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Sample records for alveolate perkinsus marinus

  1. IN VITRO KILLING OF PERKINSUS MARINUS BY HEMOCYTES OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colorimetric microbicidal assay was adapted, optimized and applied in experiments to characterize the in vitro capacity of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite causing a highly destructive disease...

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS

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    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  3. Microsatellite genotypes reveal some long distance gene flow in Perkinsus marinus, a major pathogen of eastern oysters

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    As the agent of Dermo disease, Perkinsus marinus causes significant mortality and reduced fecundity in host populations. Passive dispersal of P. marinus between hosts subjects parasite movements to control by water currents in estuarine systems, potentially limiting connectivity among parasite popul...

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

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    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  5. A semiquantitative PCR assay for assessing Perkinsus marinus infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

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    Marsh, A G; Gauthier, J D; Vasta, G R

    1995-08-01

    A 3.2-kb fragment of Perkinsus marinus DNA was cloned and sequenced. A noncoding domain was identified and targeted for the development of a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the presence of P. marinus in eastern oyster tissues. The assay involves extracting total DNA from oyster hemolymph and using 1 microgram of that DNA as template in a stringent PCR amplification with oligonucleotide primers that are specific for the P. marinus 3.2-kb fragment. With this assay, we can detect 10 pg of total P. marinus DNA per 1 microgram of oyster hemocyte DNA with ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining of agarose gels, 100 fg total P. marinus DNA with Southern blot autoradiography, and 10 fg of total P. marinus DNA with dot-blot hybridizations. We have used the sensitivity of the PCR assay to develop a method for estimating the level of P. marinus DNA in oyster hemolymph and have successfully applied this technique to gill tissues. Our semiquantitative assay uses a dilution series to essentially titrate the point at which a P. marinus DNA target is no longer amplified in a sample. We refer to this technique as "dilution endpoint" PCR. Using hemocytes obtained by withdrawing a 1-ml sample of hemolymph, this assay provides a nondestructive methodology for rapidly screening large numbers of adult oysters for the presence and quantification of P. marinus infection levels. This technique is applicable to other tissues (gills) and could potentially be applied to DNA extracts of whole larvae or spat.

  6. Detection of Perkinsus marinus in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia by proteomic analysis

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    Thiago Ramos Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the presence of the pathogen Perkinsus marinus, notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Èpizooties = OIE in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia via proteomic analysis. We analyzed Crassostrea brasiliana from a long-line cultivation system and C. rhizophorae from an adjacent mangrove in Porto do Campo, Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. The collections (n = 100 were performed in October 2012. In the laboratory, the oysters were measured and opened to remove the meat, which was steeped in dry ice. For extraction of proteins, adaptation of a protocol used for mussels was used, after which separation in the first dimension was taken by isoelectric focusing (IEF. The peptides were transferred to a Mass Spectrometer. The obtained spectra were analyzed with the ProteinLynx Global Server 4.2 software tool and also by MASCOT (Matrix Science and compared to the databases of the SWISSPROT and NCBI, respectively. The identification was evidenced by beta-tubulin, Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983 and protein homology code in the database NCBI = gi | 294889481. This is the first record of P. marinus in Bahia and the fourth in Brazil.

  7. Effects of cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. in the host-parasite model Crassostrea gasar–Perkinsus marinus

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    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos [Laboratório de Imunologia e Patologia de Invertebrados (LABIPI), Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento (LABID), Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Hégaret, Hélène [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR 6539 CNRS UBO IRD IFREMER, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280, Plouzané (France); Sassi, Roberto [Laboratório de Ambientes Recifais e Biotecnologia de Microalgas (LARBIM), Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Farias, Natanael Dantas; Santana, Lucas Nunes [Laboratório de Imunologia e Patologia de Invertebrados (LABIPI), Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Synechocystis cyanobacteria cause functional weakness of oysters haemocytes. • Synechocystis cyanobacteria cause a strengthening of Perkinsus marinus. • Synechocystis cyanobacteria may contribute to an imbalance of P. marinus–Crassostrea gasar relationship. - Abstract: Perkinsosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Perkinsus genus. In Brazil, two species, P. beihaiensis and P. marinus, are frequently found infecting native oysters (Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae) from cultured and wild populations in several states of the Northeast region. The impacts of this disease in bivalves from Brazil, as well as the interactions with environmental factors, are poorly studied. In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro effects of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. on trophozoites of P. marinus and haemocytes of C. gasar. Four cyanobacteria strains isolated from the Northeast Brazilian coast were used as whole cultures (WCs) and extracellular products (ECPs). Trophozoites of P. marinus were exposed for short (4 h) and long (48 h and 7 days, the latter only for ECPs) periods, while haemocytes were exposed for a short period (4 h). Cellular and immune parameters, i.e. cell viability, cell count, reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and phagocytosis of inert (latex beads) and biological particles (zymosan and trophozoites of P. marinus) were measured by flow cytometry. The viability of P. marinus trophozoites was improved in response to WCs of Synechocystis spp., which could be a beneficial effect of the cyanobacteria providing nutrients and reducing reactive oxygen species. Long-term exposure of trophozoites to ECPs of cyanobacteria did not modify in vitro cell proliferation nor viability. In contrast, C. gasar haemocytes showed a reduction in cell viability when exposed to WCs, but not to ECPs. However, ROS production was not altered. Haemocyte ability to engulf latex particles was reduced when exposed mainly to ECPs of

  8. Effects of cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. in the host-parasite model Crassostrea gasar–Perkinsus marinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Sassi, Roberto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Santana, Lucas Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Synechocystis cyanobacteria cause functional weakness of oysters haemocytes. • Synechocystis cyanobacteria cause a strengthening of Perkinsus marinus. • Synechocystis cyanobacteria may contribute to an imbalance of P. marinus–Crassostrea gasar relationship. - Abstract: Perkinsosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Perkinsus genus. In Brazil, two species, P. beihaiensis and P. marinus, are frequently found infecting native oysters (Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae) from cultured and wild populations in several states of the Northeast region. The impacts of this disease in bivalves from Brazil, as well as the interactions with environmental factors, are poorly studied. In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro effects of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis spp. on trophozoites of P. marinus and haemocytes of C. gasar. Four cyanobacteria strains isolated from the Northeast Brazilian coast were used as whole cultures (WCs) and extracellular products (ECPs). Trophozoites of P. marinus were exposed for short (4 h) and long (48 h and 7 days, the latter only for ECPs) periods, while haemocytes were exposed for a short period (4 h). Cellular and immune parameters, i.e. cell viability, cell count, reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and phagocytosis of inert (latex beads) and biological particles (zymosan and trophozoites of P. marinus) were measured by flow cytometry. The viability of P. marinus trophozoites was improved in response to WCs of Synechocystis spp., which could be a beneficial effect of the cyanobacteria providing nutrients and reducing reactive oxygen species. Long-term exposure of trophozoites to ECPs of cyanobacteria did not modify in vitro cell proliferation nor viability. In contrast, C. gasar haemocytes showed a reduction in cell viability when exposed to WCs, but not to ECPs. However, ROS production was not altered. Haemocyte ability to engulf latex particles was reduced when exposed mainly to ECPs of

  9. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

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    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  10. First report of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus in South America, infecting mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Paraíba River (NE, Brazil).

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    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Santana, Lucas Nunes; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Ramilo, Andrea; Cao, Asunción; Villalba, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The present work aimed to study the infection by Perkinsus sp. in the mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the estuary of the Paraíba River (Paraíba State, Brazil). Perkinsosis was detected by incubation of oyster gill pieces in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. The monthly prevalence values were all above 70%, thus infection was not likely to be a transient event. Perkinsus sp. parasites isolated from eight oysters were propagated in vitro. PCR-RFLP analysis of in vitro cultured cells as well as the sequences of the rDNA ITS region allowed the identification of the in vitro propagated parasites as Perkinsus marinus. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA ITS region sequences strongly supported the Perkinsus sp. from Paraíba in a monophyletic group with P. marinus. Thus, the results confirmed the species affiliation of Paraíba Perkinsus sp. as P. marinus. This is the first report of P. marinus in Brazil and South America and the first report of P. marinus naturally infecting C. rhizophorae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus (dermo), Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), and QPX in bivalves of Delaware's inland bays and quantitative, high-throughput diagnosis of dermo by QPCR.

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    Ulrich, Paul N; Ewart, John W; Marsh, Adam G

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of oyster reef habitat in the Inland Bays of Delaware was accompanied by an effort to detect and determine relative abundance of the bivalve pathogens Perkinsus marinus, Haplosporidium nelsoni, and QPX. Both the oyster Crassostrea virginica and the clam Mercenaria mercenaria were sampled from the bays. In addition, oysters were deployed at eight sites around the bays as sentinels for the three parasites. Perkinsus marinus prevalence was measured with a real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology that enabled high-throughput detection of as few as 31 copies of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer region in 500 ng oyster DNA. The other pathogens were assayed using PCR with species-specific primers. Perkinsus marinus was identified in Indian River Bay at moderate prevalence ( approximately 40%) in both an artificial reef and a wild oyster population whereas sentinel oysters were PCR-negative after 3-months exposure during summer and early fall. Haplosporidium nelsoni was restricted to one oyster deployed in Little Assawoman Bay. QPX and P. marinus were not detected among wild clams. While oysters in these bays have historically been under the greatest threat by MSX, it is apparent that P. marinus currently poses a greater threat to recovery of oyster aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays.

  12. Investigation into the Physiological Significance of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid in Perkinsus marinus, an Oyster Parasite Harboring a Nonphotosynthetic Plastid.

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    Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Shigeo; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Kita, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Motomichi

    2017-07-01

    Some organisms have retained plastids even after they have lost the ability to photosynthesize. Several studies of nonphotosynthetic plastids in apicomplexan parasites have shown that the isopentenyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis pathway in the organelle is essential for their survival. A phytohormone, abscisic acid, one of several compounds biosynthesized from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, regulates the parasite cell cycle. Thus, it is possible that the phytohormone is universally crucial, even in nonphotosynthetic plastids. Here, we examined this possibility using the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus, which is a plastid-harboring cousin of apicomplexan parasites and has independently lost photosynthetic ability. Fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid biosynthesis, blocked parasite growth and induced cell clustering. Nevertheless, abscisic acid and its intermediate carotenoids did not affect parasite growth or rescue the parasite from inhibition. Moreover, abscisic acid was not detected from the parasite using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Our findings show that abscisic acid does not play any significant roles in P. marinus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary

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    Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

  14. Genetic signature analysis of Perkinsus marinus in Mexico suggests possible translocation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific coast of Mexico.

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    Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Améndola-Pimenta, Monica; Vidal-Martínez, Victor Manuel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2017-08-02

    The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast. The aim of this study was two-fold. First, we evaluated the P. marinus infection parameters by PCR and RFTM (Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium) in C. virginica from four major lagoons (Términos Lagoon, Campeche; Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex, Tabasco; Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz; and La Pesca Lagoon, Tamaulipas) from the Gulf of Mexico. Secondly, we used DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (rNTS) region of P. marinus to determine the possible translocation of this species from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mexican Pacific coast. Perkinsus marinus prevalence by PCR was 57.7% (338 out of 586 oysters) and 38.2% (224 out of 586 oysters) by RFTM. The highest prevalence was observed in the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex in the state of Tabasco (73% by PCR and 58% by RFTM) and the estimated weighted prevalence (WP) was less than 1.0 in the four lagoons. Ten unique rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus [termed herein the "P. marinus (Pm) haplotype"] were identified in the Gulf of Mexico sample. They shared 96-100% similarity with 18 rDNA-NTS sequences from the GenBank database which were derived from 16 Mexican Pacific coast infections and two sequences from the USA. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network showed that the P. marinus rDNA-NTS sequences from Mexico were distant from the rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus reported from the USA. The ten r

  15. De novo arachidonic acid synthesis in Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

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    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric; Soudant, Philippe; Harvey, Ellen

    2002-02-01

    The capability of synthesizing fatty acids de novo in the meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, was investigated employing stable-isotope-labeled precursors (1,2 13C-acetate and palmitic-d(31) acid). Fatty acid methyl esters derived from 1,2 13C-acetate and palmitic-d(31) acid were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Results revealed that in vitro cultured P. marinus meronts utilized 13C-acetate to synthesize a range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0 and the unsaturated fatty acids, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 20:1(n-9), 20:2(n-6), 20:2(n-9), 20:3(n-6), 20:4(n-6) were found to contain 13C, after 7, 14, and 21 days incubation with the precursor. This indicates that meronts can synthesize fatty acid de novo using acetate as a substrate. Meronts efficiently elongated 16:0-d(31) to 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0, but desaturation activity was limited, after 7 and 14 days cultivation. Only a small quantity of 18:1-d(29) was detected. This suggests that meronts cannot directly convert exogenous palmitic acid or its products of elongation to unsaturated counterparts. The ability to synthesize 20:4(n-6) from acetate is particularly interesting. No parasitic protozoan has been reported to be capable of synthesizing long chain essential fatty acids, such as 20:4(n-6) de novo. Future study will be directed to determine whether the observed in vitro activities indeed reflect the in vivo activities, when meronts are associated with the host.

  16. Effects of air-exposure gradients on spatial infection patterns of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

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    Malek, Jennafer C; Breitburg, Denise L

    2016-02-25

    Spatial distributions of species can be shaped by factors such as parasites, mortality, and reproduction, all of which may be influenced by differences in physical factors along environmental gradients. In nearshore tidal waters, an elevational gradient in aerial exposure during low tide can shape the spatial distributions of benthic marine organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an ecologically and economically important species that can dominate both subtidal and intertidal habitats along the east coast of the USA. Our goal was to determine whether prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus (the causative agent of Dermo disease) infections vary along intertidal to subtidal gradients during summer. We used (1) field experiments conducted at 4 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and a Virginia coastal bay, (2) a controlled air-exposure experiment, and (3) field surveys from 7 sites ranging from Maine to North Carolina to test for effects of tidal exposure on infection. Results from our field surveys suggested that high intertidal oysters tend to have higher infection prevalence than subtidal oysters, but there was no effect on infection intensity. Field experiments rarely yielded significant effects of tidal exposure on infection prevalence and intensity. Overall, our study shows that exposure to air may not be a strong driver of infection patterns in this host-parasite system.

  17. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

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    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  18. SEASONAL VARIATION OF Perkinsus marinus IN THE AMERICAN OYSTER Crassostrea virginica FROM THE CARMEN-MACHONA PAJONAL LAGOON SYSTEM IN TABASCO, MEXICO

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    Sergio Curiel-Ramírez-Gutiérrez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Gulf of Mexico, the fishery of the oyster Crassostrea virginica is the main resource for you capture volume (42, 796 t. This resource is affected by the disease of the Dermo, which has been little studied in the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and grade of infection of Perkinsus marinus in Tabasco. Samples were realized by Fluid Thioglycolate medium (MFT, histopathology and PCR in oysters of six banks in the lagoon system Carmen-Machona-Pajonal, Tabasco. The results of the MFT after incubation, showed hipnosporas of blue-black. The histopathological analysis revealed alterations in the tissues connective and epithelial, as well as the forms characteristic of P. marinus, such as tomontes and trophozoites. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by PCR analysis. The prevalence of P. marinus registered in times of rain, north-wind and dry was 73.3, 90 and 100%; the degree of infection was 2, 3 and 5 on the scale of Mackin, respectively. There is a relationship of the prevalence and intensity of the infection with respect to increased temperature and salinity, where the dry season was most critical.

  19. Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica): effects of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of fluorescent lipid analogs and lipase activities.

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    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Soudant, P; Lund, E D

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of fluorescent labeled palmitic acid (FLC16) and phosphatidylcholine (FLPC) and lipase activities in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, meront stage were tested at 10, 18, and 28 degrees C. Temperature significantly affected not only the uptake, assimilation, and metabolism of both FLC16 and FLPC in P. marinus, but also its triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase activities. The incorporation of both FLC16 and FLPC increased with temperature and paralleled the increase in the amount of total fatty acids in P. marinus meront cultures. The incorporation of FLC16 was higher than FLPC at all temperatures. The percentage of FLC16 metabolized to TAG was significantly higher at higher temperatures. Trace amounts of incorporated FLC16 were detected in monoacylglycerol (MAG) and PC at 18 and 28 degrees C. P. marinus meronts metabolized FLPC to TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), monoacylglycerol (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and cardiolipin (CL). The conversion of FLPC to TAG and PE was highest at 28 degrees C. The relative proportions of individual fatty acids and total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids changed with temperatures. While total saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) increased with temperature, total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased with temperature. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increased from 28 to 18 degrees C. The findings of increase of total SAFAs and decrease of total MUFAs with the increase of temperatures and upward shift of total PUFAs from 28 to 18 degrees C suggest that, as in other organisms, P. marinus is capable of adapting to changes in environmental temperatures by modifying its lipid metabolism. Generally, higher lipase activities were noted at higher cultivation temperatures. Both TAG lipase and phospholipase activities were detected in P. marinus cells and their extra cellular products (ECP), but phospholipase

  20. Diversity of extracellular proteins during the transition from the ‘proto-apicomplexan’ alveolates to the apicomplexan obligate parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Templeton, Thomas J.

    2015-11-20

    The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans – namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis ; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus ; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes , as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell–cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate – guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships – in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans.

  1. Diversity of extracellular proteins during the transition from the ‘proto-apicomplexan’ alveolates to the apicomplexan obligate parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans – namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis ; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus ; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes , as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell–cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate – guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships – in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans.

  2. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mirella da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus andPerkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluatedPerkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state.Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%, but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%, and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  3. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Cold

    Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  4. Phylogeography and connectivity of molluscan parasites: Perkinsus spp. in Panama and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Torchin, Mark E; Fleischer, Robert C; Carnegie, Ryan B; Reece, Kimberly S; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2018-02-01

    Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013. We used molecular genetic methods to screen for Perkinsus spp. and obtained internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for all positive samples. Our sequence data were used to evaluate regional haplotype diversity and distribution across both coasts of Panama, and were then combined with publicly available sequences to create global haplotype networks. We found 26 ITS haplotypes from four Perkinsus spp. (1-12 haplotypes per species) in Panama. Perkinsus beihaiensis haplotypes had the highest genetic diversity, were the most regionally widespread, and were associated with the greatest number of hosts. On a global scale, network analyses demonstrated that some haplotypes found in Panama were cosmopolitan (Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus marinus), while others were more geographically restricted (Perkinsus olseni, P. beihaiensis), indicating different levels of genetic connectivity and dispersal. We found some Perkinsus haplotypes were shared across the Isthmus of Panama and several regions around the world, including across ocean basins. We also found that haplotype diversity is currently underestimated and directly related to the number of sequences. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate long-range dispersal and global connectivity for

  5. Distribution and Evolution of Peroxisomes in Alveolates (Apicomplexa, Dinoflagellates, Ciliates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig-Klingner, Ann-Kathrin; Michael, Victoria; Jarek, Michael; Brinkmann, Henner

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The peroxisome was the last organelle to be discovered and five decades later it is still the Cinderella of eukaryotic compartments. Peroxisomes have a crucial role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and the biosynthesis of etherphospholipids, and they are assumed to be present in virtually all aerobic eukaryotes. Apicomplexan parasites including the malaria and toxoplasmosis agents were described as the first group of mitochondriate protists devoid of peroxisomes. This study was initiated to reassess the distribution and evolution of peroxisomes in the superensemble Alveolata (apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, ciliates). We established transcriptome data from two chromerid algae (Chromera velia, Vitrella brassicaformis), and two dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum minimum, Perkinsus olseni) and identified the complete set of essential peroxins in all four reference species. Our comparative genome analysis provides unequivocal evidence for the presence of peroxisomes in Toxoplasma gondii and related genera. Our working hypothesis of a common peroxisomal origin of all alveolates is supported by phylogenetic analyses of essential markers such as the import receptor Pex5. Vitrella harbors the most comprehensive set of peroxisomal proteins including the catalase and the glyoxylate cycle and it is thus a promising model organism to investigate the functional role of this organelle in Apicomplexa. PMID:29202176

  6. Autoantibodies in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Bois Ron

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA involves injury, an immune/inflammatory response and fibrosis. The cause of the injury is unknown, but the identification of serum autoantibodies makes an autoimmune aetiology attractive. The core study on which this commentary is based used novel cloning and serum screening technologies in order to identify new public and private autoantibodies in sera from 12 patients with CFA. Largely negative conclusions were drawn from that study. However, we suggest that the prevalence of autoantibodies may have been underestimated, that the study was timely and that this approach is worth pursuing further.

  7. [Demonstration of subclinical pulmonary alveolitis in spondylarthropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, P; Bonnet, D; Chouc, P Y; Molinier, S; Raphenon, G; Martet, G; Merouze, F; de Muizon, H

    1994-05-01

    Restrictive ventilatory dysfunction, lowered diffusing capacity, and apical fibrosis have been reported in ankylosing spondylitis. To investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities, we studied distal airspace cytology by performing bronchoalveolar lavage in 34 spondyloarthropathy patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 16; reactive arthritis, n = 4; axial psoriatic arthritis, n = 2; and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy with HLA B27-positivity in every case but one, n = 12). Mean age was 32.4 +/- 13.7 years. None of the study patients had apical fibrosis, lower respiratory tract infection, or exposure to airborne pollutants other than tobacco smoke. The control group was composed of nine subjects who had no lung or inflammatory diseases and were not using medications. Significantly higher proportions of lymphocytes were found in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients, as compared with controls. This difference was not influenced by smoking or medication use (non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, sulfasalazopyridine). Alveolar lymphocytosis was not correlated with laboratory tests for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum IgA levels) or with the presence of restrictive ventilatory dysfunction. Increases in the proportion of lymphocytes were of similar magnitude in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in those with other spondyloarthropathies. Absolute total cell counts and relative neutrophil counts were similar in patients and controls. However, among the patients with spondyloarthropathies, those with a disease duration of more than five years had a significantly higher proportion of neutrophils than those with a disease duration of less than five years. These findings demonstrate that spondyloarthropathy patients have subclinical lymphocyte alveolitis. Although of unclear significance, this alveolitis may be related to the development of apical fibrosis in some patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  8. CT-semiotics and clinical aspects of extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrynnikova, I.P.; Momot, N.V.; Vakulenko, I.P.; Tanasichuk-Gazhieva, N.V

    2003-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be a difficult diagnostic problem. The comparison of the results of CT research with the clinical immunological and morphological data allowed to define the forms and diagnose the characteristic symptoms of the disease

  9. [Gold salt alveolitis in 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, E; Tomsic, M; Logar, D

    1995-06-01

    When the characteristic symptoms for an interstitial pulmonary disease arise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a drug-induced alveolitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In such cases, the administration of the drug and gold salts should be stopped. The cases of three patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had been treated with gold salts for 2 months (A), 23 months (B), and 36 months (C) are presented. The total dose of sodium aureothiomalate amounted to 280 mg for patient A, 1150 mg for patient B, and 2190 mg for patient C. Clinical signs, X-rays of the lungs, pulmonary function tests, and laboratory tests were evaluated for the three patients while, for patient A BAL as well as provocation tests were additionally performed before and after therapy. In this case, the histological picture of the lungs is presented; biopsies were taken during the first BAL. The clinical complaints of all 3 patients were similar, with the alveolitis being observed as diffuse in one case and above all in the upper regions in two cases on radiology. This led to differing degrees of diffusion disorders in the lungs. In patient A, the diagnosis was made in the stage of progressive fibrotic alveolitis and was treated with D-penicillamine. All 3 patients received steroids over 3-6 months and the gold salts were stopped. Because of the long duration and doubtful differential diagnosis for patient A with either rheumatoid lung or gold salt alveolitis, a provocation test with sodium aureothiomalate was performed. All 3 patients had blood eosinophilia while, in case A, a thrombopenia was also found. A gold salt alveolitis can occur as a side effect of gold salts in addition to skin vasculitis and hematological disorders. When the gold salt administration is not stopped a fibrotic alveolitis can develop. The provocation test can be diagnostically useful to distinguish between a rheumatoid lung and gold salt alveolitis.

  10. DECREASED RESISTANCE OF EASTERN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) TO A PROTOZOAN PATHOGEN (PERKINSUS MARINUS) AFTER SUBLETHAL EXPOSURE TO TRIBUTYLTIN OXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic environmental stress is a likely contributor to outbreaks of disease due to immunosuppression or increased host vulnerability. Estuarine organisms are exposed to variable concentrations of marine antifouling agents, such as tributyltin (TBT), with higher exposures e...

  11. COMPARISON OF IN VITRO-CULTURED AND WILD-TYPE PERKINSUS MARINUS. II: DOSING METHODS AND HOST RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoparasites must breach host barriers to establish infection and then must survive host internal defenses to cause disease. Such barriers may frustrate attempts to experimentally transmit parasites by ?natural' methods. In addition, the host's condition may affect a study's out...

  12. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (extrinsic allergic broncho- alveolitis, pneumopathies with precipitins, hypersensitivity pneumopathies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaud, F

    1986-01-01

    The author does a general survey on this subject. Having evoked the EAA history, he describes the clinical syndrome with 3 forms (sharp to chronic). He relates in a first part, the main forms linked with rural occupation, from farmer's lung disease, the most frequent, to illnesses dues to cereals, woods exposition, then the one in touch with industry as coffee workers disease, and breeders of silkworms. At last, the ones in connection with urban activities as air-conditioner disease. These descriptions ended with EAA caused by a drug. Having evoked the complementary investigations necessary for diagnosis, he insists on the alveolitis washing and biochemicals studies. In conclusion, the author insists on the interest of steroids treatment in attacks.

  13. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Luz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil, its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240 were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8. In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  14. First report of Perkinsus beihaiensis in Crassostrea madrasensis from the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanil, N K; Suja, G; Lijo, J; Vijayan, K K

    2012-04-26

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Perkinsus are considered important pathogens responsible for mass mortalities in many wild and farmed bivalve populations. The present study was initiated to screen populations of the Indian edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, a promising candidate for aquaculture along the Indian coasts, for the presence of Perkinsus spp. The study reports the presence of P. beihaiensis for the first time in C. madrasensis populations from the Indian subcontinent and south Asia. Samples collected from the east and west coasts of India were subjected to Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) culture and histology which indicated the presence of Perkinsus spp. PCR screening of the tissues using specific primers amplified the product specific to the genus Perkinsus. The taxonomic affinities of the parasites were determined by sequencing both internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and actin genes followed by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis. Analysis based on the ITS sequences showed 98 to 100% identity to Perkinsus spp. (P. beihaiensis and Brazilian Perkinsus sp.). The pairwise genetic distance values and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that 2 of the present samples belonged to the P. beihaiensis clade while the other 4 showed close affinities with the Brazilian Perkinsus sp. clade. The genetic divergence data, close affinity with the Brazilian Perkinsus sp., and co-existence with P. beihaiensis in the same host species in the same habitat show that the remaining 4 samples exhibit some degree of variation from P. beihaiensis. As expected, the sequencing of actin genes did not show any divergence among the samples studied. They probably could be intraspecific variants of P. beihaiensis having a separate lineage in the process of evolution.

  15. A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moore, R. B.; Oborník, Miroslav; Janouškovec, Jan; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Vancová, Marie; Green, D. H.; Wright, S. W.; Davies, N. W.; Bolch, Ch. J. S.; Heimann, K.; Šlapeta, J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Logsdon, J. M.; Carter, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 451, 21-02-2008 (2008), s. 959-963 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : alveolate * photosynthesis * Chromera velia * evolution * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 31.434, year: 2008

  16. [Farmer's lung--a form of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambale, M; Liebetrau, G

    1990-11-15

    Exogenic allergic alveolitides are caused by organic dusts which contain bacteria, moulds or vegetable and animal antigens. The farmer's lung as a form of the exogenic allergic alveolitis is a rare disease. The uncharacteristic symptomatology in the initial phase and in particular the retarded beginning of the symptom after several hours handicap the timely recognition in an early phase of the disease so that curative therapeutic measures are rarely possible. The cases of the disease are found only at the chronic stage, at the stage of the pulmonary fibrosis. Then the prognosis is unfavourable. In the Central Clinic for Heart and Lung Diseases Bad Berka 1,110 patients with alveolitides and lung fibroses were diagnosed in the period from 1975 to 1988. 306 of them could be clarified as exogenic allergic alveolitis, 61 of them (19.8%) were farmer's lungs.

  17. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  18. Preparation of alveolate hydrophobic catalyst for tritium waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Peng, Shuming; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang; Li, Jiamao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The catalyst is hydrophobic, it will not be poisoned by steam in room air at room temperature which is better than Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • At room temperature, the conversion of low concentration of H2 and tritium gas in room air over the catalyst is high. • The air resistance of catalyst is much lower than graininess Pt-Al 2 O 3 . • It is inorganic and will not burn. - Abstract: To prepare a catalyst for the detritiation of waste gases at high flow rates, a heat-resistant hydrophobic zeolitic molecular sieve coating was synthesized on the surface of alveolate cordierite by hydrothermal processing. The alveolate hydrophobic catalyst prepared from the support was essentially waterproof and not easily poisoned by moisture. At room temperature, the conversion of low concentrations of H 2 in humid air over the catalyst was higher than 95% at different space velocities (0–16,000 h −1 ) and different relative humidities. The reaction rate constant of the oxidation of tritium over alveolate hydrophobic catalyst is 0.182 s −1 at 293.3 K–293.7 K and 59%–60% RH, it is much higher than the catalyst of reference honeycomb catalyst.

  19. STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE STRATIFIED MASS CONTAINING VERTICAL ALVEOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobileva Tatiana Nikolaevna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all subsurface rocks used as foundations for various types of structures are stratified. Such heterogeneity may cause specific behaviour of the materials under strain. Differential equations describing the behaviour of such materials contain rapidly fluctuating coefficients, in view of this, solution of such equations is more time-consuming when using today’s computers. The method of asymptotic averaging leads to getting homogeneous medium under study to averaged equations with fixed factors. The present article is concerned with stratified soil mass consisting of pair-wise alternative isotropic elastic layers. In the results of elastic modules averaging, the present soil mass with horizontal rock stratification is simulated by homogeneous transversal-isotropic half-space with isotropy plane perpendicular to the standing axis. Half-space is loosened by a vertical alveole of circular cross-section, and virgin ground is under its own weight. For horizontal parting planes of layers, the following two types of surface conditions are set: ideal contact and backlash without cleavage. For homogeneous transversal-isotropic half-space received with a vertical alveole, the analytical solution of S.G. Lekhnitsky, well known in scientific papers, is used. The author gives expressions for stress components and displacements in soil mass for different marginal conditions on the alveole surface. Such research problems arise when constructing and maintaining buildings and when composite materials are used.

  20. Alveolitis seca: una revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Buenaventura, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    La alveolitis seca es la complicación posoperatoria más frecuente como resultado de la alteración en la cicatrización de la herida alveolar después de una extracción dental. El manejo de esta afección tiene por objetivo el control del dolor durante el periodo de curación del cuadro, lo cual se logra fundamentalmente mediante medidas paliativas. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura es obtener suficiente información sobre las causas y otros factores que podrían estar involucrados en es...

  1. Alveolitis seca: una revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vergara Buenaventura

    2014-01-01

    La alveolitis seca es la complicación posoperatoria más frecuente como resultado de la alteración en la cicatrización de la herida alveolar después de una extracción dental. El manejo de esta afección tiene por objetivo el control del dolor durante el periodo de curación del cuadro, lo cual se logra fundamentalmente mediante medidas paliativas. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura es obtener suficiente información sobre las causas y otros factores que podrían estar involucrados en...

  2. Ventilation perfusion radionuclide imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, S.J.; Hawkins, T.; Keavey, P.M.; Gascoigne, A.D.; Corris, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. We analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and ''washout delay'' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving >60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO 2 or A-aO 2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. (Author)

  3. Growth, mortality and susceptibility of oyster Crassostrea spp. to Perkinsus spp. infection during on growing in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paiva Scardua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. gasar oysters are cultivated in the northeast region. Perkinsus parasites infect bivalves, and their effects on oysters from tropical regions are poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of Perkinsus infection on the productive traits of native oysters. Oysters were sampled bimonthly during 7 months, from July 2010 to February 2011, to evaluate growth rate, mortality and shell color patterns (white and dark-gray (n = 500, and to determine the prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus (n = 152. Perkinsus and Crassostrea species were determined using molecular tools. Results showed that most dark-gray (90%, n = 20 and white (67%, n = 18 oysters were C. gasar and C. rhizophorae, respectively. Oysters showed a high growth rate and moderate cumulative mortality (44%. C. gasar oysters grew better and showed lower mortality and lower incidence of Perkinsus compared to C. rhizophorae. The mean prevalence of Perkinsus was moderate (48%, but the infection intensity was light (2.2. Perkinsosis affected very small oysters (19.4 mm. In conclusion, native oysters, especially C. gasar, have a great potential for culture, mortality is not associated with perkinsosis, and the shell color of oysters can be used to improve selection for spats with better performance.

  4. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1970-01-01

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131 I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Development of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, John H.; Lech, John J.; Allen, John L.

    1980-01-01

    Larvicides are used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. These larvicides are useful because they are more toxic to sea lamprey than fish species found in the same habitat. The lampricides come from two classes of chemical compounds: (1) halonitrophenols, and (2) halonitrosalicylanilides. Selectivity of the larvicides appears to be based on the differences in the ability of sea lamprey larvae and fishes to detoxify and/or excrete the chemicals. Glucuronide conjugation is an important mechanism for detoxification of these larvicides by fish, and selectivity of larvicides may be due to differences in glucuronyl transferase activity between lamprey and fishes. If more detailed information were available on uptake, metabolism, excretion, and the biochemistry and physiology of lamprey as compared to fishes, it might be possible to design chemicals that would be more selective than those now in use.

  6. CT and HR-CT of exogenous allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, A.; Kullnig, P.; Pongratz, M.

    1992-01-01

    The CT changes on conventional and high resolution CT in 14 patients with exogeneous allergic alveolitis (EAA) were analysed retrospectively. There were 8 patients with clinically subacute disease, 5 patients in a chronic stage and 1 patient with acute EAA. The appearances and their distribution were examined. Seven of the 8 patients in the subacute stage showed a ground glass pattern and multiple nodules of less than 2 mm. All patients in the chronic stage showed a combination of fine infiltrates, small nodules and irregular linear densities; distortion of the pulmonary pattern was present in 3 cases. The patient with acute EAA showed diffuse dense areas of consolidation in both lungs as well as multiple nodules and a ground glass pattern. The CT appearances of EAA correspond with the basic micropathology and, within the clinical context, permit diagnostic classification. (orig.) [de

  7. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P

    2010-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  8. Perkinsus sp. infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dantas-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is an estuarine resource exploited by riverside communities in Northeast Brazil. Despite its socioeconomic importance, studies on the health status of this bivalve are scanty in this region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of the protozoan Perkinsus sp. in C. rhizophorae collected in August and September 2011 in three estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil: Jaguaribe (Ceará, Camurupim (Piauí and Carnaubeiras (Maranhão (n= 150 specimens/site. The samples were submitted to Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, PCR and histology assays. The RFTM assay revealed spherical, blue or bluish-black hypnospores of the genus Perkinsus in 50 specimens (Jaguaribe= 17.3%, Camurupim= 5.3%, Carnaubeiras= 10.6%. The intensity of the infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells per slide to severe (more than 40 cells in each of 10 fields of the slide for Jaguaribe; very light for Camurupim and very light to moderate (at least 40 cells observed in each of 10 fields of the slide for Carnaubeiras. When submitted to confirmatory PCR analysis, 6 cases were confirmed (Jaguaribe=3, Camurupim=1, Carnaubeiras=2. The histology confirmed 21 cases of infection in specimens from the three estuaries. Although local collectors have reported no mortality in oyster populations that might be attributed to infection by Perkinsus, health surveillance of oyster populations in the septentrional region of Northeast Brazil is advisable.

  9. High Tolerance of Hydrogenothermus marinus to Sodium Perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On Mars, significant amounts (0.4–0.6% of perchlorate ions were detected in dry soil by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory and later confirmed with the Mars Science Laboratory. Therefore, the ability of Hydrogenothermus marinus, a desiccation tolerant bacterium, to survive and grow in the presence of perchlorates was determined. Results indicated that H. marinus was able to tolerate concentrations of sodium perchlorate up to 200 mM ( 1.6% during cultivation without any changes in its growth pattern. After the addition of up to 440 mM ( 3.7% sodium perchlorate, H. marinus showed significant changes in cell morphology; from single motile short rods to long cell chains up to 80 cells. Furthermore, it was shown that the known desiccation tolerance of H. marinus is highly influenced by a pre-treatment with different perchlorates; additive effects of desiccation and perchlorate treatments are visible in a reduced survival rate. These data demonstrate that thermophiles, especially H. marinus, have so far, unknown high tolerances against cell damaging treatments and may serve as model organisms for future space experiments.

  10. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, István; Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  11. Critical threshold size for overwintering sandeels (Ammodytes marinus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Hartvig, Martin; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2011-01-01

    scales with body size and increases with temperature, and the two factors together determine a critical threshold size for passive overwintering below which the organism is unlikely to survive without feeding. This is because the energetic cost of metabolism exceeds maximum energy reserves...... independent long-term overwintering experiments. Maximum attainable energy reserves were estimated from published data on A. marinus in the North Sea. The critical threshold size in terms of length (Lth) for A. marinus in the North Sea was estimated to be 9.5 cm. We then investigated two general predictions...

  12. PET scanning of macrophages in patients with scleroderma fibrosing alveolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branley, Howard M. [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Howard.Branley@whittington.nhs.uk; Bois, Roland M. du; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Hazel A. [Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Rationale: Assessment of disease activity in fibrosing alveolitis due to systemic sclerosis (FASSc) is difficult without using invasive investigation. A repeatable noninvasive method of assessing disease at a cellular level such as with positron emission tomography (PET) could be of great value in evaluating high-resolution changes in the pathological process. Objectives: To investigate whether the level of inflammatory cell traffic and lung density in FASSc, imaged in vivo by PET, is different to controls and whether they are associated with changes in pulmonary function indices. Methods: We used PET to measure lung density and tissue uptake of {sup 11}C-[R]-PK11195, a ligand that binds to receptors found in abundance in macrophages. Fifteen patients with FASSc were compared to seven controls. Results: A trend of reduced uptake of {sup 11}C-[R]-PK11195 was observed in FASSc patients (P=.09) and correlated inversely with lung density (r=-.62; P<.05), which was significantly elevated in FASSc [0.35{+-}0.02 vs. 0.23{+-}0.02 g/cc (mean{+-}S.E.M.); P<.005]. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that inflammatory cell traffic and lung density can be imaged in vivo in FASSc using PET, and that this approach might be of potential value in understanding, in situ, components of pathogenesis that may have value for prognosis.

  13. PET scanning of macrophages in patients with scleroderma fibrosing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branley, Howard M.; Bois, Roland M. du; Wells, Athol U.; Jones, Hazel A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Assessment of disease activity in fibrosing alveolitis due to systemic sclerosis (FASSc) is difficult without using invasive investigation. A repeatable noninvasive method of assessing disease at a cellular level such as with positron emission tomography (PET) could be of great value in evaluating high-resolution changes in the pathological process. Objectives: To investigate whether the level of inflammatory cell traffic and lung density in FASSc, imaged in vivo by PET, is different to controls and whether they are associated with changes in pulmonary function indices. Methods: We used PET to measure lung density and tissue uptake of 11 C-[R]-PK11195, a ligand that binds to receptors found in abundance in macrophages. Fifteen patients with FASSc were compared to seven controls. Results: A trend of reduced uptake of 11 C-[R]-PK11195 was observed in FASSc patients (P=.09) and correlated inversely with lung density (r=-.62; P<.05), which was significantly elevated in FASSc [0.35±0.02 vs. 0.23±0.02 g/cc (mean±S.E.M.); P<.005]. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that inflammatory cell traffic and lung density can be imaged in vivo in FASSc using PET, and that this approach might be of potential value in understanding, in situ, components of pathogenesis that may have value for prognosis

  14. Defining optimal freshwater flow for oyster production: effects of freshet rate and magnitude of change and duration on eastern oysters and Perkinsus marinus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Gossman, B.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2009-01-01

    In coastal Louisiana, the development of large-scale freshwater diversion projects has led to controversy over their effects on oyster resources. Using controlled laboratory experiments in combination with a field study, we examined the effects of pulsed freshwater events (freshet) of different magnitude, duration, and rate of change on oyster resources. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that low salinity events (oyster growth was positively correlated with salinity. To maximize oyster production, data indicate that both low and high salinity events will be necessary.

  15. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L.; Sanchez-Paya, J.; Massuti, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5±15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2±3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5±13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8±16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8±10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2±8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au)

  16. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L. [Hospital General Universitario, Servicios de Neumologia, Alicante (Spain); Sanchez-Paya, J. [Hospital General Universitario, Epidemiologia, Alicante (Spain); Massuti, B. [Hospital General Universitario, Oncologia, Alicante (Spain)

    1999-04-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5{+-}15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2{+-}3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5{+-}13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8{+-}16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8{+-}10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2{+-}8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au) 38 refs.

  17. Measures of the inflammatory response in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, C.F.; Valind, S.O.; Sweatman, M.; Lawrence, R.; Rhodes, C.G.; Brudin, L.; Britten, A.; Hughes, J.M.; Turner-Warwick, M.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) is characterized by interstitial fibrosis and parenchymal inflammation. Eleven patients with CFA (10 proved by lung biopsy) were followed over 2 yr using clinical symptoms, radiographic change, and pulmonary function tests to adjust their treatment. Lung lavage, positron camera (PET) measurements of regional extravascular lung density (Dev), pulmonary blood volume (Vb), and the metabolic rate for 18F-deoxyglucose (MRglc), clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol, and lung uptake of 67Ga were measured initially and at the end of the first year to give a profile of the inflammatory response. Compared with normal subjects, there was an increased percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils in the lung lavage, increased Dev (p less than 0.002) with no significant difference in Vb, increased MRglc (p less than 0.02), 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p less than 0.002), and 67Ga uptake (p less than 0.02). The smallest increases in Dev were seen in the two patients with most destruction shown by lung biopsy. There were inverse correlations between Dev and both FVC and TLC, but a direct correlation between Vb and transfer factor. 99mTc-DTPA clearance changed concordantly with clinical status and radiographic and respiratory function changes during the first year. If glucose utilization (MRglc) remained in the normal range between the initial and first yearly assessment, the patient improved or remained stable during the second year as shown by clinical status and radiographic and respiratory function measurements. If it rose or remained high, the patient's condition deteriorated

  18. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) in a well-defined and stable Norwegian population of 250,000 inhabitants during a period of 15 years. We conducted a file survey of all patients (n = 376) aged 16 years or older with a clinician's diagnosis...

  19. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri de; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Feres, Magda; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Ferreira, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies.

  20. Eficacia del extracto fluido de Vimang® en el tratamiento de pacientes con alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Del Toro Gámez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico de fase III en 118 pacientes con alveolitis, atendidos en la consulta estomatológica del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, para evaluar la eficacia del extracto fluido de Vimang® en el tratamiento de ellos. La muestra se dividió en 2 grupos (experimental y control, distribuidos aleatoriamente; los integrantes del primero, tratados con el mencionado extracto; y los del segundo, con Alvogyl. Los resultados del estudio fueron validados mediante el estadígrafo de Ji al cuadrado. Se concluye que el extracto fluido de Vimang® fue eficaz para eliminar la alveolitis en menor tiempo y sin reacciones adversas, por lo cual se recomendó generalizar su uso

  1. Alveolitis: Revisión de la literatura y actualización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Martín Reyes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available La alveolitis es la complicación más frecuente de la extracción dentaria. Su frecuencia varía del 1 al 4 % y puede llegar del 20 al 30 % en extracciones de terceros molares mandibulares. Se describen algunos factores de riesgo que aumentan su incidencia, aunque se habla de un origen multifactorial. La clínica y los síntomas subjetivos nos permiten su diagnóstico y clasificación. Para tratar las alveolitis se han utilizado localmente distintos productos para inducir la formación del coágulo: antibióticos, anestésicos, analgésicos y antiinflamatorios, asociados o no con corticoides, analgésicos y antibióticos sistémicos. También la medicina natural y tradicional ocupa un lugar importante en el tratamiento de esta urgencia estomatológica, y se destacan terapéuticas como: la apiterapia, la acupuntura y la ozonoterapia, además tecnologías de avanzada como los soft láser.Alveolitis is the most frequent complication of tooth extraction. Its frequency varies from 1 to 4 % and may reach 20 to 30 % in extractions of mandibular third molars. Some risk factors increasing its incidence are described, although reference is made to a multifactorial origin. The clinic and the subjective symptoms allow us to make its diagnosis and to classify it. Different products have been used in the treatment of alveolitis to induce clot formation: antibiotics, anesthesics, analgesics and anti-inflammatories associated or not with corticoids, analgesics and systemic antibiotics. Natural and traditional medicine also play an important role in the treatment of this stomatological emergency and therepeutics such as the apiotherapy, the acupuncture, the ozone therapy and state-of-the art technologies as the soft laser are stressed.

  2. Clinical evaluation of an ointment with 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine in the treatment of alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L J; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Rodrigues, T S; Simonato, L E

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate the use of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, using a lanolin base and mint as flavoring, to treat alveolitis in humans. Twenty-five patients, with a diagnosis of alveolitis, were treated in the following way: locoregional anesthesia; surgical cleaning of the socket with alveolar curettes; saline solution irrigation with a 20 ml disposable syringe; and complete filling of the socket with the ointment. The analysis of the results showed that the painful symptoms were severe before and on the day of the treatment in 17 (68%) of the 25 patients treated. Post-treatment analysis presented 2 patients (18%) with severe painful symptoms after 24 h of the treatment and complete remission of painful symptoms after 48 h of the treatment with the ointment. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine ointment, with mint flavoring and lanolin as a base, can be used to treat alveolitis.

  3. 4 and 6 interleukin's action in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, gingivitis and dental alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezniakova, Alla I; Cheremisina, Valentуna F

    The paper presents the results of studying the role of interleukins 4 and 6 in the pathogenesis of periodontal tissue diseases, specifically, in periodontitis, gingivitis and alveolitis. To study the nature of participation of IL-4 and IL-6 in the mechanisms of development of periodontitis, gingivitis and alveolitis. Studies were carried out on 80 nonlinear male rats with a body weight of 200.0 to 220.0 g divided into four groups of 20 animals each. The serum level of cytokines was determined by an enzyme immunoassay on the Multiscane Biotech analyzer using test systems manufactured by Caltag laboratories (USA). Statistical processing of the obtained digital results was processed with the help of the program "Statistica 8.0". Indicators of the reliability of changes between the control and intact groups also used the Student's test and the Excel program. The confidence level was taken at p gingivitis, where it decreased by 74% and its level became less with alveolitis and periodontitis, since in these diseases the level of IL-6 was practically the same from the control (p gingivitis, on the contrary, indicates the realization of a pathological reaction of the organism. The change in the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins, especially with gingivitis, indicates a decrease in the body's adaptive reserves and may affect the further dynamics of the inflammatory process in the periodontal tissues.

  4. Tratamiento de la alveolitis dental con tintura de propóleos al 5 % Treatment of dental alveolitis with 5 % propolis tincture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Vivian Bravo Venero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar la efectividad entre el tratamiento con tintura de propóleos al 5 % y el tratamiento farmacológico convencional en pacientes diagnosticados con alveolitis dental. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal de casos y controles en la Clínica Estomatológica "José Martí" del municipio Consolación del Sur, durante el 2009. El universo estuvo constituido por 90 pacientes, los cuales se dividieron en dos grupos de tratamiento diferentes de manera aleatoria, teniendo en cuenta un grupo de casos (grupo I conformado por 30 pacientes a los que se les aplicó tratamiento con tintura de propóleos al 5 %, y otro grupo de controles (grupo II con 60 pacientes tratados con la terapéutica medicamentosa convencional. Para el procesamiento de los datos se utilizaron métodos de estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: en ambos grupos de tratamiento prevaleció el sexo femenino y hubo un predominio de la alveolitis en el grupo de edad entre los 46 y 60 años. El grupo I logró la remisión de los síntomas entre el segundo (36,6 % y el tercer días de tratamiento (60 % y solo un paciente requirió tratamiento por 5 días; mientras el grupo II requirió de un mayor período para la evolución del cuadro, entre 5 y 7 días de tratamiento para un 61,3 % (27 pacientes y 23,3 % (14 pacientes. Conclusiones: el tratamiento con tintura de propóleos al 5 % resultó altamente efectivo, pues aportó una remisión más notoria de los síntomas, ya que se observó una disminución de estos, así como la disminución del número de sesiones necesarias, lo que permite recomendarlo como una opción terapéutica adecuada.Objective: to compare the effectiveness of 5 % propolis tincture and of the conventional pharmacological treatment in patients diagnosed with dental alveolitis. Methods: a longitudinal, descriptive and prospective case-control study was carried out in "Jose Martí" dental clinic located

  5. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Nefedov; L. A. Popova; E. A. Shergina; N. N. Makaryants

    2014-01-01

    Total lung capacity (TLC), lung capacity (LC), forced LC (FLC), intrathoracic volume (ITV), pulmonary residual volume (PRV), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), (FEV1 )/LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR)25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. L...

  7. Aplicación de la ozonoterapia en el tratamiento de la alveolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA CRUZ GUERRA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available La etiología de la alveolitis es desconocida, pero existen factores que aumentan su incidencia como los traumatismos, las infecciones, la disminución del suministro vascular del hueso circunvecino y el estado sistémico general. En un grupo de pacientes se utilizó aceite de girasol ozonizado, Oleozon (como único medicamento, en el tratamiento de la alveolitis, y se comparó con un grupo control en el que se empleó Alvogil, además de antibiótico oral. La muestra fue de 100 pacientes adultos distribuidos aleatoriamente. Se realizaron curas cada 72 horas y tantas visitas a consulta como el caso lo requiriera. El criterio de curación tomado en cuenta fue la formación de tejido de cicatrización y la disminución o eliminación del dolor. Se alcanzó el 46 % de pacientes curados con Oleozon y el 41 % con Alvogil, sin diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos. El mayor número de pacientes necesitó de 2 a 3 visitas a consulta en los 2 grupos, aunque se observó que había un mayor número de pacientes en el grupo tratado con aceite ozonizado, con diferencias significativas (p=0,004 con respecto al grupo control. No se observó intolerancia al Oleozon.The etiology of alveolitis is unknown but there are some factors increasing its incidence, such as: traumatisms, infections, the reduction of the vascular supply of the circunjacent bone and the general systemic status. Ozonized sunflower oil was used as the only drug to treat alveolitis in a group of patients, and a comparison was made with a control group in which Alvogil eas used in addition to an oral antibiotic. The sample was composed of 100 adult patients distributed at random. Cures were made every 72 hours, and there were as many visits to the dentist's office as it was required. The cure criterion taken into consideration was the formation of cicatrization tissue and the reduction or erradication of pain. 46 % of the patients were cured with Oleozon and 41 % with Alvogil. There

  8. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  9. Immunological responses of the mangrove oysters Crassostrea gasar naturally infected by Perkinsus sp. in the Mamanguape Estuary, Paraíba state (Northeastern, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Soudant, Philippe; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Mirella da Silva, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Perkinsus genus includes protozoan parasites of marine mollusks, especially bivalves. In the last four years, this parasite has been detected in mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae and Crassostrea gasar from the Northeastern region of Brazil. Hemocytes are the key cells of the oyster immune system, being responsible for a variety of cellular and humoral reactions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation and the release of several effector molecules that control the invasion and proliferation of microorganisms. In Brazil, there is little information on perkinsosis and none on the immune responses of native oysters' species against Perkinsus spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of natural infection by Perkinsus sp. on the immunological parameters of mangrove oysters C. gasar cultured in the Mamanguape River Estuary (Paraíba, Brazil). Adults oysters (N = 40/month) were sampled in December 2011, March, May, August and October 2012. Gills were removed and used to determine the presence and intensity of the Perkinsus sp. infection, according to a scale of four levels (1-4), using the Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay. Immunological parameters were measured in hemolymph samples by flow cytometry, including: total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), cell mortality, phagocytic capacity, and production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The plasma was used to determine the hemagglutination activity. The results showed the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. with the highest mean prevalence (93.3%) seen so far in oyster populations in Brazil. Despite that, no oyster mortality was associated. In contrast, we observed an increase in hemocyte mortality and a suppression of two of the main defense mechanisms, phagocytosis and ROS production in infected oysters. The increase in the percentage of blast-like cells on the hemolymph, and the increase in THC in oysters heavily infected (at the maximum intensity, 4) suggest an induction of

  10. Prevalencia del protozoario Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de ostión japonés Crassostrea gigas en Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Carolina Villanueva-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Crassostrea gigas es un molusco bivalvo de gran importancia comercial. En el noroeste de México su producción es afectada por mortalidades cuyo origen infeccioso no ha sido determinado claramente. En este trabajo se determinó la prevalencia e intensidad de la infección por Perkinsus sp. en un cultivo de C. gigas en el ciclo 2011-2012. El cultivo se hizo en un sistema de línea suspendida con densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones/canasta y se determinó un tamaño de muestra de 30 ostiones por mes. La detección de Perkinsus sp. se hizo de acuerdo a los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE para Medio Fluido de Tioglicolato y PCR. Con ambos métodos se determinó la prevalencia de Perkinsus sp., que varió entre 3,3 y 40%. La intensidad de la infección estuvo en niveles 1 y 2, de acuerdo a la escala de Mackin. La mortalidad acumulativa en las densidades de 28 y 42 ostiones por canasta fue del 4 y 6%, respectivamente. Las mayores mortalidades del ostión y las mayores prevalencias de Perkinsus sp. ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 y 16,6% y octubre (1,5 y 23,3%, respectivamente, cuando la temperatura fue alta. En conclusión, Perkinsus sp. fue detectado en un cultivo de C. gigas en el estero La Pitahaya con prevalencia moderada, baja intensidad de infección y mayor presencia en los meses más calurosos del ciclo de cultivo.

  11. [Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Clinical experience at the Instituto National de Enfermedades Respiratorias (INER)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapela-Mendoza, R; Selman-Lama, M

    1999-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is an interstitial lung disease caused by exposure to a variety of inhaled antigens. In Mexico, the most frequent form is due to the inhalation of avian antigens, markedly pigeon proteins. Depending on type and time exposure, the disease presents different clinical forms usually characterized by progressive dyspnea, ground glass or reticulonodular images on chest x rays, a restrictive functional pattern, rest hypoxemia worsening with exercise, and increase of T lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage with an inversion in the helper/suppressor ratio. In this paper, we discuss a 15-year experience with this pathological problem in Mexico, emphasizing the differences with this disorder in Caucasian populations. Generally, our patients display a chronic form of the disease, which evolves to fibrosis in about one-half of the patients. In this sense, the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic focusing exhibit different elements, and thus the development of clinical and basic research is strongly required.

  12. [Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Carmen

    2006-11-01

    Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension Lung disease is present in most of the patients with systemic sclerosis and is now the most important cause of mortality. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are, so far, the main disorders found and both are difficult to detect at the earliest stages. However, diagnostic tools such as immunological test, lung function test, high resolution CT, bronchoalveolar lavage, echocardiography, right-side cardiac catheterization, or lung biopsy are necessary to accurately evaluate the clinical status and allow to improve the management organ-specific ad hoc. Progress in immunological and vascular therapies as well as other emergence drugs offer new expectations to scleroderma patients. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Acute alveolitis after using a waterproofing aerosol: apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Gabrielle, L; Paquin, M L; Descotes, J

    1998-04-01

    Waterproofing sprays for leather clothing have seldom been involved in severe accidents. In some circumstances, their pulmonary toxicity is marked, as shown by two case reports and a review of the literature. Acute alveolitis is described in two young adults without previous respiratory illness, following the use of a waterproofing spray for leather clothing. Clinical features typical of a flu-like reaction (malaise, fever and chills) were associated with dyspnea and with hemoptysis in one patient. X-ray examination evidenced lesional edema which quickly resolved after symptomatic treatment. The toxic mechanism is debated, but experimental data and clinical findings suggest the causative role of recently introduced fluoropolymers. Waterproofing sprays for leather clothing may induce severe respiratory illness after massive inhalation in confined area. Treatment is supportive.

  14. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

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    V. B. Nefedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lung capacity (TLC, lung capacity (LC, forced LC (FLC, intrathoracic volume (ITV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 , (FEV1 /LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. Lung function became better in more than half (53.5% of the patients and worse in one fourth (25.6%; a combination of positive and negative functional changes was detected in 14.0%. Improved lung function was noted in 75.0, 50.0, and 38.5% of the patients with acute, subacute, and chronic EAA, respectively. Deterioration of lung function was determined in 46.2, 22.2, and 8.3% of the patients with chronic, subacute, and acute alveolitis, respectively. Better lung function manifested itself mainly as positive changes in lung volumes and capacities and pulmonary gas exchange function, less frequently as improved bronchial patency in the patients with acute and subacute EAA whereas the rate of positive functional changes in lung volumes and capacities, bronchial patency, and pulmonary gas exchange function was equal in those with chronic EAA. Poorer lung function appeared as negative changes in lung volumes and capacities in the patients with acute EAA, as worse pulmonary gas exchange function and negative changes in lung volumes and capacities and deteriorated bronchial patency in those with subacute and chronic EAA.

  15. Acute toxicity, uptake and accumulation kinetics of nickel in an invasive copepod species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami

    2016-02-01

    Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  17. Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae under cultivation and in natural stock in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane dos Santos Aguiar Luz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the infection of Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, both from a long-line cultivation system and from a nearby intertidal zone of mangrove, both in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The collections were performed in October and November 2012, and in January 2013. The oysters (n = 300 were measured, examined macroscopically for signs of infection and then submitted to the following laboratory techniques: histology, Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay (RFTM, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing, which confirmed the identification of the pathogen. Histological and RFTM analyses showed, respectively, a mean prevalence of 93.3% and of 69%. The infection was usually mild or very mild. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the environments in terms of infection prevalence or severity. This is the first record of P. beihaiensis in the state of Bahia and the second in oysters from Brazil and South America.

  18. [Alveolitis and fibrosis of the lung within the drainage area of a hospital for diseases of the lung (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, G

    1981-01-01

    Within the drainage area of the Central Hospital for Diseases of Heart and Lungs at Bad Berka/ GDR 337 persons (210 male, 127 female) with alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis were observed during a period of 17 years (1963-1979). The average-age of the patient was 43.5 (11-70) years. The mean duration of the illness was to 9 years. The time elapsing up to the confirmation of the diagnosis amounts to approximately 4.35 years. The yearly incidence of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis are estimated at one case among 40,000 people. During the last years more attention has been given to these diseases but there seems to be also a true increase of the frequency of these conditions.

  19. Comparative evaluations of the results of common X-ray examinations and computerized tomography in patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, A.G.; Dmitrieva, L.I.; Khikkel', Kh.G.; Myuller, S.

    1989-01-01

    A correlative study of the results of x-ray examination using routine methods and computerized tomography (CT) was conducted to specify the roentgenomorphological substrate of changes in patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis. The established complex of routine methods is informative enough to interpret the revealed changes. However, at early stages CT helps to specify semiotics and permits obtaining additional information, particularly on quantitative, i.e. densitometric changes. In diffuse and disseminated pulmonary lesions CT can be used as an additional method

  20. Prey or predator – expanding the food web role of sandeel (Ammodytes marinus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane

    2014-01-01

    We report an unexpected observation of lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus foraging on juveniles and late larval stages of the same species. This recording sheds new light on the cannibalistic and piscivorous capacity of forage fish and raises a number of questions about the role of forage fish in m...

  1. CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fluid Flow and Particle Transport in a Model of Alveolated Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal

    2009-05-01

    Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy.

  2. Tratamiento de la alveolitis dental con tintura de propóleos al 5 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Vivian Bravo Venero

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar la efectividad entre el tratamiento con tintura de propóleos al 5 % y el tratamiento farmacológico convencional en pacientes diagnosticados con alveolitis dental. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal de casos y controles en la Clínica Estomatológica "José Martí" del municipio Consolación del Sur, durante el 2009. El universo estuvo constituido por 90 pacientes, los cuales se dividieron en dos grupos de tratamiento diferentes de manera aleatoria, teniendo en cuenta un grupo de casos (grupo I conformado por 30 pacientes a los que se les aplicó tratamiento con tintura de propóleos al 5 %, y otro grupo de controles (grupo II con 60 pacientes tratados con la terapéutica medicamentosa convencional. Para el procesamiento de los datos se utilizaron métodos de estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: en ambos grupos de tratamiento prevaleció el sexo femenino y hubo un predominio de la alveolitis en el grupo de edad entre los 46 y 60 años. El grupo I logró la remisión de los síntomas entre el segundo (36,6 % y el tercer días de tratamiento (60 % y solo un paciente requirió tratamiento por 5 días; mientras el grupo II requirió de un mayor período para la evolución del cuadro, entre 5 y 7 días de tratamiento para un 61,3 % (27 pacientes y 23,3 % (14 pacientes. Conclusiones: el tratamiento con tintura de propóleos al 5 % resultó altamente efectivo, pues aportó una remisión más notoria de los síntomas, ya que se observó una disminución de estos, así como la disminución del número de sesiones necesarias, lo que permite recomendarlo como una opción terapéutica adecuada.

  3. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Sujal R.; Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du; Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2±10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p CO (p 2 (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  4. Traction bronchiectasis in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: associated computed tomographic features and physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sujal R. [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, SE5 9RS, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U.; Bois, Roland M. du [Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Emmanuel Kaye Building, Manresa Road, Fulham, SW6 6LR, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, Michael B.; Hansell, David M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, SW3 6NP, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associated CT features and physiological consequences of traction bronchiectasis in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). The CT scans of 212 patients with CFA (158 men, 54 women; mean age 62.2{+-}10.6 years) were evaluated independently by two observers. The extent of fibrosis, the proportions of a reticular pattern and ground-glass opacification and the extent of emphysema were scored at five levels. The predominant CT pattern, coarseness of a reticular pattern and severity of traction bronchiectasis were graded semiquantitatively. Physiological indices were correlated with CT features. There was traction bronchiectasis on CT in 202 of 212 (95%) patients. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently associated with increasingly extensive CFA (p<0.0005), a coarser reticular pattern (p<0.001), a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification (p<0.005) and less extensive emphysema (p<0.0005). Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis was independently related to depression of DL{sub CO} (p<0.005), FVC (p=0.02) and pO{sub 2} (p<0.0005), but not indices of air-flow obstruction. In CFA, traction bronchiectasis increases with more extensive disease, a lower proportion of ground-glass opacification and a coarser reticular pattern, but it decreases with concurrent emphysema. Increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is associated with additional physiological impairment for a given extent of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. (orig.)

  5. [Prevalence of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in cattle breeders from the province of Reggio Emilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Ruggieri, Maria Paola; Guidetti, G; Azzarone, G; Giammartini, Pasquina; Capanni, S; Mantovani, P; Bertani, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Several new cases of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis or Farmer's Lung (FL) in farm workers were reported to Occupational Health Services in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy). This prompted the Public Health Department to study the prevalence of the disease among milk-cow breeders involved in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production: who are the biggest hay users. A suitable questionnaire was sent to 1875 farmers in three of the six districts of the province. Half of them (935: 841 males, 94 females) answered; further contacts and medical history research revealed 33 case of "likely FL". Twenty-three (2 females) (10 "missing"), underwent pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, precipitins tests against Saccharopolyspora Rectivirgula and other fungal antigens and (22 farmers) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). According to the "Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro e di Igiene Industriale" diagnostic standards, we found 20 subjects suffering from FL among farmers collecting hay in large cylindrical (round) bales, dried on field (2.6%) and among others still using small (traditional), prismatic bales (0.5%). The prevalence on the whole exposed population (6000-9000 people) was estimated between 1.5% and 3.0% (90-270 people); no difference was found in FL prevalence between flat and hilly or mountain areas; the method of collecting hay in big "round" bales, dried on field, seems to produce higher frequencies of FL cases if compared with the traditional ones (more frequent in mountain areas). The new hay packing methods, using forced air driers, are suggested as a possible solution.

  6. Feast or flee: bioelectrical regulation of feeding and predator evasion behaviors in the planktonic alveolate Favella sp. (Spirotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Taylor, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Alveolate (ciliates and dinoflagellates) grazers are integral components of the marine food web and must therefore be able to sense a range of mechanical and chemical signals produced by prey and predators, integrating them via signal transduction mechanisms to respond with effective prey capture and predator evasion behaviors. However, the sensory biology of alveolate grazers is poorly understood. Using novel techniques that combine electrophysiological measurements and high-speed videomicroscopy, we investigated the sensory biology of Favella sp., a model alveolate grazer, in the context of its trophic ecology. Favella sp. produced frequent rhythmic depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming and are responsible for endogenous swimming patterns relevant to foraging. Contact of both prey cells and non-prey polystyrene microspheres at the cilia produced immediate mechanostimulated depolarizations (∼500 ms long) that caused backward swimming, and likely underlie aggregative swimming patterns of Favella sp. in response to patches of prey. Contact of particles at the peristomal cavity that were not suitable for ingestion resulted in depolarizations after a lag of ∼600 ms, allowing time for particles to be processed before rejection. Ingestion of preferred prey particles was accompanied by transient hyperpolarizations (∼1 s) that likely regulate this step of the feeding process. Predation attempts by the copepod Acartia tonsa elicited fast (∼20 ms) animal-like action potentials accompanied by rapid contraction of the cell to avoid predation. We have shown that the sensory mechanisms of Favella sp. are finely tuned to the type, location, and intensity of stimuli from prey and predators. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Diversity of Aplochiton fishes (Galaxiidea and the taxonomic resurrection of A. marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Alò

    Full Text Available Aplochiton is a small genus of galaxiid fishes endemic to Patagonia and the Falkland Islands whose taxonomy is insufficiently resolved. Recent genetic analyses confirmed the existence of only two closely related species, Aplochiton taeniatus and Aplochiton zebra, while a third controversial species, Aplochiton marinus, remained lost to synonymy with A. taeniatus. Using an integrative taxonomy framework, we studied original samples and published sequences from a broad range in western Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and generated robust species hypotheses based on single-locus (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I; COI species-delineation methods and known diagnostic morphological characters analyzed in a multivariate context. Results revealed three distinct evolutionary lineages that morphologically resemble, in important respects, existing nominal species descriptions. Interestingly, the lineage associated with A. marinus was unambiguously identifiable (100% accuracy both from the genetic and morphological viewpoints. In contrast, the morphology of A. taeniatus and A. zebra overlapped substantially, mainly due to the high variability of A. taeniatus. Discriminant function analysis aided the identification of these species with 83.9% accuracy. Hence, for their unambiguous identification, genetic screening is needed. A. marinus has seldom been documented, and when recorded, it has always been found in sites with clear marine influence. It is possible that only A. marinus preserves a life cycle related to the sea akin to the hypothesized ancestral galaxiid. We did not find evidence of claimed diadromy in A. taeniatus or A. zebra, and, therefore, these should be regarded as freshwater species. Finally, a lack of phylogeographic patterns and overrepresentation of uncommon haplotypes suggested demographic expansions in recent evolutionary time, especially of A. zebra, in line with the hypothesis of large-scale range expansion and lineage spread in

  8. [Pilot-scale purification of lipopeptide from marine-derived Bacillus marinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kangbo; Guan, Cheng; Xu, Jiahui; Li, Shulan; Luo, Yuanchan; Shen, Guomin; Zhang, Daojing; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-11-25

    This research was aimed at establishing the pilot-scale purification technology of lipopeptide from marine-derived Bacillus marinus. We studied lipopeptide surfactivity interferences on scale-up unit technologies including acid precipitation, methanol extraction, solvent precipitation, salting out, extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HZ806 macroporous absorption resin column chromatography. Then, the unit technologies were combined in a certain order, to remove the impurities gradually, and to gain purified lipopeptide finally, with high recovery rate throughout the whole process. The novel pilot-scale purification technology could effectively isolate and purify lipopeptide with 87.51% to 100% purity in hectograms from 1 ton of Bacillus marinus B-9987 fermentation broth with more than 81.73% recovery rate. The first practical hectogram production of highly purified lipopeptide derived from Bacillus marinus was achieved. With this new purification method, using complex media became possible in fermentation process to reduce the fermentation cost and scale-up the purification for lipopeptide production. For practicability and economy, foaming problem resulting from massive water evaporation was avoided in this technology.

  9. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  10. Gene duplication, loss and selection in the evolution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in alveolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shauna A; Diwan, Rutuja; Orr, Russell J S; Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    A group of marine dinoflagellates (Alveolata, Eukaryota), consisting of ∼10 species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense, produce the toxin saxitoxin and its analogues (STX), which can accumulate in shellfish, leading to ecosystem and human health impacts. The genes, sxt, putatively involved in STX biosynthesis, have recently been identified, however, the evolution of these genes within dinoflagellates is not clear. There are two reasons for this: uncertainty over the phylogeny of dinoflagellates; and that the sxt genes of many species of Alexandrium and other dinoflagellate genera are not known. Here, we determined the phylogeny of STX-producing and other dinoflagellates based on a concatenated eight-gene alignment. We determined the presence, diversity and phylogeny of sxtA, domains A1 and A4 and sxtG in 52 strains of Alexandrium, and a further 43 species of dinoflagellates and thirteen other alveolates. We confirmed the presence and high sequence conservation of sxtA, domain A4, in 40 strains (35 Alexandrium, 1 Pyrodinium, 4 Gymnodinium) of 8 species of STX-producing dinoflagellates, and absence from non-producing species. We found three paralogs of sxtA, domain A1, and a widespread distribution of sxtA1 in non-STX producing dinoflagellates, indicating duplication events in the evolution of this gene. One paralog, clade 2, of sxtA1 may be particularly related to STX biosynthesis. Similarly, sxtG appears to be generally restricted to STX-producing species, while three amidinotransferase gene paralogs were found in dinoflagellates. We investigated the role of positive (diversifying) selection following duplication in sxtA1 and sxtG, and found negative selection in clades of sxtG and sxtA1, clade 2, suggesting they were functionally constrained. Significant episodic diversifying selection was found in some strains in clade 3 of sxtA1, a clade that may not be involved in STX biosynthesis, indicating pressure for diversification

  11. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, R.; Smětáková, M.; Vašáková, M.; Nováková, J.; Šterclová, M.; Kukal, J.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 533-538 ISSN 1792-0981 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sarcoidosis * extrinsic allergic alveolitis * interleukin 4 receptor * transforming growth factor beta * tumor necrosis factor alpha * proteinase activated receptor 2 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2014

  12. Lung inflammation in sarcoidosis: comparison of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels with bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 scanning assessment of the T lymphocyte alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberger, C.I.; Line, B.R.; Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Crystal, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is elevated in many patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and has been proposed as a measure of disease activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between serum ACE and direct measures of the intensity of the alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis as measured by bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scans. To accomplish this, 64 measurements of serum ACE, lavage T lymphocytes, and lung uptake of 67 Ga were performed in 41 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. Elevations of serum ACE were found on at least one occasion in 17 patients (41%). However, serum ACE was found to be a poor predictor of the intensity of alveolitis in sarcoidosis as assessed by the quantitation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells that were T lymphocytes and by 67 Ga scanning. Elevated serum ACE did not predict which patients would have elevated proportions of lavage T lymphocytes, which patients would demonstrate increased pulmonary uptake of 67 Ga, or which patients would have high-intensity alveolitis as defined by a combination of these criteria. These observations suggest that while serum ACE may be useful in diagnosing sarcoidosis, it does not reflect accurately the intensity of the alveolitis of the pulmonary component of this disease. (author)

  13. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243 on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Daniels

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Limnothrix (strain AC0243 is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243 live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.

  14. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  15. Does DNA methylation regulate metamorphosis? The case of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo-Soto, Lara; Saura, María; Morán, Paloma

    2015-07-01

    Lampreys represent one of the most ancient vertebrate lineages enclosing a special interest for genetic and epigenetic studies. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an anadromous species that experiences metamorphosis all the way up to the adult stage. Although representing a gradual process, metamorphosis in this species involves dramatic conversions with regard to physiological together with structural body changes preparing individuals for a marine and parasitic life; in consequence, multiple gene expression modifications are expected. The implications of thyroid hormones and HOX gene expression changes have previously been reported in this species and also in other vertebrate species. Nonetheless, information lacks on how these genes are regulated in lampreys. We here report about the existence of methylation pattern differences between the adult and the larvae sea lamprey life cycle stages making use of the Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Differentially methylated fragment sequencing allowed to establish homologous identities with HOX genes involved in morphogenesis, along with genes related to the water balance and to the osmotic homoeostasis, all associated to a marine environment adaptation. These results provide evidences revealing that DNA methylation plays a role in the epigenetic regulation of the P. marinus post-natal development representing a starting point for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which detects DNA methylation changes associated with metamorphosis in lampreys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterokont predator Develorapax marinus gen. et sp. nov. – a model of the ochrophyte ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Aleoshin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic lineages of Heterokonta (or stramenopiles, in contrast to a single monophyletic group of autotrophs, Ochrophyta, form several clades that independently branch off the heterokont stem lineage. The nearest neighbors of Ochrophyta in the phylogenetic tree appear to be almost exclusively bacterivorous, whereas the hypothesis of plastid acquisition by the ancestors of the ochrophyte lineage suggests an ability to engulf eukaryotic alga. In line with this hypothesis, the heteretrophic predator at the base of the ochrophyte lineage may be regarded as a model for the ochrophyte ancestor. Here we present a new genus and species of marine free-living heterotrophic heterokont Develorapax marinus, which falls into an isolated heterokont cluster, along with the marine flagellate Developayella elegans, and is able to engulf eukaryotic cells. Together with environmental sequences D. marinus and D. elegans form a class-level clade Developea nom. nov. represented by species adapted to different environmental conditions and with a wide geographical distribution. The position of Developea among Heterokonta in large-scale phylogenetic tree is discussed. We propose that members of the Developea clade represent a model for transition from bacterivory to a predatory feeding mode by selection for larger prey. Presumably, such transition in the grazing strategy is possible in the presence of bacterial biofilms, and has likely occured in the ochrophyte ancestor.

  17. Carbon use efficiencies and allocation strategies in Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 during nitrogen-limited growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felcmanová, Kristina; Lukeš, Martin; Kotabová, Eva; Lawrenz, Evelyn; Halsey, K.H.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 1 (2017), s. 71-82 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Prochlorococcus marinus * Cyanobacteria * Primary production Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  18. Population dynamics of the Gyrinid beetle Gyrinus marinus Gyll. (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) with special reference to its dispersal activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van der R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Data concerning reproduction, survival and dispersal of the whirligig water beetle Gyrinus marinus Gyll . were collected between 1974 and 1983 by observations and experiments in the laboratory and in a field area with about 10 populations distributed over 15

  19. Activity of superoxide dismutase in guinea pigs' bronchi in late periods of experimental allergic alveolitis development and their correction with thiotriazolin

    OpenAIRE

    Baida, Mariana Ljubomurivna; Fyrduchco – Regeda, Mariana Mukchailivna; Regeda, Stepan Mukchailovuch

    2017-01-01

    Baida Mariana Ljubomurivna, Fyrduchco – Regeda Mariana Mukchailivna, Regeda Stepan Mukchailovuch. Activity of superoxide dismutase in guinea pigs’ bronchi in late periods of experimental allergic alveolitis development and their correction with thiotriazolin. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(7):1265-1269. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1175268 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5291 The journal has had 7 point...

  20. Assessments of the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) in the North Sea based on revised stock divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Lewy, Peter; Wright, P.

    1999-01-01

    effort, catch per unit effort, yield, fishing and natural mortality. A better understanding of sandeel growth is important for stock and catch predictions because previous studies indicate that the variability of mean weight-at-age is one of the most important factors influencing the precision......Recent investigations suggest that the current treatment of North Sea sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) as a single unit stock may have little biological basis. In order to study regional effects of the fishery on North Sea lesser sandeel it may therefore be important to assess stock dynamics...... of predictions. The Danish weight-at-age data of sandeel are re- analysed to estimate the mean weight-at-age in the catch and the stock and the precision of the estimates. The reliability of the sandeel assessments is discussed in relation to the data sources available and to the knowledge of sandeel biology...

  1. Elimination of super(14)C-bisazir residues in adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.; Dawson, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Bisazir (P.P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a chemosterilant, was administered to sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg or by immersion for 2 h in a 100- mg/L aqueous solution of the chemical. Whole body analysis of the injected lampreys showed that total residue concentrations decreased to 4.65 in males and 10.07 in females during the first day after injection, and to 1.46 in males and 3.74 in females after 10 days of withdrawal. Lampreys exposed by bath immersion contained residues of about 25 mu g/g of tissue immediately after exposure. The concentration ( mu g/g) decreased to 1.02 in males and 2.11 in females after 1 day of withdrawal and to 0.51 in males and 0.85 in females after 10 days.

  2. Sequencing of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) genome provides insights into vertebrate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Holt, Carson; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Jiang, Ning; Campbell, Michael S; Yandell, Mark D; Manousaki, Tereza; Meyer, Axel; Bloom, Ona E; Morgan, Jennifer R; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Sims, Carrie; Garruss, Alexander S; Cook, Malcolm; Krumlauf, Robb; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Sower, Stacia A; Decatur, Wayne A; Hall, Jeffrey A; Amemiya, Chris T; Saha, Nil R; Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rohner, Nicolas; Tabin, Clifford J; Piccinelli, Paul; Elgar, Greg; Ruffier, Magali; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Stephen MJ; Muffato, Matthieu; Pignatelli, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Jones, Matthew; Brown, C Titus; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Nanlohy, Kaben G; Libants, Scot V; Yeh, Chu-Yin; McCauley, David W; Langeland, James A; Pancer, Zeev; Fritzsch, Bernd; de Jong, Pieter J; Zhu, Baoli; Fulton, Lucinda L; Theising, Brenda; Flicek, Paul; Bronner, Marianne E; Warren, Wesley C; Clifton, Sandra W; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Lampreys are representatives of an ancient vertebrate lineage that diverged from our own ~500 million years ago. By virtue of this deeply shared ancestry, the sea lamprey (P. marinus) genome is uniquely poised to provide insight into the ancestry of vertebrate genomes and the underlying principles of vertebrate biology. Here, we present the first lamprey whole-genome sequence and assembly. We note challenges faced owing to its high content of repetitive elements and GC bases, as well as the absence of broad-scale sequence information from closely related species. Analyses of the assembly indicate that two whole-genome duplications likely occurred before the divergence of ancestral lamprey and gnathostome lineages. Moreover, the results help define key evolutionary events within vertebrate lineages, including the origin of myelin-associated proteins and the development of appendages. The lamprey genome provides an important resource for reconstructing vertebrate origins and the evolutionary events that have shaped the genomes of extant organisms. PMID:23435085

  3. EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER RELEASES AND SEASON ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) IN CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of freshwater releases and season on disease prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, condition index, gonadal condition, recruitment potential, and growth of oysters was examined monthly at five locations along the Caloosahatchee estuary, Florida. Temperature...

  4. Myofibril Changes in the Copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus Exposed to Haline and Thermal Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali; Souissi, Anissa; Leray, Aymeric; Héliot, Laurent; Vandenbunder, Bernard; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans capable to survive in various aquatic environments. Their responses to changes in different external factors such as salinity and temperature can be observed at different integration levels from copepod genes to copepod communities. Until now, no thorough observation of the temperature or salinity effect stresses on copepods has been done by optical microscopy. In this study, we used autofluorescence to visualize these effects on the morphology of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus maintained during several generations in the laboratory at favorable and stable conditions of salinity (30 psu) and temperature (18°C). Four different stress experiments were conducted: at a sharp decrease in temperature (18 to 4°C), a moderate decrease in salinity (from 30 to 15 psu), a major decrease in salinity (from 30 to 0 psu), and finally a combined stress with a decrease in both temperature and salinity (from 18°C and 30 psu to 4°C and 0 psu). After these stresses, images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed changes in copepod cuticle and muscle structure. Low salinity and/or temperature stresses affected both the detection of fluorescence emitted by muscle sarcomeres and the distance between them. In the remaining paper we will use the term sarcomeres to describe the elements located within sarcomeres and emitted autofluorescence signals. Quantitative study showed an increase in the average distance between two consecutive sarcomeres from 2.06 +/- 0.11 μm to 2.44 +/- 0.42 μm and 2.88 +/- 0.45μm after the exposure to major haline stress (18°C, 0 psu) and the combined stress (4°C, 0 psu), respectively. These stresses also caused cuticle cracks which often occurred at the same location, suggesting the cuticle as a sensitive area for osmoregulation. Our results suggest the use of cuticular and muscle autofluorescence as new biomarkers of stress detectable in formalin-preserved P. marinus individuals. Our

  5. Intratracheal injection of adenovirus containing the human MNSOD transgene protects athymic nude mice from irradiation-induced organizing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, Michael W.; Bray, Jenifer A.; Krager, Stephen; Berry, Luann M.; Gooding, William; Engelhardt, John F.; Zwacka, Ralf; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A dose and volume limiting factor in radiation treatment of thoracic cancer is the development of fibrosis in normal lung. The goal of the present study was to determine whether expression prior to irradiation of a transgene for human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) protects against irradiation-induced lung damage in mice. Methods and Materials: Athymic Nude (Nu/J) mice were intratracheally injected with 10 9 plaque-forming units (PFU) of a replication-incompetent mutant adenovirus construct containing the gene for either human MnSOD, human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) or LacZ. Four days later the mice were irradiated to the pulmonary cavity to doses of 850, 900, or 950 cGy. To demonstrate adenoviral infection, nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out with primers specific for either human MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD transgene on freshly explanted lung, trachea, or alveolar type II cells, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure LacZ expression. RNA was extracted on day 0, 1, 4, or 7 after 850 cGy of irradiation from lungs of mice that had previously received adenovirus or had no treatment. Slot blot analysis was performed to quantitate RNA expression for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β, MnSOD, or Cu/ZnSOD. Lung tissue was explanted and tested for biochemical activity of MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD after adenovirus injection. Other mice were sacrificed 132 days after irradiation, lungs excised, frozen in OCT, (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol mixture) sectioned, H and E stained, and evaluated for percent of the lung demonstrating organizing alveolitis. Results: Mice injected intratracheally with adenovirus containing the gene for human MnSOD had significantly reduced chronic lung irradiation damage following 950 cGy, compared to control mice or mice injected with adenovirus containing the gene for human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ. Immunohistochemistry

  6. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  7. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  8. Temperature effects on egg development and larval condition in the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Thomas; Gibb, Fiona M.; Wright, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the influence of temperature on egg development and larval condition in planktonic fish is a prerequisite to understanding the phenological impacts of climate change on marine food-webs. The lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Raitt 1934), is a key trophic link between zooplankton and many piscivorous fish, sea birds and mammals in the northeast Atlantic. Temperature-egg development relationships were determined for batches of lesser sandeel eggs. Hatching began as early as 19 days post fertilisation at 11 °C and as late as 36 days post fertilisation at 6 °C, which is faster than egg development rates reported for closely related species at the lower end of the tested temperature range. The average size of newly hatched larvae decreased with increasing incubation temperatures in early hatching larvae, but this effect was lost by the middle of the hatching period. While the study revealed important temperature effects on egg development rate, predicted variability based on the range of temperatures eggs experience in the field, suggests it is only a minor contributor to the observed inter-annual variation in hatch date.

  9. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  10. Response of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to pulsed DC electrical stimuli in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anjanette K.; Weisser, John W.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Famoye, Felix

    2003-01-01

    Four electrical factors that are used in pulsed DC electrofishing for larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were evaluated in two laboratory studies to determine the optimal values to induce larval emergence over a range of water temperatures and conductivities. Burrowed larvae were exposed to combinations of pulsed DC electrical factors including five pulse frequencies, three pulse patterns, and two levels of duty cycle over a range of seven voltage gradients in two separate studies conducted at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C and water conductivities of 25, 200, and 900 μS/cm. A four-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant (α = 0.05) influences of each electrical factor on larval emergence. Multiple comparison tests with Bonferroni adjustments were used to determine which values of each factor resulted in significantly higher emergence at each temperature and conductivity. Voltage gradient and pulse frequency significantly affected emergence according to the ANOVA model at each temperature and conductivity tested. Duty cycle and pulse pattern generally did not significantly influence the model. Findings suggest that a setting of 2.0 V/cm, 3 pulses/sec, 10% duty, and 2:2 pulse pattern seems the most promising in waters of medium conductivity and across a variety of temperatures. This information provides a basis for understanding larval response to pulsed DC electrofishing gear factors and identifies electrofisher settings that show promise to increase the efficiency of the gear during assessments for burrowed sea lamprey larvae.

  11. ALIMENTACIÓN DE BUFO MARINUS (LINNAEUS, 1758 (BUFONIDAE: ANURA, EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE SUCRE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampedro Alcides

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron recolectas nocturnas de Bufo marinus en una localidad del departamento de Sucre. Se recolectaron 197 ejemplares, de los cuales 128 fueron hembras y 69 machos. Los ejemplares fueron medidos y pesados y se les practicó una disección para extraer el estómago y determinar aspectos cualitativos (tipo de presas y cuantitativos (número y tamaño de presas. Insectos del orden Hymenoptera fueron las presas de mayor importancia. Los individuos de mayor tamaño ingieren presas más grandes y en menor cantidad mientras que los de menor talla, presas pequeñas, pero en mayor cantidad. La proporción del peso del contenido estomacal en relación con el peso corporal, tanto para hembras como para machos fue similar (6%. Esta especie no parece representar un peligro para la fauna nativa en el departamento de Sucre.

  12. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  13. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  14. Spatial and Ontogenetic Variation in Mercury in Lake Superior Basin Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Sara K; Polkinghorne, Christine N; Mattes, William P; Beesley, Kimberly M

    2018-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in eggs, larvae, and adult spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in tributaries of Lake Superior to investigate spatial and ontogenetic variation. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations between all three life stages, with levels highest in adults (mean = 3.01 µg/g), followed by eggs (mean = 0.942 µg/g), and lowest in larvae (mean = 0.455 µg/g). There were no significant differences in mercury concentrations by location for any life stage or by sex in adults. Mercury was not correlated with adult or larval lamprey length or mass. Mercury levels in adult lampreys exceeded U.S. and Canadian federal guidelines for human consumption. Mercury concentrations in all life stages exceeded criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, posing a threat to local fish, birds, and mammals. High mercury levels in adult lampreys combined with their semelparous life history make them a potential source of lake-derived mercury to spawning streams.

  15. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  16. Relationships between reproductive performance and organochlorine contaminants in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helberg, Morten; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Kristiansen, Kai Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2005-01-01

    The great black-backed gull Larus marinus is a top predator in subarctic and temperate marine ecosystems, and the aim of this study was to investigate if organochlorines (OCs) were related to reproductive performance in this species at the subarctic parts of the Norwegian Coast. We measured blood levels of various OCs in 53 breeding birds. The OC levels were relatively low compared to levels found in nearby arctic areas. In females, however, there was a significant positive relationship between blood concentrations of OCs, especially hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and egg laying date, and a positive relationship between the probability of nest predation and blood concentration of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), oxychlordane, and DDE. In females with high levels of OCs, especially persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there was also a decline in egg volume as egg laying progressed; i.e. the second and third laid egg were relatively smaller, compared to females with low OC levels. No relationships between reproductive parameters and OC levels were found in males. - Elevated blood concentrations of organochlorine contaminants correlate with poor reproductive performance in female great black-backed gulls

  17. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Sghaier, Haïtham

    2015-06-30

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism’ as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.

  18. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  19. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

  20. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes

    KAUST Repository

    Sghaier, Haï tham; Hezbri, Karima; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Pujic, Petar; Sen, Arnab; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Armengaud, Jean; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2015-01-01

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism’ as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.

  1. Predicting the variation in Echinogammarus marinus at its southernmost limits under global warming scenarios: can the sex-ratio make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alexandra; Leite, Nuno; Marques, João Carlos; Ford, Alex T; Martins, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental parameters that constrain the distribution of a species at its latitudinal extremes is critical for predicting how ecosystems react to climate change. Our first aim was to predict the variation in the amphipod populations of Echinogammarus marinus from the southernmost limit of its distribution under global warming scenarios. Our second aim was to test whether sex-ratio fluctuations - a mechanism frequently displayed by amphipods - respond to the variations in populations under altered climate conditions. To achieve these aims, scenarios were run with a validated model of E. marinus populations. Simulations were divided into: phase I - simulation of the effect of climate change on amphipod populations, and phase II - simulation of the effect of climate change on populations with male and female proportions. In both phases, temperature (T), salinity (S) and temperature and salinity (T-S) were tested. Results showed that E. marinus populations are highly sensitive to increases in temperature (>2 °C), which has adverse effects on amphipod recruitment and growth. Results from the climate change scenarios coupled with the sex-ratio fluctuations depended largely on the degree of female bias within population. Temperature increase of 2 °C had less impact on female-biased populations, particularly when conjugated with increases in salinity. Male-biased populations were highly sensitive to any variation in temperature and/or salinity; these populations exhibited a long-term decline in density. Simulations in which temperature increased more than 4 °C led to a continuous decline in the E. marinus population. According to this work, E. marinus populations at their southernmost limit are vulnerable to global warming. We anticipate that in Europe, temperature increases of 2 °C will incite a withdrawal of the population of 5°N from the amphipod species located at southernmost geographical borders. This effect is discussed in relation to the

  2. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A new species of Oswaldocruzia (Molineidae: Nematoda) in Chaunus marinus (Amphibian: Bufonidae) (Linneaus, 1758) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jeannie N; Giese, Elane G; Maldonado, Arnaldo Júnior; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-02-01

    Oswaldocruzia belenensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the small intestine of Chaunus marinus (L.) from Belém, Pará State, Brazil is described and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Oswaldocruzia belenensis n. sp. is a neotropical species of this genus, harboring caudal bursa Type II, spicules divided in 3 branches, i.e., a blade, shoe, and fork. The blade is divided in 4 points, of which at least 2 are bifurcated. Cervical alae are absent; there is a simple cephalic vesicle and synlophe with low ridges perpendicular to the body without chitinous supports. The most closely related species are O. bonsi and O. lescurei. Oswaldocruzia belenensis n. sp. differs from O. lescurei and O. bonsi by the number and location of cephalic papillae, rays 2-3 and 5-6 running parallel and slightly separated, ray 6 not overlapping ray 8, and body structure morphometry. Oswaldocruzia belenensis n sp. also differs from O. lescurei by the discontinuity of the longitudinal ridges, the number of subdivisions of the blade, and the absence of extra processes at the bifurcation level of the fork of the spicules. The new species differs from O. bonsi by male and female body dimensions, the symmetry of the caudal bursa, dimension and subdivisions of the spicules without extra processes of the fork, 2 extra processes at the distal division of the blade, and location of ray 7 at the anterior margin of the cloacal aperture. Oswaldocruzia belenensis n. sp. represents the 82nd species assigned to the genus.

  4. Moonlight receptor of the '1-h-midge' Clunio marinus studied by micro-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G; Wellenreuther, G; Alraun, P; Fleissner, Ge; Fleissner, Gue; Neumann, D

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a 'moonlight window' in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine

  5. Lamins of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the evolution of the vertebrate lamin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilf, Paul; Peter, Annette; Hurek, Thomas; Stick, Reimer

    2014-07-01

    Lamin proteins are found in all metazoans. Most non-vertebrate genomes including those of the closest relatives of vertebrates, the cephalochordates and tunicates, encode only a single lamin. In teleosts and tetrapods the number of lamin genes has quadrupled. They can be divided into four sub-types, lmnb1, lmnb2, LIII, and lmna, each characterized by particular features and functional differentiations. Little is known when during vertebrate evolution these features have emerged. Lampreys belong to the Agnatha, the sister group of the Gnathostomata. They split off first within the vertebrate lineage. Analysis of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) lamin complement presented here, identified three functional lamin genes, one encoding a lamin LIII, indicating that the characteristic gene structure of this subtype had been established prior to the agnathan/gnathostome split. Two other genes encode lamins for which orthology to gnathostome lamins cannot be designated. Search for lamin gene sequences in all vertebrate taxa for which sufficient sequence data are available reveals the evolutionary time frame in which specific features of the vertebrate lamins were established. Structural features characteristic for A-type lamins are not found in the lamprey genome. In contrast, lmna genes are present in all gnathostome lineages suggesting that this gene evolved with the emergence of the gnathostomes. The analysis of lamin gene neighborhoods reveals noticeable similarities between the different vertebrate lamin genes supporting the hypothesis that they emerged due to two rounds of whole genome duplication and makes clear that an orthologous relationship between a particular vertebrate paralog and lamins outside the vertebrate lineage cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of a novel bile alcohol sulfate released by sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available A sulphate-conjugated bile alcohol, 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DKPES, was identified using bioassay-guided fractionation from water conditioned with sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus. The structure and relative stereochemistry of DKPES was established using spectroscopic data. The electro-olfactogram (EOG response threshold of DKPES was 10(-7 Molar (M and that of 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3 KPZS; a known component of the male sea lamprey sex pheromone was 10(-10 M. Behavioural studies indicated that DKPES can be detected at low concentrations by attracting sexually mature females to nests when combined with 3 KPZS. Nests baited with a mixture of DKPES and 3 KPZS (ratio 1∶29.8 attracted equal numbers of sexually mature females compared to an adjacent nest baited with 3 KPZS alone. When DKPES and 3 KPZS mixtures were applied at ratios of 2∶29.8 and 10∶29.8, the proportion of sexually mature females that entered baited nests increased to 73% and 70%, respectively. None of the sexually mature females released were attracted to nests baited with DKPES alone. These results indicated that DKPES is a component of the sex pheromone released by sexually mature male sea lamprey, and is the second biologically active compound identified from this pheromone. DKPES represents the first example that a minor component of a vertebrate pheromone can be combined with a major component to elicit critical sexual behaviors. DKPES holds considerable promise for increasing the effectiveness of pheromone-baited trapping as a means of sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  7. Chondrogenesis of the branchial skeleton in embryonic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S L; Campbell, C K; Wright, G M

    2000-11-01

    This study provides concise temporal and spatial characteristics of branchial chondrogenesis in embryonic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, using high resolution light microscopy, transmission electron, and immunoelectron microscopy. Prechondrogenic condensations representing the first branchial arch appeared first in the mid-region of the third pharyngeal arch at 13 days post-fertilization (pf). Cartilage differentiation, defined by the presence of the unique, fibrillar, non-collagenous matrix protein characteristic of branchial cartilage, was first observed at 14 days pf. Development of lamprey branchial cartilage appeared unusual compared to that in jawed fishes, in that precartilage condensations appear as a one-cell wide orderly stack of flattened cells that extend by the addition of one dorsal and one ventral condensation. Development of lamprey gill arches from three condensations that fuse to form a single skeletal element differs from the developing gill arches of jawed fishes, where more than one skeletal element forms from a single condensation. The initial orderly arrangement of cells in the lamprey branchial prechondrogenic condensations remains throughout development. Once chondrification of the condensations begins, the branchial arches start to grow. Initially, growth occurs as a result of matrix secretion and cell migration. Later in development, the arches grow mainly by cell proliferation and enlargement. This study defines the morphology and timing of lamprey branchial chondrogenesis. Studies of lamprey chondrogenesis provide not only insight into the developmental biology of a unique non-collagenous cartilage in a primitive vertebrate but also into the general evolution of the skeletal system in vertebrates. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Roseicyclus marinus sp. nov., isolated from a Synechococcus culture, and emended description of the genus Roseicyclus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Zhang, Zenghu; Zhou, Chao; Cui, Rong; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Yongyu

    2018-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, pink-pigmented and rod-shaped strain with gliding motility, designated strain CCMM001 T , was isolated from a mixed culture of Synechococcus species PCC7002 and a natural bacterial community from a sample of offshore seawater from Qingdao, China, during September 2014. The strain contained bacteriochlorophyll a with a small peak at 802 nm and a large in vivo absorption band at 870 nm. Strain CCMM001 T grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 30 °C in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CCMM001 T is most closely related to the genus Roseicyclus and its type and only species Roseicyclus mahoneyensis ML6 T with 96.9 % sequence similarity. The polar lipids of strain CCMM001 T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminolipid, and five unidentified lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-10. The major fatty acids included C18 : 1ω7c and C19 : 0cyclo ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain CCMM001 T was 63.5 mol%. These phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data indicated that strain CCMM001 T represents a novel species of the genus Roseicyclus, for which the name Roseicyclus marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCMM001 T (=MCCC 1K03242 T =KCTC 52641 T ).

  9. A role for tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins in larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Donini, Andrew; Wilkie, Mike P; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-10-15

    This study reports on tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins of larval sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) and their potential role in ammocoete osmoregulation. Two occludin isoforms (designated Ocln and Ocln-a) and a tricellulin (Tric) were identified. Transcripts encoding ocln , ocln-a and tric were broadly expressed in larval lamprey, with the greatest abundance of ocln in the gut, liver and kidney, ocln-a in the gill and skin, and tric in the kidney. Ocln and Ocln-a resolved as ∼63 kDa and ∼35 kDa MW proteins, respectively, while Tric resolved as a ∼50 kDa protein. Ocln immunolocalized to the gill vasculature and in gill mucous cells while Ocln-a localized to the gill pouch and gill epithelium. Both Ocln and Ocln-a localized in the nephron, the epidermis and the luminal side of the gut. In branchial tissue, Tric exhibited punctate localization, consistent with its presence at regions of tricellular contact. Following ion-poor water (IPW) acclimation of ammocoetes, serum [Na + ] and [Cl - ] decreased, but not [Ca 2+ ], and carcass moisture content increased. In association, Ocln abundance increased in the skin and kidney, but reduced in the gill of IPW-acclimated ammocoetes while Ocln-a abundance reduced in the kidney only. Tric abundance increased in the gill. Region-specific alterations in ocln , ocln-a and tric mRNA abundance were also observed in the gut. Data support a role for Ocln, Ocln-a and Tric in the osmoregulatory strategies of a basal vertebrate. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  11. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis): high-resolution computed tomography findings; Pneumonite por hipersensibilidade (alveolite alergica extrinseca): achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Guiomar de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho. Servico de Radiologia

    2003-12-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologic disease of the lungs caused by inhaled chemicals or organics allergens. A lymphocytic inflammatory response in the peripheral airways and surrounding interstitial tissue occurs. In this study the high-resolution computed tomography findings of 13 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analyzed and discussed. The most frequent high-resolution computed tomography findings were: ground-glass opacities (92.3%), centrilobular nodules (38.4%) and air trapping (38.4%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (23.1%), consolidation (23.1%), crazy paving (7.7%), parenchymal bands (15.4%), linear opacities (7.7%), architectural distortion (7.7%), tracheal dilatation (7.7%), intralobular reticulate (7.7%), honeycombing (7.7%), emphysema (7.7%) and atelectasis (7.7%). In two of the 13 patients there was fibrosis (architectural distortion and honeycombing), which represents the chronic phase of the disease. (author)

  12. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing [3H]arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM

  13. Peculiarities of changes in indices of immunological reactivity in experimental allergic alveolitis under adrenalin myocardial injury and their correction with thiotriazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Pyndus

    2015-10-01

      Abstract Allergic diseases cover more than 20% of people living on the earth, among who exogenous allergic alveolitis (AA occupies a prominent place. However, the frequency of this disease increases and there is a number of complications with not only medical but also socio-economic values. Today the question remains to be not studied that concerns changes of selected indicators of clinical and humoral immunity in the blood for experimental allergic alveoli (EAA and adrenaline myocardial injury (AMI and the possibility of their correction with antioxidants. The goal of study was to elucidate peculiarities of changes of immunological reactivity in the EAA in terms of AMI and set the effect of  thiotriazoline on them. The study of individual markers of cellular and humoral immunity showed a malfunction of the immune system in the formation of EAA and AMI and set monocristalline the effect of thiotriazolin on the level of T and B-lymphocytes and  CIC in blood.   Key words: experimental allergic alveolitis, adrenaline myocardial injury, thiotriazolin. Ключові слова: експериментальний алергічний альвеоліт, адреналінове пошкодження міокарда, тіотриазолін.

  14. The effects of bis(tributyltin) oxide on the development, reproduction and sex ratio of calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Liyan; Liu, Guangxing

    2006-08-01

    In order to study the biological effects by bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO) exposure, chronic toxicity tests were conducted on the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus over two generations. The results indicated that nauplii were more sensitive than copepodites. F1 copepods were more vulnerable than F0 copepods and a drastic increase in mortality was observed as the TBTO concentration became higher. Exposure of copepods to 60 ng l -1 TBTO concentration reduced the fecundity and resulted in some females being infecund (in the F0 generation). The time to the first egg sac for females in the F1 generation exposed to 6 ng l -1 TBTO concentration was significantly reduced, and the fecundity of this generation was increased. The female-to-male ratio in the F1 generation exposed to 20 ng l -1 TBTO concentration was significantly reduced. These results show that the current ambient TBT concentration may influence populations of copepods in the coastal environment.

  15. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7410189

  16. Sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) larval transport patterns in the North Sea from an individual-based hydrodynamic egg and larval model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Jensen, Henrik; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated a time series of larval transport indices for the central and southern North Sea covering 1970-2004, using a combined three-dimensional hydrodynamic and individual-based modelling framework for studying sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) eggs, larval transport, and growth. The egg phase...... is modelled by a stochastic, nonlinear degree-day model describing the extended hatch period. The larval growth model is parameterized by individually back-tracking the local physical environment of larval survivors from their catch location and catch time. Using a detailed map of sandeel habitats...... analyzed, and we introduce novel a scheme to quantify direct and indirect connectivity on equal footings in terms of an interbank transit time scale....

  17. Timing the tides: genetic control of diurnal and lunar emergence times is correlated in the marine midge Clunio marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Neumann, Dietrich; Heckel, David G

    2011-05-20

    The intertidal zone of seacoasts, being affected by the superimposed tidal, diurnal and lunar cycles, is temporally the most complex environment on earth. Many marine organisms exhibit lunar rhythms in reproductive behaviour and some show experimental evidence of endogenous control by a circalunar clock, the molecular and genetic basis of which is unexplored. We examined the genetic control of lunar and diurnal rhythmicity in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), a species for which the correct timing of adult emergence is critical in natural populations. We crossed two strains of Clunio marinus that differ in the timing of the diurnal and lunar rhythms of emergence. The phenotype distribution of the segregating backcross progeny indicates polygenic control of the lunar emergence rhythm. Diurnal timing of emergence is also under genetic control, and is influenced by two unlinked genes with major effects. Furthermore, the lunar and diurnal timing of emergence is correlated in the backcross generation. We show that both the lunar emergence time and its correlation to the diurnal emergence time are adaptive for the species in its natural environment. The correlation implies that the unlinked genes affecting lunar timing and the two unlinked genes affecting diurnal timing could be the same, providing an unexpectedly close interaction of the two clocks. Alternatively, the genes could be genetically linked in a two-by-two fashion, suggesting that evolution has shaped the genetic architecture to stabilize adaptive combinations of lunar and diurnal emergence times by tightening linkage. Our results, the first on genetic control of lunar rhythms, offer a new perspective to explore their molecular clockwork.

  18. Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M B; Zalinski, D; Filcek, K B; Libants, S; Li, W; Scribner, K T

    2005-10-01

    Invasions by exotic organisms have had devastating affects on aquatic ecosystems, both ecologically and economically. One striking example of a successful invader that has dramatically affected fish community structure in freshwater lakes of North America is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We used eight microsatellite loci and multiple analytical techniques to examine competing hypotheses concerning the origins and colonization history of sea lamprey (n = 741). Analyses were based on replicated invasive populations from Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, populations of unknown origins from Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga, and populations of anadromous putative progenitor populations in North America and Europe. Populations in recently colonized lakes were each established by few colonists through a series of genetic bottlenecks which resulted in lower allelic diversity in more recently established populations. The spatial genetic structure of invasive populations differed from that of native populations on the Atlantic coast, reflecting founder events and connectivity of invaded habitats. Anadromous populations were found to be panmictic (theta(P) = 0.002; 95% CI = -0.003-0.006; P > 0.05). In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation between populations in the lower and upper Great Lakes (theta(P) = 0.007; P freshwater habitats were examined using coalescent-based analyses, and demonstrated that populations likely originated from natural migrations via the St Lawrence River.

  19. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  20. Genetic architecture of local adaptation in lunar and diurnal emergence times of the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.

  1. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  2. Survival and metamorphosis of low-density populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in streams following lampricide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus control in the Great Lakes primarily involves application of lampricides to streams where larval production occurs to kill larvae prior to their metamorphosing and entering the lakes as parasites (juveniles). Because lampricides are not 100% effective, larvae that survive treatment maymetamorphose before streams are again treated. Larvae that survive treatment have not beenwidely studied, so their dynamics are notwell understood.Wetagged and released larvae in six Great Lake tributaries following lampricide treatment and estimated vital demographic rates using multistate tag-recovery models. Model-averaged larval survivals ranged from 56.8 to 57.6%. Model-averaged adult recovery rates, which were the product of juvenile survivals and adult capture probabilities, ranged from 6.8 to 9.3%. Using stochastic simulations, we estimated production of juvenile sea lampreys from a hypothetical population of treatment survivors under different growth conditions based on parameter estimates from this research. For fast-growing populations, juvenile production peaked 2 years after treatment. For slow-growing populations, juvenile production was approximately one-third that of fast-growing populations,with production not peaking until 4 years after treatment. Our results suggest that dynamics (i.e., survival, metamorphosis) of residual larval populations are very similar to those of untreated larval populations. Consequently, residual populations do not necessarily warrant special consideration for the purpose of sea lamprey control and can be ranked for treatment along with other populations. Consecutive lampricide treatments, which are under evaluation by the sea lamprey control program, would bemost effective for reducing juvenile production in large, fast-growing populations.

  3. Survival and metamorphosis of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) residing in Lakes Michigan and Huron near river mouths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Brenden, Travis O.; Swink, William D.; Lipps, Mathew A.

    2016-01-01

    Although population demographics of larval lampreys in streams have been studied extensively, demographics in lake environments have not. Here, we estimated survival and rates of metamorphosis for larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations residing in the Great Lakes near river mouths (hereafter termed lentic areas). Tagged larvae were stocked and a Bayesian multi-state tag-recovery model was used to investigate population parameters associated with tag recovery, including survival and metamorphosis probabilities. Compared to previous studies of larvae in streams, larval growth in lentic areas was substantially slower (Brody growth coefficient = 0.00132; estimate based on the recovery of six tagged larvae), survival was slightly greater (annual survival = 63%), and the length at which 50% of the larvae would be expected to metamorphose was substantially shorter (126 mm). Stochastic simulations were used to estimate the production of parasitic stage (juvenile) sea lamprey from a hypothetical population of larvae in a lentic environment. Production of juvenile sea lamprey was substantial because, even though larval growth in these environments was slow relative to stream environments, survival was high and length at metamorphosis was less. However, estimated production of juvenile sea lamprey was less for the lentic environment than for similar simulations for river environments where larvae grew faster. In circumstances where the cost to kill a larva with lampricide was equal and control funds are limited, sea lamprey control effort may be best directed toward larvae in streams with fast-growing larvae, because stream-produced larvae will most likely contribute to juvenile sea lamprey populations.

  4. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  5. [Comparative analysis of the semiotics of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis and exogenous allergic alveolitis in accordance with the data of computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amansakhedov, R B; Limarova, I V; Perfiliev, A V; Abdullaev, R Yu; Sigaev, A T; Ergeshov, A E

    2016-01-01

    to improve the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis (DPT) and exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) via comparative investigation of their computed tomography (CT) semiotics and identification of the most informative diagnostic criteria. 70 patients, including 40 patients with DPT in a phase of infiltration and 30 patients with acute EAA, were studied using a Somatom Emotion 16 multi-slice spiral CT scanner (Siemens). All the patients underwent spiral scanning from the upper chest aperture to the costodiaphragmatic recesses with a high CT algorithm at 0.8-mm slice thickness and a 1.5-mm step. Analysis of the spread of dissemination foci established that pathological changes were peribronchovascularly located in both nosological entities and characterized by a preponderance of septal and intrabronchial locations in DPT and by a centrilobular distribution in EAA. Centrilobular foci were more commonly poorly defined in EAA and mixed foci were observed in DPT. In the latter, peribronchovascular, centrilobular foci were revealed at a distance from the visceral pleura (the boundary of the deep and superficial lymphatic network, respectively) in 38% and more than half of the cases (62%) with the involvement of the visceral and parietal pleura; in EAA, the centrilobular foci were more often combined with the involvement of the visceral pleura in more than 92% of cases. The tree-in-bud sign was significantly more common in DPT. The latter was mostly characterized by apicocaudal regression of dissemination. In EAA, the foci were more frequently located asymmetrically. Monomorphic foci with destruction, as well as their polymorphism were seen in DPT; those without destruction were predominantly observed in EAA. CT ground glass and mosaic perfusion syndromes were significantly more often in EAA. In DPT, the visceral and parietal pleuras were involved in the process in 62% of cases and changes were also more common in the extrapleural fat. In addition to

  6. GABA and GABA-Alanine from the Red Microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Exhibit a Significant Neuro-Soothing Activity through Inhibition of Neuro-Inflammation Mediators and Positive Regulation of TRPV1-Related Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandolera, Amandine; Hubert, Jane; Humeau, Anne; Lambert, Carole; De Bizemont, Audrey; Winkel, Chris; Kaouas, Abdelmajid; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-soothing activity of a water-soluble hydrolysate obtained from the red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Geitler (Stylonemataceae). Transcriptomic analysis performed on ≈100 genes related to skin biological functions firstly revealed that the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was able to significantly negatively modulate specific genes involved in pro-inflammation (interleukin 1α encoding gene, IL1A) and pain detection related to tissue inflammation (nerve growth factor NGF and its receptor NGFR). An in vitro model of normal human keratinocytes was then used to evaluate the ability of the Rhodosorus marinus extract to control the release of neuro-inflammation mediators under phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced inflammatory conditions. The extract incorporated at 1% and 3% significantly inhibited the release of IL-1α and NGF secretion. These results were confirmed in a co-culture system of reconstructed human epithelium and normal human epidermal keratinocytes on which a cream formulated with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% was topically applied after systemic induction of neuro-inflammation. Finally, an in vitro model of normal human astrocytes was developed for the evaluation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor modulation, mimicking pain sensing related to neuro-inflammation as observed in sensitive skins. Treatment with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% significantly decreased PMA-mediated TRPV1 over-expression. In parallel with these biological experiments, the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and chemically profiled by a recently developed 13C NMR-based dereplication method. The CPC-generated fractions as well as pure metabolites were tested again in vitro in an attempt to identify the biologically active constituents involved in the neuro-soothing activity of the Rhodosorus marinus extract

  7. GABA and GABA-Alanine from the Red Microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Exhibit a Significant Neuro-Soothing Activity through Inhibition of Neuro-Inflammation Mediators and Positive Regulation of TRPV1-Related Skin Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Scandolera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-soothing activity of a water-soluble hydrolysate obtained from the red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Geitler (Stylonemataceae. Transcriptomic analysis performed on ≈100 genes related to skin biological functions firstly revealed that the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was able to significantly negatively modulate specific genes involved in pro-inflammation (interleukin 1α encoding gene, IL1A and pain detection related to tissue inflammation (nerve growth factor NGF and its receptor NGFR. An in vitro model of normal human keratinocytes was then used to evaluate the ability of the Rhodosorus marinus extract to control the release of neuro-inflammation mediators under phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-induced inflammatory conditions. The extract incorporated at 1% and 3% significantly inhibited the release of IL-1α and NGF secretion. These results were confirmed in a co-culture system of reconstructed human epithelium and normal human epidermal keratinocytes on which a cream formulated with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% was topically applied after systemic induction of neuro-inflammation. Finally, an in vitro model of normal human astrocytes was developed for the evaluation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 receptor modulation, mimicking pain sensing related to neuro-inflammation as observed in sensitive skins. Treatment with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% significantly decreased PMA-mediated TRPV1 over-expression. In parallel with these biological experiments, the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC and chemically profiled by a recently developed 13C NMR-based dereplication method. The CPC-generated fractions as well as pure metabolites were tested again in vitro in an attempt to identify the biologically active constituents involved in the neuro-soothing activity of the Rhodosorus

  8. Shifting patterns of nitrogen excretion and amino acid catabolism capacity during the life cycle of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Claude, Jaime F; Cockshutt, Amanda; Holmes, John A; Wang, Yuxiang S; Youson, John H; Walsh, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The jawless fish, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), spends part of its life as a burrow-dwelling, suspension-feeding larva (ammocoete) before undergoing a metamorphosis into a free swimming, parasitic juvenile that feeds on the blood of fishes. We predicted that animals in this juvenile, parasitic stage have a great capacity for catabolizing amino acids when large quantities of protein-rich blood are ingested. The sixfold to 20-fold greater ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) in postmetamorphic (nonfeeding) and parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes suggested that basal rates of amino acid catabolism increased following metamorphosis. This was likely due to a greater basal amino acid catabolizing capacity in which there was a sixfold higher hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes. Immunoblotting also revealed that GDH quantity was 10-fold and threefold greater in parasitic lampreys than in ammocoetes and upstream migrant lampreys, respectively. Higher hepatic alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the parasitic lampreys also suggested an enhanced amino acid catabolizing capacity in this life stage. In contrast to parasitic lampreys, the twofold larger free amino acid pool in the muscle of upstream migrant lampreys confirmed that this period of natural starvation is accompanied by a prominent proteolysis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was detected at low levels in the liver of parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys, but there was no evidence of extrahepatic (muscle, intestine) urea production via the ornithine urea cycle. However, detection of arginase activity and high concentrations of arginine in the liver at all life stages examined infers that arginine hydrolysis is an important source of urea. We conclude that metamorphosis is accompanied by a metabolic reorganization that increases the capacity of parasitic sea lampreys to catabolize intermittently large amino acid loads arising

  9. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  10. Formation and function of synapses with respect to Schwann cells at the end of motor nerve terminal branches on mature amphibian (Bufo marinus) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, G T; Dickens, P A; Bennett, M R

    2001-04-01

    A study has been made of the formation and regression of synapses with respect to Schwann cells at the ends of motor nerve terminal branches in mature toad (Bufo marinus) muscle. Synapse formation and regression, as inferred from the appearance and loss of N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide (FM1-43)-stained vesicle clusters, occurred at the ends of terminal branches over a 16 hr period. Multiple microelectrodes placed in an array about FM1-43 blobs at the ends of terminal branches detected the electrical signs of neurotransmitter being released onto receptors. Injection of a calcium indicator (Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1) into the motor nerve with subsequent imaging of the calcium transients, in response to stimulation, often showed a reduced calcium influx in the ends of terminal branches. Injection of a fluorescent dye into motor nerves revealed the full extent of their terminal branches and growing processes. Injection of the terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) often revealed pseudopodial TSC processes up to 10-microm-long. Imaging of these TSC processes over minutes or hours showed that they were highly labile and capable of extending several micrometers in a few minutes. Injection of motor nerve terminals with a different dye to that injected into their TSCs revealed that terminal processes sometimes followed the TSC processes over a few hours. It is suggested that the ends of motor nerve terminals in vivo are in a constant state of remodeling through the formation and regression of processes, that TSC processes guide the remodeling, and that it can occur over a relatively short period of time.

  11. The influence of acclimation temperature on the lipid composition of the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, depends on tissue and lipid class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung-Hsi; Sheridan, Mark A; Holmes, John A; Youson, John H

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of thermal acclimation on the lipid composition of fat depot organs the liver and kidneys of larval sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. We found that 21 °C-acclimated larvae possessed lower total lipid amounts in the liver (39% lower) and kidneys (30% lower) than 13 °C-acclimated larvae. Relatively lower lipid contents in the liver and kidneys of 21 °C-acclimated lamprey primarily resulted from a reduction in stored lipid reserve, triacylglycerol, but not the structural lipid, phospholipid. Compared to 21 °C-acclimated larvae, 13 °C-acclimated larvae were found to possess fewer saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and more unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) in renal triacylglycerol and phospholipid classes, while there were no significant differences in the SFAs and USFAs of hepatic triacylglycerol, phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, fatty acid, and monoacylglycerol classes. Fewer SFAs, found in the kidney triacylglycerol of 13 °C-acclimated lamprey, were due to lower 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, but those in the renal phospholipid class were characterized by fewer 14:0, 15:0, and 16:0 fatty acids. More USFAs in renal triacylglycerol, as indicated by a higher unsaturation index, primarily resulted from higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, and 18:4ω3); whereas, in the renal phospholipid class, this was a result of higher monoenes (18:1, 20:1, and 22:1ω9) and ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:4ω3). These data suggest that the influence of thermal acclimation on the lipid composition of lamprey fat depot organs depends on tissue and lipid class.

  12. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed.

  13. Thyroid hormone deiodinase type 2 mRNA levels in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are regulated during metamorphosis and in response to a thyroid challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilborn, S Salina M; Manzon, Lori A; Schauenberg, Jennifer D; Manzon, Richard G

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are crucial for normal vertebrate development and are the one obligate morphogen that drives amphibian metamorphosis. However, contrary to other metamorphosing vertebrates, lampreys exhibit a sharp drop in serum TH early in metamorphosis, and anti-thyroid agents such as potassium perchlorate (KClO(4)) induce metamorphosis. The type 2 deiodinase (D2) enzyme is a key regulator of TH availability during amphibian metamorphosis. We set out to determine how D2 may be involved in the regulation of lamprey metamorphosis and thyroid homeostasis. We cloned a 1.8Kb Petromyzon marinus D2 cDNA that includes the entire protein coding region and a selenocysteine (Sec) codon. Northern blotting indicated that the lamprey D2 mRNA is the longest reported to date (>9Kb). Using real-time PCR, we showed that intestinal and hepatic D2 mRNA levels were elevated prior to and during the early stages of metamorphosis and then declined dramatically to low levels that were sustained for the remainder of metamorphosis. These data are consistent with previously reported changes in serum TH levels and deiodinase activity. Treatment of larvae with either TH or KClO(4) significantly affected D2 mRNA levels in the intestine and liver. These D2 mRNA levels during metamorphosis and in response to thyroid challenges suggest that D2 may function in the regulation of TH levels during lamprey metamorphosis and the maintenance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced recovery of Arcobacter spp. using NaCl in culture media and re-assessment of the traits of Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus isolated from marine water and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Massó, Nuria; Andree, Karl B; Furones, M Dolors; Figueras, M José

    2016-10-01

    The genus Arcobacter is a relatively poorly known group of bacteria, and the number of new species and sequences from non-culturable strains has increased considerably in recent years. This study investigates whether using media that contain NaCl might help to improve the recovery of Arcobacter spp. from marine environments. To this aim, 62 water and shellfish samples were analysed in parallel, with both a commonly used culture method (enrichment in Arcobacter-CAT broth followed by culture on Blood Agar) and a new one that supplements the Arcobacter-CAT enrichment broth with 2.5% NaCl (w/v) followed by culturing on Marine Agar. The new method yielded ca. 40% more positive samples and provided a higher diversity of known (11 vs. 7) and unknown (7 vs. 2) Arcobacter species. Among the 11 known species recovered, Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus were isolated only by this new method. No more strains of these species have been isolated since their original descriptions, both of which were based only on a single strain. In view of that, the phenotypic characteristics of these species are re-evaluated in the present study, using the new strains. Strains of A. halophilus had the same phenotypic profile as the type strain. However, some strains of A. marinus differed from the type strain in that they did not hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate, becoming, therefore, the first Arcobacter species to show a varying ability to hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate. This study shows to what extent a simple variation to the culture media can have a big influence on positive samples and on the community of species recovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15609-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H641784 ) CHO_OF4972xp21r1.ab1 CHO_OF4 Nicotiana tabacum ge... 54 0.002 2 ( DY336731 ) OB_SEa04L12.r OB_SEa Ocimum basil...nt WO2007093776. 38 0.029 3 ( DQ508732 ) Perkinsus marinus delta9-elongating activity prot... 38 0.029 3 ( D...Y036171 ) CAIY2568.fwd CAIY Artemisia annua leaf Artemisia ... 42 0.33 2 ( AW6512...9 2 ( EY042621 ) CAIY6316.fwd CAIY Artemisia annua leaf Artemisia ... 42 0.39 2 ( EH069644 ) PMDAD81TO Perki...nsus marinus small insert cDNA lib... 38 0.41 2 ( EY042620 ) CAIY6316.rev CAIY Artemisia annua leaf Artemi

  16. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 470019 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hypothetical protein Pro1185 Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375 MLNGLNLCTLLEKYCYSKKISDKEVEFLERCWLDSLNSLHYNRYPGIAPAIVCDEAGVARGSYWISCNAAILDKLKPLGTTRSRSARIFDVLFQSGLIAA ...

  18. Budding of the Alveolate Alga Vitrella brassicaformis Resembles Sexual and Asexual Processes in Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Füssy, Zoltán; Masařová, Petra; Kručinská, Jitka; Esson, Heather; Oborník, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2017), s. 80-91 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-24027S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Vitrella brassicaformis * life cycle * zoosporangium * zoospores * budding * ciliogenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.794, year: 2016

  19. Budding of the Alveolate Alga Vitrella brassicaformis Resembles Sexual and Asexual Processes in Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Füssy, Z.; Masařová, P.; Kručinská, J.; Esson, H.J.; Oborník, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2017), s. 80-91 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/19.0392 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Vitrella brassicaformis * Vlife cycle * zoosporangium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.794, year: 2016

  20. Activated alveolar macrophage and lymphocyte alveolitis in extrathoracic sarcoidosis without radiological mediastinopulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.C.; Prin, L.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular characteristics of BAL were investigated in 18 patients with proved extrathoracic sarcoidosis (that is, sarcoidosis that affected the skin, eyes, parotid glands, stomach, nose, kidneys, or meninges) without clinical or radiological mediastinopulmonary involvement. Computed tomography of the thorax was performed on five patients: four patients were normal, and one had enlarged lymph nodes (these enlargements were not detectable on the patient's chest roentgenogram). The results of pulmonary function tests were normal in all patients. The total BAL cell count did not differ significantly between controls and patients. Abnormal percentages of alveolar lymphocytes (from 18 to 87%) were noted in 15 out of 18 patients. SACE levels were normal in 15 patients. No pulmonary gallium uptake was detected. The chemiluminescence of AM's, whether spontaneous or PMA induced, was increased in five out of seven patients. The percentages of T3+ lymphocytes in sarcoidosis patients did not significantly differ from those in controls. The T4+:T8+ ratio was normal in four patients and slightly increased in one. Follow-up of patients showed that alveolar lymphocytosis is as lasting as extrathoracic involvement. Our data demonstrate increased percentages of lymphocytes and activated AM's in the BAL of patients with extrathoracic sarcoidosis. This may be due to the initial involvement of the respiratory tract in extrathoracic sarcoidosis or to the diffusion of activated macrophages and lymphocytes from an extrathoracic site into the lung

  1. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, T.; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, V.; Zbránková, V.; Demir-Hilton, E.; Sudek, S.; Jenkis, J.; Schmutz, J.; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B.F.; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, A.Z.; Eliáš, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, MAY 28 2015 (2015), s. 10134 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33039S; GA ČR GPP506/12/P931 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1208; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : phylogenetic position * Chromera velia * Dinoflagellate Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EF - Botanics (UMG-J); EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  2. 15alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone in male sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryan, M. B.; Scott, A. P.; Černý, Ivan; Young, B. A.; Li, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 473-481 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : steroid * 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone * sea lamprey Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2004

  3. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  4. Restoration of oyster reefs in an estuarine lake: population dynamics and shell accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Sandra M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.; La Peyre, Megan K.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration activities inherently depend on understanding the spatial and temporal variation in basic demographic rates of the species of interest. For species that modify and maintain their own habitat such as the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, understanding demographic rates and their impacts on population and habitat success are crucial to ensuring restoration success. We measured oyster recruitment, density, size distribution, biomass, mortality and Perkinsus marinus infection intensity quarterly for 3 yr on shallow intertidal reefs created with shell cultch in March 2009. All reefs were located within Sister Lake, LA. Reefs were placed in pairs at 3 different locations within the lake; pairs were placed in low and medium energy sites within each location. Restored reefs placed within close proximity (biomass (>14.6 kg m-2) at the end of 3 yr. Shell accretion, on average, exceeded estimated rates required to keep pace with local subsidence and shell loss. Variation in recruitment, growth and survival drives local site-specific population success, which highlights the need to understand local water quality, hydrodynamics, and metapopulation dynamics when planning restoration.

  5. Cryptic infection of a broad taxonomic and geographic diversity of tadpoles by Perkinsea protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouvet, Aurélie; Gower, David J; Jirků, Miloslav; Yabsley, Michael J; Davis, Andrew K; Leonard, Guy; Maguire, Finlay; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M; Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela Bueno; Wilkinson, Mark; Richards, Thomas A

    2015-08-25

    The decline of amphibian populations, particularly frogs, is often cited as an example in support of the claim that Earth is undergoing its sixth mass extinction event. Amphibians seem to be particularly sensitive to emerging diseases (e.g., fungal and viral pathogens), yet the diversity and geographic distribution of infectious agents are only starting to be investigated. Recent work has linked a previously undescribed protist with mass-mortality events in the United States, in which infected frog tadpoles have an abnormally enlarged yellowish liver filled with protist cells of a presumed parasite. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this infectious agent was affiliated with the Perkinsea: a parasitic group within the alveolates exemplified by Perkinsus sp., a "marine" protist responsible for mass-mortality events in commercial shellfish populations. Using small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, we developed a targeted PCR protocol for preferentially sampling a clade of the Perkinsea. We tested this protocol on freshwater environmental DNA, revealing a wide diversity of Perkinsea lineages in these environments. Then, we used the same protocol to test for Perkinsea-like lineages in livers of 182 tadpoles from multiple families of frogs. We identified a distinct Perkinsea clade, encompassing a low level of SSU rDNA variation different from the lineage previously associated with tadpole mass-mortality events. Members of this clade were present in 38 tadpoles sampled from 14 distinct genera/phylogroups, from five countries across three continents. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that Perkinsea-like protists infect tadpoles across a wide taxonomic range of frogs in tropical and temperate environments, including oceanic islands.

  6. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene, 3, 20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Didier, Wes; Satbir, Rai; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Libants, Scot V.; Sang-Seon, Yun; Close, David

    2013-01-01

    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100 lg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  7. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  8. Albirhodobacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from sea shore water of Visakhapatnam, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel marine, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain N9 sup(T), was isolated from a water sample of the sea shore at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India). Strain N9 sup(T) was found to be positive for oxidase and catalase...

  9. 15ŕ-Hydroxytestosterone produced in vitro and in vivo in the sea lamprey, .I.Petromyzon marinus./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryan, M. B.; Scott, A. P.; Černý, Ivan; Yun, S. S.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2003), s. 418-426 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : steroid * androgen * endocrinology Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.736, year: 2003

  10. Analysis of DNA damage in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa by UV, hydrogen peroxide, and the toxicant bisazir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Wolfe, Tobie D.; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    In this study we sought to demonstrate that Comet assay can be applied to sea lamprey sperm DNA fragmentation and used to describe the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm fertilizing ability. We show that the assay can be used reliably and accurately, and unlike in the case of mammals, there is no need for additional steps related to improvement of efficacy of lysis and DNA decondensation. This agrees with the presence of histone proteins in lamprey sperm. An increase in DNA fragmentation was noted during short-term storage of milt on ice (0-4 days). We demonstrated genotoxic effects of UV radiation and oxidative stress (exposure to hydrogen peroxide) and found that oxidative damage to sperm DNA was likely repaired after fertilization in the embryo. Repairing capacity of the oocyte toward sperm DNA lesions caused by UV was restricted. Toxic effect of p,p-bis-(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic acid (p,p-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a sea lamprey chemosterilant, could not be linked to DNA fragmentation in the in vitro tests. Its genotoxicity in vivo may possibly be associated with other mechanisms of DNA degradation (oxidation or DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-linking). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Comet assay can be successfully applied to monitor effects of environmental disturbances and imposed injuries in sea lamprey spermatozoa and possibly other species of ancient fish with acrosomal sperm

  11. Analysis of DNA damage in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa by UV, hydrogen peroxide, and the toxicant bisazir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciereszko, Andrzej [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States); Semen Biology Group, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Wolfe, Tobie D. [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States); Dabrowski, Konrad [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States)]. E-mail: dabrowski.1@osu.edu

    2005-06-15

    In this study we sought to demonstrate that Comet assay can be applied to sea lamprey sperm DNA fragmentation and used to describe the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm fertilizing ability. We show that the assay can be used reliably and accurately, and unlike in the case of mammals, there is no need for additional steps related to improvement of efficacy of lysis and DNA decondensation. This agrees with the presence of histone proteins in lamprey sperm. An increase in DNA fragmentation was noted during short-term storage of milt on ice (0-4 days). We demonstrated genotoxic effects of UV radiation and oxidative stress (exposure to hydrogen peroxide) and found that oxidative damage to sperm DNA was likely repaired after fertilization in the embryo. Repairing capacity of the oocyte toward sperm DNA lesions caused by UV was restricted. Toxic effect of p,p-bis-(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic acid (p,p-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a sea lamprey chemosterilant, could not be linked to DNA fragmentation in the in vitro tests. Its genotoxicity in vivo may possibly be associated with other mechanisms of DNA degradation (oxidation or DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-linking). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Comet assay can be successfully applied to monitor effects of environmental disturbances and imposed injuries in sea lamprey spermatozoa and possibly other species of ancient fish with acrosomal sperm.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005042 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ator ... [Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus str. CCMP1375] ... Length = 85 ... Query: 9 ... KAIDS...LKALAEPIRLEIIESLSSGEKCVCDLMQETGLAQSKISFHLKVLKDAGVITDRQS 68 ... KAIDSLKALAE...PIRLEIIESLSSGEKCVCDLMQETGLAQSKISFHLKVLKDAGVITDRQS Sbjct: 1 ... KAIDSLKALAEPIRLEIIESLSSGEKCVCDLMQETGLAQSKISFHLKVLKDAGVITDRQS 60 ...

  13. [Exposure to Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula among cattle breeders in the province of Reggio Emilia and the risk of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (farmer's lung)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Dottori, M; Bedogni, Lorena; Perini, S; Ligabue, M

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 2.350 dairy farms (and 137.000 milk cows) are located in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy, to produce the famous Parmigiano-Reggiano" cheese. Feeding is hay-based both in the cold season and (together with grazing) in the warm season. This requires a large production of hay and frequent handling by the farmers. Hay is packed in large cylindrical bales, "round bales" (nearly 2.41 m3), or, rarely, in traditional small prisms-shaped bales (about 0.15 m3), only used on small farms. We estimated there were 6.000-9.000 the workers exposed to hay dust. The risks for the farmer's health due to the hay dust exposure are well known; in particular Farmer's Lung disease (FL) is rather frequent in this Region (1.5%-3.0% among people exposed). We studied hay and air pollution by Saccharopolyspora Rectivirgula (SR) in relation to these two different hay-packing techniques (hay dried in the open air) both in flat and in hilly areas. On 56 cattle-farms, hay and air samples were collected and analyzed using a six-stage Andersen sampler and a sedimentation chamber (SC) for hay samples with plastic Petri dishes containing culture medium. Round bales were richer in SR spores than the small prism-shaped bales (n = 37, mean = 6.20 logn ufc/m3 in SC, ds: 3.87 vs n = 15, mean = 2.40 logn ufc/m3 in SC; ds: 4.16) and they seem to produce higher air pollution (n = 30, mean = 5.30 logn ufc/m3; ds: 3.71 vs n = 15, mean = 2.32 logn ufc/m3; ds: 2.99). In hilly areas the pollution produced by round bales (in hay and air) was higher than in flat areas. On the contrary hay from small bales produced in hilly areas was poorest in SR spores. An heavy exposure to actinomycetes spores, therefore, comes from "round bales" hay handling, especially when the bales are produced in mountain areas. New drying systems, probably, can reduce this risk and raise hay quality.

  14. A Restoration Suitability Index Model for the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseres Pollack, Jennifer; Cleveland, Andrew; Palmer, Terence A.; Reisinger, Anthony S.; Montagna, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oyster reefs are one of the most threatened marine habitats on earth, with habitat loss resulting from water quality degradation, coastal development, destructive fishing practices, overfishing, and storm impacts. For successful and sustainable oyster reef restoration efforts, it is necessary to choose sites that support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Selection of suitable sites is critically important as it can greatly influence mortality factors and may largely determine the ultimate success of the restoration project. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides an effective methodology for identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration and removes much of the uncertainty involved in the sometimes trial and error selection process. This approach also provides an objective and quantitative tool for planning future oyster reef restoration efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a restoration suitability index model and reef quality index model to characterize locations based on their potential for successful reef restoration within the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. The restoration suitability index model focuses on salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and depth, while the reef quality index model focuses on abundance of live oysters, dead shell, and spat. Size-specific Perkinsus marinus infection levels were mapped to illustrate general disease trends. This application was effective in identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration, is flexible in its use, and provides a mechanism for considering alternative approaches. The end product is a practical decision-support tool that can be used by coastal resource managers to improve oyster restoration efforts. As oyster reef restoration activities continue at small and large-scales, site selection criteria are critical for assisting stakeholders and managers and for maximizing long-term sustainability of oyster resources. PMID:22792410

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen M Klinger

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs, factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during

  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 78779802 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1196 ... hypothetical protein PMT9312_1418 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9312 MKFLTTLFLKLLLLSNFVIAETIPTKSNILKQSSECIKDSQNQICRELVSKLEKLQYVVFDQNRFKCQSSLLGLQSELIEAYFLKSLSKKRISFMIPYVIKNC

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 408501 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MPGIGPRTAQRLALHLLRQPEERIKAFANALLNARNQVGQCQQCFHLTEGNECEICLNQNRQRNLICV...VADSRDLLALERTREYKGLYHVLGGLISPMDGIGPELLNISPLVKRITSEETTEVILALTPSVEGDTTSLYLAKLLNAFVKVTRIAYGLPVGSELEYADEVTLARALEGRRTVE ...

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 432519 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mal protein L18 Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MATLSKKQQTQKRHKRLRRHLNGTNHRPRLAVFRSNNHIYAQVIDDEAQSTICSASTLDKDLREKLKASGGSCDASMAVGALLAQRALAKGIEQVVFDRGGNLYHGRVKALAKSAREAGLKF ...

  19. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of natural steroid hormones in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) plasma and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to provide a rapid, sensitive and precise UPLC-MS/MS method for target steroid quantitation in biological matrices. We developed and validated an UPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine 16 steroids in plasma and tissue samples. Ionization sources of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) were compared in this study by testing their spectrometry performances at the same chromatographic conditions, and the ESI source was found up to five times more sensitive than the APCI. Different sample preparation techniques were investigated for an optimal extraction of steroids from the biological matrices. The developed method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.99 in broad concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.003 to 0.1ng/mL. The method was validated according to FDA guidance and applied to determine steroids in sea lamprey plasma and tissues (fat and testes) by the developed method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The effects of fasting and cold exposure on metabolic rate and mitochondrial proton leak in liver and skeletal muscle of an amphibian, the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcionka, M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; Jastroch, M

    2008-06-01

    Futile cycling of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane contributes significantly to standard metabolic rate in a variety of ectothermic and endothermic animals, but adaptations of the mitochondrial bioenergetics to different environmental conditions have rarely been studied in ectotherms. Changes in ambient temperature and nutritional status have a great effect on the physiological demands of ectothermic amphibians and may require the adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency. In order to investigate the effect of temperature and nutritional status on the mitochondrial level, we exposed male cane toads to either 10 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fasted half of the animals in each group. Cold exposure resulted in a fourfold reduction of the resting metabolic rate whereas nutritional status had only minor effects. The mitochondrial adjustments to each condition were observed by comparing the proton leak kinetics of isolated liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria at 25 degrees C. In response to cold exposure, liver mitochondria showed a decrease in proton conductance while skeletal muscle mitochondria were unchanged. Additional food deprivation had minor effects in skeletal muscle, but in liver we uncovered surprising differences in energy saving mechanisms between the acclimation temperatures: in warm-acclimated toads, fasting resulted in a decrease of the proton conductance whereas in cold-acclimated toads, the activity of the respiratory chain was reduced. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial proton leakage, we determined the adenine-nucleotide transporter (ANT) content, which explained tissue-specific differences in the basal proton leak, but neither the ANT nor uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression correlated with alterations of the proton leak in response to physiological stimuli.

  1. Structural lipid changes and NKA activity of gill cells´ basolateral membranes as response to increasing salinity and atrazine stressors in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L. juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Lança

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of BLM lipids associated with NKA activity seems to be the strategy adopted by gill cells of juveniles to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors and for contact/resistance to ATZ exposure.

  2. Cloning, phylogeny, and regional expression of a Y5 receptor mRNA in the brain of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A

    2014-04-01

    The NPY receptors known as Y receptors are classified into three subfamilies, Y1, Y2, and Y5, and are involved in different physiological functions. The Y5 receptor is the only member of the Y5 subfamily, and it is present in all vertebrate groups, except for teleosts. Both molecular and pharmacological studies show that Y5 receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Furthermore, this receptor is widely expressed in the mammalian brain, including the hypothalamus, where it is thought to take part in feeding and homeostasis regulation. Lampreys belong to the agnathan lineage, and they are thought to have branched out between the two whole-genome duplications that occurred in vertebrates. Therefore, they are in a key position for studies on the evolution of gene families in vertebrates. Here we report the cloning, phylogeny, and brain expression pattern of the sea lamprey Y5 receptor. In phylogenetic studies, the lamprey Y5 receptor clusters in a basal position, together with Y5 receptors of other vertebrates. The mRNA of this receptor is broadly expressed in the lamprey brain, being especially abundant in hypothalamic areas. Its expression pattern is roughly similar to that reported for other vertebrates and parallels the expression pattern of the Y1 receptor subtype previously described by our group, as it occurs in mammals. Altogether, these results confirm that a Y5 receptor is present in lampreys, thus being highly conserved during the evolution of vertebrates, and suggest that it is involved in many brain functions, the only known exception being teleosts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Correlation among the cytokines levels in the bronco-alveolar lavage in a cohort of patient of the Central Military Hospital, with systemic sclerosis (SS), with and without alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Rossana; Velez, Patricia; Avila, Luz Mabel; Pernett, Frank; Giraldo, Luis Fernando; Amaya, Betty; Mejia, Adriana; Londono J, John; Valle, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SS) is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by thickening and fibrosis of the skin and by distinctive forms of involvement of internal organs, notably the heart, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. We analyzed nineteen patients with SS 9 with SSI, 10 with SSd and two healthy controls. All patients were evaluated by comprise of skin, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Pulmonary assessments were performed with chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography, vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and bronchoalveolar lavage (cellular counts and measured interleukin). The interleukin's levels of IL 6, IL 1 β IL 8, and TNFα were found increased in all patients with SS, but not in healthy controls. The interleukin's level in SSd patients tended to be higher than in SSI patients, but this difference only reach statistical significance with interleukins 6. Lung involvement in SS is associated with an increase in interleukin's levels in BAL fluids, but this difference only reach statistical significance with the interleukins 6 lL 1β and TNFα

  4. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 159903630 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 59:965 ... RecR protein Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9211 MPGIGPRTAQRLALHLLRQPEERIKAFANALLNARNQVGQCQQCFHLT...EGNECEICLNQNRQRNLICVVADSRDLLALERTREYKGLYHVLGGLISPMDGIGPELLNISPLVKRITSEETTEVILALTPSVEGDTTSLYLAKLLNAFVKVTRIAYGLPVGSELEYADEVTLARALEGRRTVE

  5. [Cytological study of deep lung in spondyloarthritis. Apropos of 34 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, D; Jeandel, P; Chouc, P Y; Molinier, S; Raphenon, G; Martet, G; Merouze, F; de Muizon, H

    1993-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 34 consecutive patients with spondyloarthropathy (SA) compared with 9 controls. Lymphocytic alveolitis was found in the SA group with decrease in the ratio of the CD4/CD8 subsets in both lung and blood. Neutrophilic alveolitis was also found in 5 patients with SA of long duration. As with other inflammatory diseases, it seems that a subclinical alveolitis is present in SA patients.

  6. Device for storage of cylindrical objects with quick loading-unloading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier, J.

    1995-01-01

    This device comprises one or more co-axial rotative racks with radially distributed alveoles for the storage of cylindrical objects such as small jugs filled with radioactive samples. An opening is managed in each alveole for the ejection of the object towards a receptacle and alveoles are inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the rack to avoid casual fall of the objects. Selective ejection of the samples is obtained with ab toggle lever fitted inside each alveole and controlled by a single pneumatic jack. Details of manufacturing and description of parts are given. (J.S.). 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Parasitological survey of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the Pacoti River Estuary, Ceará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Rachel Costa; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia, Ostreidae) is commonly collected by fisherwomen in the estuaries of the Ceará State (CE), Northeastern Brazil. Despite the socioeconomic importance of this natural resource, there are few studies on the health of the oysters in this region. This study aimed to survey pathological changes in the mangrove oyster C. rhizophorae in the estuary of the Pacoti River, CE. Adult oysters were collected in August 2008 (N=450) and December 2009 (N=450) at three sites of the Pacoti estuary and in 2010 (N=600) samplings were done quarterly at one site which has showed the higher prevalence de Perkinsus. Macroscopical and histological analyses were used to evaluate pathological changes, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM) to detect Perkinsus spp. and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequencing to identify Perkinsus species. In 2009, RFTM assay detected Perkinsus sp. infecting the tissues of C. rhizophorae with low prevalences of 1.3%, 6.7% e 7.3% in sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and in 2010, in site 3, prevalence was 2% (12 of 600 oysters). PCR did not confirm any positive case in 2009 and only 5 in 2010. The phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Perkinsus species infecting oysters C. rhizophorae of this study belongs to Perkinsus beihaiensis. The histology confirmed 11 cases of Perkinsus sp. infecting the C. rhizophorae in 2009, and only two cases in 2010. Nematopsis sp. was the protozoan observed with greater prevalence (up 96.7%). Other found protozoa were: Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Ancistrocoma - like and an unknown ovarian parasite. The metazoa found were the polychaete Polydora with high prevalences, a turbellarian, possibly of the genus Urastoma, an unidentified digenean metacercariae and larvae of cestode Tylocephalum. A continuous monitoring of diseases in bivalves from this natural population is recommended, since the phylogenetic analyses indicate the occurrence of P. beihaiensis

  8. Identifikasi Dan Uji Kepekaan Kuman Aerob Pada Alpeolitis Pascapencabutan Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Rehatta Yongki, Dr.med.dent

    2002-01-01

    Dosen Pada Bagian Konservasi dan Bedah Mulut FKG Unhas Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kuman aerob yang dominan pada alveolitis pascapencabutan gigi dan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kepekaan kuman aerob yang dominan dari Alveolitis terhadap beberapa antiobiotik. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian deskriftif dan uji laboratorium. Sampel sebanyak 32 orang yang diambil secara Purpose Sampling. Soket diteliti secara cermat, dilakukan pengambilan usapan . Untuk mengiden...

  9. Description of Two Species of Early Branching Dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp and P. atlantica n. sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okamoto, n.; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), e34900 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ALVEOLATE GROUP-I * MARINE ALVEOLATE * OXYRRHIS-MARINA * INTRACELLULAR PARASITE * MICROBIAL EUKARYOTES * GENETIC DIVERSITY * FINE-STRUCTURE * PHYLOGENETIC POSITION * MITOCHONDRIAL GENOMES * EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  10. The modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus is cell-attached, and its C-terminal domain has several putative homologues among cell-attached proteins within the phylum Bacteroidetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Hachem, Maher Abou; Ramchuran, Santosh

    2004-01-01

    -termini of proteins that were predominantly extra-cellular/cell attached. A primary structure motif of three conserved regions including structurally important glycines and a proline was also identified suggesting a conserved 3D fold. This bioinformatic evidence suggested a possible role of this domain in mediating...

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_005072 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein S8 ... [Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986] ... Length = 128 ... Query: 5 ... DPISDMLTRIRNASQKKHTST...AIPASKMSLSIAKVLQKEGFITDINEEGEGYKSQIVLGL 64 ... DPISDMLTRIRNASQKKHTST...AIPASKMSLSIAKVLQKEGFITDINEEGEGYKSQIVLGL Sbjct: 1 ... DPISDMLTRIRNASQKKHTSTAIPASKMSLSIAKVLQKE

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005071 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coccus ... marinus str. MIT 9313] ... Length = 117 ... Query: 7 ... KVKINALPDNHISIELEVPAARCKSSYDAAL...SRLGSAIRLPGFRPGKIPKQVIIQQIGIA 66 ... KVKINALPDNHISIELEVPAARCKSSYDAALSRLGSA...IRLPGFRPGKIPKQVIIQQIGIA Sbjct: 1 ... KVKINALPDNHISIELEVPAARCKSSYDAALSRLGSAIRLPGFRPGKIPKQVIIQQIGIA 60 ...

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_005071 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lA ... [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313] ... Length = 111 ... Query: 41 ... PLEQLARRSLDPDVALTNGRPTVIEFYADWCQACREMAPA...MLKTERDREDQXXXXXXXXX 100 ... PLEQLARRSLDPDVALTNGRPTVIEFYADWCQACREMAPA...MLKTERDREDQ ... Sbjct: 1 ... PLEQLARRSLDPDVALTNGRPTVIEFYADWCQACREMAPAMLKTERDREDQLDVVLVNVD 60 ...

  14. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  15. Renal Tubular Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune' diseases such as. Sjogren's syndrome,'" systemic lupus erythematosus. (SLE),3 alveolitis' and chronic active hepatitis.' The reported abnormalities of renal tubular function include impairment of acid excretion and urinary concentration.

  16. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o Petromyzon marinus cDNA 3', mRNA sequence /clone_end=3' /gb=EE272683 /gi=111169662 /ug=Pma.1613 /len=663 1e-08 26% MEVGIS...IMEVAISIMEVDISIMEVDISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVDISIMEVGISIMEVAISIMEVAISIMEVGISITEVRISIMEVGIS...IMEVGISITEVGISITEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISITEVGISITEVGISITEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGISIMEVGIS...ITEVGISIMEVGISITEVRISIMEVGFTITASSTSSLSSLTQARLLHLFPSTLQRTTSSCLMLSSSLSAMNNPLLDENLSTPPPLIILQIRHPSIHPHGGRPLSDAFRPWAAALFLVSAIGHRPSLAVTTRPDKAQISSGAV ...

  17. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0569 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available romyzon marinus cDNA, mRNA sequence /gb=CO548425 /gi=51796737 /ug=Pma.8609 /len=962 3e-06 21% MCCIGIADTLALLLHWHCCCIGIAATLA...LLLHWHCCYIGIVATLALLLRWHCCCIGIVDTLALLLHWHCCFIGIVAALALLLHWHCCCIGIVAALALLLHWHCCYIGIVATLA...LLLHWHCCYIRIAATLALLLHWHCCCIGIAAALALLLHWHCCCIGIVDTLALLLHWHCCYIGIAATLALLLHWHCCCIGIVATLALLLHWHCCYIGIAATLA...LLLHWHCCYIGIAATLALLLHWHCCCIGIAATLTLLLHCHSCTVRAPAVADTLGLRPSPNLYKEFTFRG ...

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_005071 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... [Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9313] ... Length = 122 ... Query: 44 ... ELEQLLEAVGWSRRPMRRVRLALDHTLLKVGLWRHDPLFPRLVGFARC...TGDGVLEATVWD 103 ... ELEQLLEAVGWSRRPMRRVRLALDHTLLKVGLWRHDPLFPRLVGFARC...TGDGVLEATVWD Sbjct: 1 ... ELEQLLEAVGWSRRPMRRVRLALDHTLLKVGLWRHDPLFPRLVGFARCTGDGVLEATVWD 60 ... Query: 164 WY 165 ... WY Sbjct: 121 WY 122

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Since DNA encrypts the genetic code it cannot be a random ... strains of bacteria such as the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, marine Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus or ..... This holds even for the highly virulent strain Y. pestis which.

  20. South African Journal of Geomatics - Vol 5, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resolution orthophotos, point clouds and surface models for mapping wetlands · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Marinus Axel Boon, Richard Greenfield, Solomon Tesfamichael ...

  1. Histopathology and stress biomarkers in the clam Venerupis philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo Papo, Michele; Bertotto, Daniela; Quaglio, Francesco; Vascellari, Marta; Pascoli, Francesco; Negrato, Elena; Binato, Giovanni; Radaelli, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphology and the stress response in the bivalve Venerupis philippinarum sampled in four differently polluted sites of the Venice Lagoon (Palude del Monte, Marghera, Ca' Roman and Val di Brenta). This species is often used as bioindicator of environmental pollution since it can bioaccumulate a large variety of pollutants because of its filter feeding. Chemical analyses for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed on whole soft tissues of V. philippinarum. The histological evaluation of clams revealed the presence of Perkinsus sp. infection in animals from all sites, although a very high prevalence of parasites was evidenced in clams from Ca' Roman. Perkinsus sp. were systemically distributed in the mantle, in the intestine and digestive gland, in gonads and gills. The trophozoites of Perkinsus sp. were found isolated or in cluster surrounded by a heavy hemocitical response. Haemocytes always exhibited an immunopositivity to cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT) antibodies. The digestive gland of animals from Palude del Monte showed the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, whereas clams from Ca' Roman exhibited the highest quantity of metallothioneins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ekspresi Gen CYP19 Aromatase, Estrogen, Androgen pada penderita Periodontitis Agresif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Herawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kepadatan tulang tubuh ditentukan oleh gen CYP19 aromatase, hormon estrogen dan androgen. Pada periodontitis agresif terjadi perkembangan cepat kerusakan tulang alveolar, dan kerusakan tulang alveoler tersebut tidak diimbangioleh regenerasi tulang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menunjukkan ekspresi gen CYP19 aromatase, estrogen, androgen pada penderita periodontitis agresif agar dapat untuk menjadi pertimbangan pada saat melakukan perawatan periodontal. Metode penelitian, pemeriksaan ekspresi gen aromatse CYP19 berasal dari spesimen tulang alveolar menggunakan imunohistokimia, pengukuran hormon estrogen dan androgen dari serum menggunakan Vidas: Elfa. Hasil penelitian ekspresi gene CYP19 aromatase pada periodontitis agresif menunjukkan gambaran lebih rendah densitasnya dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Estrogen dan androgen pad aperiodontitis agresif ada kecenderungan lebih rendah dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Kesimpulan regenerasi tulang alveoler pad a periodontitis agresif terhambat karena sedikitnya gen CYP19 aromatase dan hormon estrogen dan androgen yang berperan pada pembentukan tulang alveoler kurang memadai.

  3. Cryptic infection of a broad taxonomic and geographic diversity of tadpoles by Perkinsea protists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chambouvet, A.; Gower, D.J.; Jirků, Miloslav; Yabsley, M. J.; Davis, A. K.; Leonard, A.; Maguire, F.; Doherty-Bone, T. M.; Bittencourt-Silva, G.B.; Wilkinson, M.; Richards, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 34 (2015), E4743-E4751 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : frog decline * emerging disease * parasite * alveolates * molecular diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Capone, Domenico

    1996-01-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author)

  5. Ambulatory Care Data Base (ACDB) Data Dictionary Sequential Files of Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    ASTHMA, BRONCHODILATOR DEP 49397 ASTHMA, STERIOD DEP 49398 ASTHMA, EXERCISE INDUCED 49399 ASTHMA, OCCUPATIONAL 494 BRONCHI ECTAS IS 495 ALVEOLITIS...ACROMEGALY 25300 ACROMEGALY & GIGANTISM 2531 PITUITARY HYPERFUNCTION, ANTERIOR, OTH & UNSP 25311 HYPERPROLACTINEMIA ANT PIT HYPERFUNCT 25312 AMENORRHEA ...DISORDER 32790 INTOXICATION, SUBS, UNSPEC 32791 WITHDRAWAL, SUBS, UNSPEC 32792 DELERIUM, SUBS UNSPEC 32793 DEMENTIA, DRUG INDUCED , SUBS UNSPEC 32794

  6. Ambulatory Care Data Base (ACDB) Data Dictionary Sequential Files of Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    BRONCHODILATOR DEP 49397 ASTHMA, STERIOD DEP 49398 ASTHMA, EXERCISE INDUCED 49399 ASTHMA, OCCUPATIONAL 4914 BRONCHIECTASIS 495 ALVEOLITIS, ALLERGIC...ACROMEGALY 25300 ACROMEGALY & GIGANTISM 2531 PITUITARY HYPERFUNCTION, ANTERIOR, OTH & UNSP 25311 RYPERPROLACTINEMIA ANT PIT HYPERFUNCT 25312 AMENORRHEA ...UNSPEC 32792 DELERIUM, SUBS UNSPEC 32793 DEMENTIA, DRUG INDUCED , SUBS UNSPEC 32794 AMNESTIC DISORDER, DRUG INDUCED , SUBS, UNSPEC 32795 DELUSIONAL

  7. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease

  8. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Jackie A; Halliday, Damien C T; Robinson, Anthony J; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D; Boyle, Donna G; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M; Siddon, Nicole A; Hyatt, Alex D

    2011-01-25

    The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  9. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boon, Marinus Axel. Vol 5, No 2 (2016) - Articles Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry produces accurate high-resolution orthophotos, point clouds and surface models for mapping wetlands. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-8531. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Patchy zooplankton grazing and high energy conversion efficiency: ecological implications of sandeel behavior and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Asbjørn; Rindorf, Anna

    2013-01-01

    of prey. Here we studied zooplankton consumption and energy conversion efficiency of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the central North Sea, using stomach data, length and weight-at-age data, bioenergetics, and hydrodynamic modeling. The results suggested: (i) Lesser sandeel in the Dogger area depend...... sandeel densities and growth rates per area than larger habitats...

  12. Influence of on-board irradiation on the shelflife of redfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, E.; Ehlermann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Continuing former investigations during two voyages of the RV 'Anton Dohrn' redfish (Sebastes marinus) was irradiated on board and stored under different conditions, wrapped and unwrapped under melting ice. A part of the irradiated, unwrapped samples was stored under irradiated ice. As in the former investigations the irradiation treatment effected no prolongation of shelflife in the range of marketable quality. (orig.) [de

  13. Apuntes sobre la reproduccion de algunos Bagres marinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo, José A.

    1973-01-01

    Mouthbreeding in the male, and modifications of the pelvic fins of the female are recorded for the first time in Selenaspis herzbergii. The pelvic girdle of Selenaspis herzbergii is compared with those of Sciadeichthys proops, Arius spixii, and Bagre marinus. Data are given on eggs and fry in the

  14. Ze Slovníku středověké latiny: sporcia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 1/2 (2017), s. 233-245 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : porcus marinus * Latin lexicography * ancient and medieval zoology * Latin names of marine animals * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Pliny the Elder * Isidorus of Sevilla * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  15. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  16. Evaluation of the role of Carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Dalgaard, Paw; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    -packed salmon was dominated by a Vibrio sp., resembling V. marinus, Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter agglomerans, Serratia liquefaciens and Rahnella aquatilis) and occasionally Aeromonas hydrophila. Irrespective of the addition of nisin and/or CO2- atmosphere, the LAB microflora was dominated by Carnobacterium...

  17. Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS) artificial recharge scientific and operational support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Scheme (AWSS) artifi cial recharge scientifi c and operational support N JOVANOVIC1, RDH BUGAN1, S ISRAEL1, C PETERSEN1, B GENTHE1, M STEYN1, G TREDOUX1, D ALLPASS2, R BISHOP2, V MARINUS2, P FLOWER2, 1CSIR, Natural Resources and Environment...

  18. Tocqueville's Christian Citizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Tocqueville's Christian Citizen Marinus Ossewaarde Introduction Alexis De Tocqueville is well known for his critique of democracy. A French statesman, he was left with the legacy of the French Revolution that had torn his fatherland and had changed the course of human history for good. Tocqueville,

  19. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  20. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  1. Selective cutting, rehabilitation, and alternatives for forests of northeastern North America and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic

    2014-01-01

    In the 1928 Journal of Forestry, Marinus Westveld commented that logging in the Northeast dating to the mid-1800s had been selective cutting that removed desirable species of large sizes. Later, commercial clearcuts removed progressively smaller trees of merchantable quality and desirable species. Indiscriminate logging damaged young growing stock...

  2. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Roos, N.; Schmitz-Linneweber, B.; Gaubitz, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.) [de

  3. Community composition of picoeukaryotes in the South China Sea during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Chi; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Kang, Lee-Kuo

    2017-07-01

    Picoeukaryotes, the smallest protists, are highly diverse and abundant in the ocean. However, little information is available about their community composition in the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. This study collected surface and deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) waters from the South China Sea (SCS) to study the picoeukaryotic composition by constructing clone libraries of the 18S rRNA gene. The libraries were dominated by the heterotrophic organisms, alveolates and Rhizaria, which accounted for 46% and 16% of total clones, respectively. MALV-I was the most abundant group in alveolates, and Rhizaria appears to be a key organism in the SCS, particularly within DCM layers. These results indicate that parasitism is significant in the oligotrophic and tropical SCS. Apart from core-dinoflagellates, chlorophytes, haptophytes, cryptophytes and pelagophytes were other important contributors to primary production in pico-sized fraction based on quantitative and qualitative data.

  4. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases; HRCT der Lunge bei Kollagenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Roos, N. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Schmitz-Linneweber, B. [Medizinische Klinik B, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Gaubitz, M. [Medizinische Klinik B, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Kollagenosen koennen als systemische Bindegewebserkrankungen auch zu einem breiten Spektrum pathologischer Veraenderungen am Respirationstrakt fuehren, wobei sich Art und Ausmass der Manifestationen innerhalb einzelner Entitaeten und zwischen verschiedenen Krankheitsbildern erheblich unterscheiden koennen. In der vorliegenden Uebersicht werden die entsprechenden Befunde von Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme und insbesondere hochaufloesender Computertomographie (HRCT) beschrieben. Beruecksichtigt werden dabei die fibrosierende Alveolitis (Alveolitis, interstitielle Pneumonie, Lungenfibrose), bronchiale (Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis, Bronchiektasen), pleurale und vaskulaere Manifestationen sowie Lymphadenopathie und therapie-induzierte Befunde. Typische Befundmuster

  5. PALATAL ROTATONIAL FLAP: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PALATAL PRIMARY INTENTION NEALING

    OpenAIRE

    García Linares, Sixto A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives- The present clinical study tries to show an alternative for closing of superior bicuspids alveolus to maintain alveolar ridge and to avoid alveolitis because of first intention wound healing. Results. It was observed after 15 days; 12 patients had a complete wound healing of the alveolus and the palate showed a mattress of consistent granulation. A patient discontinued the treatment. Two patients had a wound healing lip to 75%. They didn't register adverse effects: hemorrhage, int...

  6. Pneumonitis and lethal pulmonary fibrosis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) due to Parathione (E605) poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Fasske, E.; Forschungsinstitut Borstel

    1986-01-01

    A patient with chronic Parathione (E 605) poisoning was observed over a period of 55 days. During that time he developed progressive changes, which were identical to those of progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The rapid development of an alveolitis, followed by a lethal pulmonary fibrosis, differed in no way, macroscopically nor microscopically, from the lung changes in paraquat poisoning (paraquat lung). The radiologic course has been correlated with the clinical and post mortem findings. (orig.) [de

  7. Arctigenin Induces an Activation Response in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Through TLR6-NOX2-MAPKs Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Lu; Lingling Chang; Qian Du; Yong Huang; Xiujuan Zhang; Xingchen Wu; Jie Zhang; Ruizhen Li; Zelin Zhang; Wenlong Zhang; Xiaomin Zhao; Dewen Tong

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARG), one of the most active ingredients abstracted from seeds of Arctium lappa L., has been proved to exert promising biological activities such as immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer etc. However, the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory function still remains elusive to be further investigated. In this study, we found that ARG had no significant effects on the cell proliferation in both porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (3D4/21) and primary porcine derived alveol...

  8. A description of the Larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) from the Restinga Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera: Lycidae, Calopterini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vinicius De Souza; Costa, Cleide

    2015-02-03

    The last instar larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) is described. This is the first description of a larva for the genus. Two live larvae collected in the Brazilian Atlantic coast Restinga Forest of Itanhaém, São Paulo, were reared, one to adult and one was fixed in the last instar. This larva differs from the known Calopterini larvae by the absence of urogomphi, the dorsal abdominal segments undivided and strongly alveolate ornamentation on the head. 

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings; Pneumopatias intersticiais difusas idiopaticas e associadas a colagenoses - aspectos da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Biomedico. Inst. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Radiologia; Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Penumologia

    1996-09-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author) 31 refs., 5 figs.

  10. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.

    2003-01-01

    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  11. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  12. Radiodiagnosis of yeast alveolits (a clinicoexperimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amosov, I.S.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A clinicoroetgenological study was made of 115 workers engaged in the yeast production for different periods of time. Disorders of the respiration biomechanics were revealed depending on the period of service. These data were obtained as a result of the use of roentgenopneumopolygraphy. An experimental study was conducted to establish the nature of lesions in the bronchopulmonary system in allergic alveolitis. The effect of finely divided yeast dust on the bronchopulmonary system was studied on 132 guinea-pigs usinq microbronchography and morphological examination. As a result of the study it has been established that during the inhalation of yeast dust, notnceable dystrophy of the bronchi develops, the sizes of alveoli enlarge and part of them undergo emphysematous distension with the rupture of the interalveolar septa. In the course of the study, it has been shown that yeast dust is little agreessive, yeast alveolitis develops after many years of work. The clinical symptoms are non-specific and insignificant. X-ray and morphological changes are followed by the physical manifestations of yeast alveolitis

  13. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome architecture et gestion du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  14. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  15. Deep ancestry of programmed genome rearrangement in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Lampman, Ralph T; Hess, Jon E; Porter, Laurie L; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2017-09-01

    In most multicellular organisms, the structure and content of the genome is rigorously maintained over the course of development. However some species have evolved genome biologies that permit, or require, developmentally regulated changes in the physical structure and content of the genome (programmed genome rearrangement: PGR). Relatively few vertebrates are known to undergo PGR, although all agnathans surveyed to date (several hagfish and one lamprey: Petromyzon marinus) show evidence of large scale PGR. To further resolve the ancestry of PGR within vertebrates, we developed probes that allow simultaneous tracking of nearly all sequences eliminated by PGR in P. marinus and a second lamprey species (Entosphenus tridentatus). These comparative analyses reveal conserved subcellular structures (lagging chromatin and micronuclei) associated with PGR and provide the first comparative embryological evidence in support of the idea that PGR represents an ancient and evolutionarily stable strategy for regulating inherent developmental/genetic conflicts between germline and soma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron S. Wilson; Susan E. Koenig; Rick van Veen; Erika Miersma; D. Craig. Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    The notorious ‘‘cane toad’’ (Bufo marinus) is considered to be one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. A native of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley of the United States, this large toad was intentionally introduced to islands in the Caribbean, and subsequently throughout the southern Pacific, as a biological control agent to...

  17. Primary structure and conformational analysis of peptide methionine-tyrosine, a peptide related to neuropeptide Y and peptide YY isolated from lamprey intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conlon, J M; Bjørnholm, B; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    1991-01-01

    A peptide belonging to the pancreatic-polypeptide-fold family of regulatory peptides has been isolated from the intestine of an Agnathan, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The primary structure of the peptide (termed peptide methionine-tyrosine) was established as Met-Pro-Pro-Lys-Pro-Asp-Asn-...... in a preferred structure in which the conformation of the beta-turn between the two helical domains (residues 9-14) is appreciably different....

  18. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  19. Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, T J; Bussy, U; Li, K; Wang, H; Huertas, M; Baker, C F; Jia, L; Hayes, M C; Li, W; Johnson, N S

    2017-12-01

    Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers' perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signalling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication. Previous studies indicate that male signalling with the mating pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulphate (3kPZS) may exploit a nonsexual attraction to juvenile-released 3kPZS that guides migration into productive rearing habitat. Here, we infer the distribution of male signalling with 3kPZS using a phylogenetic comparison comprising six of 10 genera and two of three families. Our results indicate that only P. marinus and Ichthyomyzon castaneus release 3kPZS at high rates. Olfactory and behavioural assays with P. marinus, I. castaneus and a subset of three other species that do not use 3kPZS as a sexual signal indicate that male signalling might have driven the evolution of female adaptations to detect 3kPZS with specific olfactory mechanisms and respond to 3kPZS with targeted attraction relevant during mate search. We postulate that 3kPZS communication evolved independently in I. castaneus and P. marinus, but cannot eliminate the alternative that other species lost 3kPZS communication. Regardless, our results represent a rare macroevolutionary investigation of a vertebrate pheromone and provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying pheromone communication. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  1. Assessing estuarine quality: A cost-effective in situ assay with amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Acevedo, Pelayo; Pais-Costa, Antónia Juliana; Taggart, Mark A; Martins, Irene; Ribeiro, Rui; Marques, João Carlos

    2016-05-01

    In situ assays based on feeding depression can be powerful ecotoxicological tools that can link physiological organism-level responses to population and/or community-level effects. Amphipods are traditional target species for toxicity tests due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, availability in the field and ease of handling. However, cost-effective in situ assays based on feeding depression are not yet available for amphipods that inhabit estuarine ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess a short-term in situ assay based on postexposure feeding rates on easily quantifiable food items with an estuarine amphipod. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Echinogammarus marinus as the target individual. When 60 Artemia franciscana nauplii (as prey) were provided per individual for a period of 30 min in dark conditions, feeding rates could be easily quantified. As an endpoint, postexposure feeding inhibition in E. marinus was more sensitive to cadmium contamination than mortality. Assay calibration under field conditions demonstrated the relevance of sediment particle size in explaining individual feeding rates in uncontaminated water bodies. An evaluation of the 48-h in situ bioassay based on postexposure feeding rates indicated that it is able to discriminate between unpolluted and polluted estuarine sites. Using the harmonized protocol described here, the in situ postexposure feeding assay with E. marinus was found to be a potentially useful, cost-effective tool for assessing estuarine sediment and water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Escherichia coli populations from gulls, landfill trash, and wastewater using ribotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Jones, S H; Edwards, C; Ellis, J C

    2008-08-19

    Due to their opportunistic and gregarious nature, gulls may be important reservoirs and vectors for anthropogenically derived fecal pathogens in coastal areas. We used ribotyping, a genotypic bacterial source tracking method, to compare populations of Escherichia coli among herring gulls Larus argentatus, great black-backed gulls L. marinus, wastewater, and landfill trash in New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Concentrations of E. coli in gull feces varied widely among individuals, but were generally high (6.0 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(9) g(-1) wet weight). Of 39 E. coli isolates from L. argentatus, 67% had banding patterns that were > or = 90% similar to those from wastewater and trash, whereas only 39% of 36 L. marinus isolates exhibited > or = 90% similarity to these sources. Strains of E. coli from gulls matched (> or = 90% similarity) more strains from wastewater (39% matching) than from trash (15% matching). E. coli isolates from L. marinus feces exhibited a greater diversity of banding patterns than did isolates from L. argentatus. There were more unique E. coli banding patterns in trash samples than in wastewater, and higher diversity indices in the former compared to the latter. These findings suggest that both species of gulls, especially L. argentatus, obtain fecal bacteria from wastewater and landfill trash, which they may transport to recreational beaches and waters. Our results also indicate that E. coli populations may vary widely between gull species, and between the anthropogenic habitats that they frequent, i.e. landfills and wastewater treatment facilities.

  3. Rapamycin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the expression of metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoguang; Dai, Huaping; Ding, Ke; Xu, Xuefeng; Pang, Baosen; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and devastating form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the clinic. There is no effective therapy except for lung transplantation. Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug with potent antifibrotic activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the relation to the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intratracheal injection of 0.3 ml of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in sterile 0.9% saline to make the pulmonary fibrosis model. Rapamycin was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg per gavage, beginning one day before bleomycin instillation and once daily until animal sacrifice. Ten rats in each group were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after bleomycin administration. Alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis were semi-quantitatively assessed after HE staining and Masson staining under an Olympus BX40 microscope with an IDA-2000 Image Analysis System. Type I and III collagen fibers were identified by Picro-sirius-polarization. Hydroxyproline content in lung tissue was quantified by a colorimetric-based spectrophotometric assay, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and by realtime quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bleomycin induced alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis of rats was inhibited by rapamycin. Significant inhibition of alveolitis and hydroxyproline product were demonstrated when daily administration of rapamycin lasted for at least 14 days. The inhibitory efficacy on pulmonary fibrosis was unremarkable until rapamycin treatment lasted for at least 28 days (P pulmonary fibrosis, which is associated with decreased expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1.

  4. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological processes taking place in an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - introduction: goal, input data, time and space scales, long-time forecasting of the phenomenological evolution; 2 - the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the HLLL wastes and the disposal concepts: impact of the repository architecture; 3 - initial state of the geologic environment prior to the building up of the repository: general framework, geologic formations, tectonics and fractures, surface environment, geologic synthesis; 4 - phenomenological processes: storage-related processes, geodynamics-related processes, time scales of processes and of radionuclides migration, independence and evolution similarities of the repository and of the geologic environment; 5 - heat loads: heat transfers between containers and geologic formations, spatial organization of the thermal load, for C-type wastes and spent fuels, for B-type wastes, synthesis of the repository thermal load; 6 - flows and liquid solution and gas transfers: hydraulic behaviour of surrounding Jurassic formations (Tithonian, Kimmeridgian, Callovian, Oxfordian); 7 - chemical phenomena: chemical evolution of ventilated facilities (alveoles, galleries, boreholes), chemical evolution of B-type waste alveoles and of gallery and borehole sealing after closure, far field chemical evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites and of other surrounding formations; 8 - mechanical evolution of the disposal and of the surrounding geologic environment: creation of an initial excavated damaged zone (EDZ), mechanical evolution of ventilated galleries, alveoles and sealing before and after closure, large-scale mechanical evolution; 9 - geodynamical evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian and other surrounding formations and of the surface environment: internal

  5. Diversity of Picoeukaryotes at an Oligotrophic Site off the Northern Red Sea Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa, Francisco Jose Acosta

    2012-05-01

    Picoeukaryotes are protist 3 µm belonging to a wide diversity of taxonomic groups, and they are an important constituent of the ocean microbiota, performing essential ecological roles in marine trophic chains and in nutrient and carbon budgets. Despite this, the true extent of their diversity is currently unknown, and in the last decade molecular surveys have uncovered a substantial number of previously unknown groups from all taxonomic levels. No studies on this group have been done so far on the Red Sea, a unique marine environment characterized by oligotrophic conditions and high irradiance, salinity and water temperature. We sampled the surface waters of a site near the northern Red Sea coast, and analyzed the picoeukaryotic diversity through the construction of PCR clone libraries using the 18S ribosomal gene. The community captured by our library is dominated by three main groups, the alveolates (32%), chlorophytes (32%) and Stramenopiles (20.55%). Members of Radiolaria, Cercozoans and Haptophyta were also found, although in low abundances. Photosynthetic organisms are especially diverse and abundant in the sample, with heterotrophic organism mostly composed by the mostly parasitic novel alveolates and bacterivorous stramenopiles. Novel clades were detected among the Novel Alveolates- II and the photosynthetic stramenopiles taxa, which suggests that they may be part of a number of groups unique to the basin and adapted to the high salinity and temperature conditions. This is the first study done on the Red Sea focusing on the diversity of the complete picoeukaryotic fraction, and provides a stepping stone in the characterization of the picoeukaryotic component of the microbial diversity of the basin.

  6. Evaluación in situ de la actividad antimicrobiana de la clorhexidina al 0,2 %, administrada en enjuagues a diferentes posologías

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Landín, Seila María

    2016-01-01

    El biofilm oral desempeña un papel relevante en el desarrollo de infecciones locales tan prevalentes como la caries y la enfermedad periodontal, y en la aparición de la complicación infecciosa más frecuente después de una exodoncia, la alveolitis seca; además, se ha sugerido que puede participar en la etiopatogenia de infecciones focales que ocasionalmente están originadas por patógenos orales, como la endocarditis bacteriana o las neumonías asociadas a ventilación mecánica. Para prevenir est...

  7. Molybdate/phosphate composite conversion coating on magnesium alloy surface for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Zhiyi; Zhu Jin; Qiu Cheng; Liu Yali

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new conversion coating-molybdate/phosphate (Mo/P) coating on magnesium alloy was prepared and investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and salt-water immersion experiments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the Mo/P coating contained composite phases, which were consisted of metaphosphate as well as molybdate oxide with an 'alveolate-crystallized' structure. The composite Mo/P conversion coating had better corrosion resistance performance than molybdate (Mo) coating, and even had almost comparable corrosion protection for Mg alloy to the traditional chromate-based coating.

  8. CT appearance of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, A.A.; Hayward, C.

    1989-01-01

    Basal peripheral pleuroparenchymal opacities are described on CT of early cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, asbestosis and bleomycin pneumonitis. These diseases may be caused by free radical effects on phospholipid metabolism causing cell wall damage. Amiodarone hydrochloride alters phospholipid synthesis metabolically. Amiodarone pneumonitis might be expected to show similar CT appearances. Sixteen patients who have developed new respiratory symptoms while taking amiodarone have been scanned prone and supine and at inspiration and expiration by means of a scanner with 2-mm sections at 1-cm intervals. All have been previously healthy nonsmokers with no relevant occupational history. Previous chest radiographs have been normal. Results are presented

  9. Hamman-Rich syndrome in a goldsmith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Jacobi, V.; Viel, K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old goldsmith admitted because of dyspnea on exertion, persistent cough, and weakness under the suspicion of exogenous allergic alveolitis. He rapidly developed progressive lung fibrosis with exitus letalis 7 weeks after admission. Radiological examination (chest X-ray and HRCT) first showed ground glass opacities, and later rapid development of severe interstitial pattern with architectural distraction. The findings were similar to idiopathic lung fibrosis; however, the rare Hamman-Rich syndrome was confirmed by progressive course of the disease. Correlations between Hamann-Rich syndrome and idiopathic lung fibrosis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Staffordshire bull terrier with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B M; Dukes-McEwan, J; Rhind, S; French, A

    1999-04-01

    Radiographic evidence of chronic interstitial lung changes, usually believed to be attributable to lung fibrosis, is readily recognised in canine practice. Furthermore, there is a body of anecdotal evidence suggesting that a specific clinical entity consistent with chronic lung fibrosis occurs in specific breeds of terrier dogs. However, there is little pathological data to confirm these radiographic and clinical findings and, therefore, chronic interstitial lung disease of dogs is poorly characterised. In this report, a case of chronic pulmonary fibrosis is described in which histopathological confirmation was possible, and suggested that the condition might be analogous to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis) in humans.

  11. Radiological findings and differential diagnosis in childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerber, D.; Bauer, C.P.; Hahn, H.

    1990-01-01

    In children with asthma, routine chest X-ray typically shows bilaterally increased air volume, low diaphragms, wide diaphragmatic angles, and often a slender cardiac silhouette with a prominent pulmonic arch. Such an X-ray is not diagnostic of asthma itself, however, but rather of its complications: pneumonitis (particularly in toddlers with infectious asthma), atelectasis due to mucus obstruction, and, rarely, extra-alveolar air trapping (pneumomediastinum with or without cutaneous emphysema more often than pneumothorax). The differential diagnosis has to rule out 'pseudoasthma' due to cystic fibrosis, alveolitis, achalasia, and foreign body aspiration. (orig.) [de

  12. CT findings of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kigami, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kuroda, Yasumasa

    1992-01-01

    CT scans in 11 cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) were reviewed. Peripheral dense opacities suggesting air-space consolidation were the most peculiar findings seen in 9 patients on CT, but 7 on chest radiographs. Five patients showed broad plate-like opacities parallel to the pleura, which were the results of resolution from the periphery of the consolidation. Diffuse interstitial opacities suggesting alveolitis were the predominant finding in 3 patients, one of which also had peripheral air-space consolidation. Follow-up CT showed no residual abnormality except one who had DIP concomitant with CEP. CT scans are useful tool for both diagnosis and follow-up of CEP. (author)

  13. Progressive dyspnea due to pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kallianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case description of a female patient, 77 years-old, who presented with progressive dyspnea and cough. She had a mild hypoxemia in the arterial blood gases (PaO2 72 mmHg and normal spirometry. The chest computer tomography revealed diffuse “ground glass” opacities, segmental alveolitis, bronchiectasis, fibrotic lesions and numerous micronodules. A thoracoscopy was performed and the obtained biopsy showed carcinoid tumorlets, with positive CK8/18, CD56, TTF-1 and synaptophysin immunohistochemical markers. Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets are rare, benign lesions and individuals with tumorlets are typically asymptomatic. Our report presents a symptomatic clinical case of carcinoid tumorlet.

  14. Lung morphometry, collagen and elastin content: changes after hyperoxic exposure in preterm rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suman Mascaretti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic and collagen fiber deposition increases throughout normal lung development, and this fiber network significantly changes when development of the lung is disturbed. In preterm rats and lambs, prolonged hyperoxic exposure is associated with impaired alveolization and causes significant changes in the deposition and structure of elastic fibers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of hyperoxic exposure on elastic and collagen fiber deposition in the lung interstitial matrix and in alveolarization in preterm rabbits. METHODS: After c-section, 28-day preterm New-Zealand-White rabbits were randomized into 2 study groups, according to the oxygen exposure, namely: Room air (oxygen = 21% or Oxygen (oxygen > 95%. The animals were killed on day 11 and their lungs were analyzed for the alveolar size (Lm, the internal surface area (ISA, the alveoli number, and the density and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: An increase in the Lm and a decrease in the alveoli number were observed among rabbits that were exposed to hyperoxia with no differences regarding the ISA. No difference in the density of elastic fibers was observed after oxygen exposure, however there were fewer collagen fibers and an evident disorganization of fiber deposition. DISCUSSION: This model reproduces anatomo-pathological injuries representing the arrest of normal alveolar development and lung architecture disorganization by just a prolonged exposition to oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: In the preterm rabbit, prolonged oxygen exposure impaired alveolization and also lowered the proportion of collagen fibers, with an evident fiber network disorganization.

  15. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.; Gornik, Sebastian G.; Koreny, Ludek; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  16. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.

    2015-12-08

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  17. Measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.

    1986-01-01

    The rate at which inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) leaves the lung by diffusion into the vascular space can be measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. In normal humans, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clears from the lung with a half time of about 80 minutes. Many acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium cause an increased clearance rate. Thus cigarette smoking, alveolitis from a variety of causes, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in the infant have all been shown to be associated with rapid pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. Rapid clearance is also promoted by increased lung volume and decreased surfactant activity. Although the mechanism of increased clearance in pathological states is not known, the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA lung-clearance technique has great potential clinically, particularly in patients at risk from ARDS and HMD and in the diagnosis and follow-up of alveolitis. 58 references

  18. Steady streaming: A key mixing mechanism in low-Reynolds-number acinar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    Study of mixing is important in understanding transport of submicron sized particles in the acinar region of the lung. In this article, we investigate transport in view of advective mixing utilizing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques: tracer advection, stretch rate and dispersion analysis. The phenomenon of steady streaming in an oscillatory flow is found to hold the key to the origin of kinematic mixing in the alveolus, the alveolar mouth and the alveolated duct. This mechanism provides the common route to folding of material lines and surfaces in any region of the acinar flow, and has no bearing on whether the geometry is expanding or if flow separates within the cavity or not. All analyses consistently indicate a significant decrease in mixing with decreasing Reynolds number (Re). For a given Re, dispersion is found to increase with degree of alveolation, indicating that geometry effects are important. These effects of Re and geometry can also be explained by the streaming mechanism. Based on flow conditions and resultant convective mixing measures, we conclude that significant convective mixing in the duct and within an alveolus could originate only in the first few generations of the acinar tree as a result of nonzero inertia, flow asymmetry, and large Keulegan–Carpenter (KC) number. PMID:21580803

  19. Tc-99m erythromycin lactobionate inhalation scintigraphy in parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, Hatice E-mail: hdurak@kordon.deu.edu.tr; Aktogu, Serir; Degirmenci, Berna; Sayit, Elvan; Ertay, Tuerkan; Dereli, Sevket

    1999-08-01

    We have investigated Technetium 99m erythromycin lactobionate (Tc 99m EL) clearance from the lungs after inhalation, in the presence of an alveolitis. Eighteen patients (6 sarcoidosis, 7 idiopathic fibrosis, and 5 miliary tuberculosis) were imaged after the patients inhaled 1,110 MBq of Tc 99m EL. Clearance half time for the first 45 min, for 24 h, and retention at 24 h correlated with percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) (r=.729, r=.883, and r=.826, respectively). There was a positive correlation between peripheral penetration (PP) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) (r=.806) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=.781). Retention was more marked in sarcoidosis compared with tuberculosis (0.025alveolitis. Long residency time of Tc 99m EL in the lungs implies that erythromycin can also be administered by inhalation for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Doença pulmonar induzida pelas radiações ou pelos fármacos citostáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Costabel

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O artigo discute dois temas afins: 1 doença pulmonar induzida pela radioterapia nas suas diferentes apresentações: pneumonite de radiação clássica e fibrose pulmonar e outras duas mais recentemente descritas, BOOP e alveolite linfocitária bilateral São discutidos os mecanismos patoeenicos, clinic:a e tratamento; 2 a patologia intersticial induzida por fármacos citostáticos nas suas várias formas de apresentação.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2000; VI (2: 141-144 ABSTRACT: In this paper two topics art adressed: 1 the radiation induced lung injury in its possible forms: classical radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis or two other newly recoenised sindromes BOOP and bilateral lymphodtic alveolitis. The mecanism and treatment are discussed; 2 the cytotocic drug-induced lung diseases and their pulmonary reaction patterns.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2000; VI (2: 141-144 Palavras-chave: Radioterapia, Citostaticos, BOOP, Alveolite Linfocitica, Key-words: Radiation, Cytotocic Drugs, Lymphocitic Alveolitis

  1. Is Monoglucosyldiacylglycerol a Precursor to Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in All Cyanobacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is ubiquitous in the photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. It is synthesized by galactosylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) in the chloroplasts, whereas it is produced by epimerization of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (GlcDG) in at least several cyanobacteria that have been analyzed such as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A previous study, however, showed that the mgdE gene encoding the epimerase is absent in some cyanobacteria such as Gloeobacter violaceus, Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Acaryochloris marina. In addition, the N-terminal 'fatty acid hydroxylase' domain is lacking in the MgdE protein of Prochlorococcus marinus. These problems may cast doubt upon the general (or exclusive) role of MgdE in the epimerization of GlcDG to MGDG in cyanobacteria. In addition, GlcDG is usually present at a very low level, and the structural determination of endogenous GlcDG has not been accomplished with cyanobacterial samples. In this study, I determined the structure of GlcDG from Anabaena variabilis by (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. I then showed that G. violaceus, T. elongatus, A. marina and P. marinus contain GlcDG. In all cases, GlcDG consisted of fewer unsaturated molecular species than MGDG, providing further evidence that GlcDG is a precursor to MGDG. The conversion of GlcDG to MGDG was also demonstrated by radiolabeling and chase experiments in G. violaceus and P. marinus. These results demonstrate that all the analyzed cyanobacteria contain GlcDG, which is converted to MGDG, and suggest that an alternative epimerase is required for MGDG synthesis in these cyanobacteria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Status report of the Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Li, H.; James, G.

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes

  3. Gram-positive bacteria of marine origin: a numerical taxonomic study on Mediterranean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, M; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J

    1997-12-01

    A numerical taxonomic study was performed on 65 Gram-positive wild strains of heterotrophic, aerobic, marine bacteria, and 9 reference strains. The isolates were obtained from oysters and seawater sampled monthly over one year, by direct plating on Marine Agar. The strains were characterized by 96 morphological, biochemical, physiological and nutritional tests. Clustering yielded 13 phena at 0.62 similarity level (Sl coefficient). Only one of the seven phena containing wild isolates could be identified (Bacillus marinus). A pronounced salt requirement was found in most isolates.

  4. Spatial patterns and trends in abundance of larval sandeels in the North Sea: 1950–2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynam, Christopher P.; Halliday, Nicholas C.; Höffle, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    0-group trawl data at the east Fair Isle ground (since 1984), and with recruitment data (since 1983) for the Dogger Banks stock assessment area. Therefore, CPR data may provide an early recruit index of relative abundance for the Dogger Banks assessment area, where the majority of the commercial...... catch of A. marinus is taken, and the Wee Bankie area that is particularly important for seabird foraging. While warm conditions may stimulate the production of sandeel larvae, their natural mortality is typically greater, in the Dogger Banks and Wadden Sea areas, when the larvae are hatched in warm...

  5. Distribution of the early larval stages of cod, plaice and lesser sandeel across haline fronts in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Wright, P.J.; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    A number of commercially important fish species spawn in the coastal areas of the North Sea in the late winter, including cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus). The distribution of the early stages of these species overlap to some extent...... Influence (ROFI), predominantly in the Dogger Bank and German Bight areas. There was a high degree of overlap between the distributions of cod and plaice, while the maximal abundance of lesser sandeel was found inshore of the other species. Larval distributions were to a large extent confined by the frontal...

  6. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02523-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lorococcus marinus str. NATL2A, complete gen... 48 0.82 1 ( AF211148 ) Carsonella ruddii natural-host Russelliana interm...:none) Leishmania major strain Friedlin... 75 4e-12 CP000384_4494( CP000384 |pid:none) Mycobacterium sp. MCS, compl...elaginella moellendorffii mixe... 34 0.16 2 ( GD178393 ) EST04602 Watermelon fruit normalization and subtr...... 50 0.21 1 ( EJ643566 ) 1093012125502 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-29-01-01-1... 34 ...e, co... 48 0.82 1 ( EK325308 ) 1095467004903 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1

  8. Differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, M.; Jensen, Henrik; Daunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (Ammodytes marinus) fishery off the North Sea coast of the United Kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental fashion, on sand-lance-dependent breeding seabirds. Controlling for environmental variation ( sea surface...... tridactyla), but not for four diving species. Analyzing Kittiwake data from 12 colonies inside and outside the closure zone in a replicated before-after control impact design, we again found that breeding productivity was significantly depressed in the closure zone when the fishery was active, whereas...

  9. A new species of Bufo Laurenti (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nazaré Stevaux

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid load, Bufo jimi sp. nov., is described from Maracás and Itagibá, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species shows close relationships to B. paracnemis Lutz, 1925 by sharing the presence of tibial glands and the paratoid glands shape. The new species is a member of the Bufo marinus-group, and is characlerized by having well-defined glands in most part of dorsal faceof the forearms, in the extcrn side of the feet and in both sides of cloacal region.

  10. A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, B.; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), e18871 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : EW-SOUTH-WALES * BUFO-MARINUS * BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS * INFECTIOUS-DISEASES * NORTH-AMERICA * TREE FROG * MYXOZOA * SEQUENCES * PHYLOGENY * ECOLOGY Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  11. Status Report of the Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra Trzdentata) in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.; Parker, Blaine; James, gary

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes.

  12. Differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, M.; Jensen, Henrik; Daunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    fluctuations. We evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (Ammodytes marinus) fishery off the North Sea coast of the United Kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental fashion, on sand-lance-dependent breeding seabirds. Controlling for environmental variation ( sea surface...... or to the fact that only one study colony in the control zone was exposed to high fishery effort within the typical foraging range of Kittiwakes during the breeding season. The strong impact on Kittiwakes, but not on diving species, could result from ( 1) inherently high sensitivity to reduced prey availability...

  13. Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, S.; Harris, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus is a key prey species for many marine birds in the North Sea. This fish is currently the target of the largest single species fishery in the area, and this has led to concern about the potential impact of the fishery on seabirds. There are 2 critical issues...... productivity, breeding effort and diet in 3 species of seabird with contrasting foraging and dietary characteristics (common guillemot Uria aalge, black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, and European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and an index of availability of 1 group and older sandeels derived from catch...

  14. Assessing the health status of farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) through histological, microbiological and biomarker analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Ercolini, Carlo; Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Granato, Giulia; Quaglieri, Elisabetta; Perolo, Alberto; Finos, Livio; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Bertotto, Daniela; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Chollet, Bruno; Arzul, Isabelle; Quaglio, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    confirmed by in situ hybridization. Cells morphologically similar to Perkinsus sp. trophozoites were observed in 0.7% of the mussels analysed; however, infection with Perkinsus spp. could neither be confirmed by ISH nor by PCR. Different pathological aspects, such as host defence responses and regressive/progressive changes were detected in the gills, digestive glands, gonads and mantle. Only one single case of disseminated neoplasia (0.2%) was observed. As for the biomarker evaluation, the MANOVA analysis revealed the statistically significant effect that the variable "sampling site" had on the biological parameter measured, thus suggesting that the multibiomarker approach was able to differentiate the rearing sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The increasing of fibroblast growth factor 2, osteocalcin, and osteoblast due to the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To make a successfull denture prominent ridge is needed, preservation on tooth extraction socket is needed in order to prevent alveol bone resorption caused by revocation trauma. An innovative modification of the material empirically suspected to be able reduce inflammation caused by the revocation trauma is a combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine (XCB and Aloe vera is a biogenic stimulator and accelerating the growth of alveolar ridge bone after tooth extraction. Purpose: The research was aimed to determine of the increasing alveol bone formation by inducing the combination of Aloe vera and 2% xenograft concelous bovine. Methods: To address the problems, the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine was induced into the tooth extraction sockets of Cavia cabayas which devided on 8 groups. Groups control, filled with XCB, Aloe vera and Aloe vera and XCB combination, at 7 days and 30 days after extraction. Afterwards, immunohistochemical examination was conducted to examine the expressions of FGF-2 and osteocalcin, as the product of the growth of osteoblasts. Results: There were significantly increases expression of FGF-2 and osteocalcyn on group which filled with XCB, Aloe vera and combined Aloe vera and XCB. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine into the tooth sockets can enhance the growth expressions of FGF-2 and osteocalcin as the product of osteoblasts, thus, the growth of alveolar bone was increased.Latar belakang: Untuk keberhasilan pembuatan gigitiruan diperlukan ridge yang prominent, maka diperlukan suatu preservasi soket pencabutan gigi untuk mencegah terjadinya resopsi tulang alveolar akibat trauma pencabutan. Suatu inovasi modifikasi bahan yang diduga secara empiris dapat mengurangi keradangan karena trauma pencabutan adalah berupa kombinasi Aloe vera dan xenograft concelous bovine (XCB. Aloe vera yang merupakan

  16. Stimulation of osteoblast activity by induction of Aloe vera and xenograft combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is generally followed by alveolar ridge resorption that later can cause flat ridge. Aloe vera have biogenic stimulator and hormone activities for wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know osteoblast activities in alveolar bone after induction of Aloe vera and XCB combination. Methods: Fifty four of Cavia cabaya were divided into three main groups. Group I was control group. Group II was filled with xenograft concelous bovine (XCB and group III was filled with the combination of Aloe vera gel and XCB. Then, each group was divided into three sub groups according to timing, they are 14, 30, and 60 days after tooth extraction and application. Histology and morphology examination were performed on the harvested specimens. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and the other groups filled with the combination of Aloe vera and XCB. Conclusion: In conclusion, the application of Aloe vera gel and xenograft combination decrease the number of osteoclast and increase the number of osteoblast in post tooth extraction alveolar bone structure indicating the new growth of alveolar bone.Latar belakang: Pencabutan gigi pada umumnya selalu diikuti resopsi tulang alveolar, sehingga bila terjadi dalam waktu yang lama ridge akan menjadi flat. Aloe vera adalah bahan stimulasi biogenik dan mempunyai aktivitas hormon untuk proses penyembuhan luka. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas osteoblas pada tulang alveol dengan pemberian kombinasi Aloe vera gel dan xenograft concelous bovine (XCB. Metode: Lima puluh empat ekor Cavia cabaya, dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok besar, kelompok pertama adalah kelompok kontrol yaitu hanya dilakukan pencabutan saja tanpa perlakuan, kelompok ke-2 yaitu kelompok yang setelah dicabut diberi XCB saja dan kelompok ke-3 yaitu kelompok yang setelah pencabutan diberi kombinasi Aloe vera gel dengan XCB pada luka bekas pencabutan gigi. Kemudian masing

  17. Isolation, cultivation and genomic analysis of magnetosome biomineralization genes of a new genus of South-seeking magnetotactic cocci within the Alphaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillo, Viviana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Abreu, Fernanda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, Ana C [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Almeida, Luiz G [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Enrich-Prast, Alex [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Farina, Marcos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Vasconcelos, Ana T [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Lins, Ulysses [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    2014-01-01

    Although magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats, they are still considered fastidious microorganisms with regard to growth and cultivation with only a relatively low number of axenic cultures available to date. Here, we report the first axenic culture of an MTB isolated in the Southern Hemisphere (Itaipu Lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Cells of this new isolate are coccoid to ovoid in morphology and grow microaerophilically in semi-solid medium containing an oxygen concentration ([O2]) gradient either under chemoorganoheterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic conditions. Each cell contains a single chain of approximately 10 elongated cuboctahedral magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetosomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that the coccoid MTB isolated in this study represents a new genus in the Alphaproteobacteria; the name Magnetofaba australis strain IT-1 is proposed. Preliminary genomic data obtained by pyrosequencing shows that M. australis strain IT-1 contains a genomic region with genes involved in biomineralization similar to those found in the most closely related magnetotactic cocci Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. However, organization of the magnetosome genes differs from M. marinus.

  18. Variation in storage alpha-glucans of the Porphyridiales (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonaga, Takahiro; Konishi, Mai; Oyama, Yasunori; Fujiwara, Shoko; Satoh, Aya; Fujita, Naoko; Colleoni, Christophe; Buléon, Alain; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Ball, Steven G; Yokoyama, Akiko; Hara, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yasunori; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    Storage glucans were analyzed in the Porphyridiales which include the most primitive and phylogenetically diverged species in the Rhodophyta, to understand early evolution of the glucan structure in the Rhodophyta. The storage glucans of both Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidium caldarium consisted of glycogen, while those of Rhodosorus marinus, Porphyridium purpureum, P. sordidum and Rhodella violacea could be defined as semi-amylopectin. X-ray diffraction analysis of the glucans demonstrated variation in the crystalline structure: the patterns in P. purpureum and R. violacea were of A- and B-types, respectively, while alpha-glucans of R. marinus and P. sordidum displayed structures with lower crystallinity. Electron microscopic observations indicated that the alpha-glucans of P. sordidum consisted of two kinds of granules; a minor component of more dense granules with crystalline leaflets and a major component of softer ones without crystalline structure. Gel permeation chromatography showed that all the species containing the semi-amylopectin-type glucans also contained amylose, although the relative amounts of this fraction were different depending on the species. Our results are consistent with two distinct evolution scenarios defined either by the independent acquisition of semi-crystalline starch-like structures in the different plant lineages or more probably by the loss of starch and reversion to glycogen synthesis in cyanidian algae growing in hot and acid environments.

  19. New records of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off Australia, including description of four new species and erection of Digitiphilometroides gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Barton, Diane P

    2018-04-16

    The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp. from the ovary of the goldbanded jobfish Pristipomoides multidens (Day) (Perciformes: all Lutjanidae); and Digitiphilometroides marinus (Moravec et de Buron, 2009) comb. n. from the body cavity of the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Rachycentridae). Digitiphilometroides gen. n. is established based on the presence of unique digital cuticular ornamentations on the female body. New gonad-infecting species, P. arafurensis and P. mawsonae, are characterised mainly by the length of spicules (252-264 µm and 351-435 µm, respectively) and the structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. papillicaudata is characterised mainly by the body length (70 mm) of gravid female, extent of the oesophageal gland, size of caudal projections and the location in the host. Dentiphilometra malabarici differs from congeners mainly in the arrangement of circumoral teeth (in a single row), extent of the oesophageal gland and the absence of sclerotised teeth or protuberances on the oesophageal lobes in the mouth. Digitiphilometroides marinus has not previously been reported from fishes in Australian waters.

  20. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  2. Early aggressive intra-venous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for interstitial lung disease in a patient with systemic sclerosis. A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Peshin, R

    2009-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are currently no recommended guidelines for management of these patients. This is probably due to the rarity of this condition, as well as clinical trials with only a small number of cases. There are published case report and case series along with the two main trials, viz. Scleroderma Lung Study and the Fibrosing Alveolitis Study, but again, there is no consensus on treatment protocols. In this report, we present a case of aggressive interstitial lung disease in a patient with SSc, which improved dramatically on treatment with intra-venous cyclophosphamide and high dose prednisolone therapy.

  3. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  4. Spatial distribution patterns of energy deposition and cellular radiation effects in lung tissue following simulated exposure to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Randomly oriented sections of rat tissue have been digitised to provide the contours of tissue-air interfaces and the locations of individual cell nuclei in the alveolated region of the lung. Sources of alpha particles with varying irradiation geometries and densities are simulated to compute the resulting random pattern of cellular irradiation, i.e. spatial coordinates, frequency, track length, and energy of traversals by the emitted alpha particles. Probabilities per unit track lengths, derived from experimental data on in vitro cellular inactivation and transformation, are then applied to the results of the alpha exposure simulations to yield an estimate of the number of both dead and viable transformed cells and their spatial distributions. If lung cancer risk is linearly related to the number of transformed cells, the carcinogenic risk for hot particles is always smaller than that for a uniform nuclide distribution of the same activity. (author)

  5. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated to treatment with natalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Curto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natalizumab (Tysabri® is a leukocytes chemotaxis inhibitor that decreases the leukocytes passage through the hematoencephalic barrier and it is currently used in relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. We present a patient with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis diagnosed with MS who started treatment with natalizumab. She began to show mild asthmatic symptoms until she needed admission to the hospital due to respiratory insufficiency. Blood tests showed peripheral eosinophilia and the thoracic computed tomography scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltrates. The bronchoscopy with the bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in eosinophilic alveolitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection, connective tissue disease, or vasculitis were observed. After discontinuation of natalizumab, the patient improved without other treatments. As MS is a prevalent disease and the use of natalizumab is increasing, we consider important to point out that this drug can be associated with pulmonary eosinophilia, especially in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma.

  6. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Life Cycle of Vitrella brassicaformis n. sp., n. gen., a Novel Chromerid from the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Oborník, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Chromerida are photoautotrophic alveolates so far only isolated from corals in Australia. It has been shown that these secondary plastid-containing algae are closely related to apicomplexan parasites and share various morphological and molecular characters with both Apicomplexa and Dinophyta. So far, the only known representative of the phylum was Chromera velia. Here we provide a formal description of another chromerid, Vitrella brassicaformis gen. et sp. nov., complemented with a detailed study on its ultrastructure, allowing insight into its life cycle. The novel alga differs significantly from the related chromerid C. velia in life cycle, morphology as well as the plastid genome. Analysis of photosynthetic pigments on the other hand demonstrate that both chromerids lack chlorophyll c, the hallmark of phototrophic chromalveolates. Based on the relatively high divergence between C. velia and V. brassicaformis, we propose their classification into distinct families Chromeraceae and Vitrellaceae. Moreover, we predict a hidden and unexplored diversity of the chromerid algae. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Roux, Simon; Darzi, Youssef; Audic, Stephane; Berline, Léo; Brum, Jennifer; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Espinoza, Julio Cesar Ignacio; Malviya, Shruti; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Dimier, Céline; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Picheral, Marc; Poulain, Julie; Searson, Sarah; Stemmann, Lars; Not, Fabrice; Hingamp, Pascal; Speich, Sabrina; Follows, Mick; Karp-Boss, Lee; Boss, Emmanuel; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Acinas, Silvia G.; Bork, Peer; de Vargas, Colomban; Iudicone, Daniele; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Raes, Jeroen; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The biological carbon pump is the process by which CO2 is transformed to organic carbon via photosynthesis, exported through sinking particles, and finally sequestered in the deep ocean. While the intensity of the pump correlates with plankton community composition, the underlying ecosystem structure driving the process remains largely uncharacterised. Here we use environmental and metagenomic data gathered during the Tara Oceans expedition to improve our understanding of carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean. We show that specific plankton communities, from the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum, correlate with carbon export at 150 m and highlight unexpected taxa such as Radiolaria, alveolate parasites, as well as Synechococcus and their phages, as lineages most strongly associated with carbon export in the subtropical, nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic ocean. Additionally, we show that the relative abundance of just a few bacterial and viral genes can predict most of the variability in carbon export in these regions. PMID:26863193

  8. [Air-conditioner disease. Results of an industrial medicine survey (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, C; Aiache, J M; Bedu, M; Menaut, P; Wahl, D; Brestowski, J; Grall, Y

    1982-07-03

    The results of a survey conducted in a company employing 1850 persons working in air-conditioned premises are reported. One hundred and five persons were examined, including 790 who mostly complained of respiratory disorders and 20 controls. Regular check-ups during the last two years have failed to reveal any serious disease. The most frequent complaints were rhinitis and tracheitis, especially among female employees. No alveolitis was observed. The finding of Bacillus subtilis in samples of ambient air and air-conditioner filters in conjunction with the presence of precipitating antibodies against crude extracts from these samples, suggested that the respiratory disorders might have been due to this microorganism. A multifactorial analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between clinical symptoms and immunological disorders. The air-conditioner disease, therefore, may present as a benign condition.

  9. Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The biological carbon pump is the process by which CO2 is transformed to organic carbon via photosynthesis, exported through sinking particles, and finally sequestered in the deep ocean. While the intensity of the pump correlates with plankton community composition, the underlying ecosystem structure driving the process remains largely uncharacterized. Here we use environmental and metagenomic data gathered during the Tara Oceans expedition to improve our understanding of carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean. We show that specific plankton communities, from the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum, correlate with carbon export at 150 m and highlight unexpected taxa such as Radiolaria and alveolate parasites, as well as Synechococcus and their phages, as lineages most strongly associated with carbon export in the subtropical, nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic ocean. Additionally, we show that the relative abundance of a few bacterial and viral genes can predict a significant fraction of the variability in carbon export in these regions.

  10. Badly maintained air conditioning installations (Part 2); Schlecht gewartete Klimaanlagen (Teil 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefliger, P. E.; Thies, U.

    2002-07-01

    This article is the second of a series of four articles that discuss hygiene problems that often occur in ventilation and air-conditioning installations. They describe the problems encountered in detail, provide the reader with appropriate know-how on hygiene-related topics and present an overview of the regulations appertaining to the problems along with inspection and analysis methods. In particular, this second article examines the so-called 'Sick Building Syndrome', its technical, chemical, biological and psychosocial causes and mentions the results of studies made in this area. Typical illnesses such as allergic alveolitis and legionnaires illness are discussed. Definitions of hygiene and comfort with respect to ventilation and air-conditioning installations are presented and problem areas such as filters, ducting, humidifiers and cooling are discussed. The article is rounded off - as are all articles of this series - with a comprehensive literature list.

  11. KİŞİYE ÖZEL DENTAL İMPLANT ABUTMENTLARI

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    ÖZETDişsiz alanların implant destekli protez ile restorasyonu günümüzde konvansiyonel protetik tedavilere karşı geçerli bir tedavi seçeneği haline gelmiştir. İmplant destekli restorasyonların başarısında implant ile restorasyon arasındaki bağlantı oldukça önemlidir. Diş çekim sonrası alveol kemiği ve yumuşak dokuda oluşan değişiklikler kişiden kişiye fark etmektedir. Bu nedenle her vakada prefabrike abutmentlar ile uygun bağlantı ve yumuşak doku konturu elde edilememektedir. Bu durumlarda kiş...

  12. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dansin, E.; Wallaert, B.; Jardin, M.R.; Remy, J.; Hatron, P.Y.; Tonnel, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  13. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  14. [Obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia following FOLFOX 4 chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, C; Fremault, A; Carrasco, J; Colinet, B

    2010-01-01

    FOLFOX 4 chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard adjuvant treatment for stage III colon cancer. The principal secondary effects described are haematological, gastro-intestinal or neurological. A single case of obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia has been described recently. We report the case of a female patient aged 74 years who, after 12 courses of FOLFOX 4 chemotherapy, developed acute onset of severe shortness of breath and a dry cough but remained afebrile. A thoracic CT-scan showed symmetrical bilateral interstitial infiltration that was reticular in appearance, and predominantly basal and peripheral in distribution. Broncho-alveolar lavage revealed an alveolitis with 9% eosinophils and 4% neutrophils. Transbronchial biopsies showed the appearances of obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia. Systemic corticosteroid treatment led to a remarkable clinical and functional improvement. To our knowledge, this is the second case of obliterative bronchiolitis with organising pneumonia that has been described following adjuvant treatment based on FOLFOX 4.

  15. [Prospective randomized study regarding the effect of the preoperative antibiotic and chlorhexidine rinse on wound healing after mandibular third molar surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvári, István; Körmöczi, Kinga; László, Zsuzsa Beáta; Oberna, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Joób-Fancsaly, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    The study compares the antibiotic prophylaxis combined with postoperative antibiotic therapy to preoperative chlorhexidine rinse combined with postoperative antibiotic therapy in preventing complications after surgical removal of a mandibular third molar. 71 healthy patients in four groups were enrolled in the study: I. prophylactic dose of 2000 mg of amoxicillin clavulanate, continued with amoxicillin clavulanate postoperatively; II. prophylactic dose of 600 mg of clindamycin, continued with clindamycin postoperatively; III. prophylactic chlorhexidin rinsing, continued randomized amoxicillin clavulanate or clindamycin postoperatively; IV. control, with clindamycin postoperatively. The pain was smaller in the prophylaxis groups. Alveolitis occurred only in the control group: 2 patients. Wound opening occurred in 22,2 % in group IV., 14,2 % in group II, 10 % in group I., 5 % in group III. We consider completing the indicated postoperative antibiotic prescription with antibiotic or antiseptic prophylaxis. Chlorhexidin prophylaxis could have the same positive effect. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 13-19.

  16. Tc-99m-MIBI Uptake in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Chan Hee; Hwang, Hee Sung; Bae, Moon Sun

    1996-01-01

    Technetium-99m MIBI was developed as a myocardiac perfusion imagine agent and has been used effectively in the detection and post-therapeutic evaluation of various neoplasm such as thyroid, lung, bone and breast tumors. As an infrequent findings, Tc-99m MIBI agent has shown in non-neoplastic pulmonary conditions including fibroding alveolitis, pulmonary actinomycosis, active pulmonary sarcoidosis, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis and active osteomyelitis. In a recent report conducted by Cetin Oncel, Tc-99m MIBI imaging is an effective method in the detection and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis. We have also experienced Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in active pulmonary tuberculosis incidentally found in a patient with suspected proliferative villonodular synovitis of the left ankle.

  17. Telonemia, a new protist phylum with affinity to chromist lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Eikrem, W.; Klaveness, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent molecular investigations of marine samples taken from different environments, including tropical, temperate and polar areas, as well as deep thermal vents, have revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of protists, some of them forming deep-branching clades within important lineages......, such as the alveolates and heterokonts. Using the same approach on coastal samples, we have identified a novel group of protist small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences that do not correspond to any phylogenetic group previously identified. Comparison with other sequences obtained from cultures of heterotrophic protists...... eukaryotic phylum, here defined as Telonemia, possibly representing a key clade for the understanding of the early evolution of bikont protist groups, such as the proposed chromalveolate supergroup...

  18. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  19. Health effects of air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.

    The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.

  20. Evaluation of the long duration efficiency of the ECC storage facility of Cogema La Hague plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganz, C.; Bouland, P.; Breton, E.

    2004-01-01

    The ECC facility of Cogema La Hague has been designed in view of the storage of 24000 CSD-C type containers produced by the ACC facility. It comprises a reception and unloading unit, and a modular storage unit (alveoles). The safety of the facility is based on: a controlled ventilation (low pressurization rooms, controlled atmosphere, heat and toxic gases evacuation), a construction ensuring the static confinement, the sub-criticality and the radiological protection, and the possibility of natural ventilation of the alveoles (earthquake-dimensioned equipments). On the basis of these safety functions, the conformability of the facility with respect to long duration has been analyzed considering three aspects of the facility: the infrastructure, the waste packages and the ventilation system. In normal operation, a foreseeable service life of at least 100 years is established: simpleness and accessibility of ventilation systems, no significant corrosion of packages, durability of the reinforced concrete structure. The demonstration of a service life greater than 100 years would require the improvement of our knowledge about concretes in terms of experience feedback. The behaviour of the facility in terms of loss of technical mastery has been considered too. The scenario retained for this situation is the prolonged stoppage (several months or years) of the nuclear ventilation after a 100 years of disposal. After this period of time, both the thermal power and the hydrogen generation from waste packages will have significantly diminished, allowing a loss of technical mastery era of several years with no impact on concretes integrity. However, during long situations of non-controlled atmosphere, the corrosion behaviour of stainless steels is not predictable. (J.S.)

  1. IBA levels and substrates in the rooting of UENF/CALIMAN 02 hybrid papaya minicuttings in a semi-hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Vieira de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mini-cutting is a technique with large applications in various crops, mainly due to the increase in the percentage and quality of adventitious roots, reducing time for the formation of clonal seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate IBA levels and substrates on the rooting of UENF/CALIMAN 02 hybrid papaya mini-cuttings. To perform the experiment, papaya mini-cuttings were taken from mother plants grown in pots in greenhouse, induced to produce shoots through pruning and growth regulator applications. Mini-cuttings were fixed in vermiculite or coconut fiver substrates placed in alveolate trays with 4.5x4.5x5.0 cm cells, and styrofoam trays were placed in plastic trays where different IBA levels were added in a modified Hoagland solution. After 45 days, rooted buds were transplanted to plastic pots of 600 mL of volume with soil, sand, well-cured bovine fertilizer, in the proportion of 3:1:1, remaining for 45 days. When they were taken from pots, roots were carefully washed, and the length of shoots, length of the largest root, dried mass of shoots and radicular system and root percentage were measured. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block 5 x 2 factorial design, with 5 IBA levels: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10 mg L-1, two substrates: vermiculite and coconut fiber, three replicates, with six plants per replicate. IBA levels of 5.0 mg L-1 and substrate vermiculite are the most adequate for the rooting of ‘UENF/CALIMAN 02’ papaya mini-cuttings in semi-hydroponic system in alveolate styrofoam trays with 4.5x4.5x5.0 cm cells.

  2. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the design of a geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in argilite formations. Content: 1 - approach of the study: goal, main steps of the design study, iterative approach, content; 2 - general description: high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, purposes of a reversible disposal, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site - the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, design principles of the disposal facility architecture, role of the different disposal components; 3 - high-level and long-lived wastes: production scenarios, description of primary containers, inventory model, hypotheses about receipt fluxes of primary containers; 4- disposal containers: B-type waste containers, C-type waste containers, spent fuel disposal containers; 5 - disposal modules: B-type waste disposal modules, C-type waste disposal modules, spent-fuel disposal modules; 6 - overall underground architecture: main safety questions, overall design, dimensioning factors, construction logic and overall exploitation of the facility, dimensioning of galleries, underground architecture adaptation to different scenarios; 7 - boreholes and galleries: general needs, design principles retained, boreholes description, galleries description, building up of boreholes and galleries, durability of facilities, backfilling and sealing up of boreholes and galleries; 8 - surface facilities: general organization, nuclear area, industrial and administrative area, tailings area; 9 - nuclear exploitation means of the facility: receipt of primary containers and preparation of disposal containers, transfer of disposal containers from the surface to the disposal alveoles, setting up of containers inside alveoles; 10 - reversible management of the disposal: step by step disposal process, mastery of disposal behaviour and action capacity, observation and

  3. Honeycomb development on Alexander Island, glacial history of George VI Sound and palaeoclimatic implications (Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis, W Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marie-Françoise; Hall, Kevin

    2005-02-01

    Analysis of three generations of glacial deposits and of a range of geomorphic features including widespread honeycombs and tafonis at Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis (71°52‧S, 68°15‧W) provides new insights into the geomorphological evolution of West Antarctica, with special respect to alveolar weathering. At Two Step Terrace, indicators of the inherited character of cavernous weathering were found, such as 97% non-flaking and varnished backwalls, and 80% tafoni floors that are till-covered and/or sealed by lithobiontic coatings. Based on the NE predominant aspect of the alveolized boulder faces, tafoni initiation is attributed to coastal salt spray weathering by halite coming from the George VI Sound during the 6.5 ka BP open water period. The present-day activity of these inherited cavities is restricted to roof flaking attributed to a combination of processes involving thermal stresses. This 6.5 ka BP phase of coastal alveolization is the first step of a six-stage Holocene geomorphological scenario that includes alternatively phases of glacial advance or stationing, and phases of vegetal colonization and/or rock weathering and aeolian abrasion on the deglaciated outcrops. This geomorphic scenario is tentatively correlated with the available palaeoenvironmental record in the Antarctic Peninsula region, with two potential geomorphic indicators of the Holocene Optimum being identified: (1) clusters of centimetric honeycombs facing the sound (marine optimum at 6.5 ka BP); (2) salmon-pink lithobiontic coatings preserved inside cavities and at the boulder surface (terrestrial optimum at 4 3 ka BP).

  4. Reassessing the standard chest radiograph for intraparenchymal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, C.E.; Hoeck, B.

    1986-01-01

    Despite the recent enthusiasm for better means of determining the extent of the active inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma of sarcoidosis patients, standard chest radiography remains a reliable method of determining staging, and parenchymal activity as well. The chest radiograph is characteristically used to determine the severity and course of sarcoidosis, but most studies imply there are poor correlations between the radiographic opacities and other indicators such as physiological parameters, gallium scans, and computed tomography and bronchoalveolar lavage results. In this preliminary communication, the authors report a new method of determining sarcoidosis activity, as compared to gallium scan, based solely on the standard chest radiograph. This method is based on the presence or absence of air bronchogram abnormalities, peribronchial cuffing, and subpleural thickening. Adenopathy and linear, reticulonodular, and nodular opacities are not included in this system. In 85 recent studies, which were performed in 51 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, this staging method agreed with gallium scanning in 68.2% of the patients. This system failed in specific and identifiable subgroups of patients that we will delineate. The authors will not report the comparative indices with a pulmonary function analysis or bronchoalveolar lavage results. Their database has not been tabulated to conclusively present these results, but it is their belief that this methodology will probably have a better correlation with lavage results and small airway function than would results of gallium scans. Of singular importance is the fact that this method can, with a more than acceptable degree of accuracy, distinguish between ''low-intensity'' alveolitis and ''high-intensity'' alveolitis

  5. Histological investigation of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T S; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Bezerra, C S; Silva, J L

    2006-01-01

    Alveolitis is considered a disturbance of the alveolar healing process that is characterized by blood clot disintegration, alveolar wall infection and extreme pain. Several substances have been investigated to improve healing and guarantee postoperative comfort to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate, microscopically, in rats, the healing process in non-infected tooth sockets, after application of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, using lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. Forty-five rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) had their right incisor extracted and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=15): Group I (control): the sockets were filled with blood clot; Group II: application of adrenaline solution at 1:1 000 with an absorbent paper point during 1 min plus filling of the socket with a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle, and mint as flavoring; Group III: filling of the socket with the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. After 6, 15 and 28 days postoperatively, 5 animals per group were euthanized with an injectable anesthetic overdose. Histological and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring yielded similar response as that of the normal repair group and may be used to prevent the onset of alveolitis in those cases in which any predisposing factor is present. The use of this dressing has shown a good postoperative patient's comfort and does not cause a significant delay in the alveolar healing process.

  6. Presentación de un estudio en 680 pacientes operados de terceros molares retenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Morejón Álvarez

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en 680 pacientes operados de terceros molares retenidos que fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Abel Santamaría" en el período comprendido entre el 6 de octubre de 1998 y el 6 de octubre de 1999, con el objetivo de determinar las complicaciones posoperatorias más frecuentes encontradas en los pacientes operados. Se plantean y analizan los resultados obtenidos y se establecen comparaciones con estudios anteriores. El procedimiento quirúrgico de los terceros molares retenidos constituye una de las actividades operatorias más frecuentes dentro del marco de la cirugía maxilofacial, y a partir de la cual pueden aparecer complicaciones que exigen su diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento. Como complicaciones posoperatorias más frecuentes se encontraron la alveolitis en el 29,6 %, la celulitis facial posquirúrgica en el 22,7 %, la hemorragia en el 18,2 % y el trismo mandibular, en el 13,7 % de los casos.680 patients who were operated on of impacted third molars at the Maxillofacial Surgery Service of "Abel Santamaría" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, between October 6, 1998, and October 6, 1999, were studied aimed at determining the most frequent postoperative complications found in the operated on patients.The results obtained were analyzed and compared with those of previous studies. The surgical procedure of the impacted third molars is one of the commonest surgical activities within the framework of maxillofacial surgery. Complications needing a suitable diagnosis and treatment may appear. The most frequent postoperative complications are alveolitis in 29.6%, postsurgical facial cellulitis in 22.7%, hemorrhage in 18.2% and mandibular trismus in 13.7% of the cases.

  7. When is a cell not a cell? A theory relating coenocytic structure to the unusual electrophysiology of Ventricaria ventricosa (Valonia ventricosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, V A; Beilby, M J; Bisson, M A

    2004-06-01

    Ventricaria ventricosa and its relatives have intrigued cell biologists and electrophysiologists for over a hundred years. Historically, electrophysiologists have regarded V. ventricosa as a large single plant cell with unusual characteristics including a small and positive vacuole-to-outside membrane potential difference. However, V. ventricosa has a coenocytic construction, with an alveolate cytoplasm interpenetrated by a complex vacuole containing sulphated polysaccharides. We present a theory relating the coenocytic structure to the unusual electrophysiology of V. ventricosa. The alveolate cytoplasm of V. ventricosa consists of a collective of uninucleate cytoplasmic domains interconnected by fine cytoplasmic strands containing microtubules. The cytoplasm is capable of disassociating into single cytoplasmic domains or aggregations of domains that can regenerate new coenocytes. The cytoplasmic domains are enclosed by outer (apical) and inner (basolateral) faces of a communal membrane with polarised K(+)-transporting functions, stabilised by microtubules and resembling a tissue such as a polarised epithelium. There is evidence for membrane trafficking through endocytosis and exocytosis and so "plasmalemma" and "tonoplast" do not have fixed identities. Intra- and extracellular polysaccharide mucilage has effects on electrophysiology through reducing the activity of water and through ion exchange. The vacuole-to-outside potential difference, at which the cell membrane conductance is maximal, reverses its sign from positive under hypertonic conditions to negative under hypotonic conditions. The marked mirror symmetry of the characteristics of current as a function of voltage and conductance as a function of voltage is interpreted as a feature of the communal membrane with polarised K(+) transport. The complex inhomogeneous structure of the cytoplasm places in doubt previous measurements of cytoplasm-to-outside potential difference.

  8. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  9. STAT4 is a genetic risk factor for systemic sclerosis having additive effects with IRF5 on disease susceptibility and related pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudé, P; Guedj, M; Wipff, J; Ruiz, B; Hachulla, E; Diot, E; Granel, B; Sibilia, J; Tiev, K; Mouthon, L; Cracowski, J L; Carpentier, P H; Amoura, Z; Fajardy, I; Avouac, J; Meyer, O; Kahan, A; Boileau, C; Allanore, Y

    2009-08-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) belongs to the group of connective tissue disorders (CTDs), among which are several disorders characterized by a type I interferon (IFN) signature. The recent identification of an association between IRF5 and SSc further highlights a key role for IFN. STAT4, which encodes STAT-4, contributes to IFN signaling, and its genetic variants were found to be associated with CTDs. The aim of this study was to determine whether the STAT4 rs7574865 single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with SSc, and whether it interacts with IRF5. Both the STAT4 rs7574865 and IRF5 rs2004640 polymorphisms were genotyped in 1,855 individuals of French Caucasian origin comprising a discovery set of 440 patients with SSc and 485 control subjects and a replication set of 445 patients with SSc and an additional 485 control subjects. STAT4 rs7574865 was shown to be associated with SSc (P=0.001, odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.11-1.51). This association was not restricted to a particular phenotype. An additive effect of the STAT4 rs7574865 T allele and the IRF5 rs2004640 T allele was observed, resulting in a multiple increased 1.28-fold risk of SSc. The OR for SSc was 2.72 (95% CI 1.86-3.99) for combinations of genotypes with >or=3 risk alleles. An additive effect was also detected for fibrosing alveolitis: carriage of at least 3 risk alleles appeared to be an independent risk factor (P=2.2x10(-4), OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.28-3.04). Our results establish STAT4 rs7574865 as a new SSc genetic susceptibility factor. STAT4 and IRF5 act with additive effects in terms of susceptibility to both SSc and SSc-related fibrosing alveolitis.

  10. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  11. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  12. Environmental fate and effects of the lampricide TFM: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is limited geographically to the Great Lakes basin where it is the principal agent used in control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). It is clear from available data that TFM has effects on the environment, but the effects reported are transient. Individual organisms and aquatic communities return to pretreatment conditions after lampricide treatments have concluded. TFM is not persistent, is detoxified, and presents minimal long-term toxicological risk. TFM is relatively nontoxic to mammals. Treatment levels do not pose a threat to wildlife. However, TFM is an estrogen agonist and additional testing to define the nature and magnitude of this effect will likely be required. Because stream treatments are done on 3 to 5 year cycles, and exposures are limited to approximately 12 h, minimal risk to aquatic organisms is expected.

  13. Spatial differences in growth of lesser sandeel in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wright, Peter J.; Jensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, is a key prey to a variety of North Sea predators, including species such as single load seabirds which are highly sensitive to prey size and condition. Whilst differences in weight at age across the North Sea have been investigated previously, the scale and cause...... of this variation as well as the potential link to spatial differences in predator performance remains unknown. This study presents an analysis of spatial patterns in length and condition of the lesser sandeel in the North Sea and the relationship of these with physical and biological factors. Both mean length...... considerably both spatially and temporally, resulting in 4 fold and 1.9 fold variations in the number of sandeels required to obtain a specific weight, respectively. Hence, the value of sandeel as prey to single load predators varies considerably with values in central and northeastern North Sea being...

  14. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Lucy Hou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet trade is an important mechanism for introducing alien species. We surveyed a total of 434 pet shops in major cities of Taiwan and found 49 species of alien amphibians belonging to 14 families and 31 genera. Two of the alien species, Rana catesbeiana and Kaloula pulchra, have established in the fields and the other three, Bufo marinus, Xenopus laevis, and Dendrobates auratus, have invasion records in other countries. There were 16 CITES Appendix II species. The most frequently displayed species were the horned frogs, eratophrys spp. And the most abundant species was the American Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. We urge the authority of Taiwan establishing regulations on pet trade and enforcing the wildlife conservation law to reduce the risks of alien species invasions.

  15. Connectivity in the early life history of sandeel inferred from otolith microchemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Fiona M.; Régnier, Thomas; Donald, Kirsty; Wright, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity is a central issue in the development, sustainability and effectiveness of networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). In populations with site attached adults, connectivity is limited to dispersal in the pelagic larval stage. While biophysical models have been widely used to infer early dispersal, empirical evidence through sources such as otolith microchemistry can provide a means of evaluating model predictions. In the present study, connectivity in the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, was investigated using LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry. Otoliths from juveniles (age 0) were examined from four Scottish spawning areas predicted to differ in terms of larval retention rates and connectivity based on past biophysical models. There were significant spatial differences in otolith post-settled juvenile chemistry among locations at a scale of 100-400 km. Differences in near core chemistry pointed to three chemically distinct natal sources, as identified by a cluster analysis, contributing to settlement locations.

  16. Pangenomic Definition of Prokaryotic Species and the Phylogenetic Structure of Prochlorococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Moldovan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The pangenome is the collection of all groups of orthologous genes (OGGs from a set of genomes. We apply the pangenome analysis to propose a definition of prokaryotic species based on identification of lineage-specific gene sets. While being similar to the classical biological definition based on allele flow, it does not rely on DNA similarity levels and does not require analysis of homologous recombination. Hence this definition is relatively objective and independent of arbitrary thresholds. A systematic analysis of 110 accepted species with the largest numbers of sequenced strains yields results largely consistent with the existing nomenclature. However, it has revealed that abundant marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus marinus should be divided into two species. As a control we have confirmed the paraphyletic origin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (with embedded, monophyletic Y. pestis and Burkholderia pseudomallei (with B. mallei. We also demonstrate that by our definition and in accordance with recent studies Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. are one species.

  17. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when......The climate-induced reduction in the mean copepod size, mainly driven by a decrease in the abundance of the large Calanus finmarchicus around 1987, has been linked to the low survival of fish larvae in the North Sea. However, to what extent this sort of reduction in copepod size has any influence...

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Phosphorus Metabolism in Prochlorococcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, John R; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus is scarce in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, where the high-light-adapted ecotype HLI of the marine picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus thrives. Physiological and regulatory control of phosphorus acquisition and partitioning has been observed in HLI both in culture...... and in the field; however, the optimization of phosphorus metabolism and associated gains for its phosphorus-limited-growth (PLG) phenotype have not been studied. Here, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic network of the HLI axenic strain MED4 (iJC568), consisting of 568 metabolic genes in relation to 794...... through drastic depletion of phosphorus-containing biomass components but also through network-wide reductions in phosphate-reaction participation and the loss of a key enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. These alterations occur despite the stringency of having relatively few pathway redundancies...

  19. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2003-07-01

    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  20. Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov., isolated from deep marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Cetin, Demet; Inan Bektas, Kadriye; Guven, Kiymet; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-staining-positive strain, designated strain S4702T was isolated from a marine sediment collected from the southern Black Sea coast, Turkey, determined using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was found to have chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties consistent with its classification as representing a member of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the 16S rRNA gene tree. S4702T was found to be most closely related to the type strains of Streptomyces marinus(DSM 41968T; 97.8 % sequence similarity) and Streptomyces abyssalis (YIM M 10400T; 97.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other members of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness of S4702T and the most closely related strain S. marinus DSM 41968T was 21.0 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.5 mol%. The cell wall of the strain contained l,l-diaminopimelic acid and the cell-wall sugars were glucose and ribose. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of S4702T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. S4702T could be distinguished from its closest phylogenetic neighbours using a combination of chemotaxonomic, morphological and physiological properties. Consequently, it is proposed that S4702T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ovatisporus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4702T (DSM 42103T=KCTC 29206T=CGMCC 4.7357T).

  1. Uma nova hemogregarina no sangue de Bufo crucifer wied, 1821 do Brasil A new hemogregarine in the blood of Bufo crucifer wied, 1821 from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de hemagregarinas no sangue dos sapos que examinamos (Bufo crucifer, B. marinus e Melanophryniscus moreirae revelou-se extremamente rara; apenas um exemplar de B. crucifer procedente de Manguinhos (Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara apresentou-se parasitado. As formas sanguíneas encontradas eram intra-eritrocitárias, medindo em média 10,8/ 3,6µ; não as identificamos como trofozoítos ou gametócitos e discutimos este fato. As hemácias parasitadas tinham dimensões normais, porém podiam ter o núcleo deslocado. Supomos ser esta a primeira referência a hemogregarinas neste hospedeiro. Não encontramos identidade entre as formas que descrevemos e aquelas referidas em outras espécies de sapos; fornecemos uma lista das hemogregarinas achadas nestes hospedeiros. Denominamos provisoriamente os parasitos que encontramos Haemogregarina "sensu lato", até que novos dados sobre seu ciclo evolutivo sejam conhecidos.The occurrence of hemogregarines in the blood of Brazilian toads that we have examined (Bufo crucifer, B. Marinus and Melanophryniscus moreirae has displayed very scarce; only one specimen of B. crucifer from Manguinhos (Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara was infected. The blood forms that we found were intraerythrocytic, averaging 10,8 by 3,6µ; we did not differenciate them as thophozoites or as gametocytes and we discuss this fact. The infected erythrocytes were not hypertrophied and their nucleus was normal and sometimes displaced. We think that it is the first reference to hemogregarines in this host. We did not evidence identity among the forms that we described and those reported in other species of toads; we give a list of hemogregarines found in those hosts. We provisorily named the parasites that we found Haemogregarina "sensu lato", until new data about their life cycle become known.

  2. Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov., novel actinobacteria with an insight into their adaptive mechanisms for survival in extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarakam, Kanungnid; Bull, Alan T; Trujillo, Martha E; Riesco, Raul; Sangal, Vartul; van Wezel, Gilles P; Goodfellow, Michael

    2016-06-01

    A polyphasic study was designed to determine the taxonomic provenance of three Modestobacter strains isolated from an extreme hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil. The strains, isolates KNN 45-1a, KNN 45-2b(T) and KNN 45-3b, were shown to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties in line with their classification in the genus Modestobacter. The isolates had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and formed a branch in the Modestobacter gene tree that was most closely related to the type strain of Modestobacter marinus (99.6% similarity). All three isolates were distinguished readily from Modestobacter type strains by a broad range of phenotypic properties, by qualitative and quantitative differences in fatty acid profiles and by BOX fingerprint patterns. The whole genome sequence of isolate KNN 45-2b(T) showed 89.3% average nucleotide identity, 90.1% (SD: 10.97%) average amino acid identity and a digital DNA-DNA hybridization value of 42.4±3.1 against the genome sequence of M. marinus DSM 45201(T), values consistent with its assignment to a separate species. On the basis of all of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Modestobacter as Modestobacter caceresii sp. nov. with isolate KNN 45-2b(T) (CECT 9023(T)=DSM 101691(T)) as the type strain. Analysis of the whole-genome sequence of M. caceresii KNN 45-2b(T), with 4683 open reading frames and a genome size of ∽4.96Mb, revealed the presence of genes and gene-clusters that encode for properties relevant to its adaptability to harsh environmental conditions prevalent in extreme hyper arid Atacama Desert soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Radiation and the lung: a reevaluation of the mechanisms mediating pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Graeme W.; Breit, Samuel N.

    1995-01-01

    Recent data from several investigators, including our unit, have provided additional information on the etiology of radiation-induced lung damage. These data suggest that there are two quite separate and distinct mechanisms involved: (a) classical radiation pneumonitis, which ultimately leads to pulmonary fibrosis is primarily due to radiation-induced local cytokine production confined to the field of irradiation; and (b) sporadic radiation pneumonitis, which is an immunologically mediated process resulting in a bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis that results in an 'out-of-field' response to localized pulmonary irradiation. Both animal experiments and human studies show that classical radiation pneumonitis has a threshold dose and a narrow sigmoid dose-response curve with increasing morbidity and mortality over a very small dose range. Clinical pneumonitis rarely causes death, whereas in the animal and human studies of classical radiation pneumonitis, all subjects will eventually suffer irreversible pulmonary damage and death. The description of classical radiation pneumonitis is that of an acute inflammatory response to lung irradiation, which is confined to the area of irradiation. Recent studies have also shown that irradiation induces gene transcription and results in the induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and fibroblast mitogens in a similar fashion to other chronic inflammatory states, and which ultimately results in pulmonary fibrosis. The description of classical radiation pneumonitis does not adequately explain the following observed clinical characteristics: (a) the unpredictable and sporadic onset; (b) the occurrence in only a minority of patients; (c) the dyspnoea experienced, which is out of proportion to the volume of lung irradiated; and (d) the resolution of symptoms without sequelae in the majority of patients. We have demonstrated a bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis of activated T lymphocytes and a diffuse increase in gallium lung

  4. Diversity of picoeukaryotes at an oligotrophic site off the Northeastern Red Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Francisco; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Stingl, Ulrich

    2013-08-20

    Picoeukaryotes are protists ≤ 3 μm composed of a wide diversity of taxonomic groups. They are an important constituent of the ocean's microbiota and perform essential ecological roles in marine nutrient and carbon cycles. Despite their importance, the true extent of their diversity has only recently been uncovered by molecular surveys that resulted in the discovery of a substantial number of previously unknown groups. No study on picoeukaryote diversity has been conducted so far in the main Red Sea basin-a unique marine environment characterized by oligotrophic conditions, high levels of irradiance, high salinity and increased water temperature. We sampled surface waters off the coast of the northeastern Red Sea and analyzed the picoeukaryotic diversity using Sanger-based clone libraries of the 18S rRNA gene in order to produce high quality, nearly full-length sequences. The community captured by our approach was dominated by three main phyla, the alveolates, stramenopiles and chlorophytes; members of Radiolaria, Cercozoa and Haptophyta were also found, albeit in low abundances. Photosynthetic organisms were especially diverse and abundant in the sample, confirming the importance of picophytoplankton for primary production in the basin as well as indicating the existence of numerous ecological micro-niches for this trophic level in the upper euphotic zone. Heterotrophic organisms were mostly composed of the presumably parasitic Marine Alveolates (MALV) and the presumably bacterivorous Marine Stramenopiles (MAST) groups. A small number of sequences that did not cluster closely with known clades were also found, especially in the MALV-II group, some of which could potentially belong to novel clades. This study provides the first snapshot of the picoeukaryotic diversity present in surface waters of the Red Sea, hence setting the stage for large-scale surveying and characterization of the eukaryotic diversity in the entire basin. Our results indicate that the

  5. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  6. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Maria L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  7. Usual interstitial pneumonitis UIP presenting with Wells grade 3. Can imaging methods help predict further progression of disease?; Fibrosi polmanare idiopatica con grado 3 di Wells all'esordio: possono le metodiche di diagnostica per immagini aiutare a predire la progressione ulteriore della malattia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasano, L.; Pacilli, A. M.G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria; Zompatori, M.; Monetti, N. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Battista, G. [Bologna Policlinico, Bologna (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia, Radiodiagnostica 1; Di Scioscio, V.; Sciascia, N.

    1999-10-01

    Three different grades of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be identified by HRCT pattern. Patients with predominant ground-glass opacity (grade 1) usually improve after treatment and may have a better prognosis. The subjects with a predominant reticular pattern and honeycombing (grade 3.) have irreversible fibrosis and usually do not improve after immunosuppressive therapy. Nevertheless, these patients may worsen even in the absence of HRCT features of the so-called alveolitis. The aim of this report is to investigate the predictive role of some noninvasive imaging methods (HRCT with visual score of disease extent; Gallium scintigraphy; DTPA scintigraphy) in patients with idiopathic fibrosis and a prevalent macroscopic fibrosis at HRCT study. [Italian] La fibrosi polomare idiopatica viene distinta in 3 gradi con diversa prognosi in base alla predominanza di opacita' a vetro smerigliato da alveolite o di fibrosi irreversibile. La fibrosi irreversibile tuttavia non e' necessariamente una situazione stabile ma puo progredire ed evolvere ulteriormente. In particolare i pazienti che gia all'esordio presentano solo i segni della fibrosi possono peggiorare a distanza di tempo nonostante la terapia. Scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di individuare in un gruppo di pazienti con prevalente fibrosi macroscopica quale possa essere un parametro preditivo della successiva evoluzione della malattia.

  8. Evidence for chronic inflammation as a component of the interstitial lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.A.; Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Ferrans, V.J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a generalized disorder characterized by fibrosis of many organs including the lung parenchyma. Unlike most other interstitial disorders, traditional concepts of the interstitial lung disease associated with PSS have held it to be a ''pure'' fibrotic disorder without a significant inflammatory component. To directly evaluate whether an active alveolitis is associated with this disorder, patients with chronic interstitial lung disease and PSS were studied by open lung biopsy, gallium-67 scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Histologic evaluation of the biopsies demonstrated that the interstitial fibrosis of PSS is clearly associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, both in the interstitium and on the alveolar epithelial surface. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 77% of the patients, showing diffuse, primarily lower zone uptake, suggestive of active inflammation. Consistent with the histologic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage studies demonstrated a mild increase in the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils with occasional increased numbers of lymphocytes. Importantly, alveolar macrophages from patients with PSS showed increased release of fibronectin and alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor, mediators that together stimulate lung fibroblasts to proliferate, thus suggesting at least one mechanism modulating the lung fibrosis of these patients

  9. Marijuana exposure and pulmonary alterations in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligiel, S E; Beals, T F; Tashkin, D P; Paule, M G; Scallet, A C; Ali, S F; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    As part of a large multidisciplinary study, we examined lungs from 24 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys that were sacrificed seven months after daily marijuana smoke inhalation of 12 months duration. Animals were divided into four exposure groups: A) high-dose (one marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), B) low-dose (one marijuana cigarette 2 days/week and sham smoke 5 days/week), C) placebo (one extracted marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), and D) sham (sham smoke 7 days/week). Lungs, removed intact, were formalin inflated, sectioned and examined. Several pathological alterations, including alveolitis, alveolar cell hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation, were found with higher frequency in all cigarette-smoking groups. Other alterations, such as bronchiolitis, bronchiolar squamous metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis, were found most frequently in the marijuana-smoking groups. Alveolar cell hyperplasia with focal atypia was seen only in the marijuana-smoking animals. These changes represent mostly early alterations of small airways. Additional follow-up studies are needed to determine their long-term prognostic significance.

  10. Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopova, V.; Salovsky, P.; Dancheva, V.

    2001-01-01

    The likelihood of toxic pulmonary lesions development as the result of radiation therapy for pulmonary carcinoma and breast cancer is discussed. Two possible forms of radiation induced changes are described, namely: classical radiation pneumonitis (RP) terminating with lung fibrosis circumscribed in the radiation zone, and sporadic RP giving rise to bilateral lymphatic alveolitis and manifestations outside the irradiation field. Attention is called to the fact that chemotherapy augments the risk of toxic lung damage occurrence. A number of markers for early RP diagnosis, including lactate dehydrogenase activity, KL-6, procollagen III, transforming growth factor β, C-reactive protein and partial oxygen pressure are listed. Therapeutic possibilities in coping with RP and pulmonary fibrosis are assayed. Apart from the standard therapeutic approach using corticosteroids and azatioprin, ideas are set forth concerning the application of some antioxidants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and γ-interferon. It is pointed out that radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis treatment has an essential practical bearing on life expectancy and quality of life in a great number of cancer patients. (author)

  11. New Insights into the Diversity of Marine Picoeukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not, Fabrice; del Campo, Javier; Balagué, Vanessa; de Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, culture-independent surveys of marine picoeukaryotic diversity based on 18S ribosomal DNA clone libraries have unveiled numerous sequences of novel high-rank taxa. This newfound diversity has significantly altered our understanding of marine microbial food webs and the evolution of eukaryotes. However, the current picture of marine eukaryotic biodiversity may be significantly skewed by PCR amplification biases, occurrence of rDNA genes in multiple copies within a single cell, and the capacity of DNA to persist as extracellular material. In this study we performed an analysis of the metagenomic dataset from the Global Ocean Survey (GOS) expedition, seeking eukaryotic ribosomal signatures. This PCR-free approach revealed similar phylogenetic patterns to clone library surveys, suggesting that PCR steps do not impose major biases in the exploration of environmental DNA. The different cell size fractions within the GOS dataset, however, displayed a distinct picture. High protistan diversity in the Marine Stramenopiles) appeared as potentially prominent grazers and we observed a significant decrease in the contribution of alveolate and radiolarian sequences, which overwhelmingly dominated rDNA libraries. The rRNA approach appears to be less affected by taxon-specific rDNA copy number and likely better depicts the biogeochemical significance of marine protists. PMID:19787059

  12. β-thymosins and interstitial lung disease: study of a scleroderma cohort with a one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messana Irene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-thymosins play roles in cytoskeleton rearrangement, angiogenesis, fibrosis and reparative process, thus suggesting a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of thymosins β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of scleroderma patients with interstitial lung disease and the relation of these factors with pulmonary functional and radiological parameters. Methods β-thymosins concentrations were determined by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Mass Spectrometry in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 46 scleroderma patients with lung involvement and of 15 controls. Results Thymosin β4, β4 sulfoxide, and β10 were detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients and controls. Thymosin β4 levels were significantly higher in scleroderma patients than in controls. In addition, analyzing the progression of scleroderma lung disease at one-year follow-up, we have found that higher thymosin β4 levels seem to have a protective role against lung tissue damage. Thymosin β4 sulfoxide levels were higher in the smokers and in the scleroderma patients with alveolitis. Conclusions We describe for the first time β-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease. Thymosin β4 seems to have a protective role against lung tissue damage, while its oxidation product mirrors an alveolar inflammatory status.

  13. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Systemic sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure: about 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Stereotactic radiotherapy for lung cancer: Non-invasive real-time tumor tracking; Radiotherapie stereotaxique de carcinomes bronchiques primitifs: suivi non invasif de la cible en temps reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibault, J.E.; Prevost, B.; Mirabel, X.; Lacornerie, T.; Dubus, F.; Lartigau, E. [Departement universitaire de radiotherapie, universite Lille 2, CyberKnife Nord-Ouest, centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France); Dansin, E. [Departement d' oncologie generale, centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiation therapy using the CyberKnife{sup R} has been introduced in France in 2006. Two treatment modalities are currently available: the first one (Synchrony{sup R}) is a real-time fiducial-based target tracking system, while the other (Xsight Lung Tracking [XLT] System{sup R}) is completely fiducial-free. Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients were treated for a pulmonary tumor between June 2007 and November 2009. Since august 2008, the XLT System{sup R} was used for 26 patients. We report the necessary conditions for the XLT System (position, laterality and size of the tumor), the toxicity and outcome of this treatment. Results: Twenty-two patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 6 months (min = 3; max = 16). Local control rate was 100%. The main toxicity was grade grade 1 pulmonary alveolitis (27%). No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. Conclusion: The high local control rate and low toxicity obtained with the CyberKnife{sup R} XLT System{sup R} suggest that such treatment is an alternative for inoperable patients. (authors)

  18. Respiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Julie; Huaux, Francois; Moreau, Nicolas; Misson, Pierre; Heilier, Jean-Francois; Delos, Monique; Arras, Mohammed; Fonseca, Antonio; Nagy, Janos B.; Lison, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes focus the attention of many scientists because of their huge potential of industrial applications, but there is a paucity of information on the toxicological properties of this material. The aim of this experimental study was to characterize the biological reactivity of purified multi-wall carbon nanotubes in the rat lung and in vitro. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) or ground CNT were administered intratracheally (0.5, 2 or 5 mg) to Sprague-Dawley rats and we estimated lung persistence, inflammation and fibrosis biochemically and histologically. CNT and ground CNT were still present in the lung after 60 days (80% and 40% of the lowest dose) and both induced inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. At 2 months, pulmonary lesions induced by CNT were characterized by the formation of collagen-rich granulomas protruding in the bronchial lumen, in association with alveolitis in the surrounding tissues. These lesions were caused by the accumulation of large CNT agglomerates in the airways. Ground CNT were better dispersed in the lung parenchyma and also induced inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Both CNT and ground CNT stimulated the production of TNF-α in the lung of treated animals. In vitro, ground CNT induced the overproduction of TNF-α by macrophages. These results suggest that carbon nanotubes are potentially toxic to humans and that strict industrial hygiene measures should to be taken to limit exposure during their manipulation

  19. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  20. Antibióticos para prevenir las complicaciones posteriores a la extracción de dientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Hay pruebas de que los antibióticos profilácticos reducen el riesgo de infección, alveolitis y dolor posterior a la extracción del tercer molar y dan lugar a un aumento de los efectos adversos leves y transitorios. No está claro si las pruebas de esta revisión son generalizables a los pacientes con enfermedades concomitantes o inmunodeficiencia, o a los pacientes sometidos a la extracción de dientes debido a la caries grave o a la periodontitis. Sin embargo, los pacientes en mayor riesgo de infección presentan mayor probabilidad de beneficiarse con los antibióticos profilácticos debido a que es probable que las infecciones en este grupo sean más frecuentes, se asocien con complicaciones y sean más difíciles de tratar. Debido al aumento de la prevalencia de bacterias resistentes al tratamiento con los antibióticos disponibles actualmente, los médicos deben considerar cuidadosamente la probabilidad de que el tratamiento de 12 pacientes sanos con antibióticos para prevenir una infección cause más daños que beneficios.

  1. Microbial activity during a coastal phytoplankton bloom on the Western Antarctic Peninsula in late summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcamán-Arias, María E; Farías, Laura; Verdugo, Josefa; Alarcón-Schumacher, Tomás; Díez, Beatriz

    2018-05-01

    Phytoplankton biomass during the austral summer is influenced by freezing and melting cycles as well as oceanographic processes that enable nutrient redistribution in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Microbial functional capabilities, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic activities as well as inorganic 13C- and 15N-assimilation rates were studied in the surface waters of Chile Bay during two contrasting summer periods in 2014. Concentrations of Chlorophyll a (Chla) varied from 0.3 mg m-3 in February to a maximum of 2.5 mg m-3 in March, together with a decrease in nutrients; however, nutrients were never depleted. The microbial community composition remained similar throughout both sampling periods; however, microbial abundance and activity changed with Chla levels. An increased biomass of Bacillariophyta, Haptophyceae and Cryptophyceae was observed along with night-grazing activity of Dinophyceae and ciliates (Alveolates). During high Chla conditions, HCO3- uptake rates during daytime incubations increased 5-fold (>2516 nmol C L-1 d-1), and increased photosynthetic transcript numbers that were mainly associated with cryptophytes; meanwhile night time NO3- (>706 nmol N L-1 d-1) and NH4+ (41.7 nmol N L-1 d-1) uptake rates were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, due to activity from Alpha-/Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriia). Due to a projected acceleration in climate change in the WAP, this information is valuable for predicting the composition and functional changes in Antarctic microbial communities.

  2. Beiological behaviour of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is scarcely incorporated from the environment into the food chain because of its unability to penetrate biological membranes. Workers can be contaminated through inhalation or deposition in wounds. Pu present in the pulmonary alveoles or incorporated in wounds is redistributed in the organism either through cellular transport resulting in an important accumulation in the lymphatic ganglia either by blood transport as dissolved Pu bound to proteins. This mechanism results in a progressive accumulation of the radioelement in liver and bone. It is estimated that about 40% of the Pu present in the blood is deposited in the liver from which one half is eliminated every ten years. 50% is deposited in bone from which the elimination takes much longer and 10% is eliminated with the urines. Intravenous injection of DIPA is very useful for Pu elimination immediately after contamination. For elimination of pulmonary Pu the technique of ''pulmonary washing'' is suggested. This method reduces the pulmonary contamination in laboratory aniamls by a factor 10. (author)

  3. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K.; Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G.; Gehr, P.

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  5. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.

  6. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Sven; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Blum, Torsten-Gerriet; Großwendt, Claudia; Boch, Christian; Rehbock, Beate; Griff, Sergej; Schmittel, Alexander; Bauer, Torsten T

    2017-01-01

    We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  7. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Jungmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  8. Commentary: research on the mechanisms of the occupational lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rom, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this commentary, the pathogenesis of alveolitis is examined and elucidated by animal models. The use of broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) and Ga-67 citrate whole-body scanning as a measure of the activity of alveolar inflammation in workers is discussed. Gallium scan indices have been reported to be elevated in asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; diseases which may now be evaluated at earlier, potentially reversible stages. Research in emphysema and other lung diseases associated with α 1 antitrypsin deficiency may help explain why coal miners develop focal emphysema. Furthermore, investigation of genetic factors may reveal why workers with similar exposures have a different susceptibility for the development of pneumoconiosis or lung cancer. Occupational asthma may not respond to removal of the worker from exposure because reactive airways may be a predisposing factor for chronic ashthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. A continuing challenge will be disease risk in new industries such as electronics and alternate energy industries and new diseases in worker groups not previously studied, such as the variety of pneumoconioses among dental laboratory technicians who work with exotic metal alloys. 52 references

  9. Inflammatory/granulomatous diseases of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The term 'inflammatory' and 'granulomatous' lung disease represents a pool of many etiologically different diseases, the pathologic mechanisms of which are characterized by inflammatory reactions of varying intensity and cell composition. In sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases as well as in lung fibroses, gallium scintigraphy allows reliable non-invasive estimation of alveolitis activity and is suitable for therapy monitoring. Granulomatous diseases seem to be detectable sensitively by means of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy as well. It is yet uncertain, whether positron emission tomography with F-18 fluordeoxyglucose will play a role in quantitative assessment of disease activity in sarcoidosis. Gallium scintigraphy is very useful in the early detection of pulmonary complications in AIDS patients. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, which is important in this patient population, can also be detected by both Tc-99m and In-111 labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin, and in future possibly with a monoclonal antibody fragment against Pneumocystis carinii as well. The significance of primary bacterial pneumonias has decreased and nuclear medicine procedures for diagnosing inflammation are needed only exceptionally in this indication. (orig.) [de

  10. Role of alveolar topology on acinar flows and convective mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

    2014-06-01

    Due to experimental challenges, computational simulations are often sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport in the pulmonary acinus. Commonly, these are performed using generic alveolar topologies, including spheres, toroids, and polyhedra, to mimic the complex acinar morphology. Yet, local acinar flows and ensuing particle transport are anticipated to be influenced by the specific morphological structures. We have assessed a range of acinar models under self-similar breathing conditions with respect to alveolar flow patterns, convective flow mixing, and deposition of fine particles (1.3 μm diameter). By tracking passive tracers over cumulative breathing cycles, we find that irreversible flow mixing correlates with the location and strength of the recirculating vortex inside the cavity. Such effects are strongest in proximal acinar generations where the ratio of alveolar to ductal flow rates is low and interalveolar disparities are most apparent. Our results for multi-alveolated acinar ducts highlight that fine 1 μm inhaled particles subject to alveolar flows are sensitive to the alveolar topology, underlining interalveolar disparities in particle deposition patterns. Despite the simplicity of the acinar models investigated, our findings suggest that alveolar topologies influence more significantly local flow patterns and deposition sites of fine particles for upper generations emphasizing the importance of the selected acinar model. In distal acinar generations, however, the alveolar geometry primarily needs to mimic the space-filling alveolar arrangement dictated by lung morphology.

  11. A study of the behaviour of 0.5 μm aerosol particles in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Ramu, M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of the tissue dose of inhaled aerosol particles (including radioactive particles) requires a study of the behaviour of particles in the human lung. Half-micron particles (unit density spheres) of di-2-ethyl hexyl subacate have been used for carrying out the study since their deposition is mostly in the pulmonary region and they are good tracers of air flow in the lung. The deposition measured is the lowest reported so far and is affected by physiological parameters like the tidal volume, the breathing frequency and the resting expiratory level. Steady-state and single-breath aerosol experiments show that the particles inhaled remain airborne in the lung during several breaths and support the view that mechanical mixing is completely absent in the alveolated airways of the lung. Studies of the effect of breath-holding on the deposition of 0.5 μm particles in the lung show that these particles may be used for the calculation of the diameter of the alveolar space in life. (author)

  12. A nonhuman primate aerosol deposition model for toxicological and pharmaceutical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martonen, T.B.; Katz, I.M.; Musante, C.J. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2001-07-01

    Nonhuman primates may be used as human surrogates in inhalation exposure studies to assess either the (1) adverse health effects of airborne particulate matter or (2) therapeutic effects of aerosolized drugs and proteins. Mathematical models describing the behavior and fate of inhaled aerosols may be used to complement such laboratory investigations. In this work a mathematical description of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) lung is presented for use with an aerosol deposition model. Deposition patterns of 0.01- to 5-{mu}m-diameter monodisperse aerosols within lungs were calculated for 3 monkey lung models (using different descriptions of alveolated regions) and compared to human lung results obtained using a previously validated mathematical model of deposition physics. The findings suggest that there are significant differences between deposition patterns in monkeys and humans. The nonhuman primates had greater exposures to inhaled substances, particularly on the basis of deposition per unit airway surface area. However, the different alveolar volumes in the rhesus monkey models had only minor effects on aerosol dosimetry within those lungs. By being aware of such quantitative differences, investigators can employ the respective primate models (human and nonhuman) to more effectively design and interpret the results of future inhalation exposure experiments.

  13. Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii

    KAUST Repository

    Salunke, Rahul

    2018-05-14

    The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.

  14. Ultra-low-dose CT imaging of the thorax: decreasing the radiation dose by one order of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Lukas; Banerjee, Rohan; Votruba, Jiri; El-Lababidi, Nabil; Zeman, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an indispensable tool for imaging of the thorax and there is virtually no alternative without associated radiation burden. The authors demonstrate ultra-low-dose CT of the thorax in three interesting cases. In an 18-y-old girl with rheumatoid arthritis, CT of the thorax identified alveolitis in the posterior costophrenic angles (radiation dose = 0.2 mSv). Its resolution was demonstrated on a follow-up scan (4.2 mSv) performed elsewhere. In an 11-y-old girl, CT (0.1 mSv) showed changes of the right collar bone consistent with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. CT (0.1 mSv) of a 9-y-old girl with mucopolysaccharidosis revealed altogether three hamartomas, peribronchial infiltrate, and spine deformity. In some indications, the radiation dose from CT of the thorax can approach that of several plain radiographs. This may help the pediatrician in deciding whether 'gentle' ultra-low-dose CT instead of observation or follow-up radiographs will alleviate the uncertainty of the diagnosis with little harm to the child. (author)

  15. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Intermittent Hypoxia Increases the Severity of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gille

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH is common in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Here, we evaluated the impact of IH on bleomycin- (BLM- induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Methods. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal BLM or saline and were exposed to IH (40 cycles/hour; FiO2 nadir: 6%; 8 hours/day or intermittent air (IA. In the four experimental groups, we evaluated (i survival; (ii alveolar inflammation, pulmonary edema, lung oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes; (iii lung cell apoptosis; and (iv pulmonary fibrosis. Results. Survival at day 21 was lower in the BLM-IH group (p<0.05. Pulmonary fibrosis was more severe at day 21 in BLM-IH mice, as assessed by lung collagen content (p=0.02 and histology. At day 4, BLM-IH mice developed a more severe neutrophilic alveolitis, (p<0.001. Lung oxidative stress was observed, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase expression was decreased in BLM-IH mice (p<0.05 versus BLM-IA group. At day 8, pulmonary edema was observed and lung cell apoptosis was increased in the BLM-IH group. Conclusion. These results show that exposure to chronic IH increases mortality, lung inflammation, and lung fibrosis in BLM-treated mice. This study raises the question of the worsening impact of severe OSA in IPF patients.

  17. Macrophages as key elements of Mixed-oxide [U-Pu(O2)] distribution and pulmonary damage after inhalation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meeren, Anne; Moureau, Agnes; Griffiths, Nina M

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the consequences of alveolar macrophage (AM) depletion on Mixed OXide fuel (MOX: U, Pu oxide) distribution and clearance, as well as lung damage following MOX inhalation. Rats were exposed to MOX by nose only inhalation. AM were depleted with intratracheal administration of liposomal clodronate at 6 weeks. Lung changes, macrophage activation, as well as local and systemic actinide distribution were studied up to 3 months post-inhalation. Clodronate administration modified excretion/retention patterns of α activity. At 3 months post-inhalation lung retention was higher in clodronate-treated rats compared to Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)-treated rats, and AM-associated α activity was also increased. Retention in liver was higher in clodronate-treated rats and fecal and urinary excretions were lower. Three months after inhalation, rats exhibited lung fibrotic lesions and alveolitis, with no marked differences between the two groups. Foamy macrophages of M2 subtype [inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) negative but galectin-3 positive] were frequently observed, in correlation with the accumulation of MOX particles. AM from all MOX-exposed rats showed increased chemokine levels as compared to sham controls. Despite the transient reduced AM numbers in clodronate-treated animals no major differences on lung damage were observed as compared to non-treated rats after MOX inhalation. The higher lung activity retention in rats receiving clodronate seems to be part of a general inflammatory response and needs further investigation.

  18. Comparison of injection pain caused by the DentalVibe Injection System versus a traditional syringe for inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbay, M; Şermet Elbay, Ü; Yıldırım, S; Uğurluel, C; Kaya, C; Baydemir, C

    2015-06-01

    To compare paediatric patients' pain during needle insertion and injection in inferior alveoler nerve block (IANB) anaesthesia injected by either a traditional syringe (TS) or the DentalVibe Injection Comfort System (DV). the study was a randomised controlled crossover clinical trial, comprised of 60 children aged 6-12 requiring an operative procedure with IANB anaesthesia on their mandibular molars bilaterally. One of the molar teeth was treated with TS and the contralateral tooth was treated with DV. On each visit, subjective and objective pain was evaluated using the Wond-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (PRS) and the Face, Legg, Cry, Consolability Scale (FLACC Scale). Patients were asked which anaesthesia technique they preferred. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank, Spearman correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were no statistically significant differences for pain evalution during needle insertion and injection of each injection system. However, a negative correlation was found on the FLACC between age and pain scores during injection after using DV. Paediatric patients experienced similar pain during IANB anaesthesia administered with TS and DV. With increased age, pain values reduced during anaesthetic agent injection with DV according to FLACC. The traditional procedure was preferred to DV in paediatric patients.

  19. Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii

    KAUST Repository

    Salunke, Rahul; Mourier, Tobias; Banerjee, Manidipa; Pain, Arnab; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.

  20. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-06-18

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes.

  2. Winter-summer succession of unicellular eukaryotes in a meso-eutrophic coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Urania; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Genitsaris, Savvas; Georges, Clément; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Viscogliosi, Eric; Monchy, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the succession of planktonic unicellular eukaryotes by means of 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing in the eastern English Channel (EEC) during the winter to summer transition. The 59 most representative (>0.1%, representing altogether 95% of total reads), unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from all samples belonged to 18 known high-level taxonomic groups and 1 unaffiliated clade. The five most abundant OTUs (69.2% of total reads) belonged to Dinophyceae, Cercozoa, Haptophyceae, marine alveolate group I, and Fungi. Cluster and network analysis between samples distinguished the winter, the pre-bloom, the Phaeocystis globosa bloom and the post-bloom early summer conditions. The OTUs-based network revealed that P. globosa showed a relatively low number of connections-most of them negative-with all other OTUs. Fungi were linked to all major taxonomic groups, except Dinophyceae. Cercozoa mostly co-occurred with the Fungi, the Bacillariophyceae and several of the miscellaneous OTUs. This study provided a more detailed exploration into the planktonic succession pattern of the EEC due to its increased depth of taxonomic sampling over previous efforts based on classical monitoring observations. Data analysis implied that the food web concept in a coastal system based on predator-prey (e.g. grazer-phytoplankton) relationships is just a part of the ecological picture; and those organisms exploiting a variety of strategies, such as saprotrophy and parasitism, are persistent and abundant members of the community.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of regional blood flow in pulmonary sarcoidosis with Bull's eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaki, Shiro

    1991-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed in 23 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 11 normal volunteers. Bull's eye analysis was used to analyze regional pulmonary blood flow quantitatively. First, whole lung perfusion images were divided into three regions by three concentric circles. Then radial axes were projected from the center to define 36 x 10deg sectors. The counts for each sector were calculated and a Bull's eye image was displayed. The counts were compared with the lower limit of normal (mean -2SD), and as the indices of reduction in perfusion, extent score (ES) and severity score (SS) were calculated. ES and SS showed significant reduction in perfusion 16 patients (70%) with sarcoidosis. In stage II sarcoidosis, both ES and SS were significantly higher than in stage I sarcoidosis (p 67 Ga scintigraphy findings. In comparison with clinical data, ES had a positive correlation with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (p + /CD8 + ratio (p<0.05). The Bull's eye analysis was considered useful for the quantitative evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow in pulmonary sarcoidosis, and it was suggested that the mechanism of reduction in perfusion might result mainly in its alveolitis and angitis. Ventilation abnormality, which may happen prior to reduction in perfusion, may be an important factor of reduction in perfusion. (author)

  4. Importance of Physical and Physiological Parameters in Simulated Particle Transport in the Alveolar Zone of the Human Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Ciloglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory and deposition efficiency of micron-sized (1–5 µm particles, inhaled into the pulmonary system, are accurately determined with the aid of a newly developed model and modified simulation techniques. This alveolar model, which has a simple but physiologically appropriate geometry, and the utilized fluid structure interaction (FSI methods permit the precise simulation of tissue wall deformation and particle fluid interactions. The relation between tissue movement and airflow in the alveolated duct is solved by a two-way fluid structure interaction simulation technique, using ANSYS Workbench (Release 16.0, ANSYS INC., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2015. The dynamic transport of particles and their deposition are investigated as a function of aerodynamic particle size, tissue visco-elasticity, tidal breathing period, gravity orientation and particle–fluid interactions. It is found that the fluid flows and streamlines differ between the present flexible model and rigid models, and the two-way coupling particle trajectories vary relative to one-way particle coupling. In addition, the results indicate that modelling the two-way coupling particle system is important because the two-way discrete phase method (DPM approach despite its complexity provides more extensive particle interactions and is more reliable than transport results from the one-way DPM approach. The substantial difference between the results of the two approaches is likely due to particle–fluid interactions, which re-suspend the sediment particles in the airway stream and hence pass from the current generation.

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with interstitial lung diseases: side effects and factors affecting fluid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, D P; Haslam, P L; Townsend, P J; Primett, Z; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M

    1986-05-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with interstitial lung diseases undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were contrasted with 51 patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy alone to define the factors which predispose to post-lavage side-effects. Transient post-bronchoscopy fall in the peak expired flow (PEF) greater than or equal to 20% occurred in both groups (24% and 23% respectively), and thus was probably related to the bronchoscopy procedure. Post-lavage pyrexia (greater than or equal to 1 degree C) occurred only in the patients undergoing BAL (26%), p less than 0.001. Only 4% with pyrexia required antibiotics, and only 2% with falls in PEF needed bronchodilator therapy. The only significant clinical association was more frequent pyrexia in patients on treatment with prednisolone, particularly in women (p less than 0.01). Pyrexia was also associated with higher lavage fluid introduction volumes (greater than 240 ml). Side effects did not relate to the percentages of lavage fluid recovered, although smokers had lower recoveries and, recoveries tended to be higher in sarcoidosis than cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Serial lavages in 25 patients caused no significant increase in side effects.

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis misdiagnosed as sputum-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Muhammad Danasabe; Abbas, Aminu; Abba, Abdullahi A; Umar, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), also known as cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, is one of a spectrum of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is an increasingly common condition which poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges leading to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We presented a 55-year-old male textile trader who was initially managed as sputum-negative pulmonary tuberculosis before histology report. He presented to our clinic with Breathlessness and cough of 3 years and 2.5 years, respectively. He had commenced anti-tuberculosis two months before presentation without significant relief. General Physical examination and vital signs were essentially normal. SPO2 was 96% on room air. Chest Examination revealed end-inspiratory bi-basal velcro-like crackles. Other systemic examinations were normal. Radiological examination by way of chest X- ray and chest CT showed features suggestive of IPF. The patient also had open Lung biopsy for histology and spirometry which demonstrated restrictive ventilatory function pattern. A diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease probably Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis was entertained. He was commenced on Tab prednisolone, Tab Rabeprazole, with minimal improvement. IPF have often been misdiagnosed and treated as pulmonary tuberculosis with unfavorable outcome.

  7. Diversity of Heterotrophic Protists from Extremely Hypersaline Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Soo; Simpson, Alastair G B

    2015-09-01

    Heterotrophic protists (protozoa) are a diverse but understudied component of the biota of extremely hypersaline environments, with few data on molecular diversity within halophile 'species', and almost nothing known of their biogeographic distribution. We have garnered SSU rRNA gene sequences for several clades of halophilic protozoa from enrichments from waters of >12.5% salinity from Australia, North America, and Europe (6 geographic sites, 25 distinct samples). The small stramenopile Halocafeteria was found at all sites, but phylogenies did not show clear geographic clustering. The ciliate Trimyema was recorded from 6 non-European samples. Phylogenies confirmed a monophyletic halophilic Trimyema group that included possible south-eastern Australian, Western Australian and North American clusters. Several halophilic Heterolobosea were detected, demonstrating that Pleurostomum contains at least three relatively distinct clades, and increasing known continental ranges for Tulamoeba peronaphora and Euplaesiobystra hypersalinica. The unclassified flagellate Palustrimonas, found in one Australian sample, proves to be a novel deep-branching alveolate. These results are consistent with a global distribution of halophilic protozoa groups (∼ morphospecies), but the Trimyema case suggests that is worth testing whether larger forms exhibit biogeographic phylogenetic substructure. The molecular detection/characterization of halophilic protozoa is still far from complete at the clade level, let alone the 'species level'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Hypoxia on the Phylogenetic Composition and Species Distribution of Protists in a Subtropical Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Emma; Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-07-01

    Tolo Harbor, a subtropical semi-enclosed coastal water body, is surrounded by an expanding urban community, which contributes to large concentrations of nutrient runoff, leading to algal blooms and localized hypoxic episodes. Present knowledge of protist distributions in subtropical waters during hypoxic conditions is very limited. In this study, therefore, we combined parallel 454 pyrosequencing technology and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analyses to reveal the protist community shifts before, during, and after a 2-week hypoxic episode during the summer of 2011. Hierarchical clustering for DGGE demonstrated similar grouping of hypoxic samples separately from oxic samples. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphate (DIN:PO4) concentrations significantly affected OTU distribution in 454 sequenced samples, and a shift toward a ciliate and marine alveolate clade II (MALV II) species composition occurred as waters shifted from oxic to hypoxic. These results suggest that protist community shifts toward heterotrophic and parasitic tendencies as well as decreased diversity and richness in response to hypoxic outbreaks.

  9. Protists in the polar regions: comparing occurrence in the Arctic and Southern oceans using pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing discussion of the distribution of protists, whether they are globally distributed or endemic to one or both of the polar regions is the subject of heated debate. In this study, we compared next-generation sequencing data from the Arctic and the Southern oceans to reveal the extent of similarities and dissimilarities between the protist communities in the polar regions. We found a total overlap of operational taxonomic units (OTUs between the two regions of 11.2%. On closer inspection of different taxonomic groups, the overlap ranged between 5.5% (haptophytes and 14.5% (alveolates. Within the different groups, the proportion of OTUs occurring in both regions greatly differed between the polar regions. On the one hand, the overlap between these two regions is remarkable, given the geographical distance between them. On the other hand, one could expect a greater overlap of OTUs between these regions on account of the similar environmental conditions. The overlap suggests a connection between the polar regions for at least certain species or that the evolutionary divergence has been slow, relative to the timescales of isolation. The different proportions of common OTUs among the groups or regions may be a result of different life cycle strategies or environmental adaptations.

  10. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  11. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Bronchopulmonary allergic aspergillosis Aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A series of well defined entitles associated with colonization or invasion by fungi of the genus Aspergillus are grouped under the term Aspergillosis; there are various modalities of pulmonary involvement, namely, extrinsec asthma, extrinsec allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and an invasive form in debilitated terminal patients; besldes there exists a form of food poisoning. We report on the case of a 45 year-old asthmatic woman suffering from allerglc bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sum. maryze the clinical and laboratory features of the different pulmonary forms of aspergillosis.

    El término Aspergllosis reúne una serle de entidades bien definidas, causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una mujer de 45 años con aspergllosis broncopulmonar alérgica, atendida en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín y se hace una somera revisión clínico-patológica de las diferentes formas de aspergllosis pulmonar.

  13. Role of serum angiotensin converting enzyme in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A H; Ghani, F; Khan, A; Khan, M A; Khurshid, M

    1998-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the role of Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (SACE) as a marker in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases and prognosis of sarcoidosis. A retrospective analysis of 113 medical records of patients at The Aga Khan University Hospital, with laboratory investigation for SACE was performed. Among 113 patients, 51 cases were found to have sarcoidosis, 44 of them had SACE levels greater than 52 IU/L (mean ACE 104.44). SACE levels were also found elevated in other clinical conditions like tuberculosis (mean 58.64 IU/L), but the enzyme level were less (p 0.04) than those found in sarcoidosis (mean (92.97 IU/L). SACE activity was found to be considerably lower in other chronic lung diseases such as, fibrosing alveolitis (mean 43.98 IU/L), interstitial lung disease (mean 42.11 IU/L) and chronic obstructive lung disease (mean 40.85 IU/L). Twenty patients of sarcoidosis, who received steroid treatment subsequently showed a decline in the SACE levels. SACE is a useful marker in differential diagnosis as 37.2% cases of sarcoidosis compared to only 9.09% of tuberculosis had SACE levels greater than 100 IU/L. In addition, our data also suggest that serum ACE is useful for the diagnosis as well as monitoring prognosis in sarcoidosis.

  14. Monthly variation in the Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and other safety issues in some marine and fresh water fish species in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.

    2014-07-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein in Ghana and the fisheries industry is vital to the economy of the country. Unfortunately, most of the aquatic systems in Ghana are being polluted with domestic and industrial wastes which results in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species. The traditional method for preserving fish in the country is by hot smoking or smoke drying, through freezing may be preferred where facilities are available. The presence of high levels of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked fish as well as other fish products is a matter of public health concern in Ghana. Variations in the level of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked marine fish, Sebastes marinus (red fish) and fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) caught off the coast of James Town in Accra and from the Volta river at Kpong respectively were monitored monthly from September 2013 to March 2014. Extension of two shelf life of the smoked fish species by gamma irradiation was also studied during 4 weeks of low temperature (5± 1 C ) storage by refrigeration. The total concentration of Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg) in the fish species as well as in their muscles, gills and bones were determined by Flame or Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The moisture content, pH, sensory analysis and population of aerobic mesophiles (on PCA), yeast and moulds (on OGYE), Escherichia coli (on EMB), Staphylococcus aureus (on BPA) and Salmonella (on XLD) in fresh fish, and smoked fish after treatment with 1, 2 and 3kGy of gamma irradiation and during storage were determined. Four patterns in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both Sebastes marinus and Oreochromis niloticus were observed over the 6 months monitoring period. Fe, Cu, Co and Cr accumulated heavily in the fish species during September and October after which the

  15. Prochlorococcus as a Possible Source for Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Agustí

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP, usually associated with phytoplankton blooms, promote the formation of marine aggregates. Their exportation to deep waters is considered a key component of the biological carbon pump. Here, we explored the role of solar radiation and picocyanobacteria in the formation of TEP in oligotrophic surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in ten on-deck incubation experiments during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. TEP concentrations were low on the ocean’s surface although these concentrations were significantly higher on the surface of the Pacific (24.45 ± 2.3 μg XG Eq. L-1 than on the surface of the Atlantic Ocean (8.18 ± 4.56 μg XG Eq. L-1. Solar radiation induced a significant production of TEP in the on-deck experiments from the surface water of the Pacific Ocean, reaching values up to 187.3 μg XG Eq. L-1 compared with the low production observed in the dark controls. By contrast, TEP production in the Atlantic Ocean experiments was lower, and its formation was not related to the light treatments. Prochlorococcus sp. from the surface ocean was very sensitive to solar radiation and experienced a high cell decay in the Pacific Ocean experiments. TEP production in the on-deck incubation experiments was closely related to the observed cell decay rates of Prochlorococcus sp., suggesting that this picocyanobacteria genus is a potential source of TEP. The evidence to propose such potential role was derived experimentally, using natural communities including the presence of several species and a variety of processes. Laboratory experiments with cultures of a non-axenic strain of Prochlorococcus marinus were then used to test TEP production by this genus. TEP concentrations in the culture increased with increasing cell abundance during the exponential phase, reaching the highest TEP concentration at the beginning of the stationary phase. The average TEP concentration of 1474 ± 226 μg XG Eq. L-1 (mean

  16. Signature proteins for the major clades of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Divya W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeny and taxonomy of cyanobacteria is currently poorly understood due to paucity of reliable markers for identification and circumscription of its major clades. Results A combination of phylogenomic and protein signature based approaches was used to characterize the major clades of cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 44 cyanobacteria based on 44 conserved proteins. In parallel, Blastp searches were carried out on each ORF in the genomes of Synechococcus WH8102, Synechocystis PCC6803, Nostoc PCC7120, Synechococcus JA-3-3Ab, Prochlorococcus MIT9215 and Prochlor. marinus subsp. marinus CCMP1375 to identify proteins that are specific for various main clades of cyanobacteria. These studies have identified 39 proteins that are specific for all (or most cyanobacteria and large numbers of proteins for other cyanobacterial clades. The identified signature proteins include: (i 14 proteins for a deep branching clade (Clade A of Gloebacter violaceus and two diazotrophic Synechococcus strains (JA-3-3Ab and JA2-3-B'a; (ii 5 proteins that are present in all other cyanobacteria except those from Clade A; (iii 60 proteins that are specific for a clade (Clade C consisting of various marine unicellular cyanobacteria (viz. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus; (iv 14 and 19 signature proteins that are specific for the Clade C Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus strains, respectively; (v 67 proteins that are specific for the Low B/A ecotype Prochlorococcus strains, containing lower ratio of chl b/a2 and adapted to growth at high light intensities; (vi 65 and 8 proteins that are specific for the Nostocales and Chroococcales orders, respectively; and (vii 22 and 9 proteins that are uniquely shared by various Nostocales and Oscillatoriales orders, or by these two orders and the Chroococcales, respectively. We also describe 3 conserved indels in flavoprotein, heme oxygenase and protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase proteins that

  17. Prochlorococcus as a Possible Source for Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP)

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana; Iuculano, Francesca; Mazuecos, Ignacio P.; Reche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), usually associated with phytoplankton blooms, promote the formation of marine aggregates. Their exportation to deep waters is considered a key component of the biological carbon pump. Here, we explored the role of solar radiation and picocyanobacteria in the formation of TEP in oligotrophic surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in ten on-deck incubation experiments during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. TEP concentrations were low on the ocean’s surface although these concentrations were significantly higher on the surface of the Pacific (24.45 ± 2.3 μg XG Eq. L-1) than on the surface of the Atlantic Ocean (8.18 ± 4.56 μg XG Eq. L-1). Solar radiation induced a significant production of TEP in the on-deck experiments from the surface water of the Pacific Ocean, reaching values up to 187.3 μg XG Eq. L-1 compared with the low production observed in the dark controls. By contrast, TEP production in the Atlantic Ocean experiments was lower, and its formation was not related to the light treatments. Prochlorococcus sp. from the surface ocean was very sensitive to solar radiation and experienced a high cell decay in the Pacific Ocean experiments. TEP production in the on-deck incubation experiments was closely related to the observed cell decay rates of Prochlorococcus sp., suggesting that this picocyanobacteria genus is a potential source of TEP. The evidence to propose such potential role was derived experimentally, using natural communities including the presence of several species and a variety of processes. Laboratory experiments with cultures of a non-axenic strain of Prochlorococcus marinus were then used to test TEP production by this genus. TEP concentrations in the culture increased with increasing cell abundance during the exponential phase, reaching the highest TEP concentration at the beginning of the stationary phase. The average TEP concentration of 1474 ± 226 μg XG Eq. L-1 (mean ± SE) observed at

  18. Prochlorococcus as a Possible Source for Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP)

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2017-04-26

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), usually associated with phytoplankton blooms, promote the formation of marine aggregates. Their exportation to deep waters is considered a key component of the biological carbon pump. Here, we explored the role of solar radiation and picocyanobacteria in the formation of TEP in oligotrophic surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in ten on-deck incubation experiments during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. TEP concentrations were low on the ocean’s surface although these concentrations were significantly higher on the surface of the Pacific (24.45 ± 2.3 μg XG Eq. L-1) than on the surface of the Atlantic Ocean (8.18 ± 4.56 μg XG Eq. L-1). Solar radiation induced a significant production of TEP in the on-deck experiments from the surface water of the Pacific Ocean, reaching values up to 187.3 μg XG Eq. L-1 compared with the low production observed in the dark controls. By contrast, TEP production in the Atlantic Ocean experiments was lower, and its formation was not related to the light treatments. Prochlorococcus sp. from the surface ocean was very sensitive to solar radiation and experienced a high cell decay in the Pacific Ocean experiments. TEP production in the on-deck incubation experiments was closely related to the observed cell decay rates of Prochlorococcus sp., suggesting that this picocyanobacteria genus is a potential source of TEP. The evidence to propose such potential role was derived experimentally, using natural communities including the presence of several species and a variety of processes. Laboratory experiments with cultures of a non-axenic strain of Prochlorococcus marinus were then used to test TEP production by this genus. TEP concentrations in the culture increased with increasing cell abundance during the exponential phase, reaching the highest TEP concentration at the beginning of the stationary phase. The average TEP concentration of 1474 ± 226 μg XG Eq. L-1 (mean ± SE) observed at

  19. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. K.; Sun, X.; Miracle, A. L.; Litman, G. W.; Rothenberg, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.

  20. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  1. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Use of physical barriers to block Sea Lampreys from spawning habitat is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural streamflow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lampreys by eliminating their access to spawning locations while maintaining natural streamflow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lampreys in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lampreys were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials using the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lampreys that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood that Sea Lampreys would enter the blocked inflow channel, enter the control channel, or return downstream.

  2. A review of the literature on the use of Bayluscide in fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sandra E.

    1974-01-01

    In the United States Bayluscide has had multiple uses. The 70% wettable powder has been used in Puerto Rico for snail control and the 5% granular formulation has been tested in Michigan and Wisconsin against freshwater snails serving as inter mediate hosts of the trematode causing swimmers' itch. Bayluscide has also been used in field trials as a fish toxicant. Its most important use in North America, however, has been to control sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the Great Lakes, a necessary prerequisite for the restoration of Great Lakes sport and commercial fisheries. Since 1966 the 5% granular formulation has been used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Department of Environment as a toxicant to survey populations of larval sea lampreys in Great Lakes estuaries and deepwater tributaries. The Canadian Government also uses Bayluscide to control sea lampreys, but in the United States the present registration restricts use to population surveys only. Literature on the mixtures of Bayluscide and the selective lamprey toxicant, TFM, used since 1964 by both the U.S. and Canadian agencies to control larval sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, has been reviewed elsewhere and is not included in this review.

  3. β-adrenergic relaxation of smooth muscle: differences between cells and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were carried out in an attempt to resolve the controversy about the Na + dependence of β-adrenergic relaxation in smooth muscle. Previous studies on isolated smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach had suggested that at least some of the actions of β-adrenergic agents, including a stimulatory effect on 45 Ca efflux, were dependent on the presence of a normal transmembrane Na + gradient. Studies by other investigators using tissues derived from mammalian sources had suggested that the relaxing effect of β-adrenergic agents was Na + independent. Uncertainty remained as to whether these discrepancies reflected differences between cells and tissues or differences between species. Thus, in the present studies, the authors utilized both tissues and cells from the same source, the stomach muscle of the toad Bufo marinus, and assessed the Na + dependence of β-adrenergic relaxation. They found that elimination of a normal Na + gradient abolished β-adrenergic relaxation of isolated cells. In tissues, however, similar manipulations had no effect on relaxation. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but do not appear to be attributable to changes in smooth muscle function following enzymatic dispersion. Thus the controversy concerning the mechanisms of β-adrenergic relaxation may reflect inherent differences between tissues and cells

  4. Increasing temperature decreases the predatory effect of the intertidal shanny Lipophrys pholis on an amphipod prey

    KAUST Repository

    South, J.

    2017-11-15

    Interactions between Lipophrys pholis and its amphipod prey Echinogammarus marinus were used to investigate the effect of changing water temperatures, comparing current and predicted mean summer temperatures. Contrary to expectations, predator attack rates significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Handling times were significantly longer at 19° C than at 17 and 15° C and the maximum feeding estimate was significantly lower at 19° C than at 17° C. Functional-response type changed from a destabilizing type II to the more stabilizing type III with a temperature increase to 19° C. This suggests that a temperature increase can mediate refuge for prey at low densities. Predatory pressure by teleosts may be dampened by a large increase in temperature (here from 15 to 19° C), but a short-term and smaller temperature increase (to 17° C) may increase destabilizing resource consumption due to high maximum feeding rates; this has implications for the stability of important intertidal ecosystems during warming events.

  5. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasilievich Pinevich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  6. Monitoring sea lamprey pheromones and their degradation using rapid stream-side extraction coupled with UPLC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Johnson, Nicholas; Bernardy, Jeffrey; Hubert, Terry; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones guide adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to suitable spawning streams and mates, and therefore, when quantified, can be used to assess population size and guide management. Here, we present an efficient sample preparation method where 100 mL of river water was spiked with deuterated pheromone as an internal standard and underwent rapid field-based SPE and elution in the field. The combination of field extraction with laboratory UPLC-MS/MS reduced the sample consumption from 1 to 0.1 L, decreased the sample process time from more than 1 h to 10 min, and increased the precision and accuracy. The sensitivity was improved more than one order of magnitude compared with the previous method. The influences of experimental conditions were assessed to optimize the separation and peak shapes. The analytical method has been validated by studies of stability, selectivity, precision, and linearity and by the determination of the limits of detection and quantification. The method was used to quantify pheromone concentration from five streams tributary to Lake Ontario and to estimate that the environmental half-life of 3kPZS is about 26 h.

  7. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  8. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  9. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J Mincer

    Full Text Available Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus, and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  10. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  11. A pheromone outweighs temperature in influencing migration of sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Cory O.; Li, Ke; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Organisms continuously acquire and process information from surrounding cues. While some cues complement one another in delivering more reliable information, others may provide conflicting information. How organisms extract and use reliable information from a multitude of cues is largely unknown. We examined movement decisions of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) exposed to a conspecific and an environmental cue during pre-spawning migration. Specifically, we predicted that the mature male-released sex pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) will outweigh the locomotor inhibiting effects of cold stream temperature (less than 15°C). Using large-scale stream bioassays, we found that 3kPZS elicits an increase (more than 40%) in upstream movement of pre-spawning lampreys when the water temperatures were below 15°C. Both warming temperatures and conspecific cues increase upstream movement when the water temperature rose above 15°C. These patterns define an interaction between abiotic and conspecific cues in modulating animal decision-making, providing an example of the hierarchy of contradictory information.

  12. Lake Ontario: Food web dynamics in a changing ecosystem (1970-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined stressors that have led to profound ecological changes in the Lake Ontario ecosystem and its fish community since 1970. The most notable changes have been reductions in phosphorus loading, invasion by Dreissena spp., fisheries management through stocking of exotic salmonids and control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and fish harvest by anglers and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). The response to these stressors has led to (i) declines in both algal photosynthesis and epilimnetic zooplankton production, (ii) decreases in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, (iii) declines in native Diporeia and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), (iv) behavioral shifts in alewife spatial distribution benefitting native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) populations, (v) dramatic increases in water clarity, (vi) predation impacts by cormorants on select fish species, and (vii) lake trout recruitment bottlenecks associated with alewife-induced thiamine deficiency. We expect stressor responses associated with anthropogenic forces like exotic species invasions and global climate warming to continue to impact the Lake Ontario ecosystem in the future and recommend continuous long-term ecological studies to enhance scientific understanding and management of this important resource.

  13. Quantitative and functional characterization of the hyper-conserved protein of Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Whidden

    Full Text Available A large fraction of any bacterial genome consists of hypothetical protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs. While most of these ORFs are present only in one or a few sequenced genomes, a few are conserved, often across large phylogenetic distances. Such conservation provides clues to likely uncharacterized cellular functions that need to be elucidated. Marine cyanobacteria from the Prochlorococcus/marine Synechococcus clade are dominant bacteria in oceanic waters and are significant contributors to global primary production. A Hyper Conserved Protein (PSHCP of unknown function is 100% conserved at the amino acid level in genomes of Prochlorococcus/marine Synechococcus, but lacks homologs outside of this clade. In this study we investigated Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT 9313 and Synechococcus sp. strain WH 8102 for the transcription of the PSHCP gene using RT-Q-PCR, for the presence of the protein product through quantitative immunoblotting, and for the protein's binding partners in a pull down assay. Significant transcription of the gene was detected in all strains. The PSHCP protein content varied between 8±1 fmol and 26±9 fmol per ug total protein, depending on the strain. The 50 S ribosomal protein L2, the Photosystem I protein PsaD and the Ycf48-like protein were found associated with the PSHCP protein in all strains and not appreciably or at all in control experiments. We hypothesize that PSHCP is a protein associated with the ribosome, and is possibly involved in photosystem assembly.

  14. Sandeels and clams (Spisula sp.) in the wind turbine park at Horns Reef. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Henrik; Sand Kristensen, P.; Hoffmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    Sandeels were found in the sediment at all of the sample locations in the area of the wind turbine park and in the control area. The mean density of sandeels in the sediment was 0.0102 m -2 (10,200 km -2 ) in the control area and 0.0096 m -2 (9,600 km -2 ) in the impact area. The most abundant species of sandeel in both the impact and the control area was H. lanceolatus followed by A. marinus and A. tobianus. No G. semisquamatus was caught during the surveys. The construction of the wind turbine park is not supposed to effect the sandeel population in the Horns Reef area because the impact area seems to constitute a small fraction of a larger area with sandeel habitat. However, within the area of the wind turbine park sandeel abundance might be affected if the surface sediment changes due to the construction of the wind turbine park or if the abundance of sandeel predators increases in the impact area after the wind turbine park has been build (the so called artificial reef effect). To investigate if these effects will occur the field programmethat was carried out in February/march 2002 (the subject of this report) will have to be repeated after the wind turbine park has been constructed. (au)

  15. Structural basis for energy transduction by respiratory alternative complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana S; Calisto, Filipa; Langer, Julian D; Mills, Deryck J; Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Vonck, Janet; Pereira, Manuela M

    2018-04-30

    Electron transfer in respiratory chains generates the electrochemical potential that serves as energy source for the cell. Prokaryotes can use a wide range of electron donors and acceptors and may have alternative complexes performing the same catalytic reactions as the mitochondrial complexes. This is the case for the alternative complex III (ACIII), a quinol:cytochrome c/HiPIP oxidoreductase. In order to understand the catalytic mechanism of this respiratory enzyme, we determined the structure of ACIII from Rhodothermus marinus at 3.9 Å resolution by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. ACIII presents a so-far unique structure, for which we establish the arrangement of the cofactors (four iron-sulfur clusters and six c-type hemes) and propose the location of the quinol-binding site and the presence of two putative proton pathways in the membrane. Altogether, this structure provides insights into a mechanism for energy transduction and introduces ACIII as a redox-driven proton pump.

  16. Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Mattias; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2009-08-07

    Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

  17. Increasing temperature decreases the predatory effect of the intertidal shanny Lipophrys pholis on an amphipod prey

    KAUST Repository

    South, J.; Welsh, D.; Anton, A.; Sigwart, J. D.; Dick, J. T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between Lipophrys pholis and its amphipod prey Echinogammarus marinus were used to investigate the effect of changing water temperatures, comparing current and predicted mean summer temperatures. Contrary to expectations, predator attack rates significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Handling times were significantly longer at 19° C than at 17 and 15° C and the maximum feeding estimate was significantly lower at 19° C than at 17° C. Functional-response type changed from a destabilizing type II to the more stabilizing type III with a temperature increase to 19° C. This suggests that a temperature increase can mediate refuge for prey at low densities. Predatory pressure by teleosts may be dampened by a large increase in temperature (here from 15 to 19° C), but a short-term and smaller temperature increase (to 17° C) may increase destabilizing resource consumption due to high maximum feeding rates; this has implications for the stability of important intertidal ecosystems during warming events.

  18. Salinity effect on the maximal growth temperature of some bacteria isolated from marine enviroments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S O; Morita, R Y

    1968-01-01

    Salinity of the growth medium was found to have a marked effect on the maximal growth temperature of four bacteria isolated from marine sources. Vibrio marinus MP-1 had a maximal growth temperature of 21.2 C at a salinity of 35% and a maximal growth temperature of 10.5 C at a salinity of 7%, the lowest salinity at which it would grow. This effect was shown to be due to the presence of various cations in the medium. The order of effectiveness of cations in restoring the normal maximal growth temperature, when added to dilute seawater, was Na(+) > Li(+) > Mg(++) > K(+) > Rb(+) > NH(4) (+). The anions tested, with the exception of SO(4)=, had no marked effect on the maximal growth temperature response. In a completely defined medium, the highest maximal growth temperature was 20.0 C at 0.40 m NaCl. A decrease in the maximal growth temperature was observed at both low and high concentrations of NaCl.

  19. Tradeoff between assessment and control of aquatic invasive species: A case study of sea lamprey management in the St. Marys River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Allocating resources between the gathering of information to guide management actions and implementing those actions presents an inherent tradeoff. This tradeoff is evident for control of the Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the St. Marys River, connecting Lakes Huron and Superior and a major source of parasitic Sea Lampreys to Lake Huron and northern Lake Michigan. Larval Sea Lampreys in the St. Marys River are controlled through the application of Bayluscide, which is applied to areas of high larval density. Bayluscide applications are guided with an annual deepwater electrofishing survey to estimate larval Sea Lamprey density at relatively fine spatial scales. We took a resampling approach to describe the effect of sampling intensity on the success of the larval Sea Lamprey management program and explicitly incorporated the economic tradeoff between assessment and control efforts to maximize numbers of larvae killed in the St. Marys River. When no tradeoff between assessment and control was incorporated, increasing assessment always led to more larvae killed for the same treatment budget. When the tradeoff was incorporated, the sampling intensity that maximized the number of larvae killed depended on the overall budget available. Increased sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under medium to large budgets (US \\$0.4 to \\$2.0 million), and intermediate sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under low budgets. Sea Lamprey control actions based on assessment information outperformed those that were implemented with no assessment under all budget scenarios.

  20. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  1. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  2. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  3. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  4. Influence of on-board irradiation on the shelflife of redfish. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnop, G.; Antonacopoulos, N.; Muenzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Bacteriological and chemical investigations on extending the shelflife of fresh iced unpacked redfish (Sebastes marinus) be 100 krad irradiation were carried out during two voyages of RV 'Anton Dohrn'. Bacteriological criteria indicated no shelflife extension on one voyage and an extension by 5 - 7 days on the other voyage. Chemical indices indicated an extension of 4 - 6 and more then 10 days, respectively. Delayed irradiation after 7 days storage in ice influenced only the chemical values (4 - 6 days shelflife extension), while reirradiation on the 6th day affected both the bacteriological (some days extension) and the chemical values (more than 10 days extension). The greatest effect was obtained with whole fish irradiated and stored in plastic bags, which - due to the dominance of biologically largely inactive Moraxella sp. - on the 28th day showed nearly the initial chemical values. Together with the previously published sensoric findings (13) these results indicate no or only a slight prolongation of shelflife of unpacked iced redfish due to irradiation at once or on the 7th day or both at once and on the 7th day. (orig.) [de

  5. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  6. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  7. The sea lamprey meiotic map improves resolution of ancient vertebrate genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Keinath, Melissa C

    2015-08-01

    It is generally accepted that many genes present in vertebrate genomes owe their origin to two whole-genome duplications that occurred deep in the ancestry of the vertebrate lineage. However, details regarding the timing and outcome of these duplications are not well resolved. We present high-density meiotic and comparative genomic maps for the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of an ancient lineage that diverged from all other vertebrates ∼550 million years ago. Linkage analyses yielded a total of 95 linkage groups, similar to the estimated number of germline chromosomes (1n ∼ 99), spanning a total of 5570.25 cM. Comparative mapping data yield strong support for the hypothesis that a single whole-genome duplication occurred in the basal vertebrate lineage, but do not strongly support a hypothetical second event. Rather, these comparative maps reveal several evolutionarily independent segmental duplications occurring over the last 600+ million years of chordate evolution. This refined history of vertebrate genome duplication should permit more precise investigations of vertebrate evolution. © 2015 Smith and Keinath; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Mixtures of Two Bile Alcohol Sulfates Function as a Proximity Pheromone in Sea Lamprey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory O Brant

    Full Text Available Unique mixtures of pheromone components are commonly identified in insects, and have been shown to increase attractiveness towards conspecifics when reconstructed at the natural ratio released by the signaler. In previous field studies of pheromones that attract female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L., putative components of the male-released mating pheromone included the newly described bile alcohol 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DkPES and the well characterized 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS. Here, we show chemical evidence that unequivocally confirms the elucidated structure of DkPES, electrophysiological evidence that each component is independently detected by the olfactory epithelium, and behavioral evidence that mature female sea lamprey prefer artificial nests activated with a mixture that reconstructs the male-released component ratio of 30:1 (3kPZS:DkPES, molar:molar. In addition, we characterize search behavior (sinuosity of swim paths of females approaching ratio treatment sources. These results suggest unique pheromone ratios may underlie reproductive isolating mechanisms in vertebrates, as well as provide utility in pheromone-integrated control of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes.

  9. Jeotgalibacillus soli sp. nov., a Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Sofia; Tiago, Igor; Paiva, Gabriel; Nobre, Fernanda; da Costa, Milton S; Veríssimo, António

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, motile, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, designated P9(T), was isolated from soil in Portugal. This organism was aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. It had an optimum growth temperature of about 35 °C and an optimum growth pH of about 8.0-8.5, and grew in medium with 0-9% (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1α type, with L-lysine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (45.4%), iso-C(15:0) (22.0%) and anteiso-C(17:0) (11.2%). The genomic DNA G+C content was about 39.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P9(T) was most closely related to Jeotgalibacillus campisalis DSM 18983(T) (96.8%) and Jeotgalibacillus marinus DSM 1297(T) (96.5%). These two recognized species formed a coherent cluster with strain P9(T) that was supported by a bootstrap value of 99%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain P9(T) (=DSM 23228(T)=LMG 25523(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalibacillus, for which the name Jeotgalibacillus soli sp. nov. is proposed.

  10. Ecosystem transformations of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan by nonindigenous biological invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, Russell L; Aguilar, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Lake Michigan, a 58,000-km(2) freshwater inland sea, is large enough to have persistent basin-scale circulation yet small enough to enable development of approximately balanced budgets for water, energy, and elements including carbon and silicon. Introduction of nonindigenous species-whether through invasion, intentional stocking, or accidental transplantation-has transformed the lake's ecosystem function and habitat structure. Of the 79 nonindigenous species known to have established reproductive populations in the lake, only a few have brought considerable ecological pressure to bear. Four of these were chosen for this review to exemplify top-down (sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus), middle-out (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus), and bottom-up (the dreissenid zebra and quagga mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, respectively) transformations of Lake Michigan ecology, habitability, and ultimately physical environment. Lampreys attacked and extirpated indigenous lake trout, the top predator. Alewives outcompeted native planktivorous fish and curtailed invertebrate populations. Dreissenid mussels-especially quagga mussels, which have had a much greater impact than the preceding zebra mussels-moved ecosystem metabolism basin-wide from water column to bottom dominance and engineered structures throughout the lake. Each of these non indigenous species exerted devastating effects on commercial and sport fisheries through ecosystem structure modification.

  11. The control of the upstream movement of fish with pulsated direct current

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1957-01-01

    Alternating-current electromechanical devices installed in the mouths of streams have proved effective in stopping the spawning migrations of the parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which has seriously damaged Great Lakes fisheries. In a few streams, excessive mortality has occurred to other fish at the alternating-current barriers. A direct-current unit was developed in an attempt to reduce this mortality. This direct-current “diversion device” consists of a row of suspended negative electrodes which begins at the end of a trap wing and extends across the river at a downstream angle of 45° and a series of pipes (positive electrodes) driven into the stream bank. A second array, consisting of horizontal pipes installed downstream and parallel to the suspended electrodes and connected to a series of rods driven into the bank near the positive electrodes, controls the electrical field and dissipates the collecting influence of the positive side of the circuit. The electrical field is established from the end of the trap wing to the opposite bank. Fish are diverted away from the negative electrodes and toward the bank near which the trap is located. The array is activiated by pulsated direct current of essentially square wave shape with pulses at a duty cycle of 0.66 and a repetition rate of 3 per second. Direct-current diversion devices were operated in conjunction with alternating-current barriers during 1956 in the Chocolay River, Marquette County, and the Silver River, Baraga County, Michigan.

  12. Effects of cadmium and lead upon the indigenous heterotrophic microflora in the aqueous environment of the brackish estuary-water of the river Weser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thormann, D

    1975-01-01

    In agar media (10% salinity) containing Cd or Pb bacterial numbers were progressively reduced at 0.5 to 400 ppM Cd and at 100 to 400 ppM Pb. Only a few bacteria were able to form colonies at the highest concentrations. Lower salinity and low peptone-yeast-extract-concentrations of the medium increased the toxicity of Pb. The appearance of several brown-black pigmented colonies on the plates containing more than 200 ppM Pb was observed, but no dark pigment was noted when the same bacteria were grown in the absence of Pb. Different concentrations of Cd or Pb were added to water samples (as batch cultures) of the Weser Estuary (West Germany). The development of the indigenous microbial population was observed by subsequent counting of the viable heterotrophic bacteria on agar media. Cd was more toxic than Pb; there were differences in the kind of toxicity. The dissolved concentrations of Cd and Pb in the batch cultures were analyzed by atomic absorption. Cd dissolved considerably better than Pb in brackish water. Cd- and Pb-sensitive bacteria were isolated by a replica plating technique to carry out subsequent experiments on the microbial uptake of heavy metals. The most sensitive bacteria were growth-inhibited at 0.1 ppM Cd and Pb. Arthrobacter marinus is mentioned.

  13. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the anal......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...

  14. Plastic and Non-plastic Debris Ingestion in Three Gull Species Feeding in an Urban Landfill Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, S; Provencher, J F; Avery-Gomm, S; Daoust, P-Y; Mallory, M L; Smith, P A

    2018-04-01

    Plastic debris is recognized as a widespread, common and problematic environmental pollutant. An important consequence of this pollution is the ingestion of plastic debris by wildlife. Assessing the degree to which different species ingest plastics, and the potential effects of these plastics on their health are important research needs for understanding the impacts of plastic pollution. We examined debris (plastic and other types) ingestion in three sympatric overwintering gull species (Herring gulls Larus smithsonianus, Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus, and Iceland Gulls Larus glaucoides) to understand how debris ingestion differs among species, age classes and sexes in gulls. We also assessed how plastic burdens were associated with body condition to investigate how gulls may be affected by debris ingestion. There were no differences among the species, age classes or sexes in the incidence of debris ingestion (plastic or otherwise), the mass or number of debris pieces ingested. We found no correlation between ingested plastics burdens and individual condition. Gulls ingested plastic debris, but also showed high levels of other debris types as well, including metal, glass and building materials, including a metal piece of debris found within an abscess in the stomach. Thus, when the health effects of debris ingestion on gulls, and other species that ingest debris, is of interest, either from a physical or chemical perspective, it may be necessary to consider all debris types and not just plastic burdens as is often currently done for seabirds.

  15. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  16. Characterization and Extracellular Enzyme Activity of Predominant Marine Bacillus spp. Isolated From Sea Water of Orissa Coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species are ubiquitous and diverse both in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In this investigation, predominant Bacillus species from sea water of three different sites of Orissa Coast were isolated and identified. In total, 16 Bacillus species were identified using morpho-physiological and biochemical characterisation. These identified bacterial strains include B. fastidiosus (CMB1, B. alvei (CMB2, B. coagulans (CMB3, B. marinus (CMB5, B. mycoides (CMB8, B. coagulans (PMB1, B. circulans (PMB2, B. cereus (PMB3, B. subtilis (PMB4, B. alcalophilus (GMB1, B. licheniformics (GMB2, B. polymyxa (GMB3 and B. pumilus (GMB4. The isolates CMB4, CMB6 and CMB7 were identified only up to genus level. These isolates were further screened for their salt tolerance and growth under varied temperature and pH conditions. Ability of these strains to produce extracellular enzymes such as protease, amylase, lipase, gelatinase, casein hydrolase, lecithinase, chitinase and pectinase were also screened and found that most of the Bacillus spp. possess extracellular enzymes.

  17. Sequence analysis of serum albumins reveals the molecular evolution of ligand recognition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Gabriella; Ascenzi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Fasano, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is a circulating protein providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds. At least seven major binding sites have been identified by structural and functional investigations mainly in human SA. SA is conserved in vertebrates, with at least 49 entries in protein sequence databases. The multiple sequence analysis of this set of entries leads to the definition of a cladistic tree for the molecular evolution of SA orthologs in vertebrates, thus showing the clustering of the considered species, with lamprey SAs (Lethenteron japonicum and Petromyzon marinus) in a separate outgroup. Sequence analysis aimed at searching conserved domains revealed that most SA sequences are made up by three repeated domains (about 600 residues), as extensively characterized for human SA. On the contrary, lamprey SAs are giant proteins (about 1400 residues) comprising seven repeated domains. The phylogenetic analysis of the SA family reveals a stringent correlation with the taxonomic classification of the species available in sequence databases. A focused inspection of the sequences of ligand binding sites in SA revealed that in all sites most residues involved in ligand binding are conserved, although the versatility towards different ligands could be peculiar of higher organisms. Moreover, the analysis of molecular links between the different sites suggests that allosteric modulation mechanisms could be restricted to higher vertebrates.

  18. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, John M; Allgaier, Martin; Miller, Christopher S; Hazen, Terry C; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2011-08-15

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60°C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80°C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  20. Corresponding long-term shifts in stream temperature and invasive fish migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Erin L.; Johnson, Nicholas; Pangle, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    By investigating historic trapping records of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) throughout tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes, we found that upstream spawning migration timing was highly correlated with stream temperatures over large spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, several streams in our study exceeded a critical spring thermal threshold (i.e., 15°C) and experienced peak spawning migration up to 30 days earlier since the 1980s, whereas others were relatively unchanged. Streams exhibiting warming trends and earlier migration were spatially clustered and generally found on the leeward side of the Great Lakes where the lakes most affect local climate. These findings highlight that all streams are not equally impacted by climate change and represent, to our knowledge, the first observation linking long-term changes in stream temperatures to shifts in migration timing of an invasive fish. Earlier sea lamprey migration in Great Lakes tributaries may improve young of the year growth and survival, but not limit their spatial distribution, making sea lamprey control more challenging.

  1. Relatively rapid loss of lampricide residues from fillet tissue of fish after routine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, C.; Bernardy, J.A.; Hubert, T.D.; Gingerich, W.H.; Stehly, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    The selective sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is currently used to control parasitic sea lampreys in tributaries to the Great Lakes basin. The concentration and persistence of TFM and its major metabolite, TFM glucuronide (TFM-glu), was determined in fillet tissue of fish after a typical stream application. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to a nominal concentration of 12.6 nmol/mL TFM for about 12 h during a sea lamprey control treatment of the Ford River in Michigan. Concentrations of TFM and TFM-glu were greatest in the fillet tissues during the exposure period, with greater residues in channel catfish (wet wt; mean, 6.95 nmol/g TFM; mean, 2.40 nmol/g TFM-glu) than in rainbow trout (wet wt; mean, 1.45 nmol/g TFM; mean, 0.93 nmol/g TFM-glu). After the exposure period, residues in both species decreased by 90-99% within 6-12 h and were less than the quantitation limit (<0.03 nmol/g) within 36 h.

  2. Metabolism of a sea lamprey pesticide by fish liver enzymes part A: identification and synthesis of TFM metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Buchinger, Tyler; Li, Ke; Smith, Scott A; Jones, A Daniel; Li, Weiming

    2018-02-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a destructive invasive species in the Great Lakes that contributed to the collapse of native fish populations in the mid-1900s. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is a selective pesticide that has been applied to sea lamprey infested tributaries of the Great Lakes to kill larvae since the 1960s and has reduced the populations by as much as 90%. However, the metabolism of TFM by sea lamprey and non-target species is not fully illuminated. Elucidation of TFM metabolism is critical for understanding its mode of action and possible environmental impact. Here, we describe the screening, identification, synthesis and structural characterization of TFM metabolites in livers from sea lamprey and three non-target species that differ in their ability to survive TFM exposure. We identified glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, glutathione conjugation, and aromatic nitro group reduction as potential detoxification mechanisms. Seven metabolites were synthesized for use as markers of TFM metabolism in fish. Quantitative 1 H NMR was used to assay synthesized metabolite stock solutions that were then used as standard material to develop a quantitative LC-MS/MS method for TFM metabolites.

  3. Liquid chromatographic method for determining the concentration of bisazir in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Ronald J.; Slaght, Karen S.; Allen, John L.

    1997-01-01

    Barrier dams, traps, and lampricides are the techniques currently used by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. To augment these control techniques, a sterile-male-release research program was initiated at the Lake Huron Biological Station. Male sea lampreys were sterilized by intraperitoneal injection of the chemical sterilant P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir). An analytical method was needed to quantitate the concentration of bisazir in water and to routinely verify that bisazir (>25 μg/L) does not persist in the treated effluent discharged from the sterilization facility to Lake Huron. A rapid, accurate, and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining bisazir in water. Bisazir was dissolved in Lake Huron water; extracted and concentrated on a C18 solid-phase extraction column; eluted with methanol; and quantitated by reversed-phase LC using a C18 column, a mobile phase of 70% water and 30% methanol (v/v), and UV detection (205 nm). Bisazir retention time was 7-8 min; total run time was about 20 min. Method detection limit for bisazir dissolved in Lake Huron water was about 15 μg/L. Recovery from Lake Huron water fortified with bisazir at 100 μg/L was 94% (95% confidence interval, 90.2-98.2%).

  4. Effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on pH, net oxygen production, and respiration by algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Ronald J.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Slaght, Karen S.; Seelye, James G.

    1999-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used in the United States and Canada for more than 35 years to control larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in tributaries of the Great Lakes. Occasionally, during stream treatments with TFM, nontarget-fish mortality reaches unacceptable levels. These losses could be due to the presence of sensitive fish species, excess TFM, or a combination of factors that influence the toxicity of TFM, such as delays in daily stream reaeration by algae resulting in extended periods of low pH and low dissolved oxygen (DO). We determined the effects of a broad range of TFM concentrations on net DO production and respiration by two species of algae, in two culture media (high alkalinity and low alkalinity). The pH and DO in cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum were recorded at time zero and again after a 9-h exposure to TFM under either lighted or dark conditions. Algal cultures exposed to TFM concentrations typical of those used to control sea lampreys in streams showed only small changes in pH (<0.1) and small reductions in DO (about 8% in lighted conditions and 11% in dark conditions). Changes in pH and DO of this magnitude probably do not change the efficacy of TFM or cause nontarget fish mortality if algae are the predominant photosynthetic organisms in the stream.

  5. Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Kean, James; Schweitzer, Isaac; Lake, James

    2011-08-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) are frequently given to children and adolescents for reputed benefits in the treatment of hyperkinetic and concentration disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In such vulnerable populations high quality evidence is required to support such claims. The aim of the paper is to assess the current evidence of herbal and nutritional interventions for ADHD using a systematic search of clinical trials meeting an acceptable standard of evidence. PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched up to May 26th, 2011 for randomised, controlled clinical trials using CAM products as interventions to treat ADHD. A quality analysis using a purpose-designed scale, and an estimation of effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available, were also calculated. The review revealed that 16 studies met inclusion criteria, with predominant evidentiary support found for zinc, iron, Pinus marinus (French maritime pine bark), and a Chinese herbal formula (Ningdong); and mixed (mainly inconclusive) evidence for omega-3, and l-acetyl carnitine. Current data suggest that Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Hypercium perforatum (St. John's wort) are ineffective in treating ADHD. The research suggests only some CAMs may be beneficial in ADHD, thus clinicians need to be aware of the current evidence. Promising candidates for future research include Bacopa monniera (brahmi) and Piper methysticum (kava), providing potential efficacy in improving attentional and hyperkinetic disorders via a combination of cognitive enhancing and sedative effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Olfactory sensitivity of Pacific Lampreys to lamprey bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Sorensen, Peter W.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata are in decline throughout much of their historical range in the Columbia River basin. In support of restoration efforts, we tested whether larval and adult lamprey bile acids serve as migratory and spawning pheromones in adult Pacific lampreys, as they do in sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The olfactory sensitivity of adult Pacific lampreys to lamprey bile acids was measured by electro-olfactogram recording from the time of their capture in the spring until their spawning in June of the following year. As controls, we tested L-arginine and a non-lamprey bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS). Migrating adult Pacific lampreys were highly sensitive to petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone) and 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey sex pheromone) when first captured. This sensitivity persisted throughout their long migratory and overwinter holding period before declining to nearly unmeasurable levels by the time of spawning. The absolute magnitudes of adult Pacific lamprey responses to lamprey bile acids were smaller than those of the sea lamprey, and unlike the sea lamprey, the Pacific lamprey did not appear to detect TLS. No sexual dimorphism was noted in olfactory sensitivity. Thus, Pacific lampreys are broadly similar to sea lampreys in showing sensitivity to the major lamprey bile acids but apparently differ in having a longer period of sensitivity to those acids. The potential utility of bile acid-like pheromones in the restoration of Pacific lampreys warrants their further investigation in this species.

  7. Spatial mismatch between sea lamprey behaviour and trap location explains low success at trapping for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Andrew M.; McLean, Adrienne R.; Barber, Jessica; Bravener, Gale; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Imre, Istvan; Pratt, Thomas C.; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Crucial to the management of invasive species is understanding space use and the environmental features affecting space use. Improved understanding of space use by invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) could help researchers discern why trap success in large rivers is lower than needed for effective control. We tested whether manipulating discharge nightly could increase trap success at a hydroelectric generating station on the St. Marys River. We quantified numbers of acoustically tagged sea lampreys migrating up to, and their space use at, the hydroelectric generating station. In 2011 and 2012, 78% and 68%, respectively, of tagged sea lampreys reached the generating station. Sea lampreys were active along the face, but more likely to occur at the bottom and away from the traps near the surface, especially when discharge was high. Our findings suggest that a low probability of encountering traps was due to spatial (vertical) mismatch between space use by sea lamprey and trap locations and that increasing discharge did not alter space use in ways that increased trap encounter. Understanding space use by invasive species can help managers assess the efficacy of trapping and ways of improving trapping success.

  8. Genomes of ubiquitous marine and hypersaline Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus and Thiomicrospira spp. encode a diversity of mechanisms to sustain chemolithoautotrophy in heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen M; Williams, John; Porter, Cody M B; Russel, Sydney; Harmer, Tara L; Paul, John H; Antonen, Kirsten M; Bridges, Megan K; Camper, Gary J; Campla, Christie K; Casella, Leila G; Chase, Eva; Conrad, James W; Cruz, Mercedez C; Dunlap, Darren S; Duran, Laura; Fahsbender, Elizabeth M; Goldsmith, Dawn B; Keeley, Ryan F; Kondoff, Matthew R; Kussy, Breanna I; Lane, Marannda K; Lawler, Stephanie; Leigh, Brittany A; Lewis, Courtney; Lostal, Lygia M; Marking, Devon; Mancera, Paola A; McClenthan, Evan C; McIntyre, Emily A; Mine, Jessica A; Modi, Swapnil; Moore, Brittney D; Morgan, William A; Nelson, Kaleigh M; Nguyen, Kimmy N; Ogburn, Nicholas; Parrino, David G; Pedapudi, Anangamanjari D; Pelham, Rebecca P; Preece, Amanda M; Rampersad, Elizabeth A; Richardson, Jason C; Rodgers, Christina M; Schaffer, Brent L; Sheridan, Nancy E; Solone, Michael R; Staley, Zachery R; Tabuchi, Maki; Waide, Ramond J; Wanjugi, Pauline W; Young, Suzanne; Clum, Alicia; Daum, Chris; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Pillay, Manoj; Reddy, T B K; Shapiro, Nicole; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Varghese, Neha; Woyke, Tanja; Boden, Rich; Freyermuth, Sharyn K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2018-03-09

    Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from the genera Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus and Thiomicrospira are common, sometimes dominant, isolates from sulfidic habitats including hydrothermal vents, soda and salt lakes and marine sediments. Their genome sequences confirm their membership in a deeply branching clade of the Gammaproteobacteria. Several adaptations to heterogeneous habitats are apparent. Their genomes include large numbers of genes for sensing and responding to their environment (EAL- and GGDEF-domain proteins and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) despite their small sizes (2.1-3.1 Mbp). An array of sulfur-oxidizing complexes are encoded, likely to facilitate these organisms' use of multiple forms of reduced sulfur as electron donors. Hydrogenase genes are present in some taxa, including group 1d and 2b hydrogenases in Hydrogenovibrio marinus and H. thermophilus MA2-6, acquired via horizontal gene transfer. In addition to high-affinity cbb 3 cytochrome c oxidase, some also encode cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase or ba 3 -type cytochrome c oxidase, which could facilitate growth under different oxygen tensions, or maintain redox balance. Carboxysome operons are present in most, with genes downstream encoding transporters from four evolutionarily distinct families, which may act with the carboxysomes to form CO 2 concentrating mechanisms. These adaptations to habitat variability likely contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of these organisms. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J.; Aicher, Athena C.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8–13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09–0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world’s oceans. PMID:26963515

  10. Anselm Citron (1923 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Anselm Citron, one of CERN’s pioneers, an enthusiastic scholar and internationally renowned researcher, passed away on 8 December at the age of 91.   Anselm Citron, front, looks at a quadrupole for the muon beam at the SC with, left to right, Bengt Hedin, Marinus van Gulik and Pierre Lapostolle. Born in Germany, Citron went to high school in the Netherlands, where he had been sent to escape the persecution of people with Jewish roots. After abitur and a short period at a technical high school, he took part in the last stages of the Second World War before returning to Freiburg in 1945. There, he studied physics under Wolfgang Gentner, and obtained his PhD. Citron then joined the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, in 1952, to take part in research on accelerator physics. A year later, he came to the newly founded CERN as one of its first 12 staff physicists and contributed to the construction of the Proton Synchrotron, for which he was responsible for the high-frequency powe...

  11. Effects of sea lamprey substrate modification and carcass nutrients on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a small Atlantic coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to patch dynamics arising from interactions of physical and chemical disturbances across space and time. Anadromous fish, such as sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, migrate from the ocean and alter physical and chemical properties of recipient spawning streams. Sea lamprey disturb stream benthos physically through nest construction and spawning, and enrich food webs through nutrient deposition from decomposing carcasses. Sea lamprey spawning nests support greater macroinvertebrate abundance than adjacent reference areas, but concurrent effects of stream bed modification and nutrient supplementation have not been examined sequentially. We added carcasses and cleared substrate experimentally to mimic the physical disturbance and nutrient enrichment associated with lamprey spawning, and characterized effects on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. We found that areas receiving cleared substrate and carcass nutrients were colonized largely by Simuliidae compared to upstream and downstream control areas that were colonized largely by Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae, and Chironomidae. Environmental factors such as stream flow likely shape assemblages by physically constraining macroinvertebrate establishment and feeding. Our results indicate potential changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages from the physical and chemical changes to streams brought by spawning populations of sea lamprey.

  12. Rapid evolution meets invasive species control: The potential for pesticide resistance in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Erin S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.; Birceanu, Oana; Christie, Mark R.; Criger, Lori A.; Hinderer, Julia L.M.; Hollingworth, Robert M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Lantz, Stephen R.; Li, Weiming; Miller, James R.; Morrison, Bruce J.; Mota-Sanchez, David; Muir, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Steeves, Todd B.; Walter, Lisa; Westman, Erin; Wirgin, Isaac; Wilkie, Michael P.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid evolution of pest, pathogen and wildlife populations can have undesirable effects; for example, when insects evolve resistance to pesticides or fishes evolve smaller body size in response to harvest. A destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has been controlled with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) since the 1950s. We evaluated the likelihood of sea lamprey evolving resistance to TFM by (1) reviewing sea lamprey life history and control; (2) identifying physiological and behavioural resistance strategies; (3) estimating the strength of selection from TFM; (4) assessing the timeline for evolution; and (5) analyzing historical toxicity data for evidence of resistance. The number of sea lamprey generations exposed to TFM was within the range observed for fish populations where rapid evolution has occurred. Mortality from TFM was estimated as 82-90%, suggesting significant selective pressure. However, 57 years of toxicity data revealed no increase in lethal concentrations of TFM. Vigilance and the development of alternative controls are required to prevent this aquatic invasive species from evolving strategies to evade control.

  13. Characterisation of a New Family of Carboxyl Esterases with an OsmC Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai-Britt V Jensen

    Full Text Available Proteins in the serine esterase family are widely distributed in bacterial phyla and display activity against a range of biologically produced and chemically synthesized esters. A serine esterase from the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas arctica with a C-terminal OsmC-like domain was recently characterized; here we report on the identification and characterization of further putative esterases with OsmC-like domains constituting a new esterase family that is found in a variety of bacterial species from different environmental niches. All of these proteins contained the Ser-Asp-His motif common to serine esterases and a highly conserved pentapeptide nucleophilic elbow motif. We produced these proteins heterologously in Escherichia coli and demonstrated their activity against a range of esterase substrates. Two of the esterases characterized have activity of over two orders of magnitude higher than other members of the family, and are active over a wide temperature range. We determined the crystal structure of the esterase domain of the protein from Rhodothermus marinus and show that it conforms to the classical α/β hydrolase fold with an extended 'lid' region, which occludes the active site of the protein in the crystal. The expansion of characterized members of the esterase family and demonstration of activity over a wide-range of temperatures could be of use in biotechnological applications such as the pharmaceutical, detergent, bioremediation and dairy industries.

  14. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P-3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  15. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. - DDE and β-HCH residues were higher in an endangered compared to an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway

  16. Magneto-aerotactic bacteria deliver drug-containing nanoliposomes to tumour hypoxic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Ouajdi; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Taherkhani, Samira; de Lanauze, Dominic; Zhong Xu, Yong; Loghin, Dumitru; Essa, Sherief; Jancik, Sylwia; Houle, Daniel; Lafleur, Michel; Gaboury, Louis; Tabrizian, Maryam; Kaou, Neila; Atkin, Michael; Vuong, Té; Batist, Gerald; Beauchemin, Nicole; Radzioch, Danuta; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen-depleted hypoxic regions in the tumour are generally resistant to therapies. Although nanocarriers have been used to deliver drugs, the targeting ratios have been very low. Here, we show that the magneto-aerotactic migration behaviour of magnetotactic bacteria, Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 (ref. 4), can be used to transport drug-loaded nanoliposomes into hypoxic regions of the tumour. In their natural environment, MC-1 cells, each containing a chain of magnetic iron-oxide nanocrystals, tend to swim along local magnetic field lines and towards low oxygen concentrations based on a two-state aerotactic sensing system. We show that when MC-1 cells bearing covalently bound drug-containing nanoliposomes were injected near the tumour in severe combined immunodeficient beige mice and magnetically guided, up to 55% of MC-1 cells penetrated into hypoxic regions of HCT116 colorectal xenografts. Approximately 70 drug-loaded nanoliposomes were attached to each MC-1 cell. Our results suggest that harnessing swarms of microorganisms exhibiting magneto-aerotactic behaviour can significantly improve the therapeutic index of various nanocarriers in tumour hypoxic regions.

  17. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  18. Migratory behavior of adult sea lamprey and cumulative passage performance through four fishways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Shi, Xiaotao; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study of PIT-tagged sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) ascending four fishways comprising three designs at two dams on the Connecticut River, USA. Migration between dams was rapid (median migration rate = 23 km·day−1). Movement through the fishways was much slower, however (median = 0.02–0.33 km·day−1). Overall delay at dams was substantial (median = 13.6–14.6 days); many fish failed to pass (percent passage ranged from 29% to 55%, depending on fishway), and repeated passage attempts compounded delay for both passers and failers. Cox regression revealed that fishway entry rates were influenced by flow, temperature, and diel cycle, with most lampreys entering at night and at elevated flows, but with no apparent effect of sex or length. Overall delay was influenced by slow movement through the fishways, but repeated failures were the primary factor determining delay. These data suggest that although some lamprey were able to pass fishways, they did so with difficulty, and delays incurred as they attempted to pass may act to limit their distribution within their native range.

  19. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  20. Characteristics physicist-chemistries of honeys produced in combs different of the age / Características físico-químicas de méis produzidos em favos de diferentes idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Becker Pacheco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Honey color is a characteristic related to the flower source and plays a major role on consumers buying preference. When finished, honey is placed in wax honeycombs that are composed mainly by hydrocarbons, esters and a small percentage of fatty acids and alcohols that give to wax the plasticity and ability to absorb several kinds of elements. The consecutive comb reutilization might transfer pigments to honey that, in turn, can alter honey final characteristics. In the present study the objective was to evaluate the influence of comb reutilization on honey physico-chemical and color characteristics. The experiment was carried out using randomized blocks with four treatments and six repetitions. Each hive was considered a block. The treatments consisted of boxes with sheet of alveolated wax and honeycomb with one, two or three years of usage, totaling 24 boxes. Honey samples were analyzed by diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry and the physico-chemical properties were analyzed by laboratory standard tests. The diffuse reflectance, total sugar, pH, acidity and ash did not varied significantly among treatments (p > 0.05. Honey color produced in honeycomb with different years of use was similar amongst treatment; however, the honey produced in sheets of alveolated wax had clearer color and less sugar content. A cor do mel é uma característica relacionada à fonte floral e que mais interfere na preferência de compra do consumidor. Ao ser elaborado, o mel é depositado em favos de cera, a qual é composta de hidrocarbonetos, ésteres e uma pequena percentagem de ácidos graxos e alcoóis, que propiciam a cera a plasticidade e a capacidade de absorver diversos elementos. A reutilização consecutiva de favos pode transferir pigmentos ao mel, alterando as características do produto final. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da reutilização de favos da melgueira sobre a coloração e as variáveis físico-químicas do mel. O

  1. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)

    1988-11-01

    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  2. Chernobylsk: uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeau, D.

    1996-01-01

    The account of the Chernobylsk catastrophic event is described. The effects and impacts on the environment and on the human health are difficult to estimate. Twelve tons of nuclear fuels have been regrouped at the foot of the building and recovered with earth and concrete. They constitute the pioneer wall. Another wall called the cascade wall includes three steps of stairs dug by alveoles. The liquidators have accumulated in this wall a lot of the explosion fragments. This wall supports again the constructions of the north building which have been strongly shaken. These walls contain ten tons of the irradiated fuel. It is leached by the rain waters which infiltrate into the soil and pollute the ground waters. The sarcophagus built around the 4-reactor dilapidates more rapidly than it was provided. The internal collapse risk is permanent. There is a risk of dusts propagation too. In the urgent nature of decontamination works, several contaminated materials storage have been constituted. In the exclusion zone, evacuated in 1986, the lands contamination is above 1480 kilo-becquerels of cesium 137 per square meter. It is also contaminated by strontium 90 and transuranium elements. The most important flow of radioactivity towards the outside of the exclusion zone is particularly due to the running waters. The other sources of radioactivity towards the outside of the exclusion zone are due to the atmospheric transfer of the radioactive dusts which are put again in suspension, to the animals migrations and the human activities. At the moment of the accident, between twenty to fifty per cent of 12.6 iodine tera-becquerels millions have been thrown out in the atmosphere and have induced important damages on the population health. These effects (neoplasms, psychological traumatisms) are given into details. (O.M.). 7 refs., 9 figs

  3. Assessment of marine and urban-industrial environments influence on built heritage sandstone using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and complementary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; García-Galan, Javier; Maguregui, Maite; Marcaida, Iker; García-Florentino, Cristina; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The sandstone used in the construction of the tower of La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) shows a very bad conservation state and a high percentage of sandstone has been lost. The fortress is located just on a cliff and close to the sea, and it experiments the direct influence of marine aerosol and also the impact of acid gases (SOx and NOx) coming from the surrounding industry and maritime traffic. This environment seems to be very harmful for the preservation of the sandstone used in it, promoting different pathologies (disintegration, alveolization, cracking or erosion blistering, salts crystallization on the pores, efflorescences etc.). In this work, a multianalytical methodology based on a preliminary in-situ screening of the affected sandstone using a handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (HH-ED-XRF) and a subsequent characterization of extracted sample in the laboratory using elemental (μ-ED-XRF, Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to an X-Max Energy-Dispersive (SEM-EDS) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and molecular techniques (micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD)) was applied in order to characterize the original composition of this kind of stone and related deterioration products. With the whole methodology, it was possible to assess that the sandstone contain a notable percentage of calcite. The sulfation and nitration of this carbonate detected in the stone led to the dissolution process of the sandstone, promoting the observed material loss. Additionally, the presence of salts related with the influence of marine aerosol confirms that this kind of environment have influence on the conservation state of the sandstone building.

  4. Origin and diversification of TRIM ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Marín

    Full Text Available Most proteins of the TRIM family (also known as RBCC family are ubiquitin ligases that share a peculiar protein structure, characterized by including an N-terminal RING finger domain closely followed by one or two B-boxes. Additional protein domains found at their C termini have been used to classify TRIM proteins into classes. TRIMs are involved in multiple cellular processes and many of them are essential components of the innate immunity system of animal species. In humans, it has been shown that mutations in several TRIM-encoding genes lead to diverse genetic diseases and contribute to several types of cancer. They had been hitherto detected only in animals. In this work, by comprehensively analyzing the available diversity of TRIM and TRIM-like protein sequences and evaluating their evolutionary patterns, an improved classification of the TRIM family is obtained. Members of one of the TRIM subfamilies defined, called Subfamily A, turn to be present not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, such as fungi, apusozoans, alveolates, excavates and plants. The rest of subfamilies are animal-specific and several of them originated only recently. Subfamily A proteins are characterized by containing a MATH domain, suggesting a potential evolutionary connection between TRIM proteins and a different type of ubiquitin ligases, known as TRAFs, which contain quite similar MATH domains. These results indicate that the TRIM family emerged much earlier than so far thought and contribute to our understanding of its origin and diversification. The structural and evolutionary links with the TRAF family of ubiquitin ligases can be experimentally explored to determine whether functional connections also exist.

  5. Evolution of the protists and protistan parasites from the perspective of molecular systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogin, M L; Silberman, J D

    1998-01-01

    Unlike prokaryotes, the Protista are rich in morphological and ultrastructure information. Their amazing phenotypic diversity permits assignment of many protists to cohesive phyletic assemblages but sometimes blurs relationships between major lineages. With the advent of molecular techniques, it became possible to test evolutionary hypotheses that were originally formulated according to shared phenotypic traits. More than any other gene family, studies of rRNAs changed our understanding of protist evolution. Stramenopiles (oomycetes, chrysophytes, phaeophytes, synurophytes, diatoms, xanthophytes, bicosoecids, slime nets) and alveolates (dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates) are two novel, complex evolutionary assemblages which diverged nearly simultaneously with animals, fungi, plants, rhodophytes, haptophytes and a myriad of independent amoeboid lineages. Their separation may have occurred one billion years ago and collectively these lineages make up the "crown" of the eukaryotic tree. Deeper branches in the eukaryotic tree show 16S-like rRNA sequence variation that is much greater than that observed within the Archaea and the Bacteria. A progression of independent protist branches, some as ancient as the divergence between the two prokaryotic domains, preceded the sudden radiation of "crown" groups. Trichomonads, diplomonads and Microsporidia are basal to all other eukaryotes included in rRNA studies. Together with pelobionts, oxymonads, retortamonads and hypermastigids, these amitochondriate taxa comprise the Archaezoa. This skeletal phylogeny suggested that early branching eukaryotes lacked mitochondria, peroxisomes and typical stacked Golgi dictyosomes. However, recent studies of heat shock proteins indicate that the first eukaryotes may have had mitochondria. When evaluated in terms of evolution of ultrastructure, lifestyles and other phenotypic traits, the rRNA phylogenies provide the most consistent of molecular trees. They permit identification of the

  6. Diagnosis and classification of Goodpasture's disease (anti-GBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2014-01-01

    Goodpasture's disease or anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (anti-GBM-disease) is included among immune complex small vessel vasculitides. The definition of anti-GBM disease is a vasculitis affecting glomerular capillaries, pulmonary capillaries, or both, with GBM deposition of anti-GBM autoantibodies. The disease is a prototype of autoimmune disease, where the patients develop autoantibodies that bind to the basement membranes and activate the classical pathway of the complement system, which start a neutrophil dependent inflammation. The diagnosis of anti-GBM disease relies on the detection of anti-GBM antibodies in conjunction with glomerulonephritis and/or alveolitis. Overt clinical symptoms are most prominent in the glomeruli where the inflammation usually results in a severe rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Despite modern treatment less than one third of the patients survive with a preserved kidney function after 6 months follow-up. Frequencies vary from 0.5 to 1 cases per million inhabitants per year and there is a strong genetic linkage to HLA-DRB1(∗)1501 and DRB1(∗)1502. Essentially, anti-GBM disease is now a preferred term for what was earlier called Goodpasture's syndrome or Goodpasture's disease; anti-GBM disease is now classified as small vessel vasculitis caused by in situ immune complex formation; the diagnosis relies on the detection of anti-GBM in tissues or circulation in conjunction with alveolar or glomerular disease; therapy is effective only when detected at an early stage, making a high degree of awareness necessary to find these rare cases; 20-35% have anti-GBM and MPO-ANCA simultaneously, which necessitates testing for anti-GBM whenever acute test for ANCA is ordered in patients with renal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 reduces pneumococcal lung infection and inflammation in a viral and bacterial coinfection pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Anthony, Desiree; Yatmaz, Selcuk; Wijburg, Odilia; Satzke, Catherine; Levy, Bruce; Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2017-09-15

    Formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) receptor (Fpr2/ALX) co-ordinates the transition from inflammation to resolution during acute infection by binding to distinct ligands including serum amyloid A (SAA) and Resolvin D1 (RvD1). Here, we evaluated the proresolving actions of aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) in an acute coinfection pneumonia model. Coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus (IAV) markedly increased pneumococcal lung load and neutrophilic inflammation during the resolution phase. Fpr2/ALX transcript levels were increased in the lungs of coinfected mice, and immunohistochemistry identified prominent Fpr2/ALX immunoreactivity in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages. Levels of circulating and lung SAA were also highly increased in coinfected mice. Therapeutic treatment with exogenous AT-RvD1 during the acute phase of infection (day 4-6 post-pneumococcal inoculation) significantly reduced the pneumococcal load. AT-RvD1 also significantly reduced neutrophil elastase (NE) activity and restored total antimicrobial activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of coinfected mice. Pneumonia severity, as measured by quantitating parenchymal inflammation or alveolitis was significantly reduced with AT-RvD1 treatment, which also reduced the number of infiltrating lung neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages as assessed by flow cytometry. The reduction in distal lung inflammation in AT-RvD1-treated mice was not associated with a significant reduction in inflammatory and chemokine mediators. In summary, we demonstrate that in the coinfection setting, SAA levels were persistently increased and exogenous AT-RvD1 facilitated more rapid clearance of pneumococci in the lungs, while concurrently reducing the severity of pneumonia by limiting excessive leukocyte chemotaxis from the infected bronchioles to distal areas of the lungs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Interventional Lung Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wansheng; Dong Yonghua; Liu Bin; Zhu Chi; Yu Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of lung volume reduction by transbronchial alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion with the aid of balloon-tipped catheter occlusion. Twenty-six healthy adult rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion (n = 8), lipiodol infusion (n = 8), alcohol infusion (n = 5), or bronchial lumen occlusion (n = 5). After selective lobar or segmental bronchial catheterization using a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter, the corresponding drug infusion was performed. Bone cement was used to occlude the bronchial lumen in the occlusion group. The animals were followed up for 10 weeks by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and then the whole lungs were harvested for histological examination. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension or lipiodol could be stably retained in alveoli in the first two groups based on chest X-ray and CT, but obvious collapse only occurred in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension or the bronchial lumen occlusion group. Histological examination revealed damage and disruption of the alveolar epithelium and fibrosis in related lung tissue in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension. Similar changes were seen in the bronchial lumen occlusion group, apart from obvious marginal emphysema of the target areas in two animals. Interstitial pneumonia and dilated alveoli existed in some tissue in target areas in the lipiodol group, in which pulmonary fibrosis obliterating alveoli also occurred. Chronic alveolitis and pleural adhesion in target areas occurred in the group infused with alcohol alone, whereas visceral pleura of the other three groups was regular and no pleural effusion or adhesion was found. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension that is stably retained in alveoli can result in significant lung volume reduction. Through alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion, obstructive emphysema or pneumonia arising from bronchial lumen

  9. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

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    Ali Shoeibi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available     Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV types 1 and 2 belong to the Oncorna group of retroviridae, a large family of viruses, grouped initially by pathogenic features, but later revised on the basis of genome structure and nucleotide sequence. HTLV-I was the first discovered human retrovirus to be associated with a malignancy in 1980. The malignancy, first described by Uchiyama and co-workers in southwestern Japan, was named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL and characterized with cutaneous and respiratory involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and various metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalcemia. The HTLV-I has been known to be endemic to certain parts of Iran like the province of Khorasan in the northeast since 1990, with a 2.3% prevalence rate of infection. The main manifestations of HTLV-I infection are neurologic and hematologic (such as ATL disorders, but it has also other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis, vitiligo and lymphocytic alveolitis. Its main neurologic manifestation is a chronic progressive myelopathy that is referred to HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM in Japan and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (TSP in Caribbean. But other disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, myopathy, peripheral facial paresis, and so on have been reported too. In this review we wish to give some brief information on the different aspects (including epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical findings, and treatment of HTLV-I infection according to our twenty-year researches. The department of neurology of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences has been a pioneer in researches on HTLV-I in the last twenty years.  

  10. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

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    A Barkhordari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  11. Chest CT study of patients with asbestos exposure, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Thin-slice high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) findings of 36 patients (34 men, 2 women) with histories of long-term (11 to 43 years) occupational asbestos exposure (AS) were analyzed for pulmonary abnormalities, which were classified by the subpleural curvilinear shadow (SCLS) and/or the extent of honeycomb shadow (HS) into five types (O to IV). SCLS was detected in 22 patients (62 %), and HS in 14 patients (39 %). SCLS was distributed mainly in the lower lobe in patients with mild pulmonary fibrosis (Types I and II) and in segments where fibrosis was mild in patients with HS (Types III and IV). This may reflect the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis leading to the formation of a HS. Most (63.7 %) SCLS measured > 5 cm but < 10 cm in length and occurred < 1 cm from the inner chest wall in all cases. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of SCLS and HS in CT imagings, achieved in two post mortem specimens, seemed to indicate that SCLS was associated with the initial change of fibrosing bronchiolo-alveolitis, which is characteristic of pulmonary asbestosis. Thin-slice high-resolution CT findings of 36 patients with AS and 33 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) were compared. Though the incidence of SCLS was low (21 %) in this series of IIP, its presence suggests that SCLS is not specific to pulmonary asbestosis but occurs also in chronic interstitial pneumonia. In order to explore the mechanism of the appearance of SCLS, further analysis of CT and histopathologic findings not only of pulmonary asbestosis and IIP but also of many other pulmonary interstitial diseases is necessary. It could be considered that thin-slice high-resolution CT which first detected SCLS is very useful in the visualization of fine structures of the lungs. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis of occupational and environmental lung diseases by electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Toshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Occupational and environmental lung diseases are a group of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of harmful particles, mists, vapors or gases. Mineralogical analysis is not generally required in the diagnosis of most cases of these diseases. Apart from minerals that are encountered rarely or only in specific occupations, small quantities of mineral dusts are present in the healthy lung. As such when mineralogical analysis is required, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods must be employed. An electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPMA-WDS) enables analysis of human lung tissue for deposits of elements by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. Since 1993, we have analyzed 162 cases of suspected occupational and environmental lung diseases using an EPMA-WDS. Our institute has been accepting online requests for elemental analysis of lung tissue samples by EPMA-WDS since January 2011. Hard metal lung disease is an occupational interstitial lung disease that primarily affects workers exposed to the dust of tungsten carbide. The characteristic pathological findings of the disease are giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) with centrilobular fibrosis, surrounded by mild alveolitis with giant cells within the alveolar space. EPMA-WDS analysis of biopsied lung tissue from patients with GIP has demonstrated that tungsten and/or cobalt is distributed in the giant cells and centrilobular fibrosing lesion in GIP. Pneumoconiosis, caused by amorphous silica, and acute interstitial pneumonia, associated with the giant tsunami, were also elementally analyzed by EPMA-WDS. The results suggest that commonly found elements, such as silicon, aluminum, and iron, may cause occupational and environmental lung diseases. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Advice of the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety about the 'Clay 2005' file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) presents in this document its evaluation of the 'Clay 2005' file made by the ANDRA and which aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a disposal facility for high level and long living rad-wastes in the argillite formation of the Bure site. The critical points of the safety have been considered more thoroughly, together with the uncertainties concerning some important data and phenomena in relation with the confining properties of such a disposal facility. The basic geologic data gathered by the ANDRA about the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation of the Bure site are sufficient to confirm the favorable intrinsic properties of this formation with respect to the confinement of wastes. The main possible disturbances of internal and external origin (thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical, climatic change, earthquakes, erosion..) would have no redhibitory impact on the overall confining capacity of the facility. The design safety principles retained for the exploitation of the facility and the post-closure safety aspects are globally satisfactory. Therefore, the IRSN considers the disposal of rad-wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilite formation as feasible but in the case of a continuation of this project, several complementary informations would have to be supplied in particular concerning: the possible fracturing of the host and surrounding formations, the possibility of localized inhomogeneous fluid flows inside the surrounding formations, the improvement of our knowledge about the changes of the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the site rocks and of concretes with time, the dimensioning of the metallic components of the facility (shafts, containers..), and the efficiency of the ventilation system with respect to the explosion risks inside B-type waste alveoles. (J.S.)

  14. Effects of exposure to grain dust in Polish farmers: work-related symptoms and immunologic response to microbial antigens associated with dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, C; Mackiewicz, B; Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Milanowski, J; Feltovich, H; Lange, J; Thorne, P

    1998-01-01

    Medical examinations were performed in a group of 76 Polish farmers heavily exposed to grain dust during harvesting and threshing, and in a group of 63 healthy urban dwellers not exposed to organic dusts (controls). The examinations included: interview concerning the occurrence of respiratory disorders and work-related symptoms, physical examination, lung function tests, and allergological tests comprising skin prick test with 4 microbial antigens associated with grain dust and agar-gel precipitation test with 12 microbial antigens. As many as 34 farmers (44.7%) reported the occurrence of work-related symptoms during harvesting and threshing. The most common was dry cough reported by 20 individuals (26.3%). Dyspnoea was reported by 15 farmers (19.7%), tiredness by 12 (15.7%), chest tightness by 8 (10.5%), plugging of nose and hoarseness by 5 each (6. 5%). No control subjects reported these work-related symptoms. The mean spirometric values in the examined group of farmers were within the normal range, but a significant post-shift decrease of these values was observed after work with grain. The farmers showed a frequency of the positive early skin reactions to environmental allergens in the range of 10.8 - 45.5%, and a frequency of positive precipitin reactions in range of 3.9 - 40.8%. The control group responded to the majority of allergens with a significantly lower frequency of positive results compared to the farmers. The obtained results showed a high response of grain farmers to inhalant microbial allergens and indicate a potential risk of occupational respiratory diseases (such as allergic alveolitis, asthma, Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome) among this population

  15. The domain architecture of large guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the small GTP-binding protein Arf

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    Geldner Niko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small G proteins, which are essential regulators of multiple cellular functions, are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs that stimulate the exchange of the tightly bound GDP nucleotide by GTP. The catalytic domain responsible for nucleotide exchange is in general associated with non-catalytic domains that define the spatio-temporal conditions of activation. In the case of small G proteins of the Arf subfamily, which are major regulators of membrane trafficking, GEFs form a heterogeneous family whose only common characteristic is the well-characterized Sec7 catalytic domain. In contrast, the function of non-catalytic domains and how they regulate/cooperate with the catalytic domain is essentially unknown. Results Based on Sec7-containing sequences from fully-annotated eukaryotic genomes, including our annotation of these sequences from Paramecium, we have investigated the domain architecture of large ArfGEFs of the BIG and GBF subfamilies, which are involved in Golgi traffic. Multiple sequence alignments combined with the analysis of predicted secondary structures, non-structured regions and splicing patterns, identifies five novel non-catalytic structural domains which are common to both subfamilies, revealing that they share a conserved modular organization. We also report a novel ArfGEF subfamily with a domain organization so far unique to alveolates, which we name TBS (TBC-Sec7. Conclusion Our analysis unifies the BIG and GBF subfamilies into a higher order subfamily, which, together with their being the only subfamilies common to all eukaryotes, suggests that they descend from a common ancestor from which species-specific ArfGEFs have subsequently evolved. Our identification of a conserved modular architecture provides a background for future functional investigation of non-catalytic domains.

  16. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Dynamics of phytomass of a tree stand of the deciduous-coniferous phytocenosis in middle taiga of Komi Republic

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    S. I. Tarasov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock dumps of coalmines have high potential for forest regeneration and environmental capacity, which are dependent on the technology of reclamation and the properties of technogenic soils and grounds. Traditional forestry methods for obtaining the main criteria of biological indicators of woody vegetation were used in the study as follows: ground seed germination, seedling planting technology, composition and increment of tree stands, root structure, care harvesting of undergrowth, biotopic classification. Natural overgrowing of dumps is dependent on the availability of seeds and conditions for their germination and subsequent growth. Most of the zonal tree and shrub species are able to colonize and grow on the coalmine dumps. Mineralization of the dumps surfaces without rich soil stratum, porosity of the upper horizon of lithostratum, and low nutrient content (nitrogen give benefits in the growth and subsequent formation of birch, pine and sea-buckthorn stands. Afforestation is the cheapest and most effective method of biological reclamation. The analysis of artificial reforestation shows the probability of targeted plantation cultivation of various tree species. The use of a wide range of tree and shrub species make it possible to create biologically diverse intrazonal technogenic ecosystems with high recreational and economic productivity. Wildfires spreading out in spring season on herbaceous rags limit the overgrowth of the dumps by forest vegetation. Two-year cyclical increment decline of trees due to provocative spring warming takes place. The zoogenic factor, especially zoo chores distribution of berry plants, has essential value for forest forming process. By the results of forest formation analysis at rock dumps, alveolate-hilly technology of mine reclamation was developed, which allows to significantly improve dumps’ afforestation capacity, their biological posttechnogenic diversity and productivity.

  18. Effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft on osteoblast and osteoclast formation in post tooth extraction socket

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    Utari Kresnoadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction, a common procedure in dentistry, can cause bone resorption during socket healing. Therefore, it is important to perform socket preservation procedure to maintain alveolar bone. Providing a combination of mangosteen peel extract with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX in tooth extraction socket was expected to accelerate alveol bone formation. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX introduced into the socket of post tooth extraction on the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Method: Twenty-eight (28 Cavia cobayas were divided into four groups. Extraction to the lower left incisor of Cavia cobaya was performed. The extraction socket was filled with 25 gram of PEG (group I as a control, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 0.5% (group II, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 1% (group III, and active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% (group IV. After thirty days, those Cavia cobayas were sacrificed. By using HE on Histopatological examination, the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were measured by light microscope with 400 times of magnification. The statistical analysis was then performed using oneway Anova & TukeyHSD test. Result: The component active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% had the most significant results related to the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Conclusion: Mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX can increase osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts in the socket of tooth extraction in Cavia cobaya. The combination of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% is the most effective material in increasing osteoblast and decreasing osteoclast.

  19. Revealing and analyzing networks of environmental systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, D.; Bittner, L.; Chaffron, S.; Guidi, L.; Raes, J.; Karsenti, E.; Bowler, C.; Gorsky, G.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the interactions between microbial communities and their environment well enough to be able to predict diversity on the basis of physicochemical parameters is a fundamental pursuit of microbial ecology that still eludes us. However, modeling microbial communities is a complicated task, because (i) communities are complex, (ii) most are described qualitatively, and (iii) quantitative understanding of the way communities interacts with their surroundings remains incomplete. Within this seminar, we will illustrate two complementary approaches that aim to overcome these points in different manners. First, we will present a network analysis that focus on the biological carbon pump in the global ocean. The biological carbon pump is the process by which photosynthesis transforms CO2 to organic carbon sinking to the deep-ocean as particles where it is sequestered. While the intensity of the pump correlate to plankton community composition, the underlying ecosystem structure and interactions driving this process remain largely uncharacterized Here we use environmental and metagenomic data gathered during the Tara Oceans expedition to improve understanding of these drivers. We show that specific plankton communities correlate with carbon export and highlight unexpected and overlooked taxa such as Radiolaria, alveolate parasites and bacterial pathogens, as well as Synechococcus and their phages, as key players in the biological pump. Additionally, we show that the abundances of just a few bacterial and viral genes predict most of the global ocean carbon export's variability. Together these findings help elucidate ecosystem drivers of the biological carbon pump and present a case study for scaling from genes-to-ecosystems. Second, we will show preliminary results on a probabilistic modeling that predicts microbial community structure across observed physicochemical data, from a putative network and partial quantitative knowledge. This modeling shows that, despite

  20. Particle-size dependent effects in the Balb/c murine model of inhalational melioidosis

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    Richard eThomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Burkholderia pseudomallei within either the lungs or nasal passages of the Balb/c murine model resulted in different infection kinetics. The infection resulting from the inhalation of B. pseudomallei within a 12 um particle aerosol was prolonged compared to a 1 um particle aerosol with a mean time-to-death (MTD of 73.8 ± 11.3 h and 174.7 ± 14.9 h respectively. Inhalation of B. pseudomallei within 1 um or 12 um particle aerosols resulted in a median lethal dose (MLD of 4 and 12 cfu respectively. The 12 mm particle inhalational infection was characterised by involvement of the respiratory epithelium and inflammation of the neurological path leading from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb (100%, culminating in abscessation of the brain (33%. Initial involvement of the upper respiratory tract lymphoid tissues (nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and cervical lymph nodes was observed in both the 1 and 12 um particle inhalational infections (80-85%. Necrotising alveolitis and bronchiolitis were evident in both inhalational infections however lung pathology was greater after inhalation of the 1 mm particle aerosol with pronounced involvement of the mediastinal lymph node (50%. Terminal disease was characterised by bacteraemia in both inhalational infections with dissemination to the spleen, liver, kidneys and thymus. Treatment with co-trimoxazole was more effective than treatment with doxycycline irrespective of the size of the particles inhaled. Doxycycline was more effective against the 12 um particle inhalational infection as evidenced by increased time to death. However, both treatment regimes exhibited significant relapse when therapy was discontinued with massive enlargement and abscessation of the lungs, spleen and cervical lymph nodes observed.

  1. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a complex lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riario Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Marinou, Androula

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung parenchyma and specifically the alveoli, terminal bronchioli, and alveolar interstitium, due to a delayed allergic reaction. Such reaction is secondary to a repeated and prolonged inhalation of different types of organic dusts or other substances to which the patient is sensitized and hyper responsive, primarily consisting of organic dusts of animal or vegetable origin, more rarely from chemicals. The prevalence of HP is difficult to evaluate because of uncertainties in detection and misdiagnosis and lacking of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, and varies considerably depending on disease definition, diagnostic methods, exposure modalities, geographical conditions, agricultural and industrial practices, and host risk factors. HP can be caused by multiple agents that are present in work places and in the home, such as microbes, animal and plant proteins, organic and inorganic chemicals. The number of environment, settings and causative agents is increasing over time. From the clinical point of view HP can be divided in acute/subacute and chronic, depending on the intensity and frequency of exposure to causative antigens. The mainstay in managing HP is the avoidance of the causative antigen, though the complete removal is not always possible due to the difficulties to identify the agent or because its avoidance may lead to major changes in life style or occupational settings. HP is a complex syndrome that needs urgently for more stringent and selective diagnostic criteria and validation, including wider panels of IgG, and a closer collaboration with occupational physicians, as part of a multidisciplinary expertise.

  2. Efectividad de la homeopatía en el tratamiento de exodoncias traumáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Caridad Casanova Sales

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención en el período de enero hasta agosto del 2014, en el área de salud del Policlínico Docente “28 de Septiembre” de Vázquez, Puerto Padre, Las Tunas, para evaluar la efectividad de la homeopatía en el tratamiento de las exodoncias traumáticas. La muestra estuvo constituida por 48 pacientes, que en el proceso de la extracción dentaria presentaron complicaciones a causa de fractura del tabique interdentario, de las corticales, de las raíces, de la tuberosidad, comunicación bucosinusal y desgarro. Los pacientes fueron seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple y distribuidos en dos grupos: grupo I (estudio con 24 pacientes con complicaciones en el proceso de la exodoncia, a los que se les aplicó el remedio homeopático AlivioHo-trauma; y grupo II (control con 24 pacientes con complicaciones en el proceso de la exodoncia, a los que se les aplicó el tratamiento convencional. En ambos grupos se atendió previamente el área afectada, de acuerdo con la complicación. Se obtuvo que el tratamiento con el remedio homeopático AliviHo-trauma fue efectivo sobre los síntomas dolor e inflamación, al igual con referencia a la ausencia de alveolitis, de manera similar al grupo control. No se reportó ninguna reacción adversa

  3. [Legionnaires disease : 3 cases from the northern suburbs of Paris (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeyre, D; Dournon, E; Jeantils, V; Kemeny, J L; Blin, F; Battesti, J P

    1981-01-01

    During the summer of 1980, 3 sporadic cases of Legionnaires disease (ML) were recognized in the northern suburbs of Paris. The clinical picture was characterized by an extensive pneumonia, high fever with repeated rigors (3 cases), a confusional state (2 cases), and transitory watery diarrhea (3 cases). Blood cultures, evidence of bacterial antigens in blood or urine, and serology notably for chlamydia and mycoplasma pneumoniae were all negative. The diagnosis of ML (serotype I) was confirmed by serology using indirect immunofluorescence against Legionella pneumophila (LP) with an antigen prepared by Taylor. In one patient treated early with erythromycin (4 g/day), there was a quick and favorable response. Two other patients died, and in their case erythromycin therapy was started late. At necropsy, the lesions were solely thoracic, and were characterized by an alveolitis with many macrophages, and intense leukocytosis, and rich in fibrin; in one case, extensive fibrosis was noted; in the other, LP was diagnosed by direct and indirect immunofluorescence on a lung specimen. In the pneumology department of Hôpital Avicenne, two other patients with acute pneumonias and similar clinical and radiological pictures had elevated titres to LP (1/64), but they did not rise or fall. The diagnosis of ML is probably nevertheless, particularly as the serology was negative for both Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the Chlamydias. Two of the three cases presented were among seventeen acute febrile pneumonias admitted to the pneumology department of Hôpital Avicenne between the 1st of July and the 1st of October 1980, showing the relative frequency of this infection.

  4. Peroxisomes in parasitic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Toni; Ginger, Michael L; Michels, Paul A M

    Representatives of all major lineages of eukaryotes contain peroxisomes with similar morphology and mode of biogenesis, indicating a monophyletic origin of the organelles within the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Peroxisomes originated from the endoplasmic reticulum, but despite a common origin and shared morphological features, peroxisomes from different organisms show a remarkable diversity of enzyme content and the metabolic processes present can vary dependent on nutritional or developmental conditions. A common characteristic and probable evolutionary driver for the origin of the organelle is an involvement in lipid metabolism, notably H 2 O 2 -dependent fatty-acid oxidation. Subsequent evolution of the organelle in different lineages involved multiple acquisitions of metabolic processes-often involving retargeting enzymes from other cell compartments-and losses. Information about peroxisomes in protists is still scarce, but available evidence, including new bioinformatics data reported here, indicate striking diversity amongst free-living and parasitic protists from different phylogenetic supergroups. Peroxisomes in only some protists show major involvement in H 2 O 2 -dependent metabolism, as in peroxisomes of mammalian, plant and fungal cells. Compartmentalization of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes inside peroxisomes is characteristic of kinetoplastids and diplonemids, where the organelles are hence called glycosomes, whereas several other excavate parasites (Giardia, Trichomonas) have lost peroxisomes. Amongst alveolates and amoebozoans patterns of peroxisome loss are more complicated. Often, a link is apparent between the niches occupied by the parasitic protists, nutrient availability, and the absence of the organelles or their presence with a specific enzymatic content. In trypanosomatids, essentiality of peroxisomes may be considered for use in anti-parasite drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of chronic infectious interstitial pulmonary disease in children by low-dose CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, Christoph M.; Lemburg, Stefan P.; Kagel, Thomas; Nicolas, Volkmar [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, BG Clinics Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany); Mueller, Klaus-Michael [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Institute of Pathology, BG Clinics Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany); Nuesslein, Thomas G.; Rieger, Christian H.L. [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Children with chronic infectious interstitial lung disease often have to undergo open lung biopsy to establish a final diagnosis. Open lung biopsy is an invasive procedure with major potential complications. Transthoracic lung biopsy (TLB) guided by computed tomography (CT) is a less-invasive well-established procedure in adults. Detailing the role of low-dose CT-guided TLB in the enhanced diagnosis of chronic lung diseases related to infection in children. A group of 11 children (age 8 months to 16 years) underwent CT-guided TLB with a 20-gauge biopsy device. All investigations were done under general anaesthesia on a multidetector CT scanner (SOMATOM Volume Zoom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a low-dose protocol (single slices, 120 kV, 20 mAs). Specimens were processed by histopathological, bacteriological, and virological techniques. All biopsies were performed without major complications; one child developed a small pneumothorax that resolved spontaneously. A diagnosis could be obtained in 10 of the 11 patients. Biopsy specimens revealed chronic interstitial alveolitis in ten patients. In five patients Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR was positive, in three Mycoplasma pneumoniae PCR was positive, and in two Cytomegalovirus PCR was positive. The average effective dose was 0.83 mSv. Low-dose CT-guided TLB can be a helpful tool in investigating chronic infectious inflammatory processes in children with minimal radiation exposure. It should be considered prior to any open surgical procedure performed for biopsy alone. In our patient group no significant complication occurred. A disadvantage of the method is that it does not allow smaller airways and vessels to be assessed. (orig.)

  6. Specifics of stands formation at coalmine dumps in forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Murzakmаtov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock dumps of coalmines have high potential for forest regeneration and environmental capacity, which are dependent on the technology of reclamation and the properties of technogenic soils and grounds. Traditional forestry methods for obtaining the main criteria of biological indicators of woody vegetation were used in the study as follows: ground seed germination, seedling planting technology, composition and increment of tree stands, root structure, care harvesting of undergrowth, biotopic classification. Natural overgrowing of dumps is dependent on the availability of seeds and conditions for their germination and subsequent growth. Most of the zonal tree and shrub species are able to colonize and grow on the coalmine dumps. Mineralization of the dumps surfaces without rich soil stratum, porosity of the upper horizon of lithostratum, and low nutrient content (nitrogen give benefits in the growth and subsequent formation of birch, pine and sea-buckthorn stands. Afforestation is the cheapest and most effective method of biological reclamation. The analysis of artificial reforestation shows the probability of targeted plantation cultivation of various tree species. The use of a wide range of tree and shrub species make it possible to create biologically diverse intrazonal technogenic ecosystems with high recreational and economic productivity. Wildfires spreading out in spring season on herbaceous rags limit the overgrowth of the dumps by forest vegetation. Two-year cyclical increment decline of trees due to provocative spring warming takes place. The zoogenic factor, especially zoo chores distribution of berry plants, has essential value for forest forming process. By the results of forest formation analysis at rock dumps, alveolate-hilly technology of mine reclamation was developed, which allows to significantly improve dumps’ afforestation capacity, their biological posttechnogenic diversity and productivity.

  7. Treatment Algorithms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangchan, Chayawee; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Bernatsky, Sasha R; Smith, C Douglas; Hudson, Marie; Inanç, Murat; Rothfield, Naomi F; Nash, Peter T; Furie, Richard A; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Chandran, Vinod; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Pope, Janet E

    2015-09-01

    To establish agreement on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment. SLE experts (n = 69) were e-mailed scenarios and indicated preferred treatments. Algorithms were constructed and agreement determined (≥50% respondents indicating ≥70% agreement). Initially, 54% (n = 37) responded suggesting treatment for scenarios; 13 experts rated agreement with scenarios. Fourteen of 16 scenarios had agreement as follows: discoid lupus: first-line therapy was topical agents and hydroxychloroquine and/or glucocorticoids then azathioprine and subsequently mycophenolate (mofetil); uncomplicated cutaneous vasculitis: initial treatment was glucocorticoids ± hydroxychloroquine ± methotrexate, followed by azathioprine or mycophenolate and then cyclophosphamide; arthritis: initial therapy was hydroxychloroquine and/or glucocorticoids, then methotrexate and subsequently rituximab; pericarditis: first-line therapy was nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, then glucocorticoids with/without hydroxychloroquine, then azathioprine, mycophenolate, or methotrexate and finally belimumab or rituximab, and/or a pericardial window; interstitial lung disease/alveolitis: induction was glucocorticoids and mycophenolate or cyclophosphamide, then rituximab or intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG), and maintenance followed with azathioprine or mycophenolate; pulmonary hypertension: glucocorticoids and mycophenolate or cyclophosphamide and an endothelin receptor antagonist were initial therapies, subsequent treatments were phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and then prostanoids and rituximab; antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: standard anticoagulation with/without hydroxychloroquine, then a thrombin inhibitor for venous thrombosis, versus adding aspirin or platelet inhibition drugs for arterial events; mononeuritis multiplex and central nervous system vasculitis: first-line therapy was glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide followed by maintenance with azathioprine or mycophenolate, and

  8. A quantitative TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of Ureaplasma diversum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lucas M; Amorim, Aline T; Martins, Hellen Braga; Rezende, Izadora Souza; Barbosa, Maysa Santos; Lobão, Tassia Neves; Campos, Guilherme B; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2013-12-27

    Ureaplasma diversum in veterinary studies is an undesirable microbe, which may cause infection in bulls and may result in seminal vesiculitis, balanopostitis, and alterations in spermatozoids, whereas in cows, it may cause placentitis, fetal alveolitis, abortion, and birth of weak calves. U. diversum is released through organic secretions, especially semen, preputial and vaginal mucus, conjunctival secretion, and milk. The aim of the present study was to develop a TaqMan probe, highly sensitive and specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and quantification of U. diversum from genital swabs of bovines. Primers and probes specific to U. diversum 16S rRNA gene were designed. The specificity, detection limit, intra- and inter-assay variability of qPCR to detect this ureaplasma was compared with the results of the conventional PCR assay (cPCR). Swabs of vaginal mucus from 169 cows were tested. The qPCR assay detected as few as 10 copies of U. diversum and was 100-fold more sensitive than the cPCR. No cross-reactivity with other Mollicutes or eubacteria was observed. U. diversum was detected in 79 swabs (46.42%) by qPCR, while using cPCR it was detected in 42 (25%) samples. The difference in cPCR and qPCR ureaplasma detection between healthy and sick animals was not statistically significant. But the U. diversum load in samples from animals with genital disorders was higher than in healthy animals. The qPCR assay developed herein is highly sensitive and specific for the detection and quantification of U. diversum in vaginal bovine samples. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Health risks in the biotechnological industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, A; Maroni, M; Foà, V

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnology has been defined as the application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries. In considering health aspects of biotechnological development it must be underlined that the use of microorganisms in traditional industries, such as the production of food, bread, beer and dairy products, has not added significantly to the more usual industrial hazards. The risk factors encountered in the biotechnology industry can be defined as general, i.e., common to other industrial activities, and specific, i.e., depending on the presence of microorganisms and/or their metabolic products. The specific health risks vary according to the type of process, but can be grouped into three main categories: immunological diseases, toxic effects; pathological effects of microorganisms. Allergic immunological diseases such as bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis are by far the most frequent and well known diseases occurring among workers employed on biotechnological production. Toxic effects were observed among workers employed on the production of antibiotics and hormones or single cell proteins, where absorption of endotoxins has been described. Infectious diseases may arise from uncontrolled dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms through aerosols, dusts, aqueous and semisolid sludge effluents from biotechnological plants. The greatest risks occur in the production of antiviral vaccines, in research laboratories and in waste-water treatment plants. Risk of pathogenic effects has also been speculated from exposure to engineered microorganisms in laboratory and environmental or agricultural applications. Safety precautions consisting of protective measures, and effective barriers of containment (both physical and biological) have to be advised according to the hazardous characteristics of the organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Diagnostic usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage, Ga scintigraphy and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in granulomatous lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ikuo; Tsuneta, Yasuhiro; Terai, Tsugio; Nishimura, Masaharu; Munakata, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    Cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in 26 sarcoid patients, 8 patients with farmer's lung, 10 healthy controls and 10 control patients. The investigations by Ga scintigraphy or transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and measurement of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity were also carried out in 21 sarcoid patients and 8 patients with farmer's lung. 1) Percentage of foamy cells in alveolar ma crophage fraction, percentage of lymphocytes and number of mast cells were increased significantly in BLA fluid from patients with farmer's lung as compared with that from sarcoid patients. Analysis of cellular component of BAL flu id is useful for differential diagnosis of these diseases. 2) Granulomatous lung lesions were frequently observed in specimens obtained by TBLB from patients with sarcoidosis and farmer's lung who showed abnormal Ga uptake in lung. In contrast, there was no significant difference in percentage of lymphocytes in BAL fluid between patients whose pulmonary Ga uptake was positive and those in whom pulmonary Ga uptake was negative. To investigate the mechanism of pulmonary Ga accumulation in granulomatous lung disease, BAL was performed in 2 sarcoid patients and 3 patients with farmer's lung at 48 to 72 hrs after Ga injection. The radioactivity in cell fractions was evaluated at 96 hrs after Ga injection. Most of the radioactivity was found in macrophages, with little in lymphocytes. Pulmonary Ga uptake in patients with sarcoidosis and farmer' s lung reflects granuloma formation or accumulation of activated macrophages in lung, but not the intensity of T-cell alveolitis. 3) Some relationship among SACE, granulomatous lung lesions in specimens obtained by TBLB and abnormal Ga accumulation in lung or hilar lymphnodes in sarcoid patients was observed, suggesting that SACE might reflect the degree of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis. (J.P.N.)

  11. Notes on the Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the lagoon region of Cananéia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sadowsky

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Ninety one young specimens and 3 adult females of BulI shark ("cação cabeça chata" caught in the lagoon region of Cananéia were examined, their tooth formula being 27/25 and the number of pre-caudal vertebrae ranging from 109 to 115. The proportion between the 1st and 2nd dorsal fins were found to be 2.3 and 2.8 for the young,and 2.9 to 3.1 for the adults. These data confirm that the studied form belongs to C. leuoas. Young occur regularly but in limited numbers.As regards the adults, however, females only appear during the short parturition period, i.e., from November to February. The number of embryos in the litters were from 7 to 9, their sizes ranging between 768-812 mm. The length of the smallest free young found was 697 mm, but young presumably 9 to 12 months old had 98 to 112 cm; between 21 and 24 months they were reaching 124 to 128 cm, that is, the same size they have when they start migrating to the open sea. The feeding inhibition phenomenon during the period of parturition was not observed in the female specimens caught in the lagoon. The more abundant species found in the stomach contents were: Arius spixii; Chloroscombrus chrysurus; A. grandicassus; A. barbus; Felichtys marinus; Genidens genidens; Chanophorus tajacica and Carcharhinus porosus.Noventa e um espécimes jovens e 3 fêmeas adultas de "cação cabeça chata" capturados na região lagunar de Cananeia foram examinados, constatando-se a fórmula dental 27/25 e número de vértebras pré-caudais entre 109 e 115.Verificouse que as proporções entre a la. nadadeira dorsal e a 2a. foram de 2.3 e 2.8 para os jovens e de 2.9 até 3.1 para os adultos.Ficou assim confirmado que a forma es tudada pertence a C. leuaas. É comum a ocorrência de jovens dentro da região estudada~ no entanto,quanto aos adultos,as fêmeas só são encontradas durante o período de parição, i.é, de novembro a fevereiro. Constatou-se que o número de embriões nas ninhadas foi de 7 a 9 e seus

  12. Combined genomic and structural analyses of a cultured magnetotactic bacterium reveals its niche adaptation to a dynamic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Vieira Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB are a unique group of prokaryotes that have a potentially high impact on global geochemical cycling of significant primary elements because of their metabolic plasticity and the ability to biomineralize iron-rich magnetic particles called magnetosomes. Understanding the genetic composition of the few cultivated MTB along with the unique morphological features of this group of bacteria may provide an important framework for discerning their potential biogeochemical roles in natural environments. Results Genomic and ultrastructural analyses were combined to characterize the cultivated magnetotactic coccus Magnetofaba australis strain IT-1. Cells of this species synthesize a single chain of elongated, cuboctahedral magnetite (Fe3O4 magnetosomes that cause them to align along magnetic field lines while they swim being propelled by two bundles of flagella at velocities up to 300 μm s−1. High-speed microscopy imaging showed the cells move in a straight line rather than in the helical trajectory described for other magnetotactic cocci. Specific genes within the genome of Mf. australis strain IT-1 suggest the strain is capable of nitrogen fixation, sulfur reduction and oxidation, synthesis of intracellular polyphosphate granules and transporting iron with low and high affinity. Mf. australis strain IT-1 and Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 are closely related phylogenetically although similarity values between their homologous proteins are not very high. Conclusion Mf. australis strain IT-1 inhabits a constantly changing environment and its complete genome sequence reveals a great metabolic plasticity to deal with these changes. Aside from its chemoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic metabolism, genomic data indicate the cells are capable of nitrogen fixation, possess high and low affinity iron transporters, and might be capable of reducing and oxidizing a number of sulfur compounds. The relatively

  13. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  14. Genetic models reveal historical patterns of sea lamprey population fluctuations within Lake Champlain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy C. D’Aloia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus in Lake Champlain has been heavily debated over the past decade. Given the lack of historical documentation, two competing hypotheses have emerged in the literature. First, it has been argued that the relatively recent population size increase and concomitant rise in wounding rates on prey populations are indicative of an invasive population that entered the lake through the Champlain Canal. Second, recent genetic evidence suggests a post-glacial colonization at the end of the Pleistocene, approximately 11,000 years ago. One limitation to resolving the origin of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain is a lack of historical and current measures of population size. In this study, the issue of population size was explicitly addressed using nuclear (nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers to estimate historical demography with genetic models. Haplotype network analysis, mismatch analysis, and summary statistics based on mtDNA noncoding sequences for NCI (479 bp and NCII (173 bp all indicate a recent population expansion. Coalescent models based on mtDNA and nDNA identified two potential demographic events: a population decline followed by a very recent population expansion. The decline in effective population size may correlate with land-use and fishing pressure changes post-European settlement, while the recent expansion may be associated with the implementation of the salmonid stocking program in the 1970s. These results are most consistent with the hypothesis that sea lamprey are native to Lake Champlain; however, the credibility intervals around parameter estimates demonstrate that there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude and timing of past demographic events.

  15. Growth and seasonal behavior of Anguilla anguilla in the River Minho tidal freshwater wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Correia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The River Minho estuary, located on the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula, is a mesotidal estuary, partially mixed that during the period of high floods it tends to evolve towards a salt wedge estuary. The influence of spring tides extends approximately 40 km upstream and the tidal freshwater wetlands (TFWs are located in the upper 30 km. The Minho estuary is part of a Natura 2000 site, which includes the entire international section of the river being considered a very important river concerning migratory fish species. In the River Minho TFWs several fish species have ecological and economic value (Salmo trutta, Alosa fallax, Platichthys flesus, Anguilla anguilla, Salmo salar, Alosa alosa and Petromyzon marinus. European eel, A. anguilla, is in Appendix II of CITES list, that includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. Between January 2007 and December 2014, in a selected semi-enclosed area of TFW and using 5 fyke-nets, were captured 1303 eels. All eels were measured and weighted, ocular index was determined and also marked with pit-tags and released in the same area. During these 8 years of work, around 15% of the total captured eels were recaptured once, less than 3% were recapture twice, less than 1% three times and 3 eels were recaptured 4 times. Eels marked in 2009 are until now the ones that were recaptured more times. Biological data as eel growth, seaward migration state, seasonal differences of by-catch will be crossed with abiotic data namely river flow, precipitation and water temperature.

  16. Distribuição e abundância relativa de bagres marinhos (Siluriformes, Ariidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro Distribution and relative abundance of the marine catfish (Siluriformes, Ariidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Costa de Azevedo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine catfish (Ariidae are abundant resources in otter trawl fisheries carried out at Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Lat. 22º54, 23º04'S; Long. 43º34 44º10'W. Relative abundance and distribution were assessed, based in 158 fishing sampling at seven sites in the Bay, between July-1993 e June-1996. Five species were recorded in the following abundance rank order: Genidens genidens (Valenciennes, 1839, Caihorops spixii (Agassiz,1829, Sciadeichthys lunisculis (Valenciennes, 1840, Nelunia barba (Lacépède, 1803, and Bagre marinus (Mitchill, 1814, the latter have been caught in only two samples. Marine catfish showed higher abundance in the inner Bay, with indication of spatial segregation. G genidens was abundant in ali sites of lhe inner Bay, C. spixii e N. barba, near to rivers mouths, andS lunisculis, being widespread in ali studied area. Sazonality was not evident, with few exceplions in some of the three annual cycles; G. genidens and S. luniscutis were more abundant in biomass in summer 1994/95 (G. genidens and 1993/94 (S. luniscutis. G. genidens e N. barba show higher abundance (CPUE and biomass between July-93 and June-95 and C. spixii e S. luniscutis between July-95 and June-96. Total association index indicates a overall positive association among ali species, with. higher Jaccard and Sorensen similarities coefficient for the pairs C. spixii/G. genidens, G. genidens/S. luniscutis, e C. spixii/S. luniscutis. Pearson linear correlation and Sperman rank indicate that G. genidens and N. barba are inversely correlated to C. spixii and S. luniscutis. Spatial segregation strategy may be explaining the coexistence of the marine catfish at Sepetiba Bay.

  17. Characterization of Sea Lamprey stream entry using dual‐frequency identification sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Erin L.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hrodey, Peter J.; Pangle, Kevin L.

    2018-01-01

    Effective methods to control invasive Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Laurentian Great Lakes often rely on knowledge of the timing of the Sea Lamprey spawning migration, which has previously been characterized using data gathered from traps. Most assessment traps are located many kilometers upstream from the river mouth, so less is known about when Sea Lampreys enter spawning streams and which environmental cues trigger their transition from lakes to rivers. To decide how to develop barriers and traps that target Sea Lampreys when they enter a stream, the stream entry of Sea Lampreys into a Lake Huron tributary during 2 years was assessed using dual‐frequency identification sonar (DIDSON). Sea Lampreys entered the stream in low densities when temperatures first reached 4°C, which was up to 6 weeks and a mean of 4 weeks earlier than when they were first captured in traps located upstream. The probability of stream entry was significantly affected by stream temperature and discharge, and stream entry timing peaked when stream temperatures rose to 12°C and discharge was high. Examination of the entry at a finer temporal resolution (i.e., minutes) indicated that Sea Lampreys did not exhibit social behavior (e.g., shoaling) during stream entry. Our findings indicate that Sea Lampreys may be vulnerable to alternative trap types near river mouths and hydraulic challenges associated with traditional traps. Also, seasonal migration barriers near stream mouths may need to be installed soon after ice‐out to effectively block the entire adult Sea Lamprey cohort from upstream spawning habitat.

  18. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  19. Species differences in total mercury concentration in gulls from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumiło-Pilarska, Emilia; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Hajdrych, Julia; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Frączek, Tomasz; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bzoma, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds occupy a high position in the trophic pyramid of the Baltic Sea. This means that they accumulate the greatest amount of harmful substances, including mercury, in their bodies. This element penetrates into their systems mainly via the alimentary canal. The amount of mercury absorbed from food depends on how badly the environment is polluted with this metal. The aim of this study was to discover the concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the contour feathers, muscles, brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and blood of four gull species Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and organic mercury (Hgorg) in the liver and brain of Herring Gull. The most important characteristic of the results obtained for the studied gulls was the statistically significant differences between the four species, probably resulting from their different diets-confirmed by stable-isotopes analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). A logarithmic dependence was found between HgT in the blood and HgT in the brain of the Herring Gull. The authors suggest that among gulls burdened with the greatest mercury load, it is possible that the brain is protected by higher Hg accumulation in the muscles. The percentage share of Hgorg in the brain and liver of the Herring Gull depended on the concentration of HgT in these tissues and was always higher in the brain. In none of the cases, did the mercury levels assayed in the internal gulls' tissues exceed values associated with adverse health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  1. Reclassification of Thiomicrospira hydrogeniphila (Watsuji et al. 2016) to Thiomicrorhabdus hydrogeniphila comb. nov., with emended description of Thiomicrorhabdus (Boden et al., 2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Rich; Scott, Kathleen M; Rae, Alexander W; Hutt, Lee P

    2017-10-01

    The genus Thiomicrorhabdus (Tmr) in the Piskirickettsiaceae in the Thiotrichales of the Gammaproteobacteria contains four species of sulfur-oxidising obligate chemolithoautotroph with validly published names, all previously classified as Thiomicrospira (Tms) species. Here we demonstrate that Thiomicrospira hydrogeniphila, a recently published hydrogen-utilising chemolithoautotroph closely related to Thiomicrorhabdus frisia (type species of Thiomicrorhabdus) should be classified as a member of the genus Thiomicrorhabdus and not Thiomicrospira, as Thiomicrorhabdus hydrogeniphila comb. nov., on the basis of comparative physiology and morphology as well as 16S rRNA (rrs) gene identity of Tms. hydrogeniphila MAS2 T being closer to that of Tmr. frisia JB-A2 T (99.1 %) than to Tms. pelophila DSM 1534 T (90.5 %) or Hydrogenovibrio marinus MH-110 T (94.1 %), and on the basis of the topology of 16S rRNA gene maximum likelihood trees, which clearly place Tms. hydrogeniphila within the genus Thiomicrorhabdus. It was also noted that thiosulfate-grown Thiomicrorhabdus spp. can be distinguished from Thiomicrospira spp. or Hydrogenovibrio spp. on the basis of the 3 dominant fatty acids (C16 : 1, C18 : 1 and C16 : 0), and from other Thiomicrorhabdus spp. on the basis of the fourth dominant fatty acid, which varies between the species of this genus - which could provide a useful diagnostic method. We provide an emended description of Thiomicrorhabdus (Boden R, Scott KM, Williams J, Russel S, Antonen K et al.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017;67:1140-1151) to take into account the properties of Thiomicrorhabdus hydrogeniphila comb. nov.

  2. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  3. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  4. Evaluating harvest-based control of invasive fish with telemetry: Performance of sea lamprey traps in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bravener, Gale A; Jones, Michael L.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i.e., fractions of an adult sea lamprey population removed by traps) at two upstream locations were compared among three years and two points of entry to the system. Telemetry receivers throughout the drainage allowed trap performance (exploitation rate) to be partitioned into two components: proportion of migrating sea lampreys that visited trap sites (availability) and proportion of available sea lampreys that were caught by traps (local trap efficiency). Estimated exploitation rates were well below those needed to provide population control in the absence of lampricides and were limited by availability and local trap efficiency. Local trap efficiency estimates for acoustic-tagged sea lampreys were lower than analogous estimates regularly obtained using traditional mark–recapture methods, suggesting that abundance had been previously underestimated. Results suggested major changes would be required to substantially increase catch, including improvements to existing traps, installation of new traps, or other modifications to attract and retain more sea lampreys. This case study also shows how bias associated with telemetry tags can be estimated and incorporated in models to improve inferences about parameters that are directly relevant to fishery management.

  5. What is the animal doing? Tools for exploring behavioural structure in animal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, Eliezer; Bracis, Chloe; Delgado, Maria; Meckley, Trevor D; Kojola, Ilpo; Wagner, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    Movement data provide a window - often our only window - into the cognitive, social and biological processes that underlie the behavioural ecology of animals in the wild. Robust methods for identifying and interpreting distinct modes of movement behaviour are of great importance, but complicated by the fact that movement data are complex, multivariate and dependent. Many different approaches to exploratory analysis of movement have been developed to answer similar questions, and practitioners are often at a loss for how to choose an appropriate tool for a specific question. We apply and compare four methodological approaches: first passage time (FPT), Bayesian partitioning of Markov models (BPMM), behavioural change point analysis (BCPA) and a fitted multistate random walk (MRW) to three simulated tracks and two animal trajectories - a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) tracked for 12 h and a wolf (Canis lupus) tracked for 1 year. The simulations - in which, respectively, velocity, tortuosity and spatial bias change - highlight the sensitivity of all methods to model misspecification. Methods that do not account for autocorrelation in the movement variables lead to spurious change points, while methods that do not account for spatial bias completely miss changes in orientation. When applied to the animal data, the methods broadly agree on the structure of the movement behaviours. Important discrepancies, however, reflect differences in the assumptions and nature of the outputs. Important trade-offs are between the strength of the a priori assumptions (low in BCPA, high in MRW), complexity of output (high in the BCPA, low in the BPMM and MRW) and explanatory potential (highest in the MRW). The animal track analysis suggests some general principles for the exploratory analysis of movement data, including ways to exploit the strengths of the various methods. We argue for close and detailed exploratory analysis of movement before fitting complex movement models. © 2015

  6. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduc-stertion in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  7. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  8. Diversity, biological roles and biosynthetic pathways for sugar-glycerate containing compatible solutes in bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empadinhas, Nuno; da Costa, Milton S

    2011-08-01

    A decade ago the compatible solutes mannosylglycerate (MG) and glucosylglycerate (GG) were considered to be rare in nature. Apart from two species of thermophilic bacteria, Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and a restricted group of hyperthermophilic archaea, the Thermococcales, MG had only been identified in a few red algae. Glucosylglycerate was considered to be even rarer and had only been detected as an insignificant solute in two halophilic microorganisms, a cyanobacterium, as a component of a polysaccharide and of a glycolipid in two actinobacteria. Unlike the hyper/thermophilic MG-accumulating microorganisms, branching close to the root of the Tree of Life, those harbouring GG shared a mesophilic lifestyle. Exceptionally, the thermophilic bacterium Persephonella marina was reported to accumulate GG. However, and especially owing to the identification of the key-genes for MG and GG synthesis and to the escalating numbers of genomes available, a plethora of new organisms with the resources to synthesize these solutes has been recognized. The accumulation of GG as an 'emergency' compatible solute under combined salt stress and nitrogen-deficient conditions now seems to be a disseminated survival strategy from enterobacteria to marine cyanobacteria. In contrast, the thermophilic and extremely radiation-resistant bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus is the only actinobacterium known to accumulate MG, and under all growth conditions tested. This review addresses the environmental factors underlying the accumulation of MG, GG and derivatives in bacteria and archaea and their roles during stress adaptation or as precursors for more elaborated macromolecules. The diversity of pathways for MG and GG synthesis as well as those for some of their derivatives is also discussed. The importance of glycerate-derived organic solutes in the microbial world is only now being recognized. Their stress-dependent accumulation and the molecular aspects of their

  9. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa, in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis. We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  10. Side-of-onset of Parkinson's disease in relation to neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestino, Edward J; Amenechi, Chioma; Reinhofer, AnnaMarie; O'Toole, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side-of-onset (left-onset: LOPD; right-onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain , 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e.g., Verreyt et al., Neuropsychology Review , 21, 2011, 405). Thirty ROPD and 14 LOPD cases were drawn from a Boston clinic specializing in PD. Various cognitive and neuropsychological measures were used in an attempt to discover if there were indeed any differences between LOPD and ROPD in this cohort. For LOPD, duration of illness was found to be significantly greater than that of ROPD. However, further testing was able to confirm that despite this difference, it was not the cause of the other significant differences found. Furthermore, this increased duration was consistent with a previous study (Munhoz et al., Parkinsonism and Related Disorders , 19, 2013, 77). Performance on the Digit Span Backward (DSB) was found to be significantly poorer in LOPD than ROPD, suggesting compromised executive function in LOPD. Additionally, LOPD had significantly greater anxiety on the DASS Anxiety scales than ROPD. However, unlike Foster et al ( Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology , 23, 2010, 4), this increased anxiety could not account for the poorer performance on the DSB for LOPD. Finally, ROPD had significantly greater magical ideation than LOPD, which can be explained by the theory put forth by Brugger and Graves ( European Archives of Psychiatry , 247, 1997, 55). Clear and significant differences between LOPD and ROPD were found within our cohort. LOPD showed greater impairment of working memory, greater anxiety, and greater duration of illness-all independent of one another; whereas, those with ROPD had greater magical ideation, also independent of any other variables.

  11. Neither philopatric nor panmictic: microsatellite and mtDNA evidence suggests lack of natal homing but limits to dispersal in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Erin K; Goodman, Damon H; Reid, Stewart B; Docker, Margaret F

    2012-06-01

    Most species with lengthy migrations display some degree of natal homing; some (e.g. migratory birds and anadromous salmonids) show spectacular feats of homing. However, studies of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) indicate that this anadromous species locates spawning habitat based on pheromonal cues from larvae rather than through philopatry. Previous genetic studies in the anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) have both supported and rejected the hypothesis of natal homing. To resolve this, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the population structure in 965 Pacific lamprey from 20 locations from central British Columbia to southern California and supplemented this analysis with mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on a subset of 530 lamprey. Microsatellite analysis revealed (i) relatively low but often statistically significant genetic differentiation among locations (97% pairwise F(ST) values were <0.04 but 73.7% were significant); and (ii) weak but significant isolation by distance (r(2) = 0.0565, P = 0.0450) but no geographic clustering of samples. The few moderate F(ST) values involved comparisons with sites that were geographically distant or far upstream. The mtDNA analysis--although providing less resolution among sites (only 4.7%F(ST) values were significant)--was broadly consistent with the microsatellite results: (i) the southernmost site and some sites tributary to the Salish Sea were genetically distinct; and (ii) southern sites showed higher haplotype and private haplotype richness. These results are inconsistent with philopatry, suggesting that anadromous lampreys are unusual among species with long migrations, but suggest that limited dispersal at sea precludes panmixia in this species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc

  13. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and evolutionary analysis of vitamin D receptors isolated from basal vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Kollitz

    Full Text Available The vertebrate genome is a result of two rapid and successive rounds of whole genome duplication, referred to as 1R and 2R. Furthermore, teleost fish have undergone a third whole genome duplication (3R specific to their lineage, resulting in the retention of multiple gene paralogs. The more recent 3R event in teleosts provides a unique opportunity to gain insight into how genes evolve through specific evolutionary processes. In this study we compare molecular activities of vitamin D receptors (VDR from basal species that diverged at key points in vertebrate evolution in order to infer derived and ancestral VDR functions of teleost paralogs. Species include the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, a 1R jawless fish; the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea, a cartilaginous fish that diverged after the 2R event; and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus, a primitive 2R ray-finned fish. Saturation binding assays and gel mobility shift assays demonstrate high affinity ligand binding and classic DNA binding characteristics of VDR has been conserved across vertebrate evolution. Concentration response curves in transient transfection assays reveal EC50 values in the low nanomolar range, however maximum transactivational efficacy varies significantly between receptor orthologs. Protein-protein interactions were investigated using co-transfection, mammalian 2-hybrid assays, and mutations of coregulator activation domains. We then combined these results with our previous study of VDR paralogs from 3R teleosts into a bioinformatics analysis. Our results suggest that 1, 25D3 acts as a partial agonist in basal species. Furthermore, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that functional differences between VDR orthologs and paralogs are influenced by differential protein interactions with essential coregulator proteins. We speculate that we may be observing a change in the pharmacodynamics relationship between VDR and 1, 25D3 throughout vertebrate evolution that may

  16. Impact of increasing market access on a tropical small-scale fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kara; Irwin, Brian J.; Kramer, Daniel; Urquhart, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries have historically been marginalized in management and policy investments, and they often remain under-reported in national economic and fisheries statistics. Even so, small-scale fisheries are not entirely buffered from the impacts of globalization, such as the introduction and expansion of markets. This study measures the long-term impact of market-access on a coastal fishery on Nicaragua׳s remote Atlantic Coast from approximately the time when fishermen had access to stable and predictable local markets until the present, when the region has been transformed by road connection. In the last four years, fisheries trade has expanded as road connection has facilitated export to distant markets. Fishery-independent surveys were used to measure changes in indicators of fish-community status such as length-frequency, mean trophic level, and relative biomass. Species-level changes in relative biomass of common snook Centropomus undecimalis and gafftopsail catfish Bagre marinus were also evaluated since these species are the most economically valuable and likely account for the most fish biomass in the system. Using historical records, reports, current observations and interviews, changes in indicators of fishing intensity and market access over the past 17 years were assessed. From 1994 to 2011, community and species-specific metrics of the lagoon fishery declined significantly across all indicators examined. The potential social and economic outcomes of the decline in the fishery are far-reaching for the region, because this tropical fishery comprises the main source of protein and income for residents of twelve indigenous and Afro-descendent communities.

  17. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  18. Effectiveness of a refuge for Lake Trout in Western Lake Superior II: Simulation of future performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the e