 vs 60 days for female mice, 91 vs 79 days for male mice), whereas postirradiation survival times did not differ between the group of mice receiving DF2156A and the radiation-only group. The numbers of neutrophils in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid did not differ among groups of irradiated mice, but they significantly exceeded the levels in unirradiated control mice. The extent of alveolitis, assessed histologically, did not differ between irradiated mice treated with either drug and those receiving radiation alone, when assessed at the end of the experiment, but it was significantly reduced, as were the neutrophil measures, in sivelestat-treated mice at the common kill time of 60 days after irradiation. Mice treated with radiation and DF2156A developed significantly less fibrosis than did mice receiving radiation alone, and this difference was associated with decreased expression of interleukin-13 in lung tissue. Conclusions: We conclude that neutrophil elastase inhibition affects alveolitis and prolongs survival, whereas CXCR1/2 antagonism reduces radiation-induced fibrotic lung disease in mice without affecting the onset of distress.

  1. Therapy of systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valentini


    Full Text Available The treatment of the patient with Systemic Sclerosis has greatly improved in the last ten years, because of two kinds of achievements. A number of drugs have been demonstrated to be active in some disease manifestations like alveolitis, pulmonary hypertension and complicated Raynaud’s phenomenon. Some of these drugs namely cyclophosphamide and iloprost await to be confirmed as disease modifying agents. The methological approach to be made in clinical trials has been defined allowing to correctly analyze the results of published trials and plan future ones.

  2. Membrane heredity and early chloroplast evolution. (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T


    Membrane heredity was central to the unique symbiogenetic origin from cyanobacteria of chloroplasts in the ancestor of Plantae (green plants, red algae, glaucophytes) and to subsequent lateral transfers of plastids to form even more complex photosynthetic chimeras. Each symbiogenesis integrated disparate genomes and several radically different genetic membranes into a more complex cell. The common ancestor of Plantae evolved transit machinery for plastid protein import. In later secondary symbiogeneses, signal sequences were added to target proteins across host perialgal membranes: independently into green algal plastids (euglenoids, chlorarachneans) and red algal plastids (alveolates, chromists). Conservatism and innovation during early plastid diversification are discussed.

  3. Graindust and health: literature survey. Graanstof en gezondheid - een literatuuroverzicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smid, T.


    Thousands of workers in the Netherlands are exposed to dust in the grain handling, storage, and processing industry. The publication summarizes the literature and the effects of graindust on health, which may contain (apart from the grain) molds, bacteria, insects, mycotoxins, and pesticides. A number of mortality studies indicate an elevated risk of some cancer types. It is, however, not clear whether the grain dust itself is responsible for the excess mortality or its constituents. Respiratory effects are reported in a lot of studies. For instance, respiratory and feverish symptoms are indicative for extrinsic allergic alveolitis and grain fever.

  4. Handling of fuel chips - a health problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemquist, L.H.; Blomqvist, G.; Karlsson, E.; Vincent, A.; Lundgren, R.; Eliasson, L.


    An investigation has been made about health problems and occurrence of mold in connection with handling of fuel chips. The investigation was composed of three different parts. First, an inquiry was made to chip stokers about handling, storage etc. of chips as well as possible medical trouble. The answers indicated that symptoms on allergic alveolitis are common among chip stokers, 13% of the answers. Second, a determination of the proportion of living airborne colony-forming mold fungi was made at some chip using units. Third, a pilot study was made to examine the possibilities to improve storability of fuel chips using high-temperature drying.

  5. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.


    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  6. Chipped wood as a source of mould exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolmodin-Hedman, B.; Blomquist, G.; Loefgren, F.


    As a consequence of the rising oil price in Sweden, wood chips are increasingly being used for heating. Because there is no information about a connection between the development of allergic alveolitis and this environment, a prospective study has been started in collaboration with the lung clinic in Umeaa and the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health. Wood-trimmer's disease was first described by Wimander and Belin in those who handed drying wood in sawmills. The clinical symptoms were mostly caused by the moulds Asperiqillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Rhizopus.

  7. Evaluation of occupational gas and dust hazards - abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Abstracts of 13 papers are presented. The occupational hazards, generation and harmful effects of toxic gases and vapours are discussed, and the additional risks of fire and explosions encountered with flammable gases are described. Airborne dust (i.e. particulates and fibres capable of entering the respiratory system) and the health effects of these (e.g. pneumoconioses, respiratory tract cancers and allergic alveolitis), with special emphasis on asbestos and other mineral fibres, are considered. The regulations concerning the control of hazardous substances and the practicalities of meeting these are covered, with details of gas detectors, monitoring instruments and sampling techniques. Total, respirable and inhalable dusts are distinguished.

  8. 外源性过敏性肺泡炎34例误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段火生; 岳华山; 朱芳成; 李远勤


    34例外源性过敏性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis EAA),分别误诊为急性支气管炎、支气管哮喘、急挫血型播散型肺结核、病毒性肺炎、矽肺等,全部病例均不同程度地使用过青梅素、罗红梅素、头孢类、喹诺酮类抗菌药,抗生素的使用率为100%。

  9. Work-related lung disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotes, J.E.; Steel, J.


    This book covers the following topics: the protection of health at work; environmental monitoring; providing clean air; respiratory defence mechanisms; screening and examination procedures; occupational respiratory surveys; abnormal conditions of temperature and barometric pressure; silicosis; pneumoconioses of coal workers and related occupations; asbestos and other mineral fibres; beryllium disease; occupational lung cancer; other dusts gases and vapours; byssinosis; extrinsic allergic alveolitis; occupational asthma; chronic bronchitis and emphysema; roles of smoking, occupation and air pollution; exercise tests and respiratory disablement; and management of respiratory impairment.

  10. Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: Solvent Yellow 33 (United States)


    10 in skin, and consequently, a decrease in its allergic potential. The USFDA has approved D&C Yellow No. 10 for use in a wider variety of products...perivascular lymphocyte aggregates (p < 0.001), alveolitis (p < 0.05), and mild rnd severe foreign-b,’dy reaction charac- torized by the presence of alveoli...No. 11 and simultaneous reaction to Quinoline Yellow. C Bj8rkner, B. and B. Niklasson. 1983. Contact allergic reaction to D & C Yellow No. 11 and

  11. Evaluación in situ de la actividad antimicrobiana de la clorhexidina al 0,2 %, administrada en enjuagues a diferentes posologías


    Torres Landín, Seila María


    El biofilm oral desempeña un papel relevante en el desarrollo de infecciones locales tan prevalentes como la caries y la enfermedad periodontal, y en la aparición de la complicación infecciosa más frecuente después de una exodoncia, la alveolitis seca; además, se ha sugerido que puede participar en la etiopatogenia de infecciones focales que ocasionalmente están originadas por patógenos orales, como la endocarditis bacteriana o las neumonías asociadas a ventilación mecánica. Para prevenir est...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseyevna Antelava


    Full Text Available Polymyositis (PM and dermatomyositis (DM are autoimmune skeletal muscle diseases of unknown etiology, which are referred to as systemic connective tissue diseases and united under the common term Tidiopathic inflammatory myopathiesy. The most severe subtype of PM/DM is the antisynthetase syndrome that is characterized by a certain sympathocomplex, including interstitial lung lesion that is one of the most common visceral changes. Of interest are the specific features of the antisynthetase syndrome, its onset, the course and pulmonary manifestations of fibrosing alveolitis, unlike the classical course of PM/DM. Two clinical cases of the antisynthetase syndrome are given.

  13. Rapamycin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the expression of metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xiaoguang; Dai Huaping; Ding Ke; Xu Xuefeng; Pang Baosen; Wang Chen


    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and devastating form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the clinic.There is no effective therapy except for lung transplantation.Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug with potent antifibrotic activity.The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin on bleomycininduced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the relation to the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1).Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intratracheal injection of 0.3 ml of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in sterile 0.9% saline to make the pulmonary fibrosis model.Rapamycin was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg per gavage,beginning one day before bleomycin instillation and once daily until animal sacrifice.Ten rats in each group were sacrificed at 3,7,14,28 and 56 days after bleomycin administration.Alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis were semi-quantitatively assessed after HE staining and Masson staining under an Olympus BX40 microscope with an IDA-2000 Image Analysis System.Type Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagen fibers were identified by Picro-sirius-polarization.Hydroxyproline content in lung tissue was quantified by a colorimetric-based spectrophotometric assay,MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and by realtime quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Bleomycin induced alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis of rats was inhibited by rapamycin.Significant inhibition of alveolitis and hydroxyproline product were demonstrated when daily administration of rapamycin lasted for at least 14 days.The inhibitory efficacy on pulmonary fibrosis was unremarkable until rapamycin treatment lasted for at least 28 days (P <0.05).It was also demonstrated that rapamycin treatment reduced the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in lung tissue that was increased by bleomycin.Conclusion These results highlight the significance of rapamycin in alleviating

  14. Role of cellulose in wood dust-induced fibrosing alveo-bronchiolitis in rat. (United States)

    Tátrai, E; Adamis, Z; Böhm, U; Merétey, K; Ungváry, G


    Our experiments suggest that in the development of plant dust-induced fibrosing alveobronchiolitis--Scadding's fibrosing alveolitis--the cellulose content of plant dusts has a decisive aetiological role. Namely, the wood dust (pine) and the cellulose induced morphologically identical granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the fibre-free extract of wood dust did not cause pathological changes in the lungs. The induction of H2O2 and superoxide anion production, shown in vitro in leucocytes, probably has an important role in the development of fibrosis.

  15. Diverse bacterial PKS sequences derived from okadaic acid-producing dinoflagellates. (United States)

    Perez, Roberto; Liu, Li; Lopez, Jose; An, Tianying; Rein, Kathleen S


    Okadaic acid (OA) and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS) genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  16. Anti-depressants make amphipods see the light. (United States)

    Guler, Yasmin; Ford, Alex T


    The effects of serotonin altering parasites, serotonin, the anti-depressant fluoxetine, plus two other highly prescribed pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine and diclofenac) on the behaviour of the marine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus were investigated. Acanthocephalan parasites are known to alter the swimming behaviour in their amphipod hosts through changes in serotonergic activity resulting in increased predation. Behavioural assays were adapted to record changes in phototaxis and geotaxis behaviour in male E. marinus following 7, 14 and 21 days exposure to serotonin and each pharmaceutical compound at 4 concentrations compared to a control (between 10 ng/L and 10 microg/L). E. marinus infected with acanthocephalans parasites had both significantly higher phototaxis and geotaxis scores than those of uninfected specimens. Phototaxis and geotaxis behaviour increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to serotonin. Fluoxetine significantly altered phototaxis and geotaxis activity in what appeared to be a non-monotonic concentration response curve with the greatest behavioural changes observed at 100 ng/L. The main patterns of these behavioural responses were consistent between two trials and the 3 weeks exposure with specimens spending more time within the light and occurring higher in the water column. No obvious trends could be concluded in the phototaxis and geotaxis scores from individuals exposed to carbamazepine or diclofenac as might be expected from their known mode of action. From this study phototaxis and geotaxis behaviour have been observed to be affected by exposure to serotonin modulators. Parasite studies have shown strong links between changes in behaviour and increased predation risk correlating with changes in serotonergic activity. This study has highlighted the potential for highly prescribed anti-depressant drugs to change the behaviour of an ecologically relevant marine species in ways which could conceivably lead to

  17. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo). (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H


    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  18. Is Monoglucosyldiacylglycerol a Precursor to Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in All Cyanobacteria? (United States)

    Sato, Naoki


    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is ubiquitous in the photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. It is synthesized by galactosylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) in the chloroplasts, whereas it is produced by epimerization of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (GlcDG) in at least several cyanobacteria that have been analyzed such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A previous study, however, showed that the mgdE gene encoding the epimerase is absent in some cyanobacteria such as Gloeobacter violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Acaryochloris marina. In addition, the N-terminal 'fatty acid hydroxylase' domain is lacking in the MgdE protein of Prochlorococcus marinus. These problems may cast doubt upon the general (or exclusive) role of MgdE in the epimerization of GlcDG to MGDG in cyanobacteria. In addition, GlcDG is usually present at a very low level, and the structural determination of endogenous GlcDG has not been accomplished with cyanobacterial samples. In this study, I determined the structure of GlcDG from Anabaena variabilis by (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. I then showed that G. violaceus, T. elongatus, A. marina and P. marinus contain GlcDG. In all cases, GlcDG consisted of fewer unsaturated molecular species than MGDG, providing further evidence that GlcDG is a precursor to MGDG. The conversion of GlcDG to MGDG was also demonstrated by radiolabeling and chase experiments in G. violaceus and P. marinus. These results demonstrate that all the analyzed cyanobacteria contain GlcDG, which is converted to MGDG, and suggest that an alternative epimerase is required for MGDG synthesis in these cyanobacteria.

  19. A culture-dependent survey of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Xiamen area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; OUYANG Jianping; AO Jingqun; CHEN Xinhua


    Microbes are believed to play important roles in ecosystem function in many environments. The hot springs of Xiamen Island are close to the Xiamen Sea, and may have some characteristics different from those of inland hot springs. Microbes living in the hot springs of Xiamen may have new characteristics. However, little is known about microbial communities of hot springs close to the Xiamen Sea. A cuhure-dependent survey of microbial population in the Xiamen hot springs was pcrformed by using an approach combining total cellular protein profile identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 328 isolates of bacteria were obtained from liquid and sediment samples from the Xiamen hot springs, including neutrophilie thermophilic bacteria and moderately thermophilic acidophiles. Neutrophilic thermophilic bacteria, which grow at a temperature range of 55-90℃ including Rhodothermus marinus (Strain 1) , Thermus thermophilus (Strain 2), Thermus thiopara (Strain 3) , Geobacillus stearothermophilus(Strain 4) , Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Strain 5) , and Pseudomonas pseudoal-caligenes (Strain 6), were recovered by 2216E plates. Moderately thermophilic acidophiles, which can grow at temperatures above 50℃ and a pH range of 1. 8-3.5 such as Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (Strain 8) , Sul-fobacillus acidophilus (Strain 9), and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (Strain 10), were isolated on selective solid medium containing sulfur and Fe2+. Among these strains, Rhodothermus marinus, Thermus thermophilus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus are not only thermophilcs, but also halophiles. One bacterium strain (Strain 6) shared 99% nucleotide sequence homology with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes on the 16S rRNA gene se-quence, but was quite different from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in biological characteristics, suggesting that it may represent a novel thermophilic species. Results indicated that various species of neutrophilic thermophiles and moderately thermophilic

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14913-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hococcus sp. WH8102 complet... 122 1e-26 FJ860897_1( FJ860897 |pid:none) Cydonia ... 1e-25 CP000393_3486( CP000393 |pid:none) Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101... 119 1e-25 FJ860899_1( FJ860899 |pid:none) Cydonia...aiotaomicron VPI... 119 2e-25 FJ860896_1( FJ860896 |pid:none) Cydonia oblonga ammonium transport... 119 2e-2...d:none) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MI... 117 5e-25 FJ860898_1( FJ860898 |pid:none) Cydonia oblonga ammoniu

  1. AcEST: BP919731 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .38 sp|Q09916|HAS1_SCHPO ATP-dependent RNA helicase has1 OS=Schizosa... 34 0.49 sp|Q80TY4|ST18_MOUSE Suppression...hylococcu... 32 1.4 sp|O60284|ST18_HUMAN Suppression of tumorigenicity protein 18... Trigger factor OS=Prochlorococcus marinus (s... 32 2.4 sp|Q9QX27|ST18_RAT Suppression of tumorigenicity pro...L+ DV+G ++ S KT+AF IP + L F+ Sbjct: 105 KEMGFETMTEIQKRSIPPLLAGRDVLGAAKTG--SGKTLAFLIPTIEMLYALKFK 157 >sp|Q80TY4|ST18_MOUSE Suppression

  2. Gram-positive bacteria of marine origin: a numerical taxonomic study on Mediterranean isolates. (United States)

    Ortigosa, M; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J


    A numerical taxonomic study was performed on 65 Gram-positive wild strains of heterotrophic, aerobic, marine bacteria, and 9 reference strains. The isolates were obtained from oysters and seawater sampled monthly over one year, by direct plating on Marine Agar. The strains were characterized by 96 morphological, biochemical, physiological and nutritional tests. Clustering yielded 13 phena at 0.62 similarity level (Sl coefficient). Only one of the seven phena containing wild isolates could be identified (Bacillus marinus). A pronounced salt requirement was found in most isolates.

  3. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping


    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary


    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the lim...

  4. Mind the Gap: How Some Viruses Infect Their Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Prevelige


    Full Text Available Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET provide structural insights into complex biological processes. The podoviridae are dsDNA containing phage with short, non-contractile tails which nevertheless translocate their DNA into the cytoplasm of their host cells. Liu et al. [1] used a combination of cryo-EM and cryo-ET to study the structural changes accompanying infection of P. marinus by the phage P-SSP7 and thereby provide unique molecular insight into the process by which the DNA transits from phage to host during infection.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15995-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nnqllppppppplplvahkll*pmkpiqphvhsvvvlsqpwifqiitq lvn*skimisqkelklhsihyvllkllnmislkkslkninhllnyqtqsmkfqnlqkllv klsknskmilk...2416 ) RPCI44_377O10.f RPCI-44 Sus scrofa genomic clone ... 46 3.8 1 ( DW488282 ) GH_RMIRS_068_G03_R Cotton ...Contig-U15995-1 gap included 1478 2 3965902 3964425 MINUS 5 8 U15995 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 3964425 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) MINUS Number of clones 5 Number of EST 8 Link to ...3.8 1 ( CP000576 ) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9301, complete g... 46 3.8 1

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02482-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available occus marinus MED4 complete genome. 32 5.5 22 ( GO153289 ) CAGA35717.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 36 6.5 7 ( GO169294 ) CAGA43233.fwd CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38 6....5 2 ( GO169293 ) CAGA43233.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38 6.5 2 ( AC091149 ) Homo sapiens chr...... 40 6.7 4 ( GO144477 ) CAGA30851.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38... 6.7 2 ( GO213214 ) CAGB24659.fwd CAGB Alvinella pompejana Normalized... 38 6.7 2 ( EU028331 ) Glycine max c

  7. Complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum. (United States)

    Kawai, Yuri L; Yura, Kei; Shindo, Miyuki; Kusakabe, Rie; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Okamura, Kohji


    Lampreys are eel-like jawless fishes evolutionarily positioned between invertebrates and vertebrates, and have been used as model organisms to explore vertebrate evolution. In this study we determined the complete genome sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the Japanese river lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum, using next-generation sequencers. The sequence was 16,272 bp in length. The gene content and order were identical to those of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, which has been the reference among lamprey species. However, the sequence similarity was less than 90%, suggesting the need for the whole-genome sequencing of L. japonicum.

  8. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna


    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when...

  9. Phylogenetic positions of two marine ciliates, Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), inferred from complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene was sequenced for two marine scuticociliates Metanophrys similis and Pseudocohnilembus hargisi. The results show that this gene comprises 1763 and 1753 nucleotides in the two marine ciliates respectively.Metanophrys similis is phylogenetically closely related to the clade containing Mesanophrys carcini and Anophyroides haemophila, which branches basally to other species within the order Philasterida. Pseudocohnilembus hargisi groups with its congener, P. marinus, with strong bootstrap support. Paranophrys magna groups with the clade including Cohnilembus and Uronema, representing a sister clade to that containing the two Pseudocohnilembus species.

  10. Status Report of the Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra Trzdentata) in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.; Parker, Blaine; James, gary


    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes.

  11. Excitabilidad iterativa y actividad rítmica de los músculos estriados: contracción prosténica


    Ordoñez, Hernando


    Se hace un estudio sobre la historia de la excitabilidad iterativa. Se relaciona la excitabilidad iterativa con la contracción prosténica. Se describen los caracteres de esta variedad de contracción muscular, a saber: contracción rítmica que aparece en el músculo gastrocnemio de varias clases de ranas, hyla labialis, rana esculenta, bufo marinus; excitación directa; la excitación repetida puede ser choques de inducción, descargas de condensadores, estimulación electrónica; la frecuencia de lo...

  12. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.


    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  13. Forekomst af parodontitis og FORL hos perserkatte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flørnæs, Maria L. Topholm; Lund, Mette; Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen;


    I dette studie er omfanget af tandrelaterede sygdomme heriblandt parodontitis og feline odontoklastiske resorptions læsioner (FORL) blandt 19 perserkatte (heraf 2 exotics) på 3 til 9 år undersøgt både klinisk og radiografisk. Ingen af kattene havde tidligere fået renset tænder i anæstesi. Alle...... katte havde gingivitis (blødning ved sondering) på mindst en tand. Alle katte havde klinisk parodontitis på mindst 4 tænder, og det sås oftest i kindtænder. 26& havde svær klinisk parodontitis med klinisk fæstetab > 3 mm. Der sås tendens til højere forekomst af svær klinisk parodontitis med stigende...... alder, og den yngste kat i undersøgelsen med svær klinisk parodontitis var 4 år. Prævalensen for parodontitis vurderet radiologisk (alveolært knogletab) fandtes til 58%, og den yngste kat i undersøgelsen med alveolært knogletab var 3 år. Prævalensen for FORL var 47%, og der sås signifikant flere...

  14. Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Decrease the Concentrations of Inflammatory Mediators in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Bleomycin-Induced Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Bin Liao; Chen Zhu; Wenjun Wang; Xiaoqin Zhan; Xianming Fan


    It has been demonstrated that alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by releasing a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. In addition, abnormal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation in AMs may play a pivotal role in the process of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transfected STAT1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) into rats by aerosolization, and then investigated the effect of STAT1 ASON on inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Our results showed that STAT1 ASON by aerosolization could enter into lung tissues and AMs. STAT1 ASON could inhibit mRNA and protein expressions of STATI and ICAM-1 in AMs of rat with pulmonary fibrosis, and had no toxic side effect on liver and kidney. Aerosolized STAT1 ASON could ameliorate the alveolitis through inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory mediators in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):219-224.

  15. Ultrastructural observation on pulmonary fibrosis in E9 rats treated with compoundCarapax trionycis formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ren; Li-Xuan Wang; Xue-Cheng Ji; Jia-Ying Zhou; Man-Ying Zhang


    Objective:To investigate ultrastructural changes in pulmonary tissue of a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis following treatment with compoundCarapax trionycis(C. trionycis;Biejia inChinese) formula.Methods:Sixty maleSprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=15): compoundC. trionycis formula high-, middle-, and low-dose groups as well as model group. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by bleomycin.Five rats from each group weresacrificed on day 7,14 and28 of the drug treatment, respectively.The pulmonary tissue was harvested followed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and subsequent transmission electron microscopy.TheSzapiel’s method was used to assess the degree of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis.Results:Compared with the model group, the compoundC. trionycis formula groups had slighter pulmonary alveolitis after the7-day treatment and also had alleviated alveolar inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis after the14-day treatment.After the28-day treatment, the compoundC. trionycis formula groups showed deposition of a small amount of fibrous tissue and lesions occupying less than21% of the whole lung area, while the model group showed focal or diffuse fibrous deposition, narrow alveolar cavity, disordered lung structure, and lesions in larger than51% of the whole lung area. Conclusions:The compoundC. trionycis formula can inhibit the proliferation of collagen fibers and resist pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Unsteady diffusional screening in 3D pulmonary acinar structures: from infancy to adulthood. (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Shachar-Berman, Lihi; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué


    Diffusional screening in the lungs is a physical phenomenon where the specific topological arrangement of alveolated airways of the respiratory region leads to a depletion, or 'screening', of oxygen molecules with increasing acinar generation. Here, we revisit diffusional screening phenomena in anatomically-inspired pulmonary acinar models under realistic breathing maneuvers. By modelling 3D bifurcating alveolated airways capturing both convection and diffusion, unsteady oxygen transport is investigated under cyclic breathing motion. To evaluate screening characteristics in the developing lungs during growth, four representative stages of lung development were chosen (i.e. 3 months, 1 year and 9 months, 3 years and adulthood) that capture distinct morphological acinar changes spanning alveolarization phases to isotropic alveolar growth. Numerical simulations unveil the dramatic changes in O2 transport occurring during lung development, where young infants exhibit highest acinar efficiencies that rapidly converge with age to predictions at adulthood. With increased ventilatory effort, transient dynamics of oxygen transport is fundamentally altered compared to tidal breathing and emphasizes the augmented role of convection. Resolving the complex convective acinar flow patterns in 3D acinar trees allows for the first time a spatially-localized and time-resolved characterization of oxygen transport in the pulmonary acinus, from infancy to adulthood.

  17. Hamman-Rich syndrome in a goldsmith; Hamman-Rich-Syndrom bei einem Goldschmied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Jacobi, V. [Inst. fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Viel, K. [II. Medizinische Klinik, Abt. fuer Lungenheilkunde, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)


    We report the case of a 54-year-old goldsmith admitted because of dyspnea on exertion, persistent cough, and weakness under the suspicion of exogenous allergic alveolitis. He rapidly developed progressive lung fibrosis with exitus letalis 7 weeks after admission. Radiological examination (chest X-ray and HRCT) first showed ground glass opacities, and later rapid development of severe interstitial pattern with architectural distraction. The findings were similar to idiopathic lung fibrosis; however, the rare Hamman-Rich syndrome was confirmed by progressive course of the disease. Correlations between Hamann-Rich syndrome and idiopathic lung fibrosis are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir berichten von einem 54jaehrigen Goldschmied, der uns unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer exogen allergischen Alveolitis mit Belastungsdyspnoe, anhaltendem Husten und Schwaechegefuehl vorgestellt wurde. Der Patient entwickelte eine rasch verlaufende Lungenfibrose mit Excitus letalis innerhalb 7 Wochen nach Einweisung. Die Roentgenuntersuchungen (Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und HRCT) zeigten zunaechst eine milchglasartige Zeichnungsvermehrung sowie in der Folge die Entwicklung einer schweren interstitiellen Fibrose mit rasch folgendem Umbau des Lungengewebes. Waehrend die radiologischen Befunde dem der idiopathischen Lungenfibrose glichen, definierte der rasch progressive Verlauf die seltene Diagnose eines Hamman-Rich-Syndroms. Die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Hamman-Rich-Syndrom und der idiopathischen Lungenfibrose werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  18. A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra


    Full Text Available Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma. It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.

  19. Computed tomography in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, D.A.; Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Stulbarg, M.; Golden, J.


    We studied the high resolution CT (HRCT) scans of 15 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis and correlated the findings with pulmonary function tests (12 patients), 67Ga scans (10 patients), bronchoalveolar lavage (five patients), recent transbronchial biopsy (six patients), and recent open lung biopsy (three patients). The HRCT features included small nodules, thickened interlobular septa, patchy focal increase in lung density, honeycombing, and central conglomeration of vessels and bronchi. Active alveolitis was present by gallium scanning criteria in 5 of 10 cases. By bronchoalveolar lavage criteria, activity was present in three of five cases. Patchy increase in density may correlate with active alveolitis as seen on /sup 67/Ga scanning. High resolution CT was better than chest X-radiography for demonstration of patchy increase in density and for distinguishing nodules from septal thickening. Both nodules and patchy density were partly reversible following therapy. Nodular densities seen on CT correlated with the presence of granulomata on histology. Resting pulmonary function tests correlated poorly with presence and extent of lung disease on HRCT. The presence on HRCT of focal fine nodules, patchy focal increase in lung density, and central crowding of bronchi and vessels should suggest the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In some patients, HRCT can identify unsuspected parenchymal lung disease and document the reversible components of sarcoid lung disease.

  20. [Dental technician's pneumoconiosis; a case report]. (United States)

    Karaman Eyüboğlu, Canan; Itil, Oya; Gülşen, Aşkin; Kargi, Aydanur; Cimrin, Arif


    Since 1939, it has been known that, silicosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be seen among dental technicians. The interstitial disease caused by the exposure to complex substances used by dental technicians is classified as a special group called dental technician's pneumoconiosis. A 36-year-old man, who has no smoking history, presented with severe dyspnea. He had worked in different dental laboratories for 22 years, but he did not have respiratory symptoms until five years ago. After that date, he had hospitalized and had been examined for respiratory pathologies for many times. He had came to our clinic, because of the progression of his dyspnea. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates which can be related with pneumoconiosis and chronic type 1 respiratory deficiency had been diagnosed as the result of the examinations. While he has no history of smoking or any other risk factors or diseases in his medical history, the case was accepted as dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The factors related with the pathogenesis of dental technician's pneumoconiosis are; the complex compound of the substances (metal dusts, silica, plaster, wax and resins, chemical liquids, methyl methacrylate) used in this sector and their effects on the lung parenchyma. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis related with methyl methacrylate has been reported. The most important factor to acquire an occupational lung disease is a complex occupational exposure. The insufficient workplace airing and the lack of preventive measures added on this exposure, the risks become much more greater.

  1. A hypothesis for the evolution of nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes in "chromalveolate" members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Takishita

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes bearing red alga-derived plastids--photosynthetic alveolates (dinoflagellates plus the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii plus the chromerid Chromera velia, photosynthetic stramenopiles, haptophytes, and cryptophytes--possess unique plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (henceforth designated as "GapC1". Pioneering phylogenetic studies have indicated a single origin of the GapC1 enzymes in eukaryotic evolution, but there are two potential idiosyncrasies in the GapC1 phylogeny: Firstly, the GapC1 tree topology is apparently inconsistent with the organismal relationship among the "GapC1-containing" groups. Secondly, four stramenopile GapC1 homologues are consistently paraphyletic in previously published studies, although these organisms have been widely accepted as monophyletic. For a closer examination of the above issues, in this study GapC1 gene sampling was improved by determining/identifying nine stramenopile and two cryptophyte genes. Phylogenetic analyses of our GapC1 dataset, which is particularly rich in the stramenopile homologues, prompt us to propose a new scenario that assumes multiple, lateral GapC1 gene transfer events to explain the incongruity between the GapC1 phylogeny and the organismal relationships amongst the "GapC1-containing" groups. Under our new scenario, GapC1 genes uniquely found in photosynthetic alveolates, photosynthetic stramenopiles, haptophytes, and cryptopyhytes are not necessarily a character vertically inherited from a common ancestor.

  2. The Effects of Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides on Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Wang; Bin Liao; Ming Zeng; Chen Zhu; Xianming Fan


    Previous study showed that aerosolized signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) inhibited the expression of STATI and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein in alveolar macrophages (Ams) and decreased the concentrations of TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of STAT1 ASON ameliorated alveolitis in rat pulmonary fibrosis. However, further investigations are needed to determine whether there is an effect from administration of STAT1 ASON on fibrosis. This study investigated the effect of aerosolized STAT1 ASON on the expressions of inflammatory mediators, hydroxyproline and type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ collagen mRNA in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. The results showed that STAT1 ASON applied by aerosolization could ameliorate alveolitis and fibrosis, inhibit the expressions of inflammatory mediators, decrease the content of hydroxyproline, and suppress the expressions of type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ collagen mRNA in lung tissue in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Expresión heteróloga de ARN mensajeros de Leishmania en ovocitos de anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Olarte Rubén Darío


    Full Text Available La técnica de expresión heteróloga en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis ha sido ampliamente utilizada para la caracterización funcional de canales iónicos. En este estudio se reporta el uso del modelo nativo de ovocitos de Bufo marinus para la expresión heteróloga de ARN poliadenilado (ARNm poli(A+ de Leishmania amazonensis y la posterior identificación de canales iónicos mediante registros electrofisiológicos utilizando la técnica de voltaje controlado (voltage-clamp. Se logró realizar la maduración, extracción y cultivo de ovocitos de B. marinus bajo condiciones similares a las estandarizadas para X. laevis. El potencial de reposo promedio así como las corrientes endógenas mostraron ser definidas por canales de cloruro dependientes de calcio y rectificadores de salida, de manera similar a lo reportado en X. laevis. La inyección de ARNm poli(A+ de L. amazonensis generó la expresión de corrientes de cloruro de  amplitud, cinética y características farmacológicas diferentes a las corrientes endógenas, reportadas en estudios previos con X. laevis como posible resultado de la expresión heteróloga de canales iónicos de L. amazonensis.

  4. Specialized Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Prevailing in Seawater around a Port in the Strait of Malacca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Teramoto

    Full Text Available Major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical seas have been indicated only by laboratory culturing and never through observing the bacterial community structure in actual environments. To demonstrate the major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons spilt in actual tropical seas, indigenous bacterial community in seawater at Sentosa (close to a port and East Coast Park (far from a port in Singapore was analyzed. Bacterial species was more diverse at Sentosa than at the Park, and the composition was different: γ-Proteobacteria (57.3% dominated at Sentosa, while they did not at the Park. Specialized hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (SHCB, which use limited carbon sources with a preference for petroleum hydrocarbons, were found as abundant species at Sentosa, indicating petroleum contamination. On the other hand, SHCB were not the abundant species at the Park. The abundant species of SHCB at Sentosa were Oleibacter marinus and Alcanivorax species (strain 2A75 type, which have previously been indicated by laboratory culturing as important petroleum-aliphatic-hydrocarbon degraders in tropical seas. Together with the fact that SHCB have been identified as major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environments, these results demonstrate that the O. marinus and Alcanivorax species (strain 2A75 type would be major degraders of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons spilt in actual tropical seas.

  5. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact. (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H


    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  6. Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.


    Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  7. Isolation, cultivation and genomic analysis of magnetosome biomineralization genes of a new genus of South-seeking magnetotactic cocci within the Alphaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillo, Viviana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Abreu, Fernanda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, Ana C [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Almeida, Luiz G [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Enrich-Prast, Alex [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Farina, Marcos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Vasconcelos, Ana T [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Lins, Ulysses [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro


    Although magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats, they are still considered fastidious microorganisms with regard to growth and cultivation with only a relatively low number of axenic cultures available to date. Here, we report the first axenic culture of an MTB isolated in the Southern Hemisphere (Itaipu Lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Cells of this new isolate are coccoid to ovoid in morphology and grow microaerophilically in semi-solid medium containing an oxygen concentration ([O2]) gradient either under chemoorganoheterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic conditions. Each cell contains a single chain of approximately 10 elongated cuboctahedral magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetosomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that the coccoid MTB isolated in this study represents a new genus in the Alphaproteobacteria; the name Magnetofaba australis strain IT-1 is proposed. Preliminary genomic data obtained by pyrosequencing shows that M. australis strain IT-1 contains a genomic region with genes involved in biomineralization similar to those found in the most closely related magnetotactic cocci Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. However, organization of the magnetosome genes differs from M. marinus.

  8. Population genetic structure of a three-host tick, Amblyomma dissimile, in eastern Venezuela. (United States)

    Lampo, M; Rangel, Y; Mata, A


    Patterns of genetic variation for the tick Amblyomma dissimile were analyzed from a total of 200 ticks collected on 12 toads (Bufo marinus), 14 snakes (Boa constrictor), and 8 lizards (Iguana iguana) at 11 localities. The analyses were performed on electrophoretic data from 8 isozyme loci. Mean heterozygosity per locus was 6% (+/-3.1) per population. Differences in allelic frequencies among ticks from different individual hosts were the major source of genetic variability in this study. Host species was a smaller source of genetic variation. Genetic distances between localities varied according to which host species was present in each locality, and these appeared to be related to the extent of habitat overlap between host species. The smallest genetic distances between samples from different host species were recorded for I. iguana and B. constrictor. In contrast, the genetic distances between tick samples from B. marinus and either of the reptile species were significantly larger than between tick samples from this amphibian species. Ecological variables or the geographic distance did not explain the local patterns of differentiation observed in A. dissimile. Major genetic differences between island and mainland sites (0.03702) suggested an association between genetic distances and geographic isolation. The consistency between patterns of genetic variation and those of host home range overlap suggests that host dispersion is the main force structuring the genetic variation within this tick species.

  9. Stimulation of osteoblast activity by induction of Aloe vera and xenograft combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi


    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is generally followed by alveolar ridge resorption that later can cause flat ridge. Aloe vera have biogenic stimulator and hormone activities for wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know osteoblast activities in alveolar bone after induction of Aloe vera and XCB combination. Methods: Fifty four of Cavia cabaya were divided into three main groups. Group I was control group. Group II was filled with xenograft concelous bovine (XCB and group III was filled with the combination of Aloe vera gel and XCB. Then, each group was divided into three sub groups according to timing, they are 14, 30, and 60 days after tooth extraction and application. Histology and morphology examination were performed on the harvested specimens. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and the other groups filled with the combination of Aloe vera and XCB. Conclusion: In conclusion, the application of Aloe vera gel and xenograft combination decrease the number of osteoclast and increase the number of osteoblast in post tooth extraction alveolar bone structure indicating the new growth of alveolar bone.Latar belakang: Pencabutan gigi pada umumnya selalu diikuti resopsi tulang alveolar, sehingga bila terjadi dalam waktu yang lama ridge akan menjadi flat. Aloe vera adalah bahan stimulasi biogenik dan mempunyai aktivitas hormon untuk proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas osteoblas pada tulang alveol dengan pemberian kombinasi Aloe vera gel dan xenograft concelous bovine (XCB. Metode: Lima puluh empat ekor Cavia cabaya, dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok besar, kelompok pertama adalah kelompok kontrol yaitu hanya dilakukan pencabutan saja tanpa perlakuan, kelompok ke-2 yaitu kelompok yang setelah dicabut diberi XCB saja dan kelompok ke-3 yaitu kelompok yang setelah pencabutan diberi kombinasi Aloe vera gel dengan XCB pada luka bekas pencabutan gigi. Kemudian masing

  10. The increasing of fibroblast growth factor 2, osteocalcin, and osteoblast due to the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi


    Full Text Available Background: To make a successfull denture prominent ridge is needed, preservation on tooth extraction socket is needed in order to prevent alveol bone resorption caused by revocation trauma. An innovative modification of the material empirically suspected to be able reduce inflammation caused by the revocation trauma is a combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine (XCB and Aloe vera is a biogenic stimulator and accelerating the growth of alveolar ridge bone after tooth extraction. Purpose: The research was aimed to determine of the increasing alveol bone formation by inducing the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine. Methods: To address the problems, the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine was induced into the tooth extraction sockets of Cavia cabayas which devided on 8 groups. Groups control, filled with XCB, Aloe vera and Aloe vera and XCB combination, at 7 days and 30 days after extraction. Afterwards, immunohistochemical examination was conducted to examine the expressions of FGF-2 and osteocalcin, as the product of the growth of osteoblasts. Results: There were significantly increases expression of FGF-2 and osteocalcyn on group which filled with XCB, Aloe vera and combined Aloe vera and XCB. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine into the tooth sockets can enhance the growth expressions of FGF-2 and osteocalcin as the product of osteoblasts, thus, the growth of alveolar bone was increased.Latar belakang: Untuk keberhasilan pembuatan gigitiruan diperlukan ridge yang prominent, maka diperlukan suatu preservasi soket pencabutan gigi untuk mencegah terjadinya resopsi tulang alveolar akibat trauma pencabutan. Suatu inovasi modifikasi bahan yang diduga secara empiris dapat mengurangi keradangan karena trauma pencabutan adalah berupa kombinasi Aloe vera dan xenograft concelous bovine (XCB. Aloe vera yang merupakan

  11. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated to treatment with natalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Curto


    Full Text Available Natalizumab (Tysabri® is a leukocytes chemotaxis inhibitor that decreases the leukocytes passage through the hematoencephalic barrier and it is currently used in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. We present a patient with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis diagnosed with MS who started treatment with natalizumab. She began to show mild asthmatic symptoms until she needed admission to the hospital due to respiratory insufficiency. Blood tests showed peripheral eosinophilia and the thoracic computed tomography scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltrates. The bronchoscopy with the bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in eosinophilic alveolitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection, connective tissue disease, or vasculitis were observed. After discontinuation of natalizumab, the patient improved without other treatments. As MS is a prevalent disease and the use of natalizumab is increasing, we consider important to point out that this drug can be associated with pulmonary eosinophilia, especially in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma.

  12. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics. (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars


    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  13. Clinico-pathological analysis referring hemeoxygenase-1 in acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hara


    We experienced two cases of subacute form AFOP for these 10 years and reviewed clinico-pathological characteristics. The average age was 62 years old and both were male. The etiology of both cases was idiopathic. The average PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 274.5 ± 84.1. The average levels of C-reactive protein and surfactant protein - A of the serum were elevated to 19.8 ± 6.3 mg/dL and 67.6 ± 15.8 ng/mL, respectively. Serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen levels were normal in both cases. The characteristic radiographic findings were bilateral consolidations and ground glass opacities. Lung biopsy specimens revealed fibrin balls and alveolitis with abundant cellular HO-1 expression. Steroid response was excellent and the pulmonary involvements absolutely disappeared for about 3 months.

  14. Nucleomorphs: enslaved algal nuclei. (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T


    Nucleomorphs of cryptomonad and chlorarachnean algae are the relict, miniaturised nuclei of formerly independent red and green algae enslaved by separate eukaryote hosts over 500 million years ago. The complete 551 kb genome sequence of a cryptomonad nucleomorph confirms that cryptomonads are eukaryote-eukaryote chimeras and greatly illuminates the symbiogenetic event that created the kingdom Chromista and their alveolate protozoan sisters. Nucleomorph membranes may, like plasma membranes, be more enduring after secondary symbiogenesis than are their genomes. Partial sequences of chlorarachnean nucleomorphs indicate that genomic streamlining is limited by the mutational difficulty of removing useless introns. Nucleomorph miniaturisation emphasises that selection can dramatically reduce eukaryote genome size and eliminate most non-functional nuclear non-coding DNA. Given the differential scaling of nuclear and nucleomorph genomes with cell size, it follows that most non-coding nuclear DNA must have a bulk-sequence-independent function related to cell volume.

  15. Lung Regeneration Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (United States)

    Oh, Dong Kyu; Kim, You-Sun; Oh, Yeon-Mok


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a critical condition with high morbidity and mortality. Although several medications are available, there are no definite treatments. However, recent advances in the understanding of stem and progenitor cells in the lung, and molecular changes during re-alveolization after pneumonectomy, have made it possible to envisage the regeneration of damaged lungs. With this background, numerous studies of stem cells and various stimulatory molecules have been undertaken, to try and regenerate destroyed lungs in animal models of COPD. Both the cell and drug therapies show promising results. However, in contrast to the successes in laboratories, no clinical trials have exhibited satisfactory efficacy, although they were generally safe and tolerable. In this article, we review the previous experimental and clinical trials, and summarize the recent advances in lung regeneration therapy for COPD. Furthermore, we discuss the current limitations and future perspectives of this emerging field.

  16. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi


    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  17. Pædodontisk parodontologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Marie-Louise Milvang; Kongstad, Johanne; Poulsen, Anne Havemose;


    Pædodontisk parodontologi En tidlig alder for sygdomsdebut, høj sygdomsprogression, fravær af systemisk sygdom og involvering af flere tænder med et karakteristisk mønster for tab af den alveolære knogle er vigtige diagnostiske elementer ved den aggressive marginale parodontitis. Hos børn og unge...... er forekomsten af aggressiv marginal parodontitis forholdsvis sjælden, men grundet det danske samfunds diversitet, hvad angår etnicitet, er forekomsten muligvis ikke den samme I Danmark i dag som for årtier siden. Behandlingen af aggressiv parodontitis stiller store krav til klinikeren og bør foregå...

  18. Early aggressive intra-venous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for interstitial lung disease in a patient with systemic sclerosis. A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peshin, R


    Interstitial lung disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are currently no recommended guidelines for management of these patients. This is probably due to the rarity of this condition, as well as clinical trials with only a small number of cases. There are published case report and case series along with the two main trials, viz. Scleroderma Lung Study and the Fibrosing Alveolitis Study, but again, there is no consensus on treatment protocols. In this report, we present a case of aggressive interstitial lung disease in a patient with SSc, which improved dramatically on treatment with intra-venous cyclophosphamide and high dose prednisolone therapy.

  19. Biomorphic SiC from lotus root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Donghua Wang; Guoqiang Jin; Yingyong Wang; Xiangyun


    Biomorphic silicon carbide (bioSiC) with macro-channels and alveolate micropores was prepared by spon-taneous infiltration of melted silicon into a carbon template derived from lotus root at 1600 ℃. The carbon template and purified bioSiC samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, camera and mercury intrusion. The results suggest that the bioSiC mainly consists of β-SiC and perfectly replicates the shape and microstructure of the carbon template. The bioSiC has a mean pore diameter of 91.1 μm and a porosity of 50.1%, both similar to those of the carbon template, 92.3 μm and 50.7%, respectively.

  20. Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean. (United States)

    Guidi, Lionel; Chaffron, Samuel; Bittner, Lucie; Eveillard, Damien; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Roux, Simon; Darzi, Youssef; Audic, Stephane; Berline, Léo; Brum, Jennifer R; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Espinoza, Julio Cesar Ignacio; Malviya, Shruti; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Dimier, Céline; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Poulain, Julie; Searson, Sarah; Stemmann, Lars; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Speich, Sabrina; Follows, Mick; Karp-Boss, Lee; Boss, Emmanuel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; de Vargas, Colomban; Iudicone, Daniele; Sullivan, Matthew B; Raes, Jeroen; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Gorsky, Gabriel


    The biological carbon pump is the process by which CO2 is transformed to organic carbon via photosynthesis, exported through sinking particles, and finally sequestered in the deep ocean. While the intensity of the pump correlates with plankton community composition, the underlying ecosystem structure driving the process remains largely uncharacterized. Here we use environmental and metagenomic data gathered during the Tara Oceans expedition to improve our understanding of carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean. We show that specific plankton communities, from the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum, correlate with carbon export at 150 m and highlight unexpected taxa such as Radiolaria and alveolate parasites, as well as Synechococcus and their phages, as lineages most strongly associated with carbon export in the subtropical, nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic ocean. Additionally, we show that the relative abundance of a few bacterial and viral genes can predict a significant fraction of the variability in carbon export in these regions.

  1. [Near-drowning in an adult: favorable course after a 20-minute submersion]. (United States)

    Genoni, L; Domenighetti, G


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful in a healthy 29-year-old woman who had been submerged for 20 minutes in water at 10 degrees C. The evolution was characterized by the development of a multifactorial ARDS (secondary drowning) and sepsis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and Acinetobacter anitratum. Fibrosing alveolitis caused a restrictive syndrome with severe mechanical impairment and transitory therapy-resistant hypoxemia. It is suggested that prolonged submersion in cold water is also a treatable and completely reversible condition in adults. In our patient without neurological sequelae the pulmonary function studies after 3 months show complete recovery from the mechanical impairment. After a follow-up period of 11 months only mild abnormalities of gas exchange persist.

  2. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/ (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  3. [Paraquat poisoning: clinical and anatomopathologic aspects in 3 cases]. (United States)

    Pazos, M R; Reig, R; Sanz, P; Nogue, S; Boix, D; Palomar, M; Tenorio, L; Corbella, J


    3 cases of suicide due to ingestion of 150, 200 and 4 gr. of paraquat, respectively, are presented. Two of them were brothers and agricultural industrialists, the other one was a farmer. The first two cases died 16 and 10 hours after intake. The farmer died 21 days after ingestion. All of them had progressive hypoxemia and renal failure the two brothers had heart conduction system glycemia (23 mg/dl) a few hours after ingestion. The postmortem study showed edema, hemorrhage and congestion of the lungs, alveolitis, fibrosis and lobar atelectasia; renal tubular necrosis adrenal necrosis; colestasia; hepatic steatosis focal miocarditis. The clinical evolution, particularly short in the first two patients, is commented on, as well as the post-mortem findings, comparing them with those described in the literature. Finally, due to the high toxicity of this herbicide, we insist in prompt transport to herbicide, we insist in prompt transport to the hospital in order to apply early treatment.

  4. Experimental investigation of particle deposition mechanisms in the lung acinus using microfluidic models. (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Mulligan, Molly; Dubowski, Yael; Sznitman, Josue; Sznitman Lab-department of Biomedical Engineering Team; Dubowski Lab-faculty of Civil; Environmental Engineering Team


    In order to experimentally investigate particle deposition mechanisms in the deep alveolated regions of the lungs, we have developed a novel microfluidic device mimicking breathing acinar flow conditions directly at the physiological scale. The model features an anatomically-inspired acinar geometry with five dichotomously branching airway generations lined with periodically expanding and contracting alveoli. Deposition patterns of airborne polystyrene microspheres (spanning 0.1 μm to 2 μm in diameter) inside the airway tree network compare well with CFD simulations and reveal the roles of gravity and Brownian motion on particle deposition sites. Furthermore, measured trajectories of incense particles (0.1-1 μm) inside the breathing device show a critical role for Brownian diffusion in determining the fate of inhaled sub-micron particles by enabling particles to cross from the acinar ducts into alveolar cavities, especially during the short time lag between inhalation and exhalation phases.

  5. [A comparative study of the effectiveness of the analgesic effect of electropuncture stimulation and nonnarcotic analgesics in therapy patients in an emergency dental care office]. (United States)

    Moroz, B T; Kalinin, V I; Emel'ianova, M V; Rozin, I Ia; Trebich, I Ia


    Analysis of patients' subjective sensations, of rheography and electro-odontometry data has lead the authors to a conclusion that the analgesic effect of rengasil was higher than that of ibuprofen and that rengasil combination with electropuncture was still more effective. The analgesic effect was the most marked in alveolitis and periodontitis, less so in inflammations of the pulp, and no effect could be achieved in acute purulent pulpitis. The authors suppose that pain syndrome alleviation after electropuncture stimulation and after administration of anti-inflammatory drugs is explained mainly by changed hemodynamics at the site of inflammation, this resulting in reduction of the edema and in diminished effects of biochemical substances released in the course of inflammation.

  6. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Life Cycle of Vitrella brassicaformis n. sp., n. gen., a Novel Chromerid from the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Oborník, Miroslav


    Chromerida are photoautotrophic alveolates so far only isolated from corals in Australia. It has been shown that these secondary plastid-containing algae are closely related to apicomplexan parasites and share various morphological and molecular characters with both Apicomplexa and Dinophyta. So far, the only known representative of the phylum was Chromera velia. Here we provide a formal description of another chromerid, Vitrella brassicaformis gen. et sp. nov., complemented with a detailed study on its ultrastructure, allowing insight into its life cycle. The novel alga differs significantly from the related chromerid C. velia in life cycle, morphology as well as the plastid genome. Analysis of photosynthetic pigments on the other hand demonstrate that both chromerids lack chlorophyll c, the hallmark of phototrophic chromalveolates. Based on the relatively high divergence between C. velia and V. brassicaformis, we propose their classification into distinct families Chromeraceae and Vitrellaceae. Moreover, we predict a hidden and unexplored diversity of the chromerid algae. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Therapeutic options for systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akerkar Shashank


    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a uncommon connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular damage, immune cell activation and fibrogenesis. Each of these components may respond to different therapies. Therefore, a combination strategy treating all three processes is more likely to control the disease than single agent therapy. Clinical trials have gone a long way towards defining the therapy of scleroderma and many drugs previously used for scleroderma have been critically assessed. Angiotensin blockade is effective in treating as well as preventing scleroderma renal crisis. The 9-year cumulative survival has improved from 38% to 68% after the introduction of angiotensin blockade. There is definitive evidence supporting the use of cyclophosphamide in systemic sclerosis associated alveolitis. Newer molecules aimed at various cytokines are being tried. The therapy for systemic sclerosis is far from perfect at present. But, individualization of the treatment with respect to stage and subset of disease as well as organ involvement can eventually result in rational, effective management.

  8. The possibilities of computer tomography in paecilomycosis of lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalom Ashurov


    Full Text Available We have analyzed computed tomography (CT results of chest in 56 patients with lung injures caused by paecilomycosis fungus at the age from 17 to 59 years. In our investigations, the perverted lung pattern due to pathology of interstitial tissue was observed in 52 (93% patients of 56 (with chronic bronchitis - 100%, exogenous-allergic alveolitis - 93%, recurrent pneumonia - 100% and with bronchial asthma - 80%. Analysis showed that CT provides wide opportunities in visualization of all spectrum of symptoms in lung tissue injury and could allow to increase the accuracy of determining the character and degree of injury, and also it could allow to determine localization and spreading of the pathological process.

  9. 外源性过敏性肺泡炎1例多次误诊原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 外源性过敏性肺泡炎(Extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA),也称过敏性肺炎(Hypersensitivity pneumonitis),是易感者反复吸入多种具有抗原性的有机粉尘及低分子化学物质所引起的一组临床综合征[1],病变主要累及两肺远端的细支气管、肺泡及肺间质,临床上少见.本文报道1例接触鸽子抗原发生EAA的患者,并分析其多次误诊的原因.

  10. 过敏性肺炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉军; 蔡映云


    @@ 过敏性肺炎(hypersensitivity pneumonitis , HP)又称外源性变态反应性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis , EAA ) ,是易感者反复吸入环境中的变应原物质后引起的一种肺实质的非特异性炎症,该炎症主要累及肺泡壁、末端气道和肺间质.HP的病因常与特殊职业或环境暴露有关,故被命名为农民肺、饲鸽者肺、蘑菇工肺、化工厂工人肺等.

  11. P67-phox (NCF2 lacking exons 11 and 12 is functionally active and leads to an extremely late diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Roesler

    Full Text Available Two brothers in their fifties presented with a medical history of suspected fungal allergy, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, alveolitis, and invasive aspergillosis and pulmonary fistula, respectively. Eventually, after a delay of 50 years, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD was diagnosed in the index patient. We found a new splice mutation in the NCF2 (p67-phox gene, c.1000 + 2T → G, that led to several splice products one of which lacked exons 11 and 12. This deletion was in frame and allowed for remarkable residual NADPH oxidase activity as determined by transduction experiments using a retroviral vector. We conclude that p67-phox which lacks the 34 amino acids encoded by the two exons can still exert considerable functional activity. This activity can partially explain the long-term survival of the patients without adequate diagnosis and treatment, but could not prevent progressing lung damage.

  12. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in garden waste (compost) collectors--occupational implications. (United States)

    Poole, C J M; Wong, M


    The separation of rotting garden material from general domestic waste and its collection for processing in industrial composting sites is a relatively new industry in the UK. Two cases of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and the results of health surveillance are described in a team of 28 garden waste (compost) collectors. A few cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Aspergillus fumigatus have previously been reported in compost workers. In the absence of any guidance from research and to prevent similar cases of a potentially serious illness, we advise that new starters to the job of collecting or processing compost are screened for asthma and aspergillus sensitivity, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and immunodeficiency if their exposure to high levels of Aspergillus sp cannot be controlled. Annual health surveillance for these workers is also recommended.

  13. Development and X-ray morphology of amiodarone pneumopathy. Die Entwicklung und Roentgenmorphologie der Amiodaronpneumopathie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmann, P. (Kreiskrankenhaus Lahr (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Inst.); Fleischmann, D. (Kreiskrankenhaus Lahr (Germany, F.R.). Kardiologische Klinik); Baumeister, L. (Sankt-Josefs-Krankenhaus, Offenburg am Main (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Abt.)


    Besides general extracardiac physical side effects, the antiarrhythmic amiodarone hydrochloride gives rise to morphologically manifest organ changes. Pneumopathy has been reported in up to 8% of the patients treated with this preparation. Radiologically and histologically, the clinical picture can resemble that of exogenous allergic alveolitis. When the course is protracted there is interstitial fibrotic degeneration of the pulmonary parenchyma with a corresponding morphological correlate in the X-ray. The extent to which the changes observed result from dose-dependent toxicity of amiodarone has not been completely elucidated even now, since pulmonary changes suggestive of an immune process can occur even at low doses. When there is reason suspect the presence of amiodarone pneumopathy, the preparation should be discontinued. Radiological and clinical findings generally regress with cortisone treatment. (orig.).

  14. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report (United States)

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes


    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  15. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA


    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  16. Cell populations recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Gosselin, B.; Aerts, C.


    Studying the cellular products obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage in 81 patients, 77 coal-miners and 4 other subjects exposed to silicotic risks of various origin, the authors could demonstrate the interest of this new method of exploring the peripheral lung tissues. In 57 cases of usual pneumoconiosis and controls matched for the smoking habits, the repartition of the different cellular types was quite similar. On the contrary, the authors observed an increase of the lymphocytes in three cases of accelerated elution of the pneumoconiosis. Moreover various modifications were noticed in cases with morbid associations as conectivitis, sarcoiedosis, allergic alveolitis, and primitive diffuse interstitial fibrosis as well. At the moment they were collected, the alveolar macrophages of the subjects to dust showed the same properties of vitality and adherence capacity as the controls. After 24 hours of survival their vitality and bacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus was clearly diminished.

  17. Health hazards of municipal-waste disposal. Microbiological and medical knowledge available for primary and secondary preventive action to avoid health hazards during disposal and recycling of municipal wastes, especially biowastes. Papers. Gesundheitsrisiken bei der Entsorgung kommunaler Abfaelle. Mikrobiologische und medizinische Grundlagen der Primaer- und Sekundaerpraevention von Gesundheitsstoerungen bei der Sammlung und Aufbereitung von kommunalen Abfaellen - insbesondere Bioabfaellen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, K. (ed.); Verkoyen, C. (ed.)


    Little is known so far about the concentrations of germs and bacteria released to the air during waste disposal and recycling processes and about microorganisms which develop during biowaste composting. Some of these typical germs are assumed to be infectious and pathogenic, and thermophilic actinomyces which are known to cause exogenous allergic alveolitis must be expected. The introduction of suitable preventive measures requires an exact knowledge of the exposure to infection and of the health hazards involved. The preliminary results of a pilot project within the framework of the BMFT work and technology project are introduced, i.e. assessment of the exposure to microorganisms by the types and concentrations which occur in typical waste disposal and recycling workplaces, methodical evaluation of occupational exposure, development of proposals for occupational safety and health, and development of immunological methods for the early detection of thermophilic actinomyces sensitization. (vhe)

  18. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated to treatment with natalizumab (United States)

    Curto, Elena; Munteis-Olivas, Elvira; Balcells, Eva; Domínguez-Álvarez, M. Marisol


    Natalizumab (Tysabri®) is a leukocytes chemotaxis inhibitor that decreases the leukocytes passage through the hematoencephalic barrier and it is currently used in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We present a patient with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis diagnosed with MS who started treatment with natalizumab. She began to show mild asthmatic symptoms until she needed admission to the hospital due to respiratory insufficiency. Blood tests showed peripheral eosinophilia and the thoracic computed tomography scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltrates. The bronchoscopy with the bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in eosinophilic alveolitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection, connective tissue disease, or vasculitis were observed. After discontinuation of natalizumab, the patient improved without other treatments. As MS is a prevalent disease and the use of natalizumab is increasing, we consider important to point out that this drug can be associated with pulmonary eosinophilia, especially in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma. PMID:27512514

  19. Health effects of air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.

    The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.

  20. 过敏性肺炎:饲鸽者肺的病因、临床特征与发病机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娟; 成建华


    过敏性肺炎(Hypersensitivity Pneumonifis,HP)又称外源性变应性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis)。它包括了一组由于机体反应性增高和反复吸入某种抗原所致的远端支气管和肺泡发生的慢性肉芽肿样炎症,这些抗原包括哺乳类和鸟类的蛋白、真菌、嗜热性细菌以及某些低分子量化合物等…。以往以职业性暴露所致的发病较为多见,近年来暴露于居住环境的宠物鸟(如鸽子和长尾小鹦鹉)、污染的空气

  1. Badly maintained air conditioning installations (Part 2); Schlecht gewartete Klimaanlagen (Teil 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefliger, P. E.; Thies, U.


    This article is the second of a series of four articles that discuss hygiene problems that often occur in ventilation and air-conditioning installations. They describe the problems encountered in detail, provide the reader with appropriate know-how on hygiene-related topics and present an overview of the regulations appertaining to the problems along with inspection and analysis methods. In particular, this second article examines the so-called 'Sick Building Syndrome', its technical, chemical, biological and psychosocial causes and mentions the results of studies made in this area. Typical illnesses such as allergic alveolitis and legionnaires illness are discussed. Definitions of hygiene and comfort with respect to ventilation and air-conditioning installations are presented and problem areas such as filters, ducting, humidifiers and cooling are discussed. The article is rounded off - as are all articles of this series - with a comprehensive literature list.

  2. Effects of Silica on Serum Phospholipid,Lipid Peroxide and Morphological Characteristics of Rat Lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The effects of instilled silica have been studied on the serum-phospholipid(PL).lipid peroxide(LPO)and histopathology of rat lung up to 140 days from the first day of instillation.Silica induced relatively higher serum-PL throunghout the experiment.The level of LPO also increased appreciably.They presented positive linear correlation.The early lesion was acute alveolitis with silica particles.These lesions became silicotic nodules on the 30th day,which then were enlargen gradually and fused by fibrosis.Alveolar macrophages(AM)were activated and surface structure was damaged.These results indicate that instilled silica can induce lipid peroxidation of cell membrane and selective accumulation of lung PL.

  3. The bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase of Tetrahymena thermophila provides a tool for molecular and biotechnology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiedtke Arno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR and thymidylate synthase (TS are crucial enzymes in DNA synthesis. In alveolata both enzymes are expressed as one bifunctional enzyme. Results Loss of this essential enzyme activities after successful allelic assortment of knock out alleles yields an auxotrophic marker in ciliates. Here the cloning, characterisation and functional analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila's DHFR-TS is presented. A first aspect of the presented work relates to destruction of DHFR-TS enzyme function in an alveolate thereby causing an auxotrophy for thymidine. A second aspect is to knock in an expression cassette encoding for a foreign gene with subsequent expression of the target protein. Conclusion This system avoids the use of antibiotics or other drugs and therefore is of high interest for biotechnological applications.


    Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia; Delwiche, Charles F


    Four eukaryotic lineages, namely, haptophytes, alveolates, cryptophytes, and heterokonts, contain in most cases photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic members-the photosynthetic ones with secondary plastids with chl c as the main photosynthetic pigment. These four photosynthetic lineages were grouped together on the basis of their pigmentation and called chromalveolates, which is usually understood to imply loss of plastids in the nonphotosynthetic members. Despite the ecological and economic importance of this group of organisms, the phylogenetic relationships among these algae are only partially understood, and the so-called chromalveolate hypothesis is very controversial. This review evaluates the evidence for and against this grouping and summarizes the present understanding of chromalveolate evolution. We also describe a testable hypothesis that is intended to accommodate current knowledge based on plastid and nuclear genomic data, discuss the implications of this model, and comment on areas that require further examination.

  5. [Changes in the intensity of ultrasound echography in the fetal lung in the last trimester as a possible indication of lung maturity]. (United States)

    Fendel, H; Fendel, M


    The maturation of the fetal lungs that is to say the adequate production of surfactant in the fetal alveoles as it is well known, reaches to its end about the week of gestation. That can be proved by the measurement of the phospholipides in the amniotic fluid L/S ratio (Gluck). In order to find signs of lung maturity by ultrasound we studied fetuses between 25-42th week of gestation. Using an oblique coronal longitudinal scan through the fetal thorax and abdomen the right hemidiaphragm and subjacent liver could be seen. With increasing fetal maturity ( week of gestation) lung reflectivity became greater than liver reflectivity at equivalent parts of the ultrasonic beam. After the 36th week of gestation, lung reflectivity was nearly always greater than liver reflectivity as possible sign of fetal lung maturity.

  6. Steroids and/or Cytotoxic Agents Should Be Used Early in the Management of Patients with IPF -- The Pro Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Sharma


    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise a heterogenous group of acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Katzenstein and Myers (1 classified these disorders according to several pathologically distinct categories: usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP, desquamative interstitial pneumonitis ? respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, acute interstitial pneumonitis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (1. These disorders present with similar clinical features of shortness of breath, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and histologically, a varying combination of inflammation and fibrosis. However, the natural history and response to therapy differs substantially, as some categories have more favourable prognoses than others (2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or fibrosing alveolitis is the clinical terminology for a specific interstitial pneumonia for which the pathological process is UIP. A disorder of unknown etiology, IPF is the most common and most lethal of all interstitial pneumonias.

  7. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease caused by exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in bathtub water at home: a case report]. (United States)

    Kanno, Kiyoshi; Akai, Masaya; Kato, Tomohiro; Tada, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kizuku; Shiozaki, Kouhei; Hase, Mitsuo


    We report here a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease in an adult, likely due to exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in his bathtub water at home. A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital with exertional dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral, diffuse, centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed marked lymphocytosis. Transbronchial biopsy showed epithelioid cell granulomas and lymphocyte alveolitis. Cultures of the patient's sputum and bathtub water yielded MAC. Variable-number tandem repeat analysis of the MAC strains in the sputum and bathtub water samples showed that the strains were genetically identical. The clinical condition of the patient improved at home under chemotherapy by avoiding the use of the bathtub.

  8. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent]. (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W


    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  9. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein


    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  10. Scintigraphic studies of inflammation in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, B.R. (Albany Medical College, New York (USA))


    67Ga lung scintigraphy is an established means to assess alveolar inflammation in a wide variety of diffuse lung diseases. It can be used to monitor the extent and activity of the alveolitis during the course of the disease and as a follow-up evaluation to therapy. Although the mechanism of 67Ga localization is not established firmly, the isotope appears to act as a tracer for disturbed protein and cellular fluxes within the interstitium and alveolar spaces. The radiolabeled aerosol study may also be applied to the study of these fluxes as a reflection of inflammation and injury. Although Tc-DTPA clearance studies are highly sensitive to lung injury, they may be too nonspecific to separate lung injury from other physiologic processes effectively. 117 references.

  11. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel


    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  12. Artesunate modulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors as well as collagen-IV to attenuate pulmonary fibrosis in rats. (United States)

    Wang, Y; Huang, G; Mo, B; Wang, C


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of artesunate on extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and the expression of collagen-IV, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) to understand the pharmacological role of artesunate in pulmonary fibrosis. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups that were administered saline alone, bleomycin (BLM) alone, BLM + artesunate, or artesunate alone for 28 days. Lung tissues from 10 rats in each group were used to obtain lung fibroblast (LF) primary cells, and the rest were used to analyze protein expression. The mRNA expression of collagen-IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in lung fibroblasts was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of collagen-IV, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 protein in lung tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Artesunate treatment alleviated alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in rats, as indicated by a decreased lung coefficient and improvement of lung tissue morphology. Artesunate treatment also led to decreased collagen-IV protein levels, which might be a result of its downregulated expression and increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein and mRNA levels. Increased TIMP-1 and TIMP- 2 protein and mRNA levels were detected after artesunate treatment in lung tissues and primary lung fibroblast cells and may contribute to enhanced activity of MMP-2 and -9. These findings suggested that artesunate attenuates alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating expression of collagen-IV, TIMP-1 and 2, as well as MMP-2 and -9, to reduce ECM accumulation.

  13. Diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in the deep tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Morgan-Smith, Danielle; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Bochdansky, Alexander B.


    Employing a combination of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and fluorescein isothiocyanate (DAPI-FITC) staining and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we distinguished a variety of taxonomic and morphological types of eukaryotic microbes in the central and deep water masses of the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Samples were taken along a transect across the tropical Atlantic, along the equatorial upwelling and into the West-African upwelling region. Samples were collected as deep as 7000 m in the Romanche Fracture Zone within the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Approximately 50-70% of FISH-identified eukaryotes in deep water masses belong to one of seven groups: kinetoplastids, labyrinthulomycetes, fungi, diplonemids, group II alveolates, MAST 4 (stramenopiles), and an unidentified organism with a peculiar nuclear morphology. A smaller percentage of total eukaryotes was identified in the Central Water, especially in the oxygen minimum zone, than in deep water masses. CARD-FISH probes designed to identify broad taxonomic groups revealed kinetoplastids and fungi were more abundant than noted in previous studies employing 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Group II alveolates, in contrast, were much less prevalent than previously reported. On a second survey, eukaryotic microbes were enumerated in the deep-sea basins below the North Atlantic subtropical gyre including the Vema Fracture Zone, which is another prominent trench in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The abundance of eukaryotes and chlorophyll concentrations were significantly different between the two cruises, which covered very different hydrographic regimes with associated high and low levels of primary production, respectively.

  14. Diversity and vertical distribution of microbial eukaryotes in the snow, sea ice and seawater near the North Pole at the end of the polar night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eBachy


    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the microorganisms living in the high Arctic Ocean is still rudimentary compared to other oceans mostly because of logistical challenges imposed by its inhospitable climate and the presence of a multi-year ice cap. We have used 18S rRNA gene libraries to study the diversity of microbial eukaryotes in the upper part of the water column (0-170 m depth, the sea ice (0-1.5 m depth and the overlying snow from samples collected in the vicinity of the North Pole (N88°35', E015°59 at the very end of the long polar night. We detected very diverse eukaryotes belonging to Alveolata, Fungi, Amoebozoa, Viridiplantae, Metazoa, Rhizaria, Heterokonta and Telonemia. Different alveolates (dinoflagellates and Marine Alveolate Groups I and II species were the most abundant and diverse in gene libraries from water and sea ice, representing 80% of the total number of clones and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs. Only contaminants and/or species from continental ecosystems were detected in snow, suggesting wind- and animal- or human-mediated cosmopolitan dispersal of some taxa. By contrast, sea ice and seawater samples harbored a larger and more similar inter-sample protist diversity as compared with snow. The North Pole was found to harbor distinctive eukaryotic communities along the vertical gradient with an unparalleled diversity of core dinoflagellates, largely dominant in libraries from the water column, as compared to other oceanic locations. In contrast, phototrophic organisms typical of Arctic sea ice and plankton, such as diatoms and prasinophytes, were very rare in our samples. This was most likely due to a decrease of their populations after several months of polar night darkness and to the presence of rich populations of diverse grazers. Whereas strict phototrophs were scarce, we identified a variety of likely mixotrophic taxa, which supports the idea that mixotrophy may be important for the survival of diverse protists through the

  15. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  16. [Biological effect of wood dust]. (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A


    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  17. Atrofik maksillanın iliak greft kullanılarak gerçekleştirilen kemik augmentasyonunu takiben uygulanan implant tedavisi: Olgu sunumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatlı


    Full Text Available

    Alveolar bone resorption which occurs as a result of teeth extraction or periodontal disease causes functional and esthetic problems. In case of severe jaw-bone atrophy, bone augmentation procedures are becoming necessary prior to implant placement. During the planning of such cases, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT examination provides detailed qualitative and quantitative data about maxillofacial bones with reduced radiation exposure. This article illustrated the implant treatment of a patient with severe atrophic maxilla following bone augmentation using iliac graft in the light of CBCT examination with 2-year of follow-up.

    Keywords: Alveolar atrophy, alveolar augmentation, CBCT, iliak graft, implant treatment.



    Diş çekimi veya periodontal harabiyet sonucu oluşan alveoler kemik rezorpsiyonu, estetik ve fonksiyonel problemlere neden olur. İleri düzeyde çene kemiği atrofisi gözlenen durumda implant tedavisi öncesinde augmentasyon işlemleri kaçınılmaz olmaktadır. Bu tür olguların planlanmasında konik hüzmeli bilgisayarlı tomografi incelemesi çene-yüz kemikleri hakkında detaylı kalitatif ve kantitatif verileri, düşük radyasyon dozu eşliğinde sağlamaktadır. Bu makalede, maksillada ileri düzeyde alveoler kemik atrofisi bulunan bir hastada, CBCT incelemesi ışığında, iliak greft kullanılarak yapılan kemik augmentasyon işlemleri ve sonrasında uygulanan implant tedavisi 2 yıllık takibi eşliğinde sunulmuştur.

  18. Presence of vibrios in seawater and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea). (United States)

    Cavallo, Rosa Anna; Stabili, Loredana


    During the spring-summer period, vibrios were detected in water and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in 30 sampling sites located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy). In order to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution of the investigated area, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli densities were also determined. Vibrio alginolyticus constituted the predominant component of the total culturable vibrios. Some Vibrio species such as V. mediterranei, V. parahaemolyticus, V. diazotrophicus, V. nereis, and V. splendidus were present in water as well as in mussel samples; selective retention in mussels, however, was demonstrated for other vibrios (V. vulnificus, V. cincinnatiensis, V. orientalis, V. anguillarum, V. marinus, V. hollisae). The isolation of some potential pathogenic vibrio species shows the importance of Vibrio research to estimate water quality and to avoid transmission of infection to man and to other marine organisms.

  19. Spatial patterns and trends in abundance of larval sandeels in the North Sea: 1950–2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynam, Christopher P.; Halliday, Nicholas C.; Höffle, Hannes


    with catches by dedicated larval samplers (Gulf and bongo nets) during ICES coordinated surveys in 2004 and 2009. ICES data are also used to explore environmental influences on sandeel distributions. Temporally, CPR data correlate with larval data from plankton surveys off Stonehaven (1999–2005), with sandeel...... 0-group trawl data at the east Fair Isle ground (since 1984), and with recruitment data (since 1983) for the Dogger Banks stock assessment area. Therefore, CPR data may provide an early recruit index of relative abundance for the Dogger Banks assessment area, where the majority of the commercial...... catch of A. marinus is taken, and the Wee Bankie area that is particularly important for seabird foraging. While warm conditions may stimulate the production of sandeel larvae, their natural mortality is typically greater, in the Dogger Banks and Wadden Sea areas, when the larvae are hatched in warm...

  20. Structural changes in a marine podovirus associated with release of its genome into Prochlorococcus. (United States)

    Liu, Xiangan; Zhang, Qinfen; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Baker, Matthew L; Sullivan, Matthew B; Fu, Caroline; Dougherty, Matthew T; Schmid, Michael F; Osburne, Marcia S; Chisholm, Sallie W; Chiu, Wah


    Podovirus P-SSP7 infects Prochlorococcus marinus, the most abundant oceanic photosynthetic microorganism. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy yields icosahedral and asymmetrical structures of infectious P-SSP7 with 4.6-A and 9-A resolution, respectively. The asymmetric reconstruction reveals how symmetry mismatches are accommodated among five of the gene products at the portal vertex. Reconstructions of infectious and empty particles show a conformational change of the 'valve' density in the nozzle, an orientation difference in the tail fibers, a disordering of the C terminus of the portal protein and the disappearance of the core proteins. In addition, cryo-electron tomography of P-SSP7 infecting Prochlorococcus showed the same tail-fiber conformation as that in empty particles. Our observations suggest a mechanism whereby, upon binding to the host cell, the tail fibers induce a cascade of structural alterations of the portal vertex complex that triggers DNA release.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04327-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1586.rev CAAA Petromyzon marinus Petromyzon ... 48 0.50 1 ( FD258846 ) CBZF8233.g1 CBZF: Normalized blue catfish... cDNA li... 48 0.50 1 ( FD258845 ) CBZF8233.b1 CBZF: Normalized blue catfish cDNA li... 48 0.50 1 ( FD25...2183 ) CBZF4307.g1 CBZF: Normalized blue catfish cDNA li... 48 0.50 1 ( FD252182 ...) CBZF4307.b1 CBZF: Normalized blue catfish cDNA li... 48 0.50 1 ( FD241544 ) CBZF29080.b1 CBZF: Normalized blue catfish... cDNA l... 48 0.50 1 ( FD229210 ) CBZF21193.g1 CBZF: Normalized blue catfish cDNA l... 48 0.50 1

  2. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential. (United States)

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Weaver, Scott C; Wong, Gerard C L


    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored.

  3. Diversity and phylogeny of the ectoine biosynthesis genes in aerobic, moderately halophilic methylotrophic bacteria. (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina; Lidstrom, Mary; Trotsenko, Yuri A


    The genes of ectoine biosynthesis pathway were identified in six species of aerobic, slightly halophilic bacteria utilizing methane, methanol or methylamine. Two types of ectoine gene cluster organization were revealed in the methylotrophs. The gene cluster ectABC coding for diaminobutyric acid (DABA) acetyltransferase (EctA), DABA aminotransferase (EctB) and ectoine synthase (EctC) was found in methanotrophs Methylobacter marinus 7C and Methylomicrobium kenyense AMO1(T). In methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum ML1, methanol-utilizers Methylophaga thalassica 33146(T) , Methylophaga alcalica M8 and methylamine-utilizer Methylarcula marina h1(T), the genes forming the ectABC-ask operon are preceded by ectR, encoding a putative transcriptional regulatory protein EctR. Phylogenetic relationships of the Ect proteins do not correlate with phylogenetic affiliation of the strains, thus implying that the ability of methylotrophs to produce ectoine is most likely the result of a horizontal transfer event.

  4. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott; O’Connor, Lisa M.; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler


    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies.

  5. Visualization of Iron-Binding Micelles in Acidic Recombinant Biomineralization Protein, MamC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kashyap


    Full Text Available Biological macromolecules are utilized in low-temperature synthetic methods to exert precise control over nanoparticle nucleation and placement. They enable low-temperature formation of a variety of functional nanostructured materials with properties often not achieved via conventional synthetic techniques. Here we report on the in situ visualization of a novel acidic bacterial recombinant protein, MamC, commonly present in the magnetosome membrane of several magnetotactic bacteria, including Magnetococcus marinus, strain MC-1. Our findings provide an insight into the self-assembly of MamC and point to formation of the extended protein surface, which is assumed to play an important role in the formation of biotemplated inorganic nanoparticles. The self-organization of MamC is compared to the behavior of another acidic recombinant iron-binding protein, Mms6.

  6. Seabirds maintain offspring provisioning rate despite fluctuations in prey abundance: A multi-species functional response for guillemots in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, Sarah


    1. Seabirds that consume more than one prey type may adjust their foraging to maintain provisioning rates for their chicks. How energetically effective are these strategies, and what are the implications for the management of seabirds and their marine habitat? 2. A multi-species functional response....... 3. We used annual time-series data on chick provisioning for the common guillemot Uria aalge together with abundance indices for its two main prey (lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus and sprat Sprattus sprattus) to parameterize a multi-species functional response for parents provisioning chicks...... their parents despite fluctuating prey abundances, conferring some resilience in the face of environmental variation. The parameterized multi-species functional response model can be used to estimate levels of severe prey shortage that compromise provisioning. It also enables us to interpret predator...

  7. Kinematics and flow fields in 3D around swimming lamprey using light field PIV (United States)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Techet, Alexandra H.


    The fully time-resolved 3D kinematics and flow field velocities around freely swimming sea lamprey are derived using 3D light field imaging PIV. Lighthill's Elongated Body Theory (EBT) predicts that swimmers with anguilliform kinematics likened to lamprey, and similarly eels, will exhibit relatively poor propulsive efficiency. However, previous experimental studies of eel locomotion utilizing 2D PIV suggest disagreement with EBT estimates of wake properties; although, the thrust force generated by such swimmers has yet to be fully resolved using 3D measurements. A light field imaging array of multiple high-speed cameras is used to perform 3D synthetic aperture PIV around ammocoete sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Fluid mechanics equations are used to determine thrust force generation, leading experimental studies closer to underpinning the physical mechanisms that enable aquatic locomotion of long, slender undulatory swimmers.

  8. Spatio-temporal dynamics of growth and survival of Lesser Sandeel early life-stages in the North Sea: Predictions from a coupled individual-based and hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Maar, Marie


    of larval and early juvenile Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea to local feeding conditions by an adapted version of a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish describing growth and survival. Prey encounter and physiological processes are described explicitly in the model...... is validated by Continuous Plankton Recorder survey time series data. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the sandeel cohorts are simulated by the integrated model framework for the period 2004-2006 and five major area divisions of suitable sandeel habitats in the North Sea. This allows obtaining insight...... into the influence of temperature variation and zooplankton availability on the growth and survival. To determine areas promising for recruitment, area divisions are compared and optimal time of hatching for higher survival to recruitment due to match-mismatch with prey is determined by comparing different hatching...

  9. Growth and survival of larval and early juvenile lesser sandeel in patchy prey field in the North Sea: An examination using individual-based modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Deurs, Mikael van;


    growth and survival of larvae and early juveniles of Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea are influenced by availability and patchiness of the planktonic prey by adapting and applying a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish. Input food conditions were generated...... concentrations is regarded important for survival. Intense aggregations of zooplankton in near-surface waters provide these conditions for larval fish. Simulation studies by individual-based modeling can help understanding of the mechanisms for survival during early life-stages. In this study, we examined how...... by modeling copepod size spectra dynamics and patchiness based on particle count transects and Continuous Plankton Recorder time series data. The study analyzes the effects of larval hatching time, presence of zooplankton patchiness and within patch abundance on growth and survival of sandeel early life...

  10. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott; O’Connor, Lisa M.; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler


    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies. PMID:27341485

  11. A portable trap with electric lead catches up to 75% of an invasive fish species (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Miehls, Scott M.; O'Connor, Lisa M; Bravener, Gale; Barber, Jessica; Thompson, Henry T.; Tix, John A.; Bruning, Tyler


    A novel system combining a trap and pulsed direct current electricity was able to catch up to 75% of tagged invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in free-flowing streams. Non-target mortality was rare and impacts to non-target migration were minimal; likely because pulsed direct current only needed to be activated at night (7 hours of each day). The system was completely portable and the annual cost of the trapping system was low ($4,800 U.S. dollars). Use of the technology is poised to substantially advance integrated control of sea lamprey, which threaten a fishery valued at 7 billion U.S. dollars annually, and help restore sea lamprey populations in Europe where they are native, but imperiled. The system may be broadly applicable to controlling invasive fishes and restoring valued fishes worldwide, thus having far reaching effects on ecosystems and societies.

  12. Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, S.; Harris, M.P.


    The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus is a key prey species for many marine birds in the North Sea. This fish is currently the target of the largest single species fishery in the area, and this has led to concern about the potential impact of the fishery on seabirds. There are 2 critical issues......: does the breeding success of seabirds depend on sandeel availability and does the fishery reduce sandeel availability to a level at which avian reproductive output is affected? This paper investigates the first question in detail and briefly touches on the second by testing for correlations between...... per unit effort statistics from the Danish sandeel fishery. Breeding success in all 3 species was significantly reduced when sandeel availability to the fishery in June was low. There was also evidence that the timing of peak sandeel availability influenced reproductive output such that success...

  13. Visualization of Iron-Binding Micelles in Acidic Recombinant Biomineralization Protein, MamC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Sanjay [Ames Laboratory; Woehl, Taylor [Ames Laboratory; Valverde-Tercedor, Carmen [University of Granada; Sanchez-Quesada, Miguel [University of Granada; Lopez, Concepcion Jimenez [University of Granada; Prozorov, Tanya [Ames Laboratory


    Biological macromolecules are utilized in low-temperature synthetic methods to exert precise control over nanoparticle nucleation and placement. They enable low-temperature formation of a variety of functional nanostructured materials with properties often not achieved via conventional synthetic techniques. Here we report on the in situ visualization of a novel acidic bacterial recombinant protein, MamC, commonly present in the magnetosome membrane of several magnetotactic bacteria, including Magnetococcus marinus, strain MC-1. Our findings provide an insight into the self-assembly of MamC and point to formation of the extended protein surface, which is assumed to play an important role in the formation of biotemplated inorganic nanoparticles. The self-organization of MamC is compared to the behavior of another acidic recombinant iron-binding protein, Mms6.

  14. Phylogenetic conservation and physical mapping of members of the H6 homeobox gene family. (United States)

    Stadler, H S; Murray, J C; Leysens, N J; Goodfellow, P J; Solursh, M


    Homeobox genes represent a class of transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of embryogenesis and development. Here we report the identification of a homeobox-containing gene family that is highly conserved at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in a diverse number of species. These species encompass both vertebrate and invertebrate phylogenies, ranging from Homo sapiens to Drosophila melanogaster. In humans, at least two homeobox sequences from this family were identified representing a previously reported member of this family as well as a novel homeobox sequence that we physically mapped to the 10q25.2-q26.3 region of human Chromosome (Chr) 10. Multiple members of this family were also detected in three additional vertebrate species including Equus caballus (horse), Gallus gallus (Chicken), and Mus musculus (mouse), whereas only single members were detected in Tripneustes gratilla (sea urchin), Petromyzon marinus (lamprey), Salmo salar (salmon), Ovis aries (sheep), and D. melanogaster (fruit fly).

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15561-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19, clone RP24-309C17, co... 46 0.30 7 ( EG436166 ) AYAQM71TR pooled cDNA populations Arabidopsis tha... 34... ) CBPO12466.g1 CBPO: Normalized channel catfish cDN... 50 0.49 1 ( EG436159 ) AYAQM68TR pooled cDNA populations...436164 ) AYAQM70TR pooled cDNA populations Arabidopsis tha... 34 0.53 3 ( FD71070...4 ) CAAA1613.fwd CAAA Petromyzon marinus Petromyzon m... 32 0.54 5 ( EG436165 ) AYAQM71TF pooled cDNA populations...G936632 ) EST_ssal_evf_20537 ssalevf mixed_tissue Salmo sal... 32 0.59 3 ( EG436149 ) AYAQM68TF pooled cDNA populations

  16. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates (United States)

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis


    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  17. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson


    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  18. Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires

  19. The globin gene repertoire of lampreys: convergent evolution of hemoglobin and myoglobin in jawed and jawless vertebrates. (United States)

    Schwarze, Kim; Campbell, Kevin L; Hankeln, Thomas; Storz, Jay F; Hoffmann, Federico G; Burmester, Thorsten


    Agnathans (jawless vertebrates) occupy a key phylogenetic position for illuminating the evolution of vertebrate anatomy and physiology. Evaluation of the agnathan globin gene repertoire can thus aid efforts to reconstruct the origin and evolution of the globin genes of vertebrates, a superfamily that includes the well-known model proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the genome of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which revealed 23 intact globin genes and two hemoglobin pseudogenes. Analyses of the genome of the Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron camtschaticum) identified 18 full length and five partial globin gene sequences. The majority of the globin genes in both lamprey species correspond to the known agnathan hemoglobins. Both genomes harbor two copies of globin X, an ancient globin gene that has a broad phylogenetic distribution in the animal kingdom. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for an ortholog of neuroglobin in the lamprey genomes. Expression and phylogenetic analyses identified an ortholog of cytoglobin in the lampreys; in fact, our results indicate that cytoglobin is the only orthologous vertebrate-specific globin that has been retained in both gnathostomes and agnathans. Notably, we also found two globins that are highly expressed in the heart of P. marinus, thus representing functional myoglobins. Both genes have orthologs in L. camtschaticum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these heart-expressed globins are not orthologous to the myoglobins of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), but originated independently within the agnathans. The agnathan myoglobin and hemoglobin proteins form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of functionally analogous myoglobins and hemoglobins of gnathostomes, indicating that specialized respiratory proteins for O2 transport in the blood and O2 storage in the striated muscles evolved independently in both lineages. This dual convergence of O2-transport and O2-storage proteins in

  20. The evolution of tenascins and fibronectin. (United States)

    Adams, Josephine C; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P


    Tenascins are extracellular matrix glycoproteins that act both as integrin ligands and as modifiers of fibronectin-integrin interactions to regulate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. In tetrapods, both tenascins and fibronectin bind to integrins via RGD and LDV-type tripeptide motifs found in exposed loops in their fibronectin-type III domains. We previously showed that tenascins appeared early in the chordate lineage and are represented by single genes in extant cephalochordates and tunicates. Here we have examined the genomes of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii as well as the lampreys Petromyzon marinus and Lethenteron japonicum to learn more about the evolution of the tenascin gene family as well as the timing of the appearance of fibronectin during chordate evolution. The coelacanth has 4 tenascins that are more similar to tetrapod tenascins than are tenascins from ray-finned fishes. In contrast, only 2 tenascins were identified in the elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey L. japonicum. An RGD motif exposed to integrin binding is observed in tenascins from many, but not all, classes of chordates. Tetrapods that lack this RGD motif in tenascin-C have a similar motif in the paralog tenascin-W, suggesting the potential for some overlapping function. A predicted fibronectin with the same domain organization as the fibronectin from tetrapods is found in the sea lamprey P. marinus but not in tunicates, leading us to infer that fibronectin first appeared in vertebrates. The motifs that recognize LDV-type integrin receptors are conserved in fibronectins from a broad spectrum of vertebrates, but the RGD integrin-binding motif may have evolved in gnathostomes.

  1. Arcobacter molluscorum sp. nov., a new species isolated from shellfish. (United States)

    Figueras, Maria José; Collado, Luis; Levican, Arturo; Perez, Jessica; Solsona, Maria Josep; Yustes, Clara


    Nineteen bacteria isolates recovered from shellfish samples (mussels and oysters) showed a new and specific 16S rDNA-RFLP pattern with an Arcobacter identification method designed to recognize all species described up to 2008. These results suggested that they could belong to a new species. ERIC-PCR revealed that the 19 isolates belonged to 3 different strains. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of a representative strain (F98-3(T)) showed 97.6% similarity with the closest species Arcobacter marinus followed by Arcobacter halophilus (95.6%) and Arcobacter mytili (94.7%). The phylogenetic analysis with the16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and hsp60 genes placed the shellfish strains within the same cluster as the three species mentioned (also isolated from saline habitats) but they formed an independent phylogenetic line. The DDH results between strain F98-3(T) and A. marinus (54.8%±1.05), confirmed that it represents a new species. Several biochemical tests differentiated the shellfish isolates from all other Arcobacter species. Although the new species was different from A. mytili, they shared not only the same habitat (mussels) but also the characteristic of being so far the only Arcobacter species that are simultaneously negative for urea and indoxyl acetate hydrolysis. All results supported the classification of the shellfish strains as a new species, for which the name Arcobacter molluscorum sp. nov. with the type strain F98-3(T) is proposed (=CECT 7696(T)=LMG 25693(T)).

  2. Protozoan parasites of bivalve molluscs: literature follows culture. (United States)

    Fernández Robledo, José A; Vasta, Gerardo R; Record, Nicholas R


    Bivalve molluscs are key components of the estuarine environments as contributors to the trophic chain, and as filter -feeders, for maintaining ecosystem integrity. Further, clams, oysters, and scallops are commercially exploited around the world both as traditional local shellfisheries, and as intensive or semi-intensive farming systems. During the past decades, populations of those species deemed of environmental or commercial interest have been subject to close monitoring given the realization that these can suffer significant decline, sometimes irreversible, due to overharvesting, environmental pollution, or disease. Protozoans of the genera Perkinsus, Haplosporidium, Marteilia, and Bonamia are currently recognized as major threats for natural and farmed bivalve populations. Since their identification, however, the variable publication rates of research studies addressing these parasitic diseases do not always appear to reflect their highly significant environmental and economic impact. Here we analyzed the peer- reviewed literature since the initial description of these parasites with the goal of identifying potential milestone discoveries or achievements that may have driven the intensity of the research in subsequent years, and significantly increased publication rates. Our analysis revealed that after initial description of the parasite as the etiological agent of a given disease, there is a time lag before a maximal number of yearly publications are reached. This has already taken place for most of them and has been followed by a decrease in publication rates over the last decade (20- to 30- year lifetime in the literature). Autocorrelation analyses, however, suggested that advances in parasite purification and culture methodologies positively drive publication rates, most likely because they usually lead to novel molecular tools and resources, promoting mechanistic studies. Understanding these trends should help researchers in prioritizing research

  3. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil. (United States)

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M


    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs.

  4. 缝合与不缝合对下颌高位阻生智齿拔牙牙创的影响研究%Study on the Effect of Suturing or Not to High Mandibular Impacted Wisdom Tooth Extraction Wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱樱; 南欣荣


    目的:探讨缝合与不缝合对下颌高位阻生智齿拔牙牙创的影响。方法:回顾性分析我院2011年12月至2013年12月收治的90例下颌高位阻生智齿拔牙患者的临床资料。其中试验组45例行创面缝合,对照组45例创面不予缝合。观察两组患者3d内干槽症发生状况、牙创一期愈合情况以及牙创愈合平均时间。结果:试验组于3d内一期愈合率优于对照组(P<0.05),且牙创愈合平均时间短于对照组(P<0.05),干槽症发生率少于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:强化下颌高位阻生智齿拔牙患者牙创缝合,有助于保证结缔组织生长,促进牙创愈合。%Objective:To investigate the suture or not high mandibular impacted wisdom tooth extraction wound. Methods:Retrospectively analyzing 98 cases with high mandibular impacted wisdom tooth extraction in the hospital from December, 2011 to December, 2012. 45 cases was treated with suturing in the experimental group, and 45 cases wasn’t treated with suturing in the control group. The alveolitis, the healing condition of tooth wound and the average healing time were compared in 3d. Results:Healing rate of the experimental group is better than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the average healing time in the experimental group is shorter than that in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of alveolitis is less than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Strengthening mandibular impacted wisdom tooth extraction in patients with high wound suture, helps to ensure the connective tissue growth, and promote periodontal wound healing.

  5. Evaluation of an algorithm ascertaining cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw in the Swedish National Patient Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson M


    Full Text Available Johan Bergdahl,1 Fredrik Jarnbring,2 Vera Ehrenstein,3 Henrik Gammelager,3 Fredrik Granath,1 Helle Kieler,1 Madeleine Svensson,1 Grethe S Tell,4 Ylva Trolle Lagerros11Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Solna, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a medical condition associated with antiresorptive drugs, among others, used to treat osteoporosis and bone metastasis. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the definition of ONJ, and no ONJ-specific International Classification of Diseases-10 code exists. Therefore, register-based studies of this condition may be troublesome.Purpose: To evaluate an algorithm ascertaining ONJ cases in an attempt to facilitate future assessments of ONJ in clinical and epidemiological studies.Methods: By means of the Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register, we identified all postmenopausal female residents in Sweden from 2005 through 2009. To identify potential cases of ONJ, we employed an algorithm including the following conditions: periapical abscess with sinus, inflammatory conditions of jaws, alveolitis of jaws, idiopathic aseptic necrosis of bone, osteonecrosis due to drugs, osteonecrosis due to previous trauma, other secondary osteonecrosis, other osteonecrosis, and unspecified osteonecrosis. Women seen at departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery, with at least one of the conditions, were classified as potential cases of ONJ. Conditions in anatomic sites other than the jaw were excluded. Validation was performed through medical record review. Case confirmation was based on the ONJ definition by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  6. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

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    Venturi Maria L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  7. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.


    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among five marine Catfish species (Pisces: Ariidae from Mexico Relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies de bagres (Pisces: Ariidae de México

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    Guadalupe Tenorio-Colín


    Full Text Available The systematics of the marine catfish of the family Ariidae is controversial because at the present time the number of species and genera in the family, or their relationships, remain uncertain. Phylogenetic relationships among five representative species of marine catfish of the family Ariidae from both the Pacific and the Atlantic coasts of Mexico were assessed by the analysis of the variability in 21 alloenzymatic loci, and by the comparison of the electrophoretic patterns of whole muscle proteins. Interspecific genetic divergence levels obtained by both electrophoretic methods showed a clear separation among the genera Cathorops, Bagre and Ariopsis, as well as in the studied species of Cathorops and Ariopsis, with Bagre marinus showing a greater genetic similarity with the Ariopsis group. Finally, our results contribute to the definition of the presence of this species in the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico.La sistemática de los bagres marinos pertenecientes a la familia Ariidae es controversial, porque hasta la actualidad, no se conoce con exactitud el número de especies y géneros existentes en la familia, ni las relaciones que se establecen entre ellos. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las relaciones filogenéticas entre cinco especies representativas de bagres marinos de la familia Ariidae, de ambas costas del Pacífico y del Atlántico Mexicano. El mencionado análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el análisis de la variabilidad en 21 loci aloenzimáticos y a través de la comparación de patrones electroforéticos de proteínas totales de músculo. Los niveles de divergencia interespecífica obtenidos por ambos métodos electroforéticos mostraron una clara separación entre los géneros Cathorops, Bagre y Ariopsis, así como entre las especies estudiadas de Cathorops y Ariopsis con Bagre marinus, mostrando una mayor similitud genética con el grupo Ariopsis. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio contribuyen al establecimiento de la

  9. β-thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up

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    Messana Irene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-thymosins play roles in cytoskeleton rearrangement, angiogenesis, fibrosis and reparative process, thus suggesting a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of thymosins β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of scleroderma patients with interstitial lung disease and the relation of these factors with pulmonary functional and radiological parameters. Methods β-thymosins concentrations were determined by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Mass Spectrometry in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 46 scleroderma patients with lung involvement and of 15 controls. Results Thymosin β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 were detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients and controls. Thymosin β4 levels were significantly higher in scleroderma patients than in controls. In addition, analyzing the progression of scleroderma lung disease at one-year follow-up, we have found that higher thymosin β4 levels seem to have a protective role against lung tissue damage. Thymosin β4 sulfoxide levels were higher in the smokers and in the scleroderma patients with alveolitis. Conclusions We describe for the first time β-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease. Thymosin β4 seems to have a protective role against lung tissue damage, while its oxidation product mirrors an alveolar inflammatory status.

  10. Systemic sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure: about 12 cases. (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel


    The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.

  11. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean) (United States)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.


    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  12. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin. (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wang, Fang; Chu, Limin; Wang, Hao; Zhong, Zhiping; Liu, Zhipei; Gao, Jianyong; Duan, Hairong


    Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes) in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing 18S rRNA gene sequence reads obtained in investigated mesosaline lakes is closely related to Holozoa group (48.13%), whereas Stramenopiles (26.65%) and Alveolates (10.84%) are the next most common groups. Hypersaline lakes in the Qaidam Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%), whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50%) and Xiaochaidan (1.15%). Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper) saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  13. Genetic diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms in Lake Taihu, a large shallow subtropical lake in china. (United States)

    Chen, Meijun; Chen, Feizhou; Yu, Yang; Ji, Jian; Kong, Fanxiang


    We investigated the genetic diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms (0.8-20 microm) by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in six genetic libraries constructed from six locations in Lake Taihu, a large shallow subtropical lake in China. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and one clone representative of each RFLP pattern was partially sequenced. A total of 528 clones were clustered into 165 RFLP patterns and finally into 131 operational taxonomic unit (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each library included many unique OTUs, as well as members of distantly related phylogenetic groups. A majority of the clones were from alveolates, stramenopiles, cercozoa, cryptophytes, chlorophytes, and fungi, with members of choanoflagellida, euglenida, centroheliozoa, ancyromonadidae, ichthyosporea, and kathablepharid representing a minor fraction of the library. Six OTUs (15 clones) were not related to any known eukaryotic group. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that the differences in eukaryotic microorganism community composition of in the six regions were partially related to trophic status, sediment resuspension, and top-down regulation by metazooplankton.

  14. Study of genetic diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton in different oceanic regions by small-subunit rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. (United States)

    Díez, B; Pedrós-Alió, C; Massana, R


    Very small eukaryotic organisms (picoeukaryotes) are fundamental components of marine planktonic systems, often accounting for a significant fraction of the biomass and activity in a system. Their identity, however, has remained elusive, since the small cells lack morphological features for identification. We determined the diversity of marine picoeukaryotes by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in five genetic libraries from North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea surface waters. Picoplankton were obtained by filter size fractionation, a step that excluded most large eukaryotes and recovered most picoeukaryotes. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and at least one clone of each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was partially sequenced. In general, the phylogenetic diversity in each library was rather great, and each library included many different OTUs and members of very distantly related phylogenetic groups. Of 225 eukaryotic clones, 126 were affiliated with algal classes, especially the Prasinophyceae, the Prymnesiophyceae, the Bacillariophyceae, and the Dinophyceae. A minor fraction (27 clones) was affiliated with clearly heterotrophic organisms, such as ciliates, the chrysomonad Paraphysomonas, cercomonads, and fungi. There were two relatively abundant novel lineages, novel stramenopiles (53 clones) and novel alveolates (19 clones). These lineages are very different from any organism that has been isolated, suggesting that there are previously unknown picoeukaryotes. Prasinophytes and novel stramenopile clones were very abundant in all of the libraries analyzed. These findings underscore the importance of attempts to grow the small eukaryotic plankton in pure culture.

  15. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to lovebirds: a new cause of bird fancier's disease. (United States)

    Funke, M; Fellrath, J-M


    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunologically mediated lung disease due to the repetitive inhalation of antigens. Most new cases arise from residential exposures, notably to birds, and are thus more difficult to recognise. The present authors report a 59-yr-old male who complained of dyspnoea and cough while being treated with amiodarone. Pulmonary function tests revealed restriction and obstruction with low diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide and partial pressure of oxygen. A high-resolution computed tomography chest scan and bronchoalveolar lavage showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass attenuation and lymphocytic alveolitis, respectively. Initial diagnosis was amiodarone pulmonary toxicity, but because of a rapidly favourable evolution, this diagnosis was questioned. A careful environmental history revealed a close contact with lovebirds shortly before the onset of symptoms. Precipitins were strongly positive against lovebird droppings, but were negative against other avian antigens. The patient was diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis to lovebirds. Avoidance of lovebirds and steroid treatment led to rapid improvement. The present observation identifies a new causative agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis and highlights the importance of a thorough environmental history and of searching for precipitins against antigens directly extracted from the patient's environment. These two procedures should allow a more precise classification of some cases of pneumonitis, and thus might avoid progression of active undiagnosed hypersensitivity pneumonitis to irreversible fibrosis or emphysema.

  16. Are there characteristic alterations in lung tissue associated with Crohn's disease? (United States)

    Kayser, K; Probst, F; Gabius, H J; Müller, K M


    Two male patients aged 12 and 31 years suffered from Crohn's disease for more than six years and were treated with Cortison for more than four years. Surgical excision of parts of the terminal ileum was performed in both patients. They suffered from pulmonary symptoms as dyspnoea, shortness of breath and ventilation disturbances two years after operation. Wedge biopsies of the lungs revealed the following histomorphological findings: 1. Granulomatous interstitial lymphocyte infiltrates 2. Acute alveolitis with severe dysplasia of pneumocytes 3. Moderate interstitial fibrosis. Immunohistology performed in one case showed predominantly lambda chains expressed by lymphocytes associated with IgA and IgM. IgG was missing, furthermore kappa chains could not be detected. Macrophages contained endogenous lectins (sugar receptors) for fucose, maltose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (glcNAc). No receptors specific for mannose, lactose, and heparin could be found. Pneumocytes did not bind the neoglycoproteins but were found to express HLA-DR receptors detectable by the monoclonal antibody LN 3 in dysplastic pneumocytes only. The histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings suggest that the analyzed alterations of lung tissue are related to the underlying disease of enteritis regionalis.

  17. Importance of Physical and Physiological Parameters in Simulated Particle Transport in the Alveolar Zone of the Human Lung

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    Dogan Ciloglu


    Full Text Available The trajectory and deposition efficiency of micron-sized (1–5 µm particles, inhaled into the pulmonary system, are accurately determined with the aid of a newly developed model and modified simulation techniques. This alveolar model, which has a simple but physiologically appropriate geometry, and the utilized fluid structure interaction (FSI methods permit the precise simulation of tissue wall deformation and particle fluid interactions. The relation between tissue movement and airflow in the alveolated duct is solved by a two-way fluid structure interaction simulation technique, using ANSYS Workbench (Release 16.0, ANSYS INC., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2015. The dynamic transport of particles and their deposition are investigated as a function of aerodynamic particle size, tissue visco-elasticity, tidal breathing period, gravity orientation and particle–fluid interactions. It is found that the fluid flows and streamlines differ between the present flexible model and rigid models, and the two-way coupling particle trajectories vary relative to one-way particle coupling. In addition, the results indicate that modelling the two-way coupling particle system is important because the two-way discrete phase method (DPM approach despite its complexity provides more extensive particle interactions and is more reliable than transport results from the one-way DPM approach. The substantial difference between the results of the two approaches is likely due to particle–fluid interactions, which re-suspend the sediment particles in the airway stream and hence pass from the current generation.

  18. Large-scale phylogenomic analyses reveal that two enigmatic protist lineages, telonemia and centroheliozoa, are related to photosynthetic chromalveolates. (United States)

    Burki, Fabien; Inagaki, Yuji; Bråte, Jon; Archibald, John M; Keeling, Patrick J; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Horak, Ales; Kumar, Surendra; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pawlowski, Jan; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran


    Understanding the early evolution and diversification of eukaryotes relies on a fully resolved phylogenetic tree. In recent years, most eukaryotic diversity has been assigned to six putative supergroups, but the evolutionary origin of a few major "orphan" lineages remains elusive. Two ecologically important orphan groups are the heterotrophic Telonemia and Centroheliozoa. Telonemids have been proposed to be related to the photosynthetic cryptomonads or stramenopiles and centrohelids to haptophytes, but molecular phylogenies have failed to provide strong support for any phylogenetic hypothesis. Here, we investigate the origins of Telonema subtilis (a telonemid) and Raphidiophrys contractilis (a centrohelid) by large-scale 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA libraries and including new genomic data from two cryptomonads (Guillardia theta and Plagioselmis nannoplanctica) and a haptophyte (Imantonia rotunda). We demonstrate that 454 sequencing of cDNA libraries is a powerful and fast method of sampling a high proportion of protist genes, which can yield ample information for phylogenomic studies. Our phylogenetic analyses of 127 genes from 72 species indicate that telonemids and centrohelids are members of an emerging major group of eukaryotes also comprising cryptomonads and haptophytes. Furthermore, this group is possibly closely related to the SAR clade comprising stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria. Our results link two additional heterotrophic lineages to the predominantly photosynthetic chromalveolate supergroup, providing a new framework for interpreting the evolution of eukaryotic cell structures and the diversification of plastids.

  19. The evolution of ERMIONE in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid homeostasis: An evolutionary view from comparative cell biology. (United States)

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A


    The ER-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in maintaining mitochondrial morphology and lipid homeostasis. ERMES and MICOS are two scaffolding complexes of ERMIONE that contribute to these processes. ERMES is ancient but has been lost in several lineages including animals, plants, and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates and rhizaria). On the other hand, MICOS is ancient and has remained present in all organisms bearing mitochondrial cristae. The ERMIONE precursor evolved in the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria which had the central subunit of MICOS, Mic60. The subsequent evolution of ERMIONE and its interactors in eukaryotes reflects the integrative co-evolution of mitochondria and their hosts and the adaptive paths that some lineages have followed in their specialization to certain environments. By approaching the ERMIONE from a perspective of comparative evolutionary cell biology, we hope to shed light on not only its evolutionary history, but also how ERMIONE components may function in organisms other than S. cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  20. Usual interstitial pneumonitis UIP presenting with Wells grade 3. Can imaging methods help predict further progression of disease?; Fibrosi polmanare idiopatica con grado 3 di Wells all'esordio: possono le metodiche di diagnostica per immagini aiutare a predire la progressione ulteriore della malattia?

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    Fasano, L.; Pacilli, A. M.G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria; Zompatori, M.; Monetti, N. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Battista, G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia, Radiodiagnostica 1; Di Scioscio, V.; Sciascia, N.


    Three different grades of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be identified by HRCT pattern. Patients with predominant ground-glass opacity (grade 1) usually improve after treatment and may have a better prognosis. The subjects with a predominant reticular pattern and honeycombing (grade 3.) have irreversible fibrosis and usually do not improve after immunosuppressive therapy. Nevertheless, these patients may worsen even in the absence of HRCT features of the so-called alveolitis. The aim of this report is to investigate the predictive role of some noninvasive imaging methods (HRCT with visual score of disease extent; Gallium scintigraphy; DTPA scintigraphy) in patients with idiopathic fibrosis and a prevalent macroscopic fibrosis at HRCT study. [Italian] La fibrosi polomare idiopatica viene distinta in 3 gradi con diversa prognosi in base alla predominanza di opacita' a vetro smerigliato da alveolite o di fibrosi irreversibile. La fibrosi irreversibile tuttavia non e' necessariamente una situazione stabile ma puo progredire ed evolvere ulteriormente. In particolare i pazienti che gia all'esordio presentano solo i segni della fibrosi possono peggiorare a distanza di tempo nonostante la terapia. Scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di individuare in un gruppo di pazienti con prevalente fibrosi macroscopica quale possa essere un parametro preditivo della successiva evoluzione della malattia.

  1. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

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    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (UK)); Gehr, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.)


    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers. (United States)

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C


    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers.

  3. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children

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    Joana Cardoso


    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.

  4. Celiac disease and microscopic colitis: A report of 4 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zsolt Barta; Eva Zold; Arpad Nagy; Margit Zeher; Istvan Csipo


    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people at all ages. However, it can be associated also to other immunopathological disorders, and may be associated with abnormal histology in segments of the gut other than the small bowel including colonic inflammation. While guidelines for endoscopic investigation of the jejunum are well defined, no indication is defined for colonic investigation. We describe four cases of concurrent CD and microscopic colitis (MC) diagnosed at our department over a 10-year period and analyzed the main features and outcomes of CD in this setting. The symptoms of these patients were improved initially by a gluten-free diet before the onset of MC symptoms. Two of the patients were siblings and had an atypical form of CD. The other two patients with CD and MC also presented with fibrosing alveolitis and were anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody positive. The co-existence of immune-mediated small bowel and colonic inflammatory and pulmonary diseases are not well-known, and no systematic approach has been used to identify the lifelong patterns of these immune-based diseases. Patients can develop, or present with CD at any stage in life, which can co-exist with other gastrointestinal diseases of (auto-) immune origin. In addition, the familial co-existence and prevalence of MC in patients with a prior diagnosis of CD are unclear. Clinicians managing celiac disease should be aware of these associations and understand when to consider colon investigation.

  5. [Mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis in children. Clinical study, analysis of data of bronchoalveolar fluid lavage and respiratory function tests, therapeutic trends]. (United States)

    Donato, L; Baculard, A; Boule, M; Boccon-Gibod, L; Grimfeld, A; Tournier, G


    A series of 27 children (mean age: 12 yrs, 5 mos.) presenting with thoracic sarcoidosis is reported. This series, collected from 1961 to 1988 shows the rarity of the disease at that age. However the low rate of asymptomatic forms (22%) suggests that the frequency of the disease is underestimated, as it is not diagnosed. The histological proof is necessary for the diagnosis. When peripheral lesions available for biopsy are lacking, a liver needle biopsy is helpful (93% of positivity). This study shows the frequency of multivisceral types, the intensity of the macrophagic and lymphocytic alveolitis. The therapeutic indications depend on the comparison of the radiological stage, the results of pulmonary function tests (PFT), those of the bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and of the serum granulomatous activity markers, especially concerning angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). When present at the beginning of evolution, several risk factors lead to use a corticosteroid treatment: age of onset before 4 years, multivisceral involvement, presence of functional pulmonary signs, delayed diagnosis and onset of treatment, impaired respiratory function (especially concerning the alveolo-capillary diffusion), PMN cells greater than or equal to 2% in the initial BAL, and IgG proteins greater than 4 SD. Thus sarcoidosis in children differs from that seen in adults as it has a more marked evolutive tendency and leaves severe sequelae in one third of patients.

  6. Sirolimus-induced pneumonitis complicated by pentamidine-induced phospholipidosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report. (United States)

    Filippone, E J; Carson, J M; Beckford, R A; Jaffe, B C; Newman, E; Awsare, B K; Doria, C; Farber, J L


    The proliferation signal inhibitors (PSIs)-sirolimus, everolimus, and temsirolimus-have been associated with a noninfectious pneumonitis characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and bronciolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). This condition usually occurs within the first year. Herein we presented a case of a deceased donor renal transplant with interstitial pneumonitis developing 6 years after a switch from tacrolimus to sirolimus due to chronic graft dysfunction. After the addition of intravenous pentamidine due to the suspicion of Pneumocystis pneumonia, there was marked clinical deterioration requiring intubation. Open lung biopsy revealed sirolimus-induced pulmonary toxicity (BOOP) with the additional finding of a drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) that we ascribe to pentamidine treatment. After cessation of both drugs and application of corticosteroid therapy, there was only partial improvement. Eight months later the residual interstitial fibrosis demands supplemental home oxygen. We review the literature on PSI-induced pneumonitis and discuss the pathophysiology of a potential interaction with pentamidine. We caution against its use in the setting of PSI-induced pneumonitis. It is currently unknown whether these concerns also apply to prescription of other more commonly used medications associated with DIPL, eg, amiodarone and aminoglycosides.

  7. Initial experience with heart and lung transplantation. (United States)

    Reichenspurner, H; Odell, J A; Cooper, D K; Novitzky, D; Rose, A G; Klinner, W; Reichart, B


    Between February 1983 and July 1987, twelve patients underwent heart-lung transplantation at the University of Cape Town and the University of Munich. The patients included eight men and four women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 49 years (mean, 27 years). The underlying pathologic condition was idiopathic primary pulmonary hypertension in five cases, Eisenmenger's syndrome in four cases, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in one case, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis in one case, and chronic emphysema in one case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) during the first 2 postoperative weeks; RATG was subsequently replaced by methylprednisolone. Pulmonary rejection frequently occurred in the absence of cardiac rejection; in one case, however, this situation was reversed. Two patients required retransplantation, which was undertaken for caseating pulmonary tuberculosis with obliterative bronchiolitis after 1 year in one case and for early pulmonary insufficiency after 2 days in the other case. There were no operative deaths, but three early deaths occurred, owing to respiratory insufficiency of unknown origin (10 days postoperatively), multiorgan failure (10 days postoperatively), and acute liver dystrophy (11 days postoperatively). Five weeks after operation, a fourth patient died of multi-organ failure. There were five late deaths, all of which resulted from infectious complications. Three patients, including one who underwent retransplantation, remain alive and well, 10 to 36 months postoperatively.

  8. Tumors of the respiratory tract observed at the German Primate Center, 1978-1994. (United States)

    Brack, M; Schwartz, P; Heinrichs, T; Schultz, M; Fuchs, E


    Eight spontaneous pulmonary tumors (four bronchiolar tubular adenomas, two bronchiolar adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas) occurred in a total of 54 adult tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) of the GPC colonies between 1978 and 1994. The adenomas and adenocarcinomas consisted of tubularly or trabecularly arranged cuboidal to cylindrical cells interspersed with some PAS-positive goblet cells, thus resembling the epithelial lining of respiratory bronchioles of tree shrews. The two squamous-cell carcinomas probably originated from the pulmonary alveoles. Three more pulmonary tumors (one small-cell carcinoma, one bronchial adenoma, one squamous-cell carcinoma) developed in 409 adult callitrichids of the GPC colonies during the same period, and one more bronchial adenoma was observed in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) of another colony located in Göttingen. With regard to the adenomas and squamous-cell carcinomas, a similar cellular origin with the three shrews is assumed. The small-cell carcinoma possibly developed from the bronchial epithelium, provided a pathogenesis parallel to that of human small-cell carcinoma is suggested. Four of the tree shrew pulmonary adenomas/adenocarcinomas and the small-cell Ca were macroscopically visible as yellowish-grey nodules of 1 mm x 1 mm to 15 mm x 15 mm diameter, predominantly involving the main lobes (2 x right main lobes, 2 x left main lobes, 1 x all lobes). The pulmonary tumors of the other animals were below macroscopical detectability.

  9. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)


    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Respiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Muller, Julie; Huaux, François; Moreau, Nicolas; Misson, Pierre; Heilier, Jean-François; Delos, Monique; Arras, Mohammed; Fonseca, Antonio; Nagy, Janos B; Lison, Dominique


    Carbon nanotubes focus the attention of many scientists because of their huge potential of industrial applications, but there is a paucity of information on the toxicological properties of this material. The aim of this experimental study was to characterize the biological reactivity of purified multi-wall carbon nanotubes in the rat lung and in vitro. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) or ground CNT were administered intratracheally (0.5, 2 or 5 mg) to Sprague-Dawley rats and we estimated lung persistence, inflammation and fibrosis biochemically and histologically. CNT and ground CNT were still present in the lung after 60 days (80% and 40% of the lowest dose) and both induced inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. At 2 months, pulmonary lesions induced by CNT were characterized by the formation of collagen-rich granulomas protruding in the bronchial lumen, in association with alveolitis in the surrounding tissues. These lesions were caused by the accumulation of large CNT agglomerates in the airways. Ground CNT were better dispersed in the lung parenchyma and also induced inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Both CNT and ground CNT stimulated the production of TNF-alpha in the lung of treated animals. In vitro, ground CNT induced the overproduction of TNF-alpha by macrophages. These results suggest that carbon nanotubes are potentially toxic to humans and that strict industrial hygiene measures should to be taken to limit exposure during their manipulation.

  11. Comparing primary and secondary wound healing discomfort after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. (United States)

    Refo'a, Youshiaho; Ouatik, Nabil; Golchin, Foroogh; Mahboobi, Nima


    Extraction of impacted mandibular third molars is one of the most common procedures in the oral cavity and often is followed by pain, swelling, and postextraction alveolitis and trismus. It has been suggested that postoperative discomfort is in relation to the type of surgical wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare pain, swelling, and maximum mouth opening in two groups of patients with primary and secondary wound healing after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Thirty-two patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two equal groups, quantitatively and by gender. After the surgical procedures, 16 patients received primary wound closure, while the other 16 participants received secondary wound closure. A visual analog scale was used to collect pain data three days after the surgeries. A checklist was used to record data regarding swelling size and maximum mouth opening before, immediately following, three days after, and one week after surgery. Frequency tests and a t-test were used for statistical analysis and a P value of complications such as pain, maximal mouth opening, and swelling size after impacted mandibular third molar extractions.

  12. Bronchopulmonary allergic aspergillosis Aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez


    Full Text Available

    A series of well defined entitles associated with colonization or invasion by fungi of the genus Aspergillus are grouped under the term Aspergillosis; there are various modalities of pulmonary involvement, namely, extrinsec asthma, extrinsec allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and an invasive form in debilitated terminal patients; besldes there exists a form of food poisoning. We report on the case of a 45 year-old asthmatic woman suffering from allerglc bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sum. maryze the clinical and laboratory features of the different pulmonary forms of aspergillosis.

    El término Aspergllosis reúne una serle de entidades bien definidas, causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una mujer de 45 años con aspergllosis broncopulmonar alérgica, atendida en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín y se hace una somera revisión clínico-patológica de las diferentes formas de aspergllosis pulmonar.

  13. Differential diagnosis of allergic wheeze%变应性喘息的鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 除支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)外,临床上有些疾病也可以表现为反复哮喘发作或呈慢性持续性哮喘发作,常见的疾病有变应性支气管肺曲霉病(allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis,ABPA)、变应性肉芽肿性血管炎、肺嗜酸粒细胞(EOS)浸润症和外源性变应性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA)等.这些疾病很容易被误诊为难治性哮喘,进而造成误治,使原发疾病进一步恶化.对于变应性喘息的鉴别诊断十分重要,现对表现为变应性喘息的常见疾病简要介绍如下.

  14. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech


    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  15. Prolonged lung retention of /sup 123/I-IMP in pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hideki; Itasaka, Miyoko; Komatsu, Mikio; Takahashi, Keiji; Yasui, Shoji; Takahashi, Kazuei


    The accumulation of venously injected /sup 123/I-IMP in the lung was studied. At 30 and 50 min after the injection of the 1.5 mCi /sup 123/I-IMP, the concentration of /sup 123/I-IMP in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were much higher than in the blood. It was considered that /sup 123/I-IMP was transported into the alveolar spaces and was absorbed by the alveolar cells. The half time (T/sub 1/2/) of the /sup 123/I-IMP release from the lung at 10 and 25 min immediately after the injection was calculated. In normal subjects the T/sub 1/2/ ranged between 25 and 44 min and was prolonged in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and allergic alveolitis. It was considered that the retention of /sup 123/I-IMP was related not only to the endothelial cells, but also to the alveolar cells. It was considered that the analysis of the lung release of /sup 123/I-IMP forms a new lung dysfunction index. (orig.).

  16. Perfusion pulmonoscintigraphy in diagnostic of broncho-pulmonary paecilomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalom Ashurov


    Full Text Available 74 patients with broncho-pulmonary paecilomycosis were observed for the indexes of pulmonoscintigraphy. According to the clinical manifestations of the disease all investigated patients were divided into two groups: 1st group - 25 people with predominance of the clinical signs of bronchial asthma (5 people with chronic obstructive bronchitis, 20 people with bronchial asthma and 2nd group - 54 people with predominance of the clinical signs of inflammation process of the lungs' parenchyma and interstitial tissue (38 patients with pneumonia, 16 patients with exogenous-allergic alveolitis. The results of radionuclide investigation showed that scintigraphic pictures of the investigated people of the 1st and 2nd groups were significantly differed from the lungs' picture of the patients from the control group. During visual evaluation of the scintigrams the areas of disorders of pulmonary circulation were presented by defects of different degree. Also, they had uneven decreasing of the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical drug in the injured areas, most often in the middle and lower areas of the lungs, sometimes along the whole lung areas. Density of radiopharmaceutical distribution in these areas was decreased in comparison with the adjoining lung tissue. The functional area of parenchyma and the form of the organ were not changed.

  17. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners. Cytologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Gosselin, B.; Ramon, P.; Wallaert, B.; Aerts, C.; Lenoir, L.


    The cytological characteristics of broncho-alveolar fluid were studied in 94 coal workers and six subjects exposed to varied risks of silicosis. In coal worker's pneumoconiosis with the usual micronodular or nodular type, there was a significant increase in the cellularity of the peripheral airways compared to non-exposed controls, making allowances for smoking habits. There were no striking changes in the white cell count nor any correlation with the possible elevation in the serum angiotensin I-enzyme conversion level. On the other hand a striking elevation of the alveolar lymphocyte count was noted in three cases with rapidly developing silicosis. Where there was the co-existence of another disorder (connective tissue disorders, sarcoid, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, radiation lung or diffuse interstitial fibrosis) the anomalies noted were those occurring during the progress of the associated disease. At the time of collection the alveolar macrophages in the dust exposed subjects showed a similar vitality to these observed in control subjects. After 24 hours of observation '' in vitro '', the vitality of the cells and their phagocytic and bactericidal activity was markedly diminished.

  18. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.


    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  19. Health risks associated with the storage of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Forest Products, Uppsala (Sweden)


    It has been known for many years now that the storage of wood fuel chips in large piles, without pretreatment or active ventilation, involves many problems. As is the case with the storage of any organic material in a pile, a series of biological, physical and chemical processes usually takes place resulting in a series of problems. The paper will primarily focus on the health risks involved in the handling of stored fuel chips of woody biomass. Soon after building a pile of wood fuel chips, the growth of fungi and bacteria usually take place. Their numbers and growth rates depend on many internal and external factors. The most frequent microorganisms associated with the storage of wood chips are moulds and actinomycetes. The inhalation of organic particles of bacteria, spores of actinomycete and moulds is associated with various forms of respiratory diseases: inhalation fever or Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS), and the uncommon disease allergic alveolitis. These diseases vary in their symptoms, severity and their long term effect. During screening, loading, transporting and other handling processes of wood fuel chips varying numbers of microspores, hyphal and bacterial segments and other organic products become airborne (organic dust). Awareness of the risks of exposure to airborne spores is the first step in minimizing these risks. Working environment could be greatly improved by avoiding unnecesary exposure to infected environments, or by taking suitable protective measures if needed. (au)

  20. 过敏性肺炎的临床病理学诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡青; 樊祥山; 章宜芬; 蔡厚荣


    @@ 过敏性肺炎(hypersensitivity pneumonitis, HP)也称外源性过敏性肺泡炎(extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA),是指各种致敏源吸入后引发机体免疫介导的呼吸系统疾病.根据临床过程分为急性、亚急性和慢性HP,并具有不同的临床、影像和病理学特征.由于作为肺间质病变诊断的主要方法--开胸肺活检在国内尚不普及,病理医师难有机会对HP有充分的认识,本文通过对HP的介绍,意在提高病理医师对该疾病的认识,及时作出准确诊断,帮助临床治疗.

  1. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others


    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Pneumoconiose por exposição a metal duro com pneumotórax bilateral espontâneo Hard metal pneumoconiosis with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira


    Full Text Available A pneumoconiose por metal duro, descrita pela primeira vez em 1964, é uma doença difusa causada por inalação de partículas de cobalto. A doença pode se manifestar de três formas diferentes: asma ocupacional, doença intersticial e alveolite alérgica. Relata-se um caso de um jovem do sexo masculino, afiador de ferramentas, com quadro de tosse seca e dispnéia progressiva há um ano, apresentando-se à admissão com pneumotórax espontâneo bilateral. O diagnóstico foi confirmado através de biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto.Hard metal pneumoconiosis, first described in 1964, is a diffuse disease caused by the inhalation of cobalt particles. The disease can manifest as occupational asthma, interstitial disease or allergic alveolitis. We report the case of a young male, working as a tool sharpener, who presented with dry cough and progressive dyspnea for one year, as well as with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax at admission. The diagnosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy.

  3. Severe lung injuries due to SO/sub 2/ inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, P.; Leupold, W.; Mittenzwey, K.W.; Rupprecht, E.


    By accident a 12 year old boy had to spend 4 hours in a SO/sub 2/-enriched atmosphere (concentration 13.8 mg per cubicmeter = 4.8 ppm). The course of the following intoxication was tetraphasic: 1. acute irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper airways and of the eye: rhinopharyngitis, laryngitis and bronchitis, conjunctivitis and corneal lesions (duration: 5 days), 2. symptom free interval (duration: 3 days), 3. subacute destruction of the low airways and the lung: destructing bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis, emphysema of the lung, mediastinum and skin, gradual development of bronchiectasis (duration: 9-12 months) and 4. gradual transition into terminal scarification: emphysema of the lung, continuous partial respiratory insufficiency with combined, especially obstructive disturbance of ventilation (without alterations observed during the last 4 years). On occasions of this fateful and therapeutically hardly influenced course recommendations are given for initial general and topical administration of very high doses of corticosteroids in each case of inhalative intoxication as the only measure which probably would have prevented it.

  4. Subsurface ecosystem resilience: long-term attenuation of subsurface contaminants supports a dynamic microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, J.M.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Mauro, D.M.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology


    The propensity for groundwater ecosystems to recover from contamination by organic chemicals (in this case, coal-tar waste) is of vital concern for scientists and engineers who manage polluted sites. The microbially mediated cleanup processes are also of interest to ecologists because they are an important mechanism for the resilience of ecosystems. In this study we establish the long-term dynamic nature of a coal-tar waste-contaminated site and its microbial community. We present 16 years of chemical monitoring data, tracking responses of a groundwater ecosystem to organic contamination (naphthalene, xylenes, toluene, 2-methyl naphthalene and acenaphthylene) associated with coal-tar waste. In addition, we analyzed small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from two contaminated wells at multiple time points over a 2-year period. Principle component analysis of community rRNA fingerprints (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP)) showed that the composition of native microbial communities varied temporally, yet remained distinctive from well to well. After screening and analysis of 1178 cloned SSU rRNA genes from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, we discovered that the site supports a robust variety of eukaryotes (for example, alveolates (especially anaerobic and predatory ciliates), stramenopiles, fungi, even the small metazoan flatworm, Suomina) that are absent from an uncontaminated control well. This study links the dynamic microbial composition of a contaminated site with the long-term attenuation of its subsurface contaminants.

  5. Nitrofurantoin-induced immune-mediated lung and liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Rade


    Full Text Available Introduction. Nitrofurantoin, a furan derivative, introduced in the fifties has widely been used as an effective agent for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI. Spectrum of adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin is wide, ranging from eosinophilic interstitial lung disease, acute hepatitis and granulomatous reaction, to the chronic active hepatitis, a very rare adverse effect, that can lead to cirrhosis and death. Case report. We presented a 55-year-old female patient with eosinophilic interstitial lung disease, severe chronic active hepatitis and several other immune- mediated multisystemic manifestations of prolonged exposure to nitrofurantoin because of the recurrent UTI caused by Escherichia coli. We estimated typical radiographic and laboratory disturbances, also restrictive ventilatory changes, severe reduction of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity and abnormal liver function tests. Lymphocytic-eosinophylic alveolitis was consistent with druginduced reaction. Hepatitis was confirmed by liver biopsy. After withdrawal of nitrofurantoin and application of high dose of glicocorticosteroids, prompt clinical and laboratory recovery was achieved. Conclusion. Adverse drug reactions should be considered in patients with concomitant lung and liver disease. The mainstay of treatment is drug withdrawal and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in severe cases. Consideration should be given to monitor lung and liver function tests during long term nitrofurantoin therapy.

  6. Down-regulation of heat shock protein HSP90ab1 in radiation-damaged lung cells other than mast cells. (United States)

    Haase, Michael G; Geyer, Peter; Fitze, Guido; Baretton, Gustavo B


    Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to fibrosing alveolitis (FA) after a lag period of several weeks to months. In a rat model, FA starts at 8 weeks after IR. Before that, at 5.5 weeks after IR, the transcription factors Sp1 (stimulating protein 1) and AP-1 (activator protein 1) are inactivated. To find genes/proteins that were down-regulated at that time, differentially expressed genes were identified in a subtractive cDNA library and verified by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IH). The mRNA of the molecular chaperone HSP90AB1 (heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class B member 1) was down-regulated 5.5 weeks after IR. Later, when FA manifested, HSP90ab1 protein was down-regulated by more than 90% in lung cells with the exception of mast cells. In most mast cells of the normal lung, both HSP90ab1 and HSP70, another major HSP, show a very low level of expression. HSP70 was massively up-regulated in all mast cells three months after irradiation whereas HSP90AB1 was up-regulated only in a portion of mast cells. The strong changes in the expression of central molecular chaperones may contribute to the well-known disturbance of cellular functions in radiation-damaged lung tissue.

  7. Plasma protein adsorption pattern and tissue-implant reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan blend films. (United States)

    Wang, Ling Chong; Chen, Xi Guang; Xu, Quan Chen; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Yu, Le Jun; Zhou, Ying Min


    Various poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (PVA/CMCS) blend films were prepared by a mechanical blending method and characterized by SEM for their surface and cross-section morphologies. It indicated that blending high CMCS content in PVA plastic led to a rough surface and loose structure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine fibrinogen (BFG) were chosen as representative plasma proteins to carry out adsorption tests. Equilibrium adsorption amount of proteins onto the blends decreased with the increase of CMCS content in film matrix, and BSA was more easily adsorbed onto the films than BFG in the same conditions. The blend films also exhibited different trends for BSA and BFG adsorption when pH of the media changed, but maximum adsorption approximately occurred at the isoelectric point of proteins. Moreover, increasing the ionic strength would always decrease the adsorptions of protein onto the films. In animal experiments, it was found that incorporation of CMCS and PVA gave a lower tissue reaction than pure PVA films when they were subcutaneously implanted in Wistar rats. After two weeks subcutaneous implantation, surfaces of PVA became wrinkled and cracked; however, the blend implants exhibited a alveolate porous microstructure.

  8. Alveolar flows of the developing lungs:from embryonic to early childhood airways (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josue


    At the onset of life in utero the respiratory system is simply a liquid-filled duct. With our first breath, alveoli are filled with air and become a significant port of entry for airborne particles. As such, alveolar lining is nearly fully functional at birth, though lung development continues during childhood as structural changes increase alveolar surface area to optimize ventilation. We hypothesize that such fluid dynamical changes potentially affect two phenomena occurring within alveoli: (i) flow patterns in airspaces at distinct stages of both in- and ex-utero life and (ii) fate of inhaled particles ex-utero. To investigate these phenomena, we combine experimental and numerical approaches where (i) microfluidic in vitro devices mimic liquid flows across the epithelium of fetal airspaces, and (ii) computational simulations are employed to examine particle transport and deposition in the deep alveolated regions of infants' lungs. Our approaches capture anatomically-inspired geometries based on morphometrical data, as well as physiological flows, including the convective-diffusive nature of submicron particle transport in alveolar regions.Overall, we investigate respiratory flows in alveolar regions of developing lungs, from early embryonic stages to late childhood

  9. Lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in the perivascular space in lungs

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    Pabst Reinhard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS contained in tobacco smoke and a variety of environmental and occupational dusts is a toxic agent causing lung inflammation characterized by migration of neutrophils and monocytes into alveoli. Although migration of inflammatory cells into alveoli of LPS-treated rats is well characterized, the dynamics of their accumulation in the perivascular space (PVS leading to a perivascular inflammation (PVI of pulmonary arteries is not well described. Methods Therefore, we investigated migration of neutrophils and monocytes into PVS in lungs of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intratracheally with E. coli LPS and euthanized after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Control rats were treated with endotoxin-free saline. H&E stained slides were made and immunohistochemistry was performed using a monocyte marker and the chemokine Monocyte-Chemoattractant-Protein-1 (MCP-1. Computer-assisted microscopy was performed to count infiltrating cells. Results Surprisingly, the periarterial infiltration was not a constant finding in each animal although LPS-induced alveolitis was present. A clear tendency was observed that neutrophils were appearing in the PVS first within 6 hours after LPS application and were decreasing at later time points. In contrast, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed after 24 hours. In addition, MCP-1 expression was present in perivascular capillaries, arteries and the epithelium. Conclusion PVI might be a certain lung reaction pattern in the defense to infectious attacks.

  10. Temporal Expression of Notch in Preterm Rat Lungs Exposed to Hyperoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To explore the mechanism of Notch in hyperoxia-induced preterm rat lung injury, 2days-old preterm SD rats were randomized into control and hyperoxia group (FiO2 ≥0.85). On day 1, 7, 14 and 21, 8 rat pups of each time point were used to assess histopathological changes of lung with HE staining and to evaluate the expression of Notch1 and Notch3 with immunohistochemistry.Notch1, Notch3, Aquaprin5 (AQP5) and surfactant protein C (SP-C) mRNA were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the lung injury in the hyperoxia group was characterized by retarded lung alveolization and differentiation of alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells (AEC Ⅱ ). Positive staining of Notch1 in hyperoxia group was weaker than controls at every time point (except for day 7), while positive staining of Notch3 was much stronger (P<0.05, P<0.01). Notch1, Notch3 mRNA level showed similar change as protein level. AQP5, SP C mRNA decreased significantly as compared with that of the controls (P<0.01).We are led to conclude that hyperoxia results in abnormal expression of Notch, which is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of lung injury through regulating proliferation and transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.

  11. Primary and secondary closure of the surgical wound after removal of impacted mandibular third molars: a comparative study. (United States)

    Pasqualini, D; Cocero, N; Castella, A; Mela, L; Bracco, P


    Primary and secondary closure techniques after removal of impacted third molars were compared in terms of post-operative pain and swelling. Two hundred patients with impacted third molars were randomly divided into two groups of 100. Panoramic radiographs were taken to assess degree of eruption and angulation of third molars. Teeth were extracted, and in Group 1 the socket was closed by hermetically suturing the flap. In Group 2 a 5-6 mm wedge of mucosa adjacent to the second molar was removed to obtain secondary healing. Swelling and pain were evaluated for 7 days after surgery with the VAS scale. The statistical analysis (*analysis of variance for repeated measures, P < 0.05) showed that pain was greater in Group 1, although it decreased over time similarly in the two groups (P = 0.081, F(6,198) = 3.073*). Swelling was significantly worse in Group 1 (P < 0.001, F(6,198) = 44.30*). In Group 1, dehiscence of the mucosa was present in 33% of patients at day 7, and 2% showed signs of re-infection with suppurative alveolitis at 30 days. Pain and swelling were less severe with secondary healing than with primary healing.

  12. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. (United States)

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone


    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3'-to-5' and 5'-to-3' transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism.

  13. A family of intermediate filament-like proteins is sequentially assembled into the cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii. (United States)

    Anderson-White, Brooke R; Ivey, F Douglas; Cheng, Katherine; Szatanek, Tomasz; Lorestani, Alexander; Beckers, Con J; Ferguson, David J P; Sahoo, Nivedita; Gubbels, Marc-Jan


    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii divides by a unique process of internal budding that involves the assembly of two daughter cells within the mother. The cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma, which is composed of microtubules associated with an inner membrane complex (IMC), has an important role in this process. The IMC, which is directly under the plasma membrane, contains a set of flattened membranous sacs lined on the cytoplasmic side by a network of filamentous proteins. This network contains a family of intermediate filament-like proteins or IMC proteins. In order to elucidate the division process, we have characterized a 14-member subfamily of Toxoplasma IMC proteins that share a repeat motif found in proteins associated with the cortical alveoli in all alveolates. By creating fluorescent protein fusion reporters for the family members we determined the spatiotemporal patterns of all 14 IMC proteins through tachyzoite development. This revealed several distinct distribution patterns and some provide the basis for novel structural models such as the assembly of certain family members into the basal complex. Furthermore we identified IMC15 as an early marker of budding and, lastly, the dynamic patterns observed throughout cytokinesis provide a timeline for daughter parasite development and division.

  14. The apicomplexan inner membrane complex. (United States)

    Kono, Maya; Prusty, Dhaneswar; Parkinson, John; Gilberger, Tim W


    Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans and ciliates are members of the monophyletic supergroup of Alveolata. The protists of this phylogenetic cluster have adapted to various ecological niches and lifestyles. Dinoflagellates and cilates can be found in any aquatic environment, whereas the phylum Apicomplexa solely comprises intracellular parasites. Despite their diversity all alveolates are united by the presence of membranous vesicles, so called alveoli, located beneath the plasma membrane. In addition to strengthening the cytoskeleton, these vesicles appear to possess taxon-specific functionality. In dinoflagellates and ciliates the alveoli predominantly play a structural role and can function as calcium stores. However, for the Apicomplexa, the alveolar vesicles -here jointly called the inner membrane complex (IMC)- are additionally involved in invasion of the host cell and are important scaffold elements during cytokinesis. Recent studies shed light on the architecture of the apicomplexan IMC and the number and diversity of its constituent proteins. This plethora of proteins and their varying evolutionary origin underlines the versatility of the IMC as a result of the adaption to a parasitic lifestyle.

  15. The role of palmitoylation for protein recruitment to the inner membrane complex of the malaria parasite. (United States)

    Wetzel, Johanna; Herrmann, Susann; Swapna, Lakshmipuram Seshadri; Prusty, Dhaneswar; John Peter, Arun T; Kono, Maya; Saini, Sidharth; Nellimarla, Srinivas; Wong, Tatianna Wai Ying; Wilcke, Louisa; Ramsay, Olivia; Cabrera, Ana; Biller, Laura; Heincke, Dorothee; Mossman, Karen; Spielmann, Tobias; Ungermann, Christian; Parkinson, John; Gilberger, Tim W


    To survive and persist within its human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a battery of lineage-specific innovations to invade and multiply in human erythrocytes. With central roles in invasion and cytokinesis, the inner membrane complex, a Golgi-derived double membrane structure underlying the plasma membrane of the parasite, represents a unique and unifying structure characteristic to all organisms belonging to a large phylogenetic group called Alveolata. More than 30 structurally and phylogenetically distinct proteins are embedded in the IMC, where a portion of these proteins displays N-terminal acylation motifs. Although N-terminal myristoylation is catalyzed co-translationally within the cytoplasm of the parasite, palmitoylation takes place at membranes and is mediated by palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs). Here, we identify a PAT (PfDHHC1) that is exclusively localized to the IMC. Systematic phylogenetic analysis of the alveolate PAT family reveals PfDHHC1 to be a member of a highly conserved, apicomplexan-specific clade of PATs. We show that during schizogony this enzyme has an identical distribution like two dual-acylated, IMC-localized proteins (PfISP1 and PfISP3). We used these proteins to probe into specific sequence requirements for IMC-specific membrane recruitment and their interaction with differentially localized PATs of the parasite.

  16. Evolution and architecture of the inner membrane complex in asexual and sexual stages of the malaria parasite. (United States)

    Kono, Maya; Herrmann, Susann; Loughran, Noeleen B; Cabrera, Ana; Engelberg, Klemens; Lehmann, Christine; Sinha, Dipto; Prinz, Boris; Ruch, Ulrike; Heussler, Volker; Spielmann, Tobias; Parkinson, John; Gilberger, Tim W


    The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unifying morphological feature of all alveolate organisms. It consists of flattened vesicles underlying the plasma membrane and is interconnected with the cytoskeleton. Depending on the ecological niche of the organisms, the function of the IMC ranges from a fundamental role as reinforcement system to more specialized roles in motility and cytokinesis. In this article, we present a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of IMC components, which exemplifies the adaptive nature of the IMCs' protein composition. Focusing on eight structurally distinct proteins in the most prominent "genus" of the Alveolata-the malaria parasite Plasmodium-we demonstrate that the level of conservation is reflected in phenotypic characteristics, accentuated in differential spatial-temporal patterns of these proteins in the motile stages of the parasite's life cycle. Colocalization studies with the centromere and the spindle apparatus reveal their discriminative biogenesis. We also reveal that the IMC is an essential structural compartment for the development of the sexual stages of Plasmodium, as it seems to drive the morphological changes of the parasite during the long and multistaged process of sexual differentiation. We further found a Plasmodium-specific IMC membrane matrix protein that highlights transversal structures in gametocytes, which could represent a genus-specific structural innovation required by Plasmodium. We conclude that the IMC has an additional role during sexual development supporting morphogenesis of the cell, which in addition to its functions in the asexual stages highlights the multifunctional nature of the IMC in the Plasmodium life cycle.

  17. [Granulomatous lung lesions after occupational exposure to glass fibers]. (United States)

    Klimczak, A; Langfort, R; Zych, J; Bestry, I; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E


    39 years old man with granulomatous lesions in both lungs caused by occupational contact with glass fibers was described. He has been working as an bricklayer-plasterer for 18 years and was in contact with lime, cement, plaster, asbestos, dust of coal and wood and with glass fibers. For the last two years before admission in 1993 he has had frequent bronchial infections. On admission he was in good general condition, his spirometric examination and blood gases were within normal limits. On chest x-ray disseminated lesions were found. Those lesions were of the round shapes on chest CT. Many sputum cultures for tubercle bacilli were negative. ANA and ANCA were not found in the serum. ACE was within normal limits. No precipitins to environmental antigens were found. Cancer metastases were suspected and lung biopsy during videothoracoscopy was done. Many foreign body type granulomas were found throughout the specimen. The character of the lesions was not typical for tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, silicosis or asbestosis. There are some reports concerning the possibility of development of such lesions after the exposition to glass fibers. We suspect that case is an example of such pathology. His occupational exposition was stopped in 1993 and he was observed without treatment. During the 5 years of observation (up till 1998) he was in good health with stable chest x-ray picture and results of respiratory system function.

  18. A SAS-6-like protein suggests that the Toxoplasma conoid complex evolved from flagellar components. (United States)

    de Leon, Jessica Cruz; Scheumann, Nicole; Beatty, Wandy; Beck, Josh R; Tran, Johnson Q; Yau, Candace; Bradley, Peter J; Gull, Keith; Wickstead, Bill; Morrissette, Naomi S


    SAS-6 is required for centriole biogenesis in diverse eukaryotes. Here, we describe a novel family of SAS-6-like (SAS6L) proteins that share an N-terminal domain with SAS-6 but lack coiled-coil tails. SAS6L proteins are found in a subset of eukaryotes that contain SAS-6, including diverse protozoa and green algae. In the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, SAS-6 localizes to the centriole but SAS6L is found above the conoid, an enigmatic tubulin-containing structure found at the apex of a subset of alveolate organisms. Loss of SAS6L causes reduced fitness in Toxoplasma. The Trypanosoma brucei homolog of SAS6L localizes to the basal-plate region, the site in the axoneme where the central-pair microtubules are nucleated. When endogenous SAS6L is overexpressed in Toxoplasma tachyzoites or Trypanosoma trypomastigotes, it forms prominent filaments that extend through the cell cytoplasm, indicating that it retains a capacity to form higher-order structures despite lacking a coiled-coil domain. We conclude that although SAS6L proteins share a conserved domain with SAS-6, they are a functionally distinct family that predates the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Moreover, the distinct localization of the SAS6L protein in Trypanosoma and Toxoplasma adds weight to the hypothesis that the conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

  19. Do All Dinoflagellates have an Extranuclear Spindle? (United States)

    Moon, Eunyoung; Nam, Seung Won; Shin, Woongghi; Park, Myung Gil; Coats, D Wayne


    The syndinean dinoflagellates are a diverse assemblage of alveolate endoparasites that branch basal to the core dinoflagellates. Because of their phylogenetic position, the syndineans are considered key model microorganisms in understanding early evolution in the dinoflagellates. Closed mitosis with an extranuclear spindle that traverses the nucleus in cytoplasmic grooves or tunnels is viewed as one of the morphological features shared by syndinean and core dinoflagellates. Here we describe nuclear morphology and mitosis in the syndinean dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp. from Akashiwo sanguinea, a member of the A. ceratii complex, as revealed by protargol silver impregnation, DNA specific fluorochromes, and transmission electron microscopy. Our observations show that not all species classified as dinoflagellates have an extranuclear spindle. In Amoebophrya sp. from A. sanguinea, an extranuclear microtubule cylinder located in a depression in the nuclear surface during interphase moves into the nucleoplasm via sequential membrane fusion events and develops into an entirely intranuclear spindle. Results suggest that the intranuclear spindle of Amoebophrya spp. may have evolved from an ancestral extranuclear spindle and indicate the need for taxonomic revision of the Amoebophryidae.

  20. Genetic diversity, morphological uniformity and polyketide production in dinoflagellates (Amphidinium, Dinoflagellata.

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    Shauna A Murray

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are an intriguing group of eukaryotes, showing many unusual morphological and genetic features. Some groups of dinoflagellates are morphologically highly uniform, despite indications of genetic diversity. The species Amphidinium carterae is abundant and cosmopolitan in marine environments, grows easily in culture, and has therefore been used as a 'model' dinoflagellate in research into dinoflagellate genetics, polyketide production and photosynthesis. We have investigated the diversity of 'cryptic' species of Amphidinium that are morphologically similar to A. carterae, including the very similar species Amphidinium massartii, based on light and electron microscopy, two nuclear gene regions (LSU rDNA and ITS rDNA and one mitochondrial gene region (cytochrome b. We found that six genetically distinct cryptic species (clades exist within the species A. massartii and four within A. carterae, and that these clades differ from one another in molecular sequences at levels comparable to other dinoflagellate species, genera or even families. Using primers based on an alignment of alveolate ketosynthase sequences, we isolated partial ketosynthase genes from several Amphidinium species. We compared these genes to known dinoflagellate ketosynthase genes and investigated the evolution and diversity of the strains of Amphidinium that produce them.