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Sample records for alveolar septal capillary

  1. Alveolar septal pulmonary amyloidosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare diesase, and is classified as either tracheobronchial or parenchymal; the latter is also divided into nodular and diffuse alveolar septal forms. The alveolar septal form is extremely rare and usually produces reticular and nodular opacities. We describe a case of alveolar septal pulmonary amyloidosis manifested as multiple small nodules on chest radiograph and disseminated micronodules mainly in centrilobular and subpleural location without reticular opacities, on HRCT

  2. Iron deposition and increased alveolar septal capillary density in nonfibrotic lung tissue are associated with pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholmai Brian J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF has potential prognostic and therapeutic implications but can be difficult due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations or accurate non-invasive tests. Histopathologic parameters correlating with PH in IPF are also not known. Remodeling of postcapillary pulmonary vessels has been reported in the nonfibrotic areas of explanted lungs from IPF patients. We hypothesized that iron deposition and increased alveolar capillaries, the findings often seen in postcapillary PH, might predict the presence of clinical PH, independent of the severity of fibrosis or ventilatory dysfunction in IPF patients. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association between these histologic parameters and the degree of PH, with consideration of the severity of disease in IPF. Methods Iron deposition and alveolar septal capillary density (ASCD were evaluated on histologic sections with hematoxylin-eosin, iron, elastin and CD34 stainings. Percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC% was used for grading pulmonary function status. Fibrosis score assessed on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT was used for evaluating overall degree of fibrosis in whole lungs. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP by transthoracic echocardiography was used for the estimation of PH. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Results A cohort of 154 patients was studied who had the clinicopathological diagnosis of IPF with surgical lung biopsies or explants during the period of 1997 to 2006 at Mayo Clinic Rochester. In univariate analysis, RVSP in our IPF cases was associated with both iron deposition and ASCD (p Conclusions Iron deposition and ASCD in non fibrotic lung tissue showed an association with RVSP, suggesting that these features are possible morphologic predictors of PH in IPF.

  3. Pulmonary Surfactant Surface Tension Influences Alveolar Capillary Shape and Oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Machiko; Weaver, Timothy E.; Grant, Shawn N.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar capillaries are located in close proximity to the alveolar epithelium and beneath the surfactant film. We hypothesized that the shape of alveolar capillaries and accompanying oxygenation are influenced by surfactant surface tension in the alveolus. To prove our hypothesis, surfactant surface tension was regulated by conditional expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B in Sftpb−/− mice, thereby inhibiting surface tension–lowering properties of surfactant in vivo within 24 hours after d...

  4. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  5. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α reduces alveolar septal cell apoptosis in passive smoking rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng; CAI Shan; CHEN Ping; CHEN Jian-bo; WU Jie; WU Shang-jie; ZHOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that lung cell apoptosis plays an important role in pathogenesis of cigarette-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α)is one of the most important cytokines which are involved in COPD.This study aimed at investigating the jnfluence of its inhibitor,recombinant human necrosis factor-alpha receptor Ⅱ:IgG Fc fusion protein(rhTNFR:Fc)on alveolar septal cell apoptosis in passive smoking rats.Methods Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into a normal control group,a passive smoking group,an rhTNFR:Fc intervention group and a sham intervention group.The passive smoking rats were treated by exposure to cigarette smoking daily for 80 days.Afcer smoking for one month the rhTNFR:Fc Intervention group was treated with rhTNFR:Fc by subcutaneous injection,the sham intervention group injected subcutaneousIv with a neutral preparation(normal saline 0.1 ml,manicol 0.8 ml,cane sugar 0.2 mg,Tris 0.024 mg as a control.Lung function was determined and the levels of TNF-α in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid(BALF)were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA).Lung tissue sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin(HE)were observed for study of morphological alternations.Mean linear intercept(MLI)and mean alveolar numbers(MAN)were measured and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)method was carried out to determine the percentage of positive cells and distribution of apoptotic cells.Results Increased MLI and decreased MAN were found in the passive smoking group compared with both the normal control group and the rhTNFR:Fc intervention group(P<0.05).Forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second(FEV0.3)/forced vital capacity(FVC)and peak expiratory flow(PEF)were lower in the passive smoking group than that in the normal control group(P<0.05).Compared with the sham intervention group,FEV0.3/FVC and PEF increased in the rhTNFR:Fc intervention

  6. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Pulmonary Alveolar-Capillary Barrier Function in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Ellen L.; Halkar, Raghuveer; Burks, Marsha; Moss, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a disorder characterized by abnormal alveolar-capillary permeability. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of alcohol abuse would have clinical evidence of abnormal alveolar-capillary permeability even in the absence of symptoms. This could contribute to their propensity for the development of this disorder. Methods: Thirty-three subjects with a history of alcohol abuse, but no other ...

  7. Estimation of the number of alveolar capillaries by the Euler number (Euler-Poincaré characteristic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willführ, Alper; Brandenberger, Christina; Piatkowski, Tanja; Grothausmann, Roman; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The lung parenchyma provides a maximal surface area of blood-containing capillaries that are in close contact with a large surface area of the air-containing alveoli. Volume and surface area of capillaries are the classic stereological parameters to characterize the alveolar capillary network (ACN) and have provided essential structure-function information of the lung. When loss (rarefaction) or gain (angiogenesis) of capillaries occurs, these parameters may not be sufficient to provide mechanistic insight. Therefore, it would be desirable to estimate the number of capillaries, as it contains more distinct and mechanistically oriented information. Here, we present a new stereological method to estimate the number of capillary loops in the ACN. One advantage of this method is that it is independent of the shape, size, or distribution of the capillaries. We used consecutive, 1 μm-thick sections from epoxy resin-embedded material as a physical disector. The Euler-Poincaré characteristic of capillary networks can be estimated by counting the easily recognizable topological constellations of "islands," "bridges," and "holes." The total number of capillary loops in the ACN can then be calculated from the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. With the use of the established estimator of alveolar number, it is possible to obtain the mean number of capillary loops per alveolus. In conclusion, estimation of alveolar capillaries by design-based stereology is an efficient and unbiased method to characterize the ACN and may be particularly useful for studies on emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, or lung development. PMID:26432874

  8. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Farha Samar; Laskowski Daniel; George Deepa; Park Margaret M; Tang WH Wilson; Dweik Raed A; Erzurum Serpil C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in c...

  9. The alveolar-capillary membrane diffusing capacity and the pulmonary capillary blood volume in heart transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rawas, O; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R; Naik, S; Wheatley, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the mechanism of impairment of pulmonary transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in heart transplant candidates, as this is the most common lung function abnormality.
SETTING—Regional cardiopulmonary transplant centre.
METHODS—TLCO and its components (the diffusing capacity of the alveolar-capillary membrane (DM) and the pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC)) were measured using the Roughton and Forster method and the single breath technique in 38 patients with seve...

  10. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the...

  11. Increased alveolar/capillary membrane resistance to gas transfer in patients with chronic heart failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, S.; Baker, B. L.; Oakley, C M; Hughes, J. M.; Cleland, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate pulmonary diffusive resistance to gas exchange in patients with heart failure and healthy volunteers, assessing the relative contributions of the alveolar/capillary membrane and pulmonary capillary blood. SETTING--Hospital outpatient department and pulmonary function laboratory. PATIENTS--38 patients (mean age 60) receiving treatment with loop diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors for stable symptomatic heart failure of > 6 months duration (New York ...

  12. Spectroscopic Approach to Capillary-Alveolar Membrane Damage Induced Acute Lung Injury

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    Jing Wang

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute (or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is often associated with a high mortality rate in the critical care population. The term acute lung injury (ALI, a primitive phase of ARDS, was introduced by the European and American consensus groups to provide early diagnoses of ARDS. The pathophysiological characterization of ALI/ARDS – an increased pulmonary capillary-alveolar membrane barrier permeability – is generally not included in current intensive care unit diagnosis criteria.

  13. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Samar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm and lung capillary blood volume (Vc in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO and nitric oxide (DLNO, DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p CO of PAH patients did not change over time, DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01. Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion.

  14. Increased cardiac index due to terbutaline treatment aggravates capillary-alveolar macromolecular leakage in oleic acid lung injury in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Briot, Raphael; Bayat, Sam; Anglade, Daniel; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Grimbert, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the in vivo effects of terbutaline, a beta2-agonist assumed to reduce microvascular permeability in acute lung injury. Methods We used a recently developed broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) technique to repeatedly measure (every 15 min. for 4 hours) the time-course of capillary-alveolar leakage of a macromolecule (fluorescein-labeled dextran) in 19 oleic acid (OA) lung injured dogs. BAL was performed in a closed lung sampling site, using a bronchoscope fitted with an infl...

  15. Is length an appropriate estimator to characterize pulmonary alveolar capillaries? A critical evaluation in the human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Weibel, Ewald R.; Hahn, Ute;

    2010-01-01

    Stereological estimations of total capillary length have been used to characterize changes in the alveolar capillary network (ACN) during developmental processes or pathophysiological conditions. Here, we analyzed whether length estimations are appropriate to describe the 3D nature of the ACN. Semi...... resulted in a mean of 2,746 km (SD: 722 km). Because of the geometry of the ACN both approaches carry an unpredictable bias. The bias incurred by the design-based approach is proportional to the ratio between radius and length of the capillary segments in the ACN, the number of branching points and the...... winding of the capillaries. The model-based approach is biased because of the real noncylindrical shape of capillaries and the network structure. In conclusion, the estimation of the total length of capillaries in the ACN cannot be recommended as the geometry of the ACN does not fulfill the requirements...

  16. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS

  17. Clinical studies of alveolar-capillary permeability using technetium-99m DTPA aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble radioaerosols such as technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetate (DTPA) permit simple quantitative studies of alveolar-capillary permeability to be performed, since the submicronic aerosols are deposited mainly at the lung periphery and are cleared across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Regional alterations in permeability can also be noted using this radionuclide technique. We have measured the pulmonary epithelial permeability in normal subjects and the alteration in smokers, glue-sniffers, patients with inhalation burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and patients with lung metastases from thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine 131I. In the normal volunteers, the time taken for 50% of inhaled 99mTc DTPA to be cleared from the lungs (T1/2) was 66 minutes±1 sd of 12 mins. The smokers had a mean T1/2 of 20 mins±1 sd 4 min. In the hard-core glue-sniffing group, the majority were smokers who had stopped smoking and glue-sniffing for periods varying from 1 day to 42 days, and it was possible to note the changes in clearance times against period of abstinence. In the patients with inhalation burns, there was change in lung clearance arising from pulmonary epithelial damage; these patients showed increased rate of clearance (short T1/2) with mean T1/2 of 36 min±1 sd of 11 mins, while the retention images revealed regional lung damage in moderately severe inhalation burns. Twenty-four patients with COPD had inhalation scans done with Tc-99m tin colloid radioaerosol, and these images were compared with the perfusion lung scans done with 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA); in general the perfusion images matched the defects noted in the inhalation scans. The 99mTc DTPA clearance rate in these patients was normal i.e. T1/2=78±14 mins. In the thyroid cancer patients with lung metastases, who had high doses of radioiodine treatment, the T1/2 values were normal or prolonged slightly, mean T1/2=76 min±23. (author)

  18. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol lung scanning for the evaluation of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary clearance of small droplet 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol was studied in 100 patients (12 normal subjects, N; 10 asymptomatic healthy smoker, FA; 31 patients with interstitial lung diseases, IP; 47 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, BPCO). The first seven minutes of clearance were described with the function At=Ao*exp(-K*t) and the time constant K was considered representative of the 99mTc-DTPA clearance rate and hence of the alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. Groups FA, IP and BPCO showed a significant (p99mTc-DTPA dynamic lung scanning is an easy, non-invasive method to assess derangements of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability secondary to epithelial damage; 2) permeability increase is a very early effect of cigarette smoke damafe to the epithelium; 3) other mechanisms of epithelial injury are present in diffuse lung disease; 4) while the clinical role of this new pathophysiological test is not yet clear, it is likely that it may become a very early marker of pulmonary epithelial damage in diffuse lung disease

  19. Inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of an alveolar-capillary coculture model to silica nanoparticles: Comparison with conventional monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauber Roland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date silica nanoparticles (SNPs play an important role in modern technology and nanomedicine. SNPs are present in various materials (tyres, electrical and thermal insulation material, photovoltaic facilities. They are also used in products that are directly exposed to humans such as cosmetics or toothpaste. For that reason it is of great concern to evaluate the possible hazards of these engineered particles for human health. Attention should primarily be focussed on SNP effects on biological barriers. Accidentally released SNP could, for example, encounter the alveolar-capillary barrier by inhalation. In this study we examined the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles (aSNPs of 30 nm in size on an in vitro coculture model mimicking the alveolar-capillary barrier and compared these to conventional monocultures. Methods Thus, the epithelial cell line, H441, and the endothelial cell line, ISO-HAS-1, were used in monoculture and in coculture on opposite sides of a filter membrane. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTS assay, detection of membrane integrity (LDH release, and TER (Transepithelial Electrical Resistance measurement. Additionally, parameters of inflammation (sICAM-1, IL-6 and IL-8 release and apoptosis markers were investigated. Results Regarding toxic effects (viability, membrane integrity, TER the coculture model was less sensitive to apical aSNP exposure than the conventional monocultures of the appropriate cells. On the other hand, the in vitro coculture model responded with the release of inflammatory markers in a much more sensitive fashion than the conventional monoculture. At concentrations that were 10-100fold less than the toxic concentrations the apically exposed coculture showed a release of IL-6 and IL-8 to the basolateral side. This may mimic the early inflammatory events that take place in the pulmonary alveoli after aSNP inhalation. Furthermore, a number

  20. Regulation and repair of the alveolar-capillary barrier in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jahar; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the basic mechanisms that regulate fluid and protein exchange across the endothelial and epithelial barriers of the lung under both normal and pathological conditions. Clinically relevant lung injury occurs most commonly from severe viral and bacterial infections, aspiration syndromes, and severe shock. The mechanisms of lung injury have been identified in both experimental and clinical studies. Recovery from lung injury requires the reestablishment of an intact endothelial barrier and a functional alveolar epithelial barrier capable of secreting surfactant and removing alveolar edema fluid. Repair mechanisms include the participation of endogenous progenitor cells in strategically located niches in the lung. Novel treatment strategies include the possibility of cell-based therapy that may reduce the severity of lung injury and enhance lung repair. PMID:23398155

  1. Neonatal hyperoxia alters the pulmonary alveolar and capillary structure of 40-day-old rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, S. H.; Mercer, R.R.; Young, S L

    1990-01-01

    High inspired oxygen concentrations during the neonatal period profoundly inhibit rat lung development, an effect that is partly reversed during recovery in air. Persistent effects of neonatal hyperoxia on the size and number of alveoli or the structure of pulmonary capillaries have not been well defined. Using light and electron microscopic morphometry plus quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions of alveoli, we examined the lungs of 40-day-old rats that were exposed to more than 95% o...

  2. Novel FOXF1 mutations in sporadic and familial cases of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misaligned Pulmonary Veins imply a role for its DNA binding domain

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Partha; Yang, Yaping; Navarro, Colby; Silva, Iris; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Mostafa, Hasnaa; Kozakewich, Harry; Kearney, Debra; Cahill, John B.; Whitt, Merrissa; Bilic, Masha; Margraf, Linda; Charles, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare and lethal developmental disorder of the lung defined by a constellation of characteristic histopathological features. Non-pulmonary anomalies involving organs of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with ACD/MPV. We have collected DNA and pathological samples from more than 90 infants with ACD/MPV and their family members. Since th...

  3. Novel FOXF1 mutations in sporadic and familial cases of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary veins imply a role for its DNA binding domain

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Partha; Yang, Yaping; Navarro, Colby; Silva, Iris; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Mostafa, Hasnaa; Kozakewich, Harry; Kearney, Debra; Cahill, John B.; Whitt, Merrissa; Bilic, Masha; Margraf, Linda; Charles, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare and lethal developmental disorder of the lung defined by a constellation of characteristic histopathological features. Nonpulmonary anomalies involving organs of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with ACD/MPV. We have collected DNA and pathological samples from more than 90 infants with ACD/MPV and their family members. Since the...

  4. Primary alveolar capillary dysplasia (acinar dysplasia) and surfactant protein B deficiency: a clinical, radiological and pathological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugosson, Claes O.; Khoumais, Nuha [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Radiology MBC 28, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Salama, Husam M.; Kattan, Abdul H. [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Dayel, Fouad [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Pathology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-03-01

    Full-term infants with severe and prolonged respiratory distress represent a diagnostic challenge. Plain radiographic findings may be nonspecific or similar to classic surfactant deficiency disease for infants with surfactant protein B deficiency and acinar dysplasia. Objectives: To describe the similar clinical-radiolgical patterns of two rare neonatal conditions. Six newborn babies with severe respiratory distress at birth demonstrated clinical and radiographically prolonged and progressive diffuse pulmonary opacification. All infants demonstrated hyperinflation of the lungs. The diffuse hazy opacification, which varied from mild (n=3) to moderate (n=3), progressed to severe diffuse opacification preceding death, which occurred at 12-36 days of life. Open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of primary alveolar acinar dysplasia (AD) in four infants and surfactant protein B deficiency (SPBD) in two infants. In full-term babies with unexplained progressive respiratory distress from birth and progress of radiological changes, both AD and SPBD should be considered. (orig.)

  5. Primary alveolar capillary dysplasia (acinar dysplasia) and surfactant protein B deficiency: a clinical, radiological and pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-term infants with severe and prolonged respiratory distress represent a diagnostic challenge. Plain radiographic findings may be nonspecific or similar to classic surfactant deficiency disease for infants with surfactant protein B deficiency and acinar dysplasia. Objectives: To describe the similar clinical-radiological patterns of two rare neonatal conditions. Six newborn babies with severe respiratory distress at birth demonstrated clinical and radiographically prolonged and progressive diffuse pulmonary opacification. All infants demonstrated hyperinflation of the lungs. The diffuse hazy opacification, which varied from mild (n=3) to moderate (n=3), progressed to severe diffuse opacification preceding death, which occurred at 12-36 days of life. Open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of primary alveolar acinar dysplasia (AD) in four infants and surfactant protein B deficiency (SPBD) in two infants. In full-term babies with unexplained progressive respiratory distress from birth and progress of radiological changes, both AD and SPBD should be considered. (orig.)

  6. Novel FOXF1 mutations in sporadic and familial cases of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary veins imply a role for its DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Partha; Yang, Yaping; Navarro, Colby; Silva, Iris; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Mostafa, Hasnaa; Kozakewich, Harry; Kearney, Debra; Cahill, John B; Whitt, Merrissa; Bilic, Masha; Margraf, Linda; Charles, Adrian; Goldblatt, Jack; Gibson, Kathleen; Lantz, Patrick E; Garvin, A Julian; Petty, John; Kiblawi, Zeina; Zuppan, Craig; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; McDonald, Marie T; Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey L; Gaede, Jane T; Shivanna, Binoy; Schady, Deborah; Friedlich, Philippe S; Hays, Stephen R; Palafoll, Irene Valenzuela; Siebers-Renelt, Ulrike; Bohring, Axel; Finn, Laura S; Siebert, Joseph R; Galambos, Csaba; Nguyen, Lananh; Riley, Melissa; Chassaing, Nicolas; Vigouroux, Adeline; Rocha, Gustavo; Fernandes, Susana; Brumbaugh, Jane; Roberts, Kari; Ho-Ming, Luk; Lo, Ivan F M; Lam, Stephen; Gerychova, Romana; Jezova, Marta; Valaskova, Iveta; Fellmann, Florence; Afshar, Katayoun; Giannoni, Eric; Muhlethaler, Vincent; Liang, Jinlong; Beckmann, Jacques S; Lioy, Janet; Deshmukh, Hitesh; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Swarr, Daniel T; Sloman, Melissa; Shaw-Smith, Charles; van Loon, Rosa Laura; Hagman, Cecilia; Sznajer, Yves; Barrea, Catherine; Galant, Christine; Detaille, Thierry; Wambach, Jennifer A; Cole, F Sessions; Hamvas, Aaron; Prince, Lawrence S; Diderich, Karin E M; Brooks, Alice S; Verdijk, Robert M; Ravindranathan, Hari; Sugo, Ella; Mowat, David; Baker, Michael L; Langston, Claire; Welty, Stephen; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2013-06-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare and lethal developmental disorder of the lung defined by a constellation of characteristic histopathological features. Nonpulmonary anomalies involving organs of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with ACD/MPV. We have collected DNA and pathological samples from more than 90 infants with ACD/MPV and their family members. Since the publication of our initial report of four point mutations and 10 deletions, we have identified an additional 38 novel nonsynonymous mutations of FOXF1 (nine nonsense, seven frameshift, one inframe deletion, 20 missense, and one no stop). This report represents an up to date list of all known FOXF1 mutations to the best of our knowledge. Majority of the cases are sporadic. We report four familial cases of which three show maternal inheritance, consistent with paternal imprinting of the gene. Twenty five mutations (60%) are located within the putative DNA-binding domain, indicating its plausible role in FOXF1 function. Five mutations map to the second exon. We identified two additional genic and eight genomic deletions upstream to FOXF1. These results corroborate and extend our previous observations and further establish involvement of FOXF1 in ACD/MPV and lung organogenesis. PMID:23505205

  7. Diffusion of hyperpolarized 129Xe in the lung: a simplified model of 129Xe septal uptake and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Samuel; Muradyan, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Washko, George R.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2011-01-01

    We used hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR to measure pulmonary alveolar surface area per unit gas volume SA/Vgas, alveolar septal thickness h and capillary transit time τ, three critical determinants of the lung's primary role as a gas exchange organ. An analytical solution for a simplified diffusion model is described, together with a modification of the xenon transfer contrast imaging technique utilizing 90° radio-frequency pulses applied to the dissolved phase, rather than traditional 180° pulses. With this approach, three-dimensional (3D) maps of SA/Vgas were obtained. We measured global SA/Vgas, h and τ in four normal subjects, two subjects with mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two subjects with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In normals, SA/Vgas decreased with increasing lung volume from ~320 to 80 cm-1 both h~13 μm and τ~1.5 s were relatively constant. For the two ILD subjects, h was, respectively, 36 and 97% larger than normal, quantifying an increased gas/blood tissue barrier; SA/Vgas and τ were normal. The two COPD subjects had SA/Vgas values ~25% that of normals, quantifying septal surface loss in emphysema; h and τ were normal. These are the first noninvasive, non-radiation-based, quantitative measurements of h and τ in patients with pulmonary disease.

  8. Diffusion of hyperpolarized 129Xe in the lung: a simplified model of 129Xe septal uptake and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR to measure pulmonary alveolar surface area per unit gas volume SA/Vgas, alveolar septal thickness h and capillary transit time τ, three critical determinants of the lung's primary role as a gas exchange organ. An analytical solution for a simplified diffusion model is described, together with a modification of the xenon transfer contrast imaging technique utilizing 900 radio-frequency pulses applied to the dissolved phase, rather than traditional 1800 pulses. With this approach, three-dimensional (3D) maps of SA/Vgas were obtained. We measured global SA/Vgas, h and τ in four normal subjects, two subjects with mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two subjects with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In normals, SA/Vgas decreased with increasing lung volume from ∼320 to 80 cm-1; both h∼13 μm and τ∼1.5 s were relatively constant. For the two ILD subjects, h was, respectively, 36 and 97% larger than normal, quantifying an increased gas/blood tissue barrier; SA/Vgas and τ were normal. The two COPD subjects had SA/Vgas values ∼25% that of normals, quantifying septal surface loss in emphysema; h and τ were normal. These are the first noninvasive, non-radiation-based, quantitative measurements of h and τ in patients with pulmonary disease.

  9. Particle-induced indentation of the alveolar epithelium caused by surface tension forces

    OpenAIRE

    Mijailovich, S. M.; Kojic, M.; Tsuda, A.

    2010-01-01

    Physical contact between an inhaled particle and alveolar epithelium at the moment of particle deposition must have substantial effects on subsequent cellular functions of neighboring cells, such as alveolar type-I, type-II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophage, as well as afferent sensory nerve cells, extending their dendrites toward the alveolar septal surface. The forces driving this physical insult are born at the surface of the alveolar air-liquid layer. The role of alveolar surfactant submer...

  10. Atrial Septal Defect (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Going to the Hospital Your Heart & Circulatory System Quiz: Heart & Circulatory System EKG (Video) What's It Like to Have Surgery? Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System Anesthesia Basics Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  11. Remodeling of alveolar septa after murine pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysasi, Alexandra B; Wagner, Willi L; Bennett, Robert D; Ackermann, Maximilian; Valenzuela, Cristian D; Belle, Janeil; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A; Mentzer, Steven J

    2015-06-15

    In most mammals, removing one lung (pneumonectomy) results in the compensatory growth of the remaining lung. In mice, stereological observations have demonstrated an increase in the number of mature alveoli; however, anatomic evidence of the early phases of alveolar growth has remained elusive. To identify changes in the lung microstructure associated with neoalveolarization, we used tissue histology, electron microscopy, and synchrotron imaging to examine the configuration of the alveolar duct after murine pneumonectomy. Systematic histological examination of the cardiac lobe demonstrated no change in the relative frequency of dihedral angle components (Ends, Bends, and Junctions) (P > 0.05), but a significant decrease in the length of a subset of septal ends ("E"). Septal retraction, observed in 20-30% of the alveolar ducts, was maximal on day 3 after pneumonectomy (P alveolar duct diameter ratio (Dout:Din) was significantly lower 3 days after pneumonectomy compared to all controls except for the detergent-treated lung (P surface tension within the alveolar duct, resulting in a new equilibrium at a higher total energy and lower surface area. The spatial and temporal association of these microstructural changes with postpneumonectomy lung growth suggests that these changes represent an early phase of alveolar duct remodeling. PMID:26078396

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadice Selimoğlu Şen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of lipoproteinosis material within the alveoli. A 36 age male patient applied to our hospital with dyspnea that began 5 months ago. Bilateral diffuse infiltration on postero-anterior chest graphy was seen. Arterial blood gas measurements (ABG was: pH:7.44, pCO2: 36 mmHg, pO2: 49 mmHg, SaO2: 85%, HCO3: 24 mmol/L. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT reported as bilateral diffuse ground glass areas and interlobuler septal thickening on this areas. Asido resistant bacillus was negative in sputum at three times and was also negative in post bronchoscopic sputum and bronchoalveoler lavage material. Wedge resection was made by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Histopathology report of biopsy material revealed “Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP”. Massive lung lavage under general anesthesia was planned for patient. Clinical improvement was seen in patient beginning from admission and ABG measurements entered the recovery trend in follow-up. Partial pressure of oxygen was increased to 65 mmHg and patient was followed without lung lavage. Control chest radiography and HRCT showed significant radiological improvement. After three months, radiological lesions had completely regressed at control HRCT. As a result, in patients with symptoms and radiologically bilateral diffuse infiltration physicians should consider PAP as a rare disease in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Alveolar proteinosis in Behçet's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tetikkurt Cuneyt; Tetikkurt Seza; Ozdemir Imran; Zuhur Cigdem; Bayar Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A 51-year-old man with Behçet's disease complained of fever, dry cough and dyspnea during exertion. Chest CT showed ground glass opacities with interstitial septal thickening in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed amorphous and lipoproteinaceous material that was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain positive. Transbronchial biopsy specimen demonstrated PAS positive alveolar eosinophilic material consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum anti-granulocyte-macropha...

  14. Diffusion of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe in the lung: a simplified model of {sup 129}Xe septal uptake and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, Samuel; Muradyan, Iga; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Washko, George R; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Departments of Radiology and Pulmonary Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hrovat, Mirko I, E-mail: patz@bwh.harvard.edu [Mirtech, Inc., Brockton, MA 02301 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We used hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe NMR to measure pulmonary alveolar surface area per unit gas volume S{sub A}/V{sub gas}, alveolar septal thickness h and capillary transit time {tau}, three critical determinants of the lung's primary role as a gas exchange organ. An analytical solution for a simplified diffusion model is described, together with a modification of the xenon transfer contrast imaging technique utilizing 90{sup 0} radio-frequency pulses applied to the dissolved phase, rather than traditional 180{sup 0} pulses. With this approach, three-dimensional (3D) maps of S{sub A}/V{sub gas} were obtained. We measured global S{sub A}/V{sub gas}, h and {tau} in four normal subjects, two subjects with mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two subjects with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In normals, S{sub A}/V{sub gas} decreased with increasing lung volume from {approx}320 to 80 cm{sup -1}; both h{approx}13 {mu}m and {tau}{approx}1.5 s were relatively constant. For the two ILD subjects, h was, respectively, 36 and 97% larger than normal, quantifying an increased gas/blood tissue barrier; S{sub A}/V{sub gas} and {tau} were normal. The two COPD subjects had S{sub A}/V{sub gas} values {approx}25% that of normals, quantifying septal surface loss in emphysema; h and {tau} were normal. These are the first noninvasive, non-radiation-based, quantitative measurements of h and {tau} in patients with pulmonary disease.

  15. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis in a premature infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder characterized by widespread capillary proliferation in the lung, infiltrating the interstitium and the alveolar walls. We present the HRCT features of PCH in a surviving ex-premature infant. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of the radiological features of PCH in a young living infant. (orig.)

  16. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis in a premature infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cicero J.T.A.; Massie, John; Mandelstam, Simone A. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder characterized by widespread capillary proliferation in the lung, infiltrating the interstitium and the alveolar walls. We present the HRCT features of PCH in a surviving ex-premature infant. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of the radiological features of PCH in a young living infant. (orig.)

  17. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar proteinosis; Pulmonary alveolar phospholipoproteinosis ... In some cases, the cause of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is unknown. In others, it occurs with lung infection or an immune problem. It also can occur with cancers of the blood system, ...

  18. Alveolar proteinosis in Behçet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetikkurt Cuneyt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 51-year-old man with Behçet's disease complained of fever, dry cough and dyspnea during exertion. Chest CT showed ground glass opacities with interstitial septal thickening in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL revealed amorphous and lipoproteinaceous material that was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain positive. Transbronchial biopsy specimen demonstrated PAS positive alveolar eosinophilic material consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF antibody was negative. Recent studies have reported anti-GMCSF not present in the the serum of patients with secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP but they have not reported so in patients with idiopathic PAP. We report a case of alveolar proteinosis in the setting of Behçet's disease with spontaneous remission.

  19. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  20. Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling through the Lysophosphatidic Acid-1 Receptor Is Required for Alveolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Manuela; Knudsen, Lars; Lagares, David; Ebener, Simone; Probst, Clemens K; Fontaine, Benjamin A; Franklin, Alicia; Kellner, Manuela; Kühnel, Mark; Matthieu, Stephanie; Grothausmann, Roman; Chun, Jerold; Roberts, Jesse D; Ochs, Matthias; Tager, Andrew M

    2016-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through one of its receptors, LPA1, contributes to both the development and the pathological remodeling after injury of many organs. Because we found previously that LPA-LPA1 signaling contributes to pulmonary fibrosis, here we investigated whether this pathway is also involved in lung development. Quantitative assessment of lung architecture of LPA1-deficient knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at 3, 12, and 24 weeks of age using design-based stereology suggested the presence of an alveolarization defect in LPA1 KO mice at 3 weeks, which persisted as alveolar numbers increased in WT mice into adulthood. Across the ages examined, the lungs of LPA1 KO mice exhibited decreased alveolar numbers, septal tissue volumes, and surface areas, and increased volumes of the distal airspaces. Elastic fibers, critical to the development of alveolar septa, appeared less organized and condensed and more discontinuous in KO alveoli starting at P4. Tropoelastin messenger RNA expression was decreased in KO lungs, whereas expression of matrix metalloproteinases degrading elastic fibers was either decreased or unchanged. These results are consistent with the abnormal lung phenotype of LPA1 KO mice, being attributable to reduced alveolar septal formation during development, rather than to increased septal destruction as occurs in the emphysema of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Peripheral septal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, which direct septation in late alveolarization, demonstrated reduced production of tropoelastin and matrix metalloproteinases, and diminished LPA-induced migration, when isolated from LPA1 KO mice. Taken together, our data suggest that LPA-LPA1 signaling is critically required for septation during alveolarization. PMID:27082727

  1. Phagocytic properties of lung alveolar wall cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka,Akisuke

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose to define the mechanism of heavy metal intoxication by inhalation, morphologic observations were made on rat lungs after nasal instillation of iron colloid particles of positive and negative electric charges. Histochemical observation was also made on the liver and spleen of these animals. The instilled iron colloid particles reach the alveolar cavity easily, as can be seen in the tissue sections stained by Prussian blue reaction. Alveolar macrophages do take up them avidly both of positive and negative charges, though much less the positive particles than negative ones. In contrast, the alveolar epithelial cells take up solely positive particles by phagocytosis but not negative ones. Electron microscope observation revealed that the positive particles are ingested by Type I epithelial cells by pinocytosis and by Type II cells by phagocytosis as well. Then the iron colloid particles are transferred into the basement membrane by exocytosis. Travelling through the basement membrane they are again taken up by capillary endothelial cells by phagocytosis. Some particles were found in the intercellular clefts of capillary endothelial cells but not any iron colloid particles in the intercellular spaces of epithelial cells and in the capillary lumen. However, the liver and spleen tissues of the animals given iron colloid showed a strong positive iron reaction. On the basis of these observations, the mechanism of acute intoxication by inhaling heavy metal dusts like lead fume is discussed from the view point of selective uptake of alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial cells for the particles of the positive electric cha'rge.

  2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Crestani, B; Epaud, R.; Aubier, M.; M-C. Dombret; Taille, C.; M-P. Debray; Danel, C.; R. Borie

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking activation of alveolar macrophages. Auto-immune alveolar proteinosis is the most frequent form of PAP, representing 9...

  3. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Alveolar Destruction in Emphysema: An Evolutionary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tuder, Rubin M.; Yoshida, Toshinori; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Petrache, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Emphysema consists of a unique pattern of alveolar destruction, resulting in marked airspace enlargement with reduction of alveolar capillary exchange area. Classical concepts of the pathogenesis of emphysema have relied on the paradigm set by the inflammation and protease/antiprotease imbalance. We propose herein that cigarette smoke constitutes an environmental hazard that causes alveolar destruction by the interaction of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protease/antiprotease imbalance. We ...

  4. Capillary remodeling in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schraufnagel, D. E.; Mehta, D.; Harshbarger, R.; Treviranus, K.; Wang, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is a process in which collagen is laid down and the delicate capillary-alveolar relationship is disturbed. The architectural changes which occur in the capillaries, a main element of the oxygen transferring unit, are difficult to illustrate without a three-dimensional tool, such as scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, a scanning electron microscopic study was undertaken to show the capillary changes of lung fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation...

  5. Combining rhinoplasty with septal perforation repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T; Magdy, Emad A

    2006-11-01

    A combined septal perforation repair and rhinoplasty was performed in 80 patients presenting with septal perforations (size 1 to 5 cm) and external nasal deformities. The external rhinoplasty approach was used for all cases and the perforation was repaired using bilateral intranasal mucosal advancement flaps with a connective tissue interposition graft in between. Complete closure of the perforation was achieved in 90% of perforations of size up to 3.5 cm and in only 70% of perforations that were larger than 3.5 cm. Cosmetically, 95% were very satisfied with their aesthetic result. The external rhinoplasty approach proved to be very helpful in the process of septal perforation repair especially in large and posteriorly located perforations and in cases where the caudal septal cartilage was previously resected. Our results show that septal perforation repair can be safely combined with rhinoplasty and that some of the routine rhinoplasty maneuvers, such as medial osteotomies and dorsal lowering, could even facilitate the process of septal perforation repair. PMID:17131270

  6. Transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Three-day-old baby girl, transferred to NPICU because of low saturations and a development of a murmur. Following a number of rigourous test and the appropriate investigations, she was diagnosed with Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA), a large Atrial Septal Defect, and a malaligned Ventricular Septal Defect. She was then transferred to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) for corrective surgey.

  7. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sandeep M; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Jordan P Reynolds; Krowka, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a disease of alveolar accumulation of phospholipoproteinaceous material that results in gas exchange impairment leading to dyspnea and alveolar infiltrates. There are three forms of PAP: congenital, acquired and idiopathic; of which the latter two are predominant in the adult population. Previous case studies have found that the acquired form can be secondary to various autoimmune, infectious, malignant and environmental etiologies. Recent advances in t...

  8. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sandeep M; Hiroshi Sekiguchi; Jordan P Reynolds; Krowka, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a disease of alveolar accumulation of phospholipoproteinaceous material that results in gas exchange impairment leading to dyspnea and alveolar infiltrates. There are three forms of PAP: congenital, acquired and idiopathic; of which the latter two are predominant in the adult population. Previous case studies have found that the acquired form can be secondary to various autoimmune, infectious, malignant and environmental etiologies. Recent advances in t...

  9. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Šarac Sanja; Milić Rade; Zolotarevski Lidija; Aćimović Slobodan; Tomić Ilija; Plavec Goran

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary) and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes w...

  10. Extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Muangman, Nisa; Ruangchira-Urai, Ruchira

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare pulmonary disorder that is caused by abnormal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter from the mutation of SLC34A2 gene, leading to accumulation of microliths in the alveoli. We report the extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an elderly woman who presented with progressive dyspnea for 2 months. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse pulmonary calcification. Tissue histopathology from open lung biopsy demonstrated widespread intra-alveolar lam...

  11. Cytokinetic study of alveolar macrophage renewal in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pools of alveolar macrophages and monocytes were measured by combining morphometry and the extraction of cells by lavage. The turnover rate of macrophages was evaluated by measuring the clearance rate of 59Fe2O3 previously administered by aerosols. The labeling index and S phase duration of cells in alveoli and lung capillaries were determined by autoradiography after 3H-labeled thymidine and 5-125Iododeoxyuridine incorporation. The disappearance rate was determined after specific incorporation of 125Iododeoxyuridine in deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of alveolar macrophages. Steady-state parameters are presented. Under healthy conditions there are almost no macrophages in the interstitium space. Lung capillaries must be considered as a maturation compartment for macrophages before the last dividing stage in the alveoli. This is consistent with the large enrichment of monocytes in the lung and the ability of some of these monocytes to divide inside the capillaries

  12. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H.J.; K N Mohan Rao; Prathima, K. M.; Das, Jayanth K.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause. We report a case in a young boy who presented with history of failure to thrive and chest X-ray finding suggestive of miliary mottling. Open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

  13. Rare Presentation of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Causing Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Kroll

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare condition characterized by dysfunctional alveolar macrophages, which ineffectively clear surfactant and typically cause mild hypoxemia. Characteristic Computed Tomography findings are septal reticulations superimposed on ground-glass opacities in a crazy paving pattern, with a clear juxtaposition between affected and unaffected parenchyma. While traditionally PAP was diagnosed via biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is usually sufficient; the fluid appears milky, and on microscopic examination there are foamy macrophages with eosinophilic granules and extracellular hyaline material that is Periodic Acid-Schiff positive. Standard therapy is whole lung lavage (WLL, although novel treatments are under development. The case presented is a 55-year-old woman with six months of progressive dyspnea, who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation; she had typical findings of PAP on imaging and BAL. WLL was ultimately successful in restoring adequate oxygenation. Respiratory failure of this magnitude is a rare finding in PAP.

  14. Fractal analysis of alveolarization in hyperoxia-induced rat models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzionato, Andrea; Guidolin, Diego; Macchi, Veronica; Sarasin, Gloria; Grisafi, Davide; Tortorella, Cinzia; Dedja, Arben; Zaramella, Patrizia; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    No papers are available about potentiality of fractal analysis in quantitative assessment of alveolarization in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Thus, we here performed a comparative analysis between fractal [fractal dimension (D) and lacunarity] and stereological [mean linear intercept (Lm), total volume of alveolar air spaces, total number of alveoli, mean alveolar volume, total volume and surface area of alveolar septa, and mean alveolar septal thickness] parameters in experimental hyperoxia-induced models of BPD. At birth, rats were distributed between the following groups: 1) rats raised in ambient air for 2 wk; 2) rats exposed to 60% oxygen for 2 wk; 3) rats raised in normoxia for 6 wk; and 4) rats exposed to 60% hyperoxia for 2 wk and to room air for further 4 wk. Normoxic 6-wk rats showed increased D and decreased lacunarity with respect to normoxic 2-wk rats, together with changes in all stereological parameters except for mean alveolar volume. Hyperoxia-exposed 2-wk rats showed significant changes only in total number of alveoli, mean alveolar volume, and lacunarity with respect to equal-in-age normoxic rats. In the comparison between 6-wk rats, the hyperoxia-exposed group showed decreased D and increased lacunarity, together with changes in all stereological parameters except for septal thickness. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed a comparable discriminatory power of D, lacunarity, and total number of alveoli; Lm and mean alveolar volume were less discriminative. D and lacunarity did not show significant changes when different segmentation thresholds were applied, suggesting that the fractal approach may be fit to automatic image analysis. PMID:26851258

  15. Rat alveolar myofibroblasts acquire alpha-smooth muscle actin expression during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vyalov, S. L.; Gabbiani, G.; Kapanci, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of fibroblasts in alveolar septa are characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic bundles of microfilaments that contain cytoplasmic actin isoforms; these cells have been named contractile interstitial cells or V-type myofibroblasts. In the rat, they express desmin as intermediate filament protein. In this study, we explored the possibility that modulation and replication of such septal fibroblasts result in the appearance of alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-SM) actin-positive myofibro...

  16. Pulmonary vascular and alveolar development in tetralogy of Fallot: a recommendation for early correction.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. J.; Haworth, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Using quantitative morphometric techniques, we analysed pulmonary arterial and alveolar development in the lungs of seven children aged 1.2-12 years who died during or soon after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. One child had a residual ventricular septal defect and survived for five months. One other child had had a previous Waterston-Cooley anastomosis (Waterston shunt). Postmortem lung volume in relation to body surface area was generally below normal for age, the alveoli were small, and the...

  17. Atrioventricular septal defects among infants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Andersen, Helle; Garne, Ester;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of chromosomal and non-chromosomal cases of atrioventricular septal defects in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from EUROCAT, a European network of population-based registries collecting data on congenital anomalies. Data from 13 registries for the perio...

  18. Congenital Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Hammami; Khaled Harrathi; Khaled Lajmi; Samir Hadded; Chebil Ben Meriem; Mohamed Néji Guédiche

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals. Two clinically different pediatric types have been defined as congenital PAP which is fatal and a late-onset PAP which is similar to the adult form and less severe. The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole-lung lavage is the curr...

  19. Particle-induced indentation of the alveolar epithelium caused by surface tension forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijailovich, S M; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2010-10-01

    Physical contact between an inhaled particle and alveolar epithelium at the moment of particle deposition must have substantial effects on subsequent cellular functions of neighboring cells, such as alveolar type-I, type-II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophage, as well as afferent sensory nerve cells, extending their dendrites toward the alveolar septal surface. The forces driving this physical insult are born at the surface of the alveolar air-liquid layer. The role of alveolar surfactant submerging a hydrophilic particle has been suggested by Gehr and Schürch's group (e.g., Respir Physiol 80: 17-32, 1990). In this paper, we extended their studies by developing a further comprehensive and mechanistic analysis. The analysis reveals that the mechanics operating in the particle-tissue interaction phenomena can be explained on the basis of a balance between surface tension force and tissue resistance force; the former tend to move a particle toward alveolar epithelial cell surface, the latter to resist the cell deformation. As a result, the submerged particle deforms the tissue and makes a noticeable indentation, which creates unphysiological stress and strain fields in tissue around the particle. This particle-induced microdeformation could likely trigger adverse mechanotransduction and mechanosensing pathways, as well as potentially enhancing particle uptake by the cells. PMID:20634359

  20. Capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short historical introduction, the different modes of separation in capillary electrophoresis are explained and illustrated by practical examples. In addition, the most important parameters that can be used to optimize the selectivity of the separation, are discussed. (author) 27 refs.; 8 figs

  1. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy and hypothyroidism in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, D I; Murray, J.; Milner, S.; Dansky, R; Levin, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Any echocardiographic study of two children with hypothyroidism demonstrated the presence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy. One child died aged 11 months, and pronounced thickening of the interventricular septum was confirmed at necropsy. There was also hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall. Histological examination showed only slight muscle fibre disarray, but there was striking vacuolation and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. In the second case, a child aged five years, the asymmetric ...

  2. Left Septal Fascicular Block: Myth Or Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    MacAlpin, Rex N.

    2003-01-01

    Anatomic studies have shown that the left bundle branch divides into three fascicles in most humans. Changes in the 12 lead ECG (electrocardiogram) due to conduction abnormalities of the left anterior fascicle and left posterior fascicle are now part of the standard repertoire of electrocardiographic interpretation. There are no standard criteria for detecting conduction defects involving the third left fascicle, the septal or median fascicle, and the very existence of such defects is still a...

  3. Could early septal involvement in the remodeling process be related to the advance hypertensive heart disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yalçin

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: LV diastolic dysfunction becomes more severe in septal wall than lateral wall in hypertensive LVH. Septal myocardial performance is more dominantly affected by hypertension possibly due to earlier septal involvement in disease course. Septal MPI is correlated moderately with septal wall thickness.

  4. Application of linear integration in the morphometric study of mild and severe pulmonary alveolar injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, P A; Côté, M G

    1988-02-01

    In this study we applied linear integration morphometry to characterize the pulmonary alveolar reaction to toxic injury and to study possible relationships between the major tissue and cell compartments of alveolar tissue, normal and injured. Acute alveolar injury of mild and severe intensity was induced in Swiss-Webster mice by the ip administration of the chemicals diquat (4 mg/kg) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 400 mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed at Days 1 and 2 after diquat treatment and at Days 1, 3, and 5 after BHT treatment. Sampling and analysis of alveolar tissue were conducted at both levels of light and electron microscopy. Thickness distributions of arithmetic and reciprocal intercepts, as well as the arithmetic (tau) and harmonic (tau h) mean thicknesses, were established for the following alveolar compartments: septum, alveolo-capillary barrier (ACB), type I and total epithelia, capillary endothelium, and interstitium. A relative measure of the pulmonary diffusion capacity and the capillary load of alveolar septa were also determined. The parameters calculated from these thickness distributions, such as their slopes, percentages of thin intercepts, and tau/tau h ratios, proved very sensitive and useful in the detection and characterization of morphological alterations in the type I epithelial and capillary endothelial cells following either mild or severe alveolar injury. The epithelial, endothelial, and interstitial layers of pulmonary septa were all characterized by their own pattern of structural changes, so that it proved impossible to relate them in a simple way to the tissue reaction, which can be easily studied at the light microscopic level. Linear integration morphometry thus proved very useful as a morphometric approach to the study of pulmonary alveolar injury and repair. PMID:3335253

  5. Alveolar liquid pressure measured by micropuncture in isolated lungs of mature and immature fetal rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, J U

    1987-01-01

    Increased alveolar surface tension due to surfactant deficiency is thought to result in a negative pressure surrounding pulmonary capillaries and to promote fluid filtration. To test this hypothesis, alveolar liquid pressure (Pliquid) was measured by micropuncture in isolated lungs of mature and immature fetal rabbits (with and without surfactant replacement) at different air inflation pressures (Pairway). Lung maturity was assessed by air pressure-volume (P-V) curves. Pliquid was correlated ...

  6. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Crestani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking activation of alveolar macrophages. Auto-immune alveolar proteinosis is the most frequent form of PAP, representing 90% of cases. Although not specific, high-resolution computed tomography shows a characteristic “crazy paving” pattern. In most cases, bronchoalveolar lavage findings establish the diagnosis. Whole lung lavage is the most effective therapy, especially for auto-immune disease. Novel therapies targeting alveolar macrophages (recombinant GM-CSF therapy or anti-GM-CSF antibodies (rituximab and plasmapheresis are being investigated. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of PAP has improved in the past 20 yrs, but therapy for PAP still needs improvement.

  7. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a disease of alveolar accumulation of phospholipoproteinaceous material that results in gas exchange impairment leading to dyspnea and alveolar infiltrates. There are three forms of PAP: congenital, acquired and idiopathic; of which the latter two are predominant in the adult population. Previous case studies have found that the acquired form can be secondary to various autoimmune, infectious, malignant and environmental etiologies. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PAP demonstrate that the idiopathic form is due to antigranulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor antibodies. Therapeutic targets that replace granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor or remove these antibodies are being actively developed. The current standard of care is to perform whole lung lavage on these patients to clear the alveolar space to help improve respiratory physiology. A case of PAP is reported, followed by a literature review on the diagnosis and management of this rare condition with the aim of increasing awareness among physicians when treating patients who present with alveolar infiltrates.

  8. The Cardiac MR Images and Causes of Paradoxical Septal Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time cine MRI studies using the steady-state free precession (SSFP) technique are very useful for evaluating cardiac and septal motion. During diastole, the septum acts as a compliant membrane between the two ventricles, and its position and geometry respond to even small alterations in the trans-septal pressure gradients. Abnormal septal motion can be caused by an overload of the right ventricle, delayed ventricular filling and abnormal conduction. In this study, we illustrate, based on our experiences, the causes of abnormal septal motion such as corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot, an atrial septal defect, pulmonary thromboembolism, mitral stenosis, constrictive pericarditis and left bundle branch block. In addition, we discuss the significance of paradoxical septal motion in the context of cardiac MR imaging

  9. The Cardiac MR Images and Causes of Paradoxical Septal Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Il; Chun, Eun Ju [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Hun [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Real-time cine MRI studies using the steady-state free precession (SSFP) technique are very useful for evaluating cardiac and septal motion. During diastole, the septum acts as a compliant membrane between the two ventricles, and its position and geometry respond to even small alterations in the trans-septal pressure gradients. Abnormal septal motion can be caused by an overload of the right ventricle, delayed ventricular filling and abnormal conduction. In this study, we illustrate, based on our experiences, the causes of abnormal septal motion such as corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot, an atrial septal defect, pulmonary thromboembolism, mitral stenosis, constrictive pericarditis and left bundle branch block. In addition, we discuss the significance of paradoxical septal motion in the context of cardiac MR imaging.

  10. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage (DAH) it is a clinical syndrome that generally manifests with hemoptysis, anemia and infiltrated in the thorax x-ray. From the anatomical point of view, the DAH is defined as the presence of blood in the distal alveolar spaces without it can identify any endobronchial abnormality. The radiological presentation of the DAH is characterized by the presence of having infiltrated of alveolar occupation in the Rx of thorax of prevalence perihiliar and bilateral that goes converging to configure an image of complete consolidation of the air space, the apexes and the periphery of the lungs are generally respected. These infiltrated are solved in one to two weeks, but with the repeated episodes of having bled it can develop interstitial fibrosis

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal aortopulmonary septal defect with ventricular septal defect by two-dimension echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fetal aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD) is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.1%-0.2% of all cardiac defects in live births world wide.1 Hospital mortality is 13% and 33% for simple and complex APSD, respectively.2 This rare cardiac defect refers to a congenital malformation in the development of the arteriosus truncus septum, and is usually associated with a wide variety of other structural cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary valve stegnosis and so on.3 Prenatal diagnosis of an APSD is possible by echocardiography.

  12. Permanent alveolar collapse is the predominant mechanism in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nevins W; Atamas, Sergei P; Luzina, Irina G; Galvin, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar epithelial cell loss and impaired epithelial cell regeneration are currently accepted as central initiating events in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but subsequent downstream effects remain uncertain. The most accepted downstream effect is aberrant and dysregulated mesenchymal cell proliferation and excess extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. However, biochemical and imaging studies have perhaps somewhat surprisingly indicated little increase in total lung collagen and lung tissue, and have rather shown a substantial decrease in lung aeration and lung air volume. Loss of tissue aeration is a consequence of alveolar collapse, which occurs in IPF as a result of apposition and septal incorporation of denuded basal lamina. Permanent alveolar collapse is well-documented following epithelial injury, has the ability to mimic interstitial fibrosis radiologically and histologically, and is a better supported explanation than dysregulated fibroblast proliferation and excess ECM accumulation for the constellation of findings in patients with IPF. PMID:26165208

  13. Congenital Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Hammami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals. Two clinically different pediatric types have been defined as congenital PAP which is fatal and a late-onset PAP which is similar to the adult form and less severe. The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole-lung lavage is the current standard treatment for PAP patients. We report a new congenital case of PAP.

  14. Silicoproteinosis and primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: high-resolution computed tomography criteria for differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of unknown etiology, in which the main histologic finding is the presence of alveolar filling with proteinaceous material, causing restrictive lung function hypoxaemia and several radiological abnormalities. In this manuscript we reviewed the (HRCT) findings in 13 patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The study included six patients with primary disease and seven with alveolar proteinosis secondary to silicosis in sandblasters. The aim of this work was to establish HRCT distinguishing features between these conditions, since the histological findings can be identical. The most common HRCT feature of primary alveolar proteinosis was patchy ground-glass attenuation associated with smooth interlobular septal thickening, resulting in a crazy paving pattern. There was no preferential regional lung distribution of this condition, HRCT manifestations of silicoproteinosis included areas of consolidation and foci of increased attenuation consistent with calcification, hilar lymph nodes enlargement and node calcification. We concluded that in the majority of patients the presence of foci of high attenuation in the parenchyma and lymph nodes allows a prompt distinction between silicoproteinosis and primary alveolar proteinosis. (author)

  15. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarac Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes whole-lung lavage, application of granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor and lung transplantation. Case report. We reported a 51 year-old man with primary form of the disease. It was the second case of this extremely rare disease in the past 30 years in our clinic. The symptoms were longlasting dry cough, fever and physical deterioration. Chest Xray revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; computed tomography showed patchy ground-glass opacification with interlobular thickening. The diagnosis was established by open lung biopsy. Additional tests were performed to exclude secondary form of the disease. Conclusion. We presented a rare clinical entity with typical clinical features and clinical and radiological course of the disease, in order to improve differential diagnostic approach to patients with bilateral lung infiltrations. In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis timely diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve a prognosis.

  16. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Adrian Kwok Wai; Takano, Angela; Hsu, Ann Ling; Low, Su Ying

    2014-01-01

    We report a 68-year-old female who presented with chronic cough and progressive dyspnoea. Computed tomography of the thorax and subsequent bronchoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), which was treated with whole lung lavage. This case is reported in view of the low incidence of PAP.

  17. Transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect using an Amplatzer septal occluder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥清; 曹克将; 杨荣; 许迪; 盛燕辉; 黄峻; 马文珠

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Amplatzer septal occluder for transcatheter closure in patients with secundum atrial septal defect (ASD Ⅱ). Methods Patients with clinically confirmed ASD Ⅱ were recommended for transcatheter closure of ASD Ⅱ. Results 30 ASD Ⅱ patients (20 females) underwent transcatheter closure at a median age of 18.4 years (5-55 years). Both the stretched diameters of ASDs and the sizes of the devices were from 18 to 34?mm (25±7?mm). The successful placement rate was 100%. The rest shunt documented by color Doppler, was immediately after implantation in 40% of patients, in 9.9% after 24 hours, and in 3.3% trace at 3 months. No serious complications were observed. There was improvement in symptoms and in cardiac size. Septal motion abnormalities normalized in all patients after 3 months follow-up. Conclusion The Amplatzer septal occluder is a safe and effective device for transcatheter closure of ASD Ⅱ. Long-term follow-up is still required before widespread clinical use can be recommended.

  18. Electron microscopic studies of various cells in the alveolar wall of mice with special reference to spheroid alveolar epithelial cells after intravenous injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwa,Kiichi

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intravenous injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution on adult mouse spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was observed by the electron microscope. Sepia-melanin particles were seen in all alveolar wall cells examined that seems to suggest the entrance of sepia-melanin particles into the spheroid alveolar epithlial cells from the alveolar blood capillary. In cases of large penetrations of sepia-melanin particles into spheroid alveolar epithelial cells, a greater increase was found in the intramitochondrial granules. In addition, the so-called inclusion body believed to be formed by the degeneration of mitochondria had very high electron density and its quantity was abundant. On the contrary, in cases where the quantity of sepia-melanin entrance into the spheroid alveolar epithelial cell was small, neither an increase of intramitochondrial granules, an increase of the electron density nor an increase in the quantity of specific inclusion body was found.

  19. Initial experience in Brazil with the Helex septal occluder for percutaneous occlusion of atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedra Carlos A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial clinical experience with the Helex septal occluder for percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects. METHODS: Ten patients underwent the procedure, 7 patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD with hemodynamic repercussions and 3 patients with pervious foramen ovale (PFO and a history of stroke. Mean age was 33.8 years and mean weight was 55.4 kg. Mean diameter by transesophageal echocardiography and mean stretched ASD diameter were 11.33 ± 3.3mm, and 15.2 ± 3.8mm, respectively. The Qp/Qs ratio was 1.9 ± 0.3 in patients with ASD. RESULTS: Eleven occluders were placed because a patient with 2 holes needed 2 devices. It was necessary to retrieve and replace 4 devices in 3 patients. We observed immediate residual shunt (< 2mm in 4 patients with ASD, and in those with patent foramen ovale total occlusion of the defect occurred. No complications were noted, and all patients were discharged on the following day. After 1 month, 2 patients with ASD experienced trivial residual shunts (1mm. In 1 patient, we observed mild prolapse in the proximal disk in the right atrium, without consequences. CONCLUSION: The Helex septal occluder was safe and effective for occluding small to moderate atrial septal defects. Because the implantation technique is demanding, it requires specific training of the operator. Even so, small technical failures may occur in the beginning of the learning curve, but they do not involve patient safety.

  20. An estimation of mechanical stress on alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening and closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Long; Song, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Zhao-Yan; Zhang, Su; Chen, Ya-Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar overdistension and mechanical stresses generated by repetitive opening and closing of small airways and alveoli have been widely recognized as two primary mechanistic factors that may contribute to the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. A long-duration exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to even small, shear stresses could lead to the changes in cytoskeleton and the production of inflammatory mediators. In this paper, we have made an attempt to estimate in situ the magnitudes of mechanical stresses exerted on the alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening by using a tape-peeling model of McEwan and Taylor (35). To this end, we first speculate the possible ranges of capillary number (Ca) ≡ μU/γ (a dimensionless combination of surface tension γ, fluid viscosity μ, and alveolar opening velocity U) during in vivo alveolar opening. Subsequent calculations show that increasing respiratory rate or inflation rate serves to increase the values of mechanical stresses. For a normal lung, the predicted maximum shear stresses are surface tension or viscosity, the maximum shear stress will notably increase, even at a slow respiratory rate. Similarly, the increased pressure gradients in the case of elevated surface or viscosity may lead to a pressure drop >300 dyn/cm(2) across a cell, possibly inducing epithelial hydraulic cracks. In addition, we have conceived of a geometrical model of alveolar opening to make a prediction of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to splint open a collapsed alveolus, which as shown by our results, covers a wide range of pressures, from several centimeters to dozens of centimeters of water, strongly depending on the underlying pulmonary conditions. The establishment of adequate regional ventilation-to-perfusion ratios may prevent recruited alveoli from reabsorption atelectasis and accordingly, reduce the required levels of PEEP. The present study and several recent animal experiments likewise

  1. Human lung volume, alveolar surface area, and capillary length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiebe, B. M.; Laursen, Henning

    1995-01-01

    Cavalieri's principle, length density, morphometry, stereology, surface density, vertical sections, vertical slices......Cavalieri's principle, length density, morphometry, stereology, surface density, vertical sections, vertical slices...

  2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the original description of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) as bilaterally symmetric, confluent, perihilar infiltrates, no large series evaluating the relative frequency of radiographic findings has been published. The authors reviewed 53 histologically proved cases and found a predominantly confluent pattern in 77.4%; of these, 61% had a nodular component. A predominantly nodular pattern was seen in 22.6% often with some coalescence or reticular shadows. Distribution was perhilar 56.6%, diffuse in 26.4%, basilar in 26.4%, and asymmetric in 35.8%. The classic pattern was seen in 18.9%. The authors conclude that the spectrum of patterns in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is wider than generally appreciated

  3. The alveolar macrophage.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The pulmonary macrophagic system is critical to the defense of the lung, keeping the alveoli clean and sterile and responding on demand with an adaptive outpouring of new cells into the air sacs. Under basal conditions alveolar macrophages, in common with other mononuclear phagocytes, are derived from the bone marrow. A population of macrophage precursors within the pulmonary interstitium provides a reserve pool capable of proliferation and delivery of phagocytes in response to unusually heav...

  4. Alveolar Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A Whitsett; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Gas exchange after birth is entirely dependent on the remarkable architecture of the alveolus, its formation and function being mediated by the interactions of numerous cell types whose precise positions and activities are controlled by a diversity of signaling and transcriptional networks. In the later stages of gestation, alveolar epithelial cells lining the peripheral lung saccules produce increasing amounts of surfactant lipids and proteins that are secreted into the airspaces at birth. T...

  5. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, resulting in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the sand storm in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

  6. Alveolar development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-07-01

    Gas exchange after birth is entirely dependent on the remarkable architecture of the alveolus, its formation and function being mediated by the interactions of numerous cell types whose precise positions and activities are controlled by a diversity of signaling and transcriptional networks. In the later stages of gestation, alveolar epithelial cells lining the peripheral lung saccules produce increasing amounts of surfactant lipids and proteins that are secreted into the airspaces at birth. The lack of lung maturation and the associated lack of pulmonary surfactant in preterm infants causes respiratory distress syndrome, a common cause of morbidity and mortality associated with premature birth. At the time of birth, surfactant homeostasis begins to be established by balanced processes involved in surfactant production, storage, secretion, recycling, and catabolism. Insights from physiology and engineering made in the 20th century enabled survival of newborn infants requiring mechanical ventilation for the first time. Thereafter, advances in biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology led to an understanding of the pulmonary surfactant system that made possible exogenous surfactant replacement for the treatment of preterm infants. Identification of surfactant proteins, cloning of the genes encoding them, and elucidation of their roles in the regulation of surfactant synthesis, structure, and function have provided increasing understanding of alveolar homeostasis in health and disease. This Perspective seeks to consider developmental aspects of the pulmonary surfactant system and its importance in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases related to alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25932959

  7. Theoretical basis of alveolar sampling.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelman, G R

    1982-01-01

    The conditions under which the partial pressure of a solvent in the alveolar gas is likely to provide a valid index of its partial pressure in the mixed venous blood, and thus of whole-body exposure, is explored on a theoretical basis. Under steady-state conditions, providing the solvent's blood/gas partition coefficient exceeds 10, its mixed venous and alveolar pressures will agree within 10% and become virtually identical during the prolonged expiration necessary to obtain an alveolar sampl...

  8. Septal stapler use during septum surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Güven; Cingi, Cemal; Kaya, Ercan

    2013-03-01

    Although discussions regarding nasal packing are still ongoing, to eliminate any possible complications, surgeons have used nasal packing for many years. Septoplasty is one of the most frequently performed operations by head and neck surgeons. Any methods to diminish the surgical time or bring comfort to the surgeon will be well appreciated. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the usefulness of the stapler method by comparing preoperative and postoperative results from the visual analog scale (VAS), nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE), rhinosinusitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ), and acoustic rhinomanometry values. In addition, we evaluated pain scores, postoperative complications, and breathing after nasal packing, stapling, and trans-septal suturing techniques. Patients were divided into three groups. In the first group, deviated cartilage was removed or repositioned and mucoperichondrial flaps were closed with a bioresorbable stapler after septoplasty. Four or five staples were placed on the septum. In the second group, the septum was sutured continuously with 4/0 Pegelak (Doğsan TR). In the third group, Merocel packs were used without any sutures and were kept for 48 h. Nasal packing leads to patient discomfort after septal surgery; however, there is no difference in patient comfort between closing the mucoperichondrial flaps by suturing the septum or using a stapler. After surgery, there were no differences between the groups in terms of successful breathing. This situation was assessed by endoscopic examination and acoustic rhinomanometry. Thus, there was no objective or subjective difference. Stapling increases the doctor's comfort level and surgical time is optimized. Although experienced surgeons can easily suture the septum, less experienced ones have some difficulty; therefore, stapling may provide more benefit to the latter. Further, four staples are sufficient to close the septum. PMID:22926990

  9. Nasal Septal Perforation Caused by Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Tin Kuo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Nasal septal perforation presents a distinct challenge to otorhinolaryngologists, and is aproblem for patients. Although it has a variety of causes, previous septal surgery is the mostcommon reason. We present a 57-year-old woman who had recurrent chronic sinusitis. Aleft nasal mass was noted and excised via endoscopic sinus surgery. Invasive aspergillosissinusitis was proven both grossly and histopathologically, and a nasal septal perforation wasalso noted during the operation. Although there has been only a single other case presentedby Siberry in 1997, we postulate that perforation of the nasal septum as with the casedescribed herein is a rare complication of invasive fungal sinusitis.

  10. Atrial septal defect in a ferret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik-Gerritsen, K.M.; Schoemaker, N.J.; Kik, M.J.L.; Beijerink, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 2-year-old, male castrated ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented with progressive abdominal distention and loss of muscle mass despite normal appetite. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, a prolonged capillary refill time, a pulse rate greater than 300 bea

  11. CT in alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were scanned with CT. Results were not specific for PAP but may be help0ful in the differential diagnosis is visualization of pulmonary vessels is maintained and air bronchograms are scarce in diseased areas. CT is better than conventional radiography in identifying infectious complications and evaluating disease extent and may help in deciding whether or not therapeutic lavage is indicated. CT has also identified an interstitial component of PAP that correlates histologically with an inflammatory cell infiltrate. The cellular infiltrate may play a role in the development of the interstitial fibrosis seen in some cases of PAP

  12. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description ...

  13. Intra-cardiac echocardiography in alcohol septal ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Robert M; Shahzad, Adeel; Newton, James;

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy reduces left ventricular outflow tract gradients. A third of patients do not respond; inaccurate localisation of the iatrogenic infarct can be responsible. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using myocardial contrast can be...

  14. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy ...

  15. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy ...

  16. Percutaneous Interventional Treatment of Atrial Septal Defect Secundum in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milev

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the implantation of a septal occluder was found to be a safe procedure that resulted in improved hemodynamic parameters that result from right ventricular volume overload with favorable short- and mid-term results.

  17. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All ...

  18. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Right ventricular remodeling in restrictive ventricular septal defect

    OpenAIRE

    Monreal, Gretel; Youtz, Dane J.; Phillips, Alistair B.; Eyman, Mahala E.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Velten, Christina; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Wold, Loren E.; Gerhardt, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive ventricular septal defect (rVSD) presents with little/no hemodynamic aberrations despite a patent septal defect. Clinically, these patients are observed with the hope that the defect will functionally close over time without the need for surgical repair and development of heart failure. Without evidence supporting a definitive therapeutic strategy, rVSD patients may have increased risk of a poor outcome. We tested the hypothesis that rVSD results in subclinical RV diastolic dysfun...

  1. The Evaluation of 208 Ventricular Septal Defect Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, F. Ayşenur; EGE, Erdal; Paç, Mustafa; Battaloğlu, Bektaş; Emmiler, Mustafa; Akpınar, Beşir; Sarı, Süleyman; Pelik, Fatma

    2001-01-01

    Venticular septal defect is the most common congenital heart defect except bicüspit aortic valve. The first description of ventricular septal defect as a clinical entity was credited to Roger in 1879. It occurs in 1.5-2 in 1000 alive birth. We studied retrospectively 208 cases of VSD seen in our medical center. The patients were evaluated according to the especially clinical data, types of VSD, closure rates, complications (AVP, AY, VSD aneurysm), and surgical therapies. Key words: Ventri...

  2. Mammoth interatrial septal aneurysm in the ICE age

    OpenAIRE

    Timperley John; Bhindi Ravinay; Ormerod Oliver J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a useful imaging modality that is now being used more widely to assist in the percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASD) and patent foramen ovales (PFO). Case presentation A 42 year old lady with a history of transient ischaemic attacks and migraine underwent percutaneous closure of an ASD. Intraprocedural ICE demonstrated a mammoth billowing multiperforated interatrial septal aneurysm in association with a secondum ASD. Conc...

  3. Right Ventricular Septal Pacing: Has it come of age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged pacing from the right ventricular (RV apex has been shown to be associated with progressive left ventricular dysfunction as demonstrated by heart failure, atrial fibrillation and an increased morbidity and mortality [1-6]. This has led to an interest in alternate RV pacing sites and in particular the mid RV septum and the RV outflow tract (RVOT septum [7-11]. These sites are theoretically associated with a more physiological ventricular activation. Despite the perceived advantages of septal pacing, results to date are not confirmatory [12-18]. These studies were generally acute or extended to 6-months and the leads secured to the RVOT and thus were not necessarily septal. On review of the early work of Durrer et al in 1970 [19] the septal regions of the RVOT and mid RV are the first zones of the ventricle to depolarize, suggesting that pacing from these areas on the right side of the septum would achieve as normal a contraction pattern as possible. In contrast, the free wall of the RV is the last zone to be depolarized. When attempting to prove the physiologic and hemodynamic benefits of septal pacing, it seems illogical to choose the RVOT with a mix of both septal and free wall pacing. The potential benefits of septal pacing would possibly be negated by free wall pacing and thus it is not surprising that there has been no consistent benefit over RV apical pacing demonstrated.

  4. Silicoproteinosis and primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: high-resolution computed tomography criteria for differential diagnosis; Silicoproteinose e proteinose alveolar pulmonar primaria: criterios para o diagnostico diferencial pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Mueller, Nestor L.; Martins, Erick Malheiro Leoncio [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    2003-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of unknown etiology, in which the main histologic finding is the presence of alveolar filling with proteinaceous material, causing restrictive lung function hypoxaemia and several radiological abnormalities. In this manuscript we reviewed the (HRCT) findings in 13 patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The study included six patients with primary disease and seven with alveolar proteinosis secondary to silicosis in sandblasters. The aim of this work was to establish HRCT distinguishing features between these conditions, since the histological findings can be identical. The most common HRCT feature of primary alveolar proteinosis was patchy ground-glass attenuation associated with smooth interlobular septal thickening, resulting in a crazy paving pattern. There was no preferential regional lung distribution of this condition, HRCT manifestations of silicoproteinosis included areas of consolidation and foci of increased attenuation consistent with calcification, hilar lymph nodes enlargement and node calcification. We concluded that in the majority of patients the presence of foci of high attenuation in the parenchyma and lymph nodes allows a prompt distinction between silicoproteinosis and primary alveolar proteinosis. (author)

  5. VEGF and endothelium-derived retinoic acid regulate lung vascular and alveolar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Jun; Lorizio, Walter; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H; Vu, Thiennu H

    2016-02-15

    Prevention or treatment of lung diseases caused by the failure to form, or destruction of, existing alveoli, as observed in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and adults with emphysema, requires understanding of the molecular mechanisms of alveolar development. In addition to its critical role in gas exchange, the pulmonary circulation also contributes to alveolar morphogenesis and maintenance by the production of paracrine factors, termed "angiocrines," that impact the development of surrounding tissue. To identify lung angiocrines that contribute to alveolar formation, we disrupted pulmonary vascular development by conditional inactivation of the Vegf-A gene during alveologenesis. This resulted in decreased pulmonary capillary and alveolar development and altered lung elastin and retinoic acid (RA) expression. We determined that RA is produced by pulmonary endothelial cells and regulates pulmonary angiogenesis and elastin synthesis by induction of VEGF-A and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-18, respectively. Inhibition of RA synthesis in newborn mice decreased FGF-18 and elastin expression and impaired alveolarization. Treatment with RA and vitamin A partially reversed the impaired vascular and alveolar development induced by VEGF inhibition. Thus we identified RA as a lung angiocrine that regulates alveolarization through autocrine regulation of endothelial development and paracrine regulation of elastin synthesis via induction of FGF-18 in mesenchymal cells. PMID:26566904

  6. Physical Sequestration of Bacillus anthracis in the Pulmonary Capillaries in Terminal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvion, Gregory; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Khun, Huot; Moya-Nilges, Marie; Roux, Pascal; Latroche, Claire; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Huerre, Michel; Chrétien, Fabrice; Goossens, Pierre L

    2016-07-15

    The lung is the terminal target of Bacillus anthracis before death, whatever the route of infection (cutaneous, inhalational, or digestive). During a cutaneous infection in absence of toxins, we observed encapsulated bacteria colonizing the alveolar capillary network, bacteria and hemorrhages in alveolar and bronchiolar spaces, and hypoxic foci in the lung (endothelial cells) and brain (neurons and neuropil). Circulating encapsulated bacteria were as chains of approximately 13 µm in length. Bacteria of such size were immediately trapped within the lung capillary network, but bacteria of shorter length were not. Controlling lung-targeted pathology would be beneficial for anthrax treatment. PMID:26977051

  7. Zero net flux estimates of septal extracellular glucose levels and the effects of glucose on septal extracellular GABA levels

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Rauw, Gail; Baker, Glen B.; Parent, Marise B.

    2009-01-01

    Although hippocampal infusions of glucose enhance memory, we have found repeatedly that septal glucose infusions impair memory when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are activated. For instance, hippocampal glucose infusions reverse the memory-impairing effects of co-infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol, whereas septal glucose infusions exacerbate memory deficits produced by muscimol. One potential explanation for these deleterious effects of glucose in the septum is that there are highe...

  8. Pulmonary vascular and alveolar development in tetralogy of Fallot: a recommendation for early correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R J; Haworth, S G

    1982-12-01

    Using quantitative morphometric techniques, we analysed pulmonary arterial and alveolar development in the lungs of seven children aged 1.2-12 years who died during or soon after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. One child had a residual ventricular septal defect and survived for five months. One other child had had a previous Waterston-Cooley anastomosis (Waterston shunt). Postmortem lung volume in relation to body surface area was generally below normal for age, the alveoli were small, and the total alveolar number was below normal in five of the seven cases. Microscopically, airway and alveolar structure appeared normal. The preacinar arteries were larger and the intra-acinar arteries were smaller than normal for age. The preacinar elastic pulmonary arteries appeared to contain less elastin and in both preacinar and intra-acinar muscular arteries the media was thinner than normal, although muscle was normally distributed along the arterial pathway. Eccentric areas of intimal fibrosis were small and uncommon. The bronchial arteries were generally more prominent than usual both macroscopically and microscopically, but no abnormal bronchopulmonary connections were present. After corrective surgery a residual ventricular septal defect and pulmonary hypertension were associated with arterial medial hypertrophy, and this change was also found in the right lung of a normotensive patient who had had a Waterston shunt. This group probably represents the most favourable clinical picture of tetralogy in patients who usually survive but, even so, pulmonary arterial and alveolar development was abnormal. The structural findings are discussed in relation to the functional outcome in patients with tetralogy who have survived. Repair of the abnormality during the first two to three years of life is recommended. PMID:7170679

  9. A micromechanical model for estimating alveolar wall strain in mechanically ventilated edematous lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-long; Chen, Ya-zhu; Hu, Zhao-yan

    2014-09-15

    To elucidate the micromechanics of pulmonary edema has been a significant medical concern, which is beneficial to better guide ventilator settings in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an adjoining two-alveoli model to quantitatively estimate strain and stress of alveolar walls in mechanically ventilated edematous lungs. The model takes into account the geometry of the alveolus, the effect of surface tension, the length-tension properties of parenchyma tissue, and the change in thickness of the alveolar wall. On the one hand, our model supports experimental findings (Perlman CE, Lederer DJ, Bhattacharya J. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 44: 34-39, 2011) that the presence of a liquid-filled alveolus protrudes into the neighboring air-filled alveolus with the shared septal strain amounting to a maximum value of 1.374 (corresponding to the maximum stress of 5.12 kPa) even at functional residual capacity; on the other hand, it further shows that the pattern of alveolar expansion appears heterogeneous or homogeneous, strongly depending on differences in air-liquid interface tension on alveolar segments. The proposed model is a preliminary step toward picturing a global topographical distribution of stress and strain on the scale of the lung as a whole to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:24947025

  10. Morphometric analysis of septal aperture of humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra K, Anil kumar Reddy Y, Shirol VS, Daksha Dixit, Desai SP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lower end of humerus shows olecranon and coronoid fossae separated by a thin bony septum, sometimes it may deficient and shows foramen which communicates both the fossae called Septal aperture, which is commonly referred as supratrochlear foramen (STF. Materials & Methods: We have studied 260 humeri (126 right side and 134 left side, measurements were taken by using vernier caliper, translucency septum was observed by keeping the lower end of humerus against the x-ray lobby. Results: A clear cut STF was observed in 19.2% bones, translucency septum was observed in 99 (91.6% humeri on the right side and 95 (93.1% humeri on the left sides respectively (Table – 1. Clinical significance: The presence of STF is always associated with the narrow medullary canal at the lower end of humerus, Supracondylar fracture of humerus is most common in paediatric age group, medullary nailing is done to treat the fractures in those cases the knowledge about the STF is very important for treating the fractures. It has been observed in x-ray of lower end of the humerus the STF is comparatively radiolucent, it is commonly seen as a type of ‘pseudolesions’ in an x-ray of the lower end of humerus and it may mistake for an osteolytic or cystic lesions. Conclusion: The present study can add data into anthropology and anatomy text books regarding STF and it gives knowledge of understanding anatomical variation of distal end of the humerus, which is significant for anthropologists, orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists in habitual clinical practice.

  11. PPARs in Alveolar Macrophage Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARs, most notably PPAR-γ, play a crucial role in regulating the activation of alveolar macrophages, which in turn occupy a pivotal place in the immune response to pathogens and particulates drawn in with inspired air. In this review, we describe the dual role of the alveolar macrophage as both a first-line defender through its phagocytotic activity and a regulator of the immune response. Depending on its state of activation, the alveolar macrophage may either enhance or suppress different aspects of immune function in the lung. We then review the role of PPAR-γ and its ligands in deactivating alveolar macrophages—thus limiting the inflammatory response that, if unchecked, could threaten the essential respiratory function of the alveolus—while upregulating the cell's phagocytotic activity. Finally, we examine the role that inadequate or inappropriate PPAR-γ responses play in specific lung diseases.

  12. Abses Alveolar Akut Pada Anak

    OpenAIRE

    Delfitri, Meri

    2008-01-01

    Abses alveolar akut adalah suatu kumpulan nanah yang terlokalisasi dalam tulang alveolar sekitar apeks gigi setelah kematian pulpa yang merupakan kelanjutan proses infeksi yang mulai di pulpa dan berkembang ke jaringan periapikal. Perluasan infeksi dari pulpa non vital dapat melalui foramen apikal menuju jaringan periapikal yang mengakibatkan inflamasi akut, bila disertai dengan meningkatnya virulensi bakteri streptokokus alfa, disertai staffilokokus dan sejumlah anaerob lainnya serta r...

  13. Micronuclei in human alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, F; Bonatti, S; Oddera, S; De Flora, S

    1992-01-01

    Occurrence of micronuclei was monitored in pulmonary alveolar macrophages collected from 31 individuals undergoing diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage. The overall frequency of micronucleated cells was 3.88 +/- 1.84/1000, without any significant difference attributable to sex, age, pathology, occupation, or smoking habits. The lack of influence of cigarette smoke on this clastogenicity index presumably reflects the very low rate of mitoses of macrophages in the alveolar lumen. PMID:1579732

  14. Alveolar inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Viglio, Simona;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In infected lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, opportunistic pathogens and mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) contribute to chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, cytokine release and...... accumulated in type II alveolar epithelial cells, lacking CFTR. P. aeruginosa organisms were rarely present in inflamed alveoli. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic inflammation and remodeling is present in alveolar tissues of the CF lung and needs to be addressed by anti-inflammatory therapies....

  15. Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries: role in lung and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Mathieu-Costello, O.

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary capillaries have extremely thin walls to allow rapid exchange of respiratory gases across them. Recently it has been shown that the wall stresses become very large when the capillary pressure is raised, and in anaesthetised rabbits, ultrastructural damage to the walls is seen at pressures of 40 mm Hg and above. The changes include breaks in the capillary endothelial layer, alveolar epithelial layer, and sometimes all layers of the wall. The strength of the thin part of the capillary wall can be attributed to the type IV collagen in the extracellular matrix. Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries results in a high-permeability form of oedema, or even frank haemorrhage, and is apparently the mechanism of neurogenic pulmonary oedema and high-altitude pulmonary oedema. It also explains the exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage that occurs in all racehorses. Several features of mitral stenosis are consistent with stress failure. Overinflation of the lung also leads to stress failure, a common cause of increased capillary permeability in the intensive care environment. Stress failure also occurs if the type IV collagen of the capillary wall is weakened by autoantibodies as in Goodpasture's syndrome. Neutrophil elastase degrades type IV collagen and this may be the starting point of the breakdown of alveolar walls that is characteristic of emphysema. Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries is a hitherto overlooked and potentially important factor in lung and heart disease.

  16. [Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect with a prototype clamshell septal umbrella: one year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, K; Echigo, S; Kumate, M; Kobayashi, T; Isoda, T; Ishii, M; Ishizawa, A; Kamiya, T; Kato, H

    1994-01-01

    Transcatheter closure of a secundum atrial septal defect was attempted using a prototype clamshell septal umbrella closure system in 11 patients (six males, five females, aged 4.4-15.0 years and weighing 16-51 kg). The balloon stretched atrial septal defects were 10.3 to 20 mm in diameter, and 23 to 40 mm diameter umbrellas were used. All patients improved clinically after the procedure. Fixed splitting of the second heart sound disappeared after closure in 10 patients, systolic murmur disappeared in nine, diastolic rumble in nine, and paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven. Doppler color flow imaging immediately after implantation showed significant residual shunt in all patients; however, no shunt flow was observed in seven patients and minimal residual shunt was present in four one year after the procedure. Nine of 11 umbrellas demonstrated fracture of the stainless steel arm confirmed by chest radiography and cinefluorography. Arm fracture occurred between 1 week and 12 months after implantation. None of the devices were dislodged and no other complications were noted despite the fractures. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect is a feasible and useful procedure but the present device needs further modification. PMID:8158531

  17. Association of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position in acute respiratory disease syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniela Caetano; Rocha, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Tatiane Flores

    2009-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome is the clinical presentation of acute lung injury characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and development of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position can be used in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The objective of this review of literature was to identify possible benefits, indications, complications and care of the associated recruitment maneuvers and prone position for treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This national and international scientific literature review was developed according to the established criteria for searching the databases MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed, Cochrane, from 1994 to 2008 in Portuguese and English, with the key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar recruitment maneuver and prone position. Despite advances in the understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome pathophysiology, mortality is still expressive. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position significantly contribute to treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome patient aiming to improve oxygenation and minimizing complications of refractory hypoxemia and reduction of pulmonary compliance. However,as there are few studies in literature associating alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, additional research and evidences of clinical application are required. PMID:25303351

  18. Huge Interatrial Septal Aneurysm: A Coincidental but Rather Fatal Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzimas, Petros; Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a huge interatrial septal aneurysm as an intraoperative coincidental finding that led to a fatal outcome. The patient was admitted to our hospital in order to undergo elective coronary artery bypass grafting because he suffered from severe coronary artery disease. We intraoperatively diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography a huge interatrial septal aneurysm mimicking a right atrial tumor. The aneurysm was initially resected and then coronary artery bypass grafting was successfully performed but the patient never achieved a successful separation from cardiopulmonary bypass probably because of massive embolic events. PMID:21317987

  19. Echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular septal defect haemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ventricular septal defect (VSD is an opening in the interventricular septum. 30-50% of patients with congenital heart disease have VSD. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the dependence of the left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVD, left ventricular systolic dimension (LVS, shortening fraction (SF, left atrium (LA, pulmonary artery truncus (TPA on the body surface and compare their values among experimental, control and a group of healthy children. Values of maximal systolic gradient pressure (Pvsd of VSD were compared with children from one experimental and control group. Method Children were divided into three groups: experimental (32 children with VSD that were to go to surgery, control (20 children with VSD who did not require surgery and 40 healthy children. Measurements of LVD, LVS, SF, LA, TPA were performed in accordance to recommendations of the American Echocardiographic Association. The value of Pvsd was calculated from the maximal flow velocity (V in VSD using the following formula: Pvsd=4xVІ (mm Hg. Results For children from the experimental group, the relationship between the body surface and the variability of the LVD was explained with 56.85%, LVS with 66.15%, SF with 4.9%, TPA with 58.92%. For children from the control group, the relationship between the body surface and the variability of LVD was explained with 88.8%, LVS with 72.5%, SF with 0.42%, PA with 58.92%. For healthy children, the relationship between the body surface and the variabilitiy of the LVD was explained with 88.8%, LVS with 88.78%, SF with 5.25% and PA with 84.75%. There was a significant statistical difference between average values of Pvsd in the experimental and control group (p<0.02. Conclusion The presence of the large VSD has an influence on the enlargement of LVD, LVS, SF, TPA. The enlargement of the size of the pulmonary artery depends on the presence of VSD and there is a direct variation in the magnitude of the shunt

  20. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  1. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T

    2012-02-03

    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  2. Displasia alveolar congénita Congenital alveolar dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    D.P. Sánchez Hernández; M.M. Suárez Galvis; M.T. García Vélez; A. Uribe Molina

    2012-01-01

    La displasia alveolar congénita es una patología congénita poco frecuente caracterizada por disminución de las unidades alveolares y anormalidades del desarrollo de la vasculatura pulmonar. Esta entidad produce hipertensión pulmonar severa e hipoxemia persistente con una evolución mortal en la mayoría de los casos. Afecta generalmente a recién nacidos a término, con un test de Apgar normal, que posteriormente desarrollan dificultad respiratoria, habitualmente en el primer día de vida. La enfe...

  3. Familial Atrial Septal Defect and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina Gade; Johansen, Morten Munk; Bjerre, Jesper Vandborg;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect (CHD) and is observed in families as an autosomal dominant trait as well as in nonfamilial CHD. Mutations in the NKX2-5 gene, located on chromosome 5, are associated with ASD, often combined with conduction...

  4. Chrome induced nasal septal perforation-An occupational hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, N. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    86 patients, working in a chemical factory dealing with Chrome manufacturing job, were referred by Health Inspectai to F S 1 S Hospital O PD 32 patients out of above were found to be having Nasal septal perforation and were recommended to Medical Board for consideration of compensation as cases of Occupational hazard

  5. Atrioventricular conduction after alcohol septal ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Weibring, Kristina; Havndrup, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Lesion of the atrioventricular conduction system is a well known adverse effect of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We assessed the atrioventricular conduction at long-term follow-up after ASA. METHODS: In patients with a pacemaker...

  6. Intermittent′ restrictive ventricular septal defect in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir S Shetkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is usually large and non-restrictive with equalization of right and left ventricular pressures. Restrictive VSD in TOF is rare. We present an unusual case of TOF with restriction to VSD caused by accessory tricuspid valve tissue that varied with respiration.

  7. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Szatmári, Viktor; Teske, Erik; Peter G. J. Nikkels; Griese, Matthias; de Jong, Pim A.; Grinwis, Guy; Theegarten, Dirk; Veraa, Stefanie; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Drent, Marjolein; Bonella, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an extremely rare lung disease in animals and humans. It is characterized by the deposition of a large amount of phospholipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli. There are several possible etiologies, both congenital and acquired. Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the clearance of surfactant. This is the first report of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in the feline species. CASE PRESENTATION: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was diagnos...

  8. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra Balbir; Sabharwal Raghu; Singh Mandeep; Singh Amarjeet

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Balbir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

  11. Linking progression of fibrotic lung remodeling and ultrastructural alterations of alveolar epithelial type II cells in the amiodarone mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelbach, Bastian; Lutz, Dennis; Ruppert, Clemens; Henneke, Ingrid; Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Günther, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Mahavadi, Poornima; Knudsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Chronic injury of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2 cells) represents a key event in the development of lung fibrosis in animal models and in humans, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Intratracheal delivery of amiodarone to mice results in a profound injury and macroautophagy-dependent apoptosis of AE2 cells. Increased autophagy manifested in AE2 cells by disturbances of the intracellular surfactant. Hence, we hypothesized that ultrastructural alterations of the intracellular surfactant pool are signs of epithelial stress correlating with the severity of fibrotic remodeling. With the use of design-based stereology, the amiodarone model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice was characterized at the light and ultrastructural level during progression. Mean volume of AE2 cells, volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell, and mean size of lamellar bodies were correlated to structural parameters reflecting severity of fibrosis like collagen content. Within 2 wk amiodarone leads to an increase in septal wall thickness and a decrease in alveolar numbers due to irreversible alveolar collapse associated with alveolar surfactant dysfunction. Progressive hypertrophy of AE2 cells and increase in mean individual size and total volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell were observed. A high positive correlation of these AE2 cell-related ultrastructural changes and the deposition of collagen fibrils within septal walls were established. Qualitatively, similar alterations could be found in IPF samples with mild to moderate fibrosis. We conclude that ultrastructural alterations of AE2 cells including the surfactant system are tightly correlated with the progression of fibrotic remodeling. PMID:25957292

  12. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferranda Puig

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml or vehicle (control. Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  13. Septo-Hippocampo-Septal Loop and Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khakpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Cholinergic and GABAergic fibers in the medial septal/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB area project to the hippocampus and constitute the septo-hippocampal pathway, which has been proven in learning and memory. In addition, the hippocampus has bidirectional connections with the septum, which use this relation for self-regulation of cholinergic input.   The activity of septal and hippocampal neurons is modulated by several neurotransmitters including glutamatergic neurons from the entorhinal cortex, serotonergic fibers from the raphe nucleus, dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA, histaminergic cells from the tuberomammillary nucleus and adrenergic fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC. Thus, changes in the glutamatergic, serotonergic and etc. mediated transmission in the MS/DB may influence cholinergic or GABAergic transmission in the hippocampus.

  14. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379

  15. Capillary saturation and desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, R; Armstrong, R T; Berg, S; Georgiadis, A; Ott, H

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment. PMID:26764820

  16. Capillary saturation and desaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, R.; Armstrong, R. T.; Berg, S.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.

  17. Alveolar hypoventilation treated with medroxyprogesterone.

    OpenAIRE

    Milerad, J; Lagercrantz, H.; Löfgren, O

    1985-01-01

    Two children aged 1 and 20 months developed alveolar hypoventilation syndrome. They suffered severe apnoeic episodes and periodically required assisted ventilation. Their ventilatory response to carbon dioxide was lower than that of normal children and the transcutaneous oxygen tension during sleep was well below the normal range. Treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate resulted in an improved response to carbon dioxide, and assisted ventilation was no longer needed. Oxygen and carbon diox...

  18. Evaluation of morphological characteristics of septal rims affecting successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Pac, Feyza Aysenur; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Balli, Sevket; Ece, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Determining other echocardiographic predictors along with the measured atrial septal defect (ASD) size and evaluating the closure together with these predictors would increase the chance of success for transcatheter closure of ASD. Aim To evaluate echocardiographic parameters affecting defect closure in children and adult patients with secundum ASD. Material and methods In all patients, size of ASD, total length of atrial septum (TS), superior-posterior, inferior-posterior, super...

  19. Prevalence of Non-Left Anterior Descending Septal Perforator Culprit in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Alcohol Septal Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouli, Mohamad; Sajjad, Waseem; Lee, Junsoo; Fernandez, Genaro; Waits, Bryan; Schwarz, Karl Q; Cove, Christopher J

    2016-05-15

    Identifying the coronary branch that supplies the basal septum is the cornerstone for successful alcohol septal ablation (ASA). The basal septum is often supplied by septal perforator artery/arteries (SPA/SPAs) not originating from the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. We aim to investigate the prevalence and significance of non-LAD septal "culprit" in patients undergoing ASA. A retrospective review of patients who underwent ASA from 2006 to 2014 was conducted. Procedural and midterm outcomes of patients who had ASA of LAD and non-LAD culprit SPA were reported. A total 89 patients were included in the analysis; 13 patients (15%) had ASA of non-LAD SPA. These patients were more likely to have a history of failed ASA, more than one SPA treated, more ethanol dose injected, longer procedures, and higher contrast use compared with those who had ASA of LAD-SPA. In-hospital outcomes, residual gradient, symptom improvement, and midterm mortality were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, in a cohort of patients undergoing ASA, 15% had ablation of SPA culprit that did not originate from the LAD. Half of these patients had previous unsuccessful ASA. Systematic screening for the ideal culprit SPA with nonselective coronary injection of echo contrast should be used to avoid incomplete or failed ASA. PMID:27006152

  20. Septal co-infusions of glucose with a GABAB agonist impair memory

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Erika J.; Watts, Kelly D; Parent, Marise B.

    2005-01-01

    Septal infusions of glucose exacerbate memory deficits produced by co-infusions of drugs that increase γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor activity. To further understand the interaction between glucose and GABA, this experiment tested whether glucose would also potentiate spatial working memory deficits produced by septal infusions of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Fifteen minutes prior to assessing spontaneous alternation (SA), male Sprague–Dawley derived rats were given septal infus...

  1. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández F, Cristina; Salinas F, Mauricio; de Grazia K, José Andrés; Díaz P, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an extremely rare disease characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of calcified spherical particles (called microliths), due to a mutation of the gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the alveolar surface. Most patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis. The course of the disease is slowly progressive, with development of pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. The "sandstorm" pattern is the characteristic finding of this disease. We report a 39-year-old female presenting with progressive dyspnea. A chest X ray showed ground-glass opacities and a high resolution CT scan showed numerous calcified lung micronodules. A surgical lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:25427025

  2. How Capillary Rafts Sink

    CERN Document Server

    Protiere, S; Aristoff, J; Stone, H

    2010-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing how capillary rafts sink. Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. Thanks to Archimedes principle we can easily predict whether an object sinks or floats. But what happens when several small particles are placed at an interface between two fluids. In this case surface tension also plays an important role. These particles self-assemble by capillarity and thus form what we call a "capillary raft". We show how such capillary rafts sink for varying sizes of particles and define how this parameter affects the sinking process.

  3. Pulmonary edema following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an incident of development of acute pulmonary edema after the device closure of a secundum atrial septal defect in a 52-year-old lady, which was treated with inotropes, diuretics and artificial ventilation. Possibility of acute left ventricular dysfunction should be considered after the defect closure in the middle-aged patients as the left ventricular compliance may be reduced due to increased elastic stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. Baseline left atrial pressure may be > 10 mmHg in these patients. Associated risk factors for the left ventricular dysfunction are a large Qp:Qs ratio, systemic hypertension, severe pulmonary hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

  4. Dysphagia Lusoria with atrial septal defect: Simultaneous repair through midline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aberrant right subclavian artery from the descending aorta is almost always reported as an isolated anomaly. We present the case of a four-year-old child with an anomalous origin of the right subclavian artery from the descending aorta, associated with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect. The patient underwent simultaneous repair of both the anomalies through median sternotomy, with implantation of the subclavian artery into the right common carotid artery. We believe that median sternotomy is the optimal surgical approach for the management of these lesions. Other operative approaches are also discussed

  5. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrumurthy, S.G.; Kearney, S.; Sissons, M.; Haider, Y. [Lancashire Teaching Hospital for NHS Funding Trust, Chorley (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers.

  6. From the Heart: Interatrial Septal Aneurysm Identified on Bedside Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Butterfield

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 61 year-old man presented to the Emergency Department for one day of nonspecific chest pain. Bedside echocardiogram performed by the emergency physician revealed normal systolic cardiac function but also showed a large ( > 10mm bicornuate interatrial septal aneurysm (IASA projecting into the right atrium (Figure 1, Video 1. There was no evidence of intraatrial thrombus. A formal echocardiogram performed later that day confirmed the diagnosis and also detected a patent foramen ovale (PFO with a left-to-right shunt that reversed with Valsalva maneuver. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:719–720

  7. Management of the alveolar cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Pedro E; Schuster, Lindsay A; Levy-Bercowski, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Orthopedic and orthodontic management of patients born with clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate is based on the application of basic biomechanical principles adapted to the individualized cleft anatomy. This article focuses on orthopedic and orthodontic preparation for 2 stages of interdisciplinary orthodontic/surgical cleft care: presurgical infant orthopedics (nasoalveolar molding) for lip/alveolus/nasal surgical repair and maxillary arch preparation for secondary alveolar bone grafting. These preparatory stages of orthopedic/orthodontic therapy are undertaken with the goal of restoring normal anatomic relationships to assist the surgeon in providing the best possible surgical care. PMID:24607190

  8. Survival and sudden cardiac death after septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Havndrup, Ole; Hassager, Christian; Helqvist, Steffen; Kelbæk, Henning; Jørgensen, Erik; Køber, Lars; Bundgaard, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse.......Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse....

  9. Descriptive anatomy of the dominant septal perforators using Dual Source Coronary CT Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Harris, Scott R; Froemming, Adam T; Christensen, Kevin N; Lachman, Nirusha; Araoz, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    Although clinical outcomes for septal ablation in treating left ventricular outflow tract obstructions are generally favorable, a variety of complications have been reported including a high incidence of right bundle branch block. These complications may be attributed to anatomic variability of the dominant septal perforator. We used Dual Source CT Coronary Angiography (DS-CTA) to determine the location of the termination point of the dominant septal perforator as well as the distance of the termination point from the mitral annulus in patients undergoing DS-CTA. One-hundred-fourteen DS-CTA scans were retrospectively reviewed by two observers by consensus. The left ventricle was divided into anterior wall, anterioseptum, and inferioseptum. For each segment, the myocardium was divided into three layers (1) right ventricular side, (2) mid portion, and (3) left ventricular side. The zone of termination of the dominant septal perforator was identified as well as the distance of the termination point from the mitral annulus. The dominant septal perforator terminated in the right ventricular side of the anterioseptum in 86 of the 118 visualized terminations (73%) and in the left ventricular anterior wall in 6 visualized terminations (5%). On average, the dominant septal perforator terminated 26.3 +/- 8.6 mm from the mitral annulus. In the majority of cases, the dominant septal perforator terminates in the right ventricular side of anterioseptum. In addition, there is great variability in the distribution of the termination point of the dominant septal perforator from the mitral annulus. PMID:19918876

  10. Computed tomographic imaging of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of uncertain etiology. The computed tomographic image is characterized by geographically sharply delineated alveolar infiltrates, faint, ground-glass-like parenchymal turbidity, with well bordered interstitial structures and recesses in the subpleural space. (orig.)

  11. CT quantification of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare, familial disease with massive symmetrical intra-alveolar calcium deposition. Conventional CT findings and CT measurements with a dual energy technique were carried out in a 26-year-old patient suffering from this disease. The importance of the findings in the differential diagnosis and for estimating the progression and prognosis of the disease is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Short- and Mid-term Results of Atrial Septal Defect and Patent Foramen Ovale Occlusion with Starway Septal Occluder Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kojuri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a prevalence of almost 7% of all congenital heart diseases, atrial septal defect (ASD is a common condition. Patent foramen ovale (PFO is also a congenital heart disease which is frequently sustained into adulthood. Objectives: To study the feasibility of closure of ASD and PFU by Starway septal occluder device and the incidence of its inherent complications and procedural failure in 62 patients referred to our center. Methods: Starway septal occluder device was used for closure of ASD and PFO in 62 patients. After left and right heart catheterization, transesophageal echocardiography-guided closure was done for the patients with immediate recording of the results. Patients were followed for 6 months by transesophageal echocardiography for observing short- and mid-term complications. Results: The 62 studied patients were categorized into 2 groups. Group 1 included 31 patients (64% females with ASD (mean±SD age: 26.7±7.6 years. Group 2 consisted of 31 patients (35.6% females with PFO (mean±SD age: 53.5±12.4 years. Size of the right ventricle (RV annulus was significantly (P=0.005 decreased after the intervention in the ASD group. Overall 5 (8% patients developed post-intervention complications (transient ischemic attack, leg edema, and residual shunt and procedural failure—4 (13% in ASD group and 1 (3% in PFO group. None of the patients developed device-related thrombosis, significant arrhythmia, aortic regurgitation and pericardial effusion after intervention. Conclusion: Starway occluder device is effective and safe with very low short- and mid-term complication rates.

  13. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Loercher, U. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Kitz, R. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Zielen, S. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Ahrens, P. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Koenig, R. [Inst. of Human Genetics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    Two asymptomatic Turkish sibs are presented, a 4-year-old boy and his 7-year-old sister, with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT demonstrated wide-spread intra-alveolar calcifications in both lungs. The lesions were sharply defined and less than 1 mm in diameter. CT documented a high concentration of microliths along the bronchovascular bundles, the intralobular fissue and the (sub)pleural lung parenchyma. The combination of bronchoalveolar lavage and roentgenographic appearance in high resolution CT are characteristic and pathognomonic, and can confirm the diagnosis. The more severe changes in the elder sib and the radiographic controls suggest that the pulmonary disease may be progressive in our patients. The described family of consanguineous, unaffected parents with two affected and one healthy child confirmed the autosomal recessive inheritance of PAM (McKusick 265100). In addition, the affected girl had autosomal recessive Waardenburg-anophthalmia syndrome (McKusick 206920), raising the question of whether this is a chance occurrence or possibly a contiguous gene syndrome. (orig.)

  14. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two asymptomatic Turkish sibs are presented, a 4-year-old boy and his 7-year-old sister, with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT demonstrated wide-spread intra-alveolar calcifications in both lungs. The lesions were sharply defined and less than 1 mm in diameter. CT documented a high concentration of microliths along the bronchovascular bundles, the intralobular fissue and the (sub)pleural lung parenchyma. The combination of bronchoalveolar lavage and roentgenographic appearance in high resolution CT are characteristic and pathognomonic, and can confirm the diagnosis. The more severe changes in the elder sib and the radiographic controls suggest that the pulmonary disease may be progressive in our patients. The described family of consanguineous, unaffected parents with two affected and one healthy child confirmed the autosomal recessive inheritance of PAM (McKusick 265100). In addition, the affected girl had autosomal recessive Waardenburg-anophthalmia syndrome (McKusick 206920), raising the question of whether this is a chance occurrence or possibly a contiguous gene syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Balloon Occlusive Diameter of Non-Circular Atrial Septal Defects in Transcatheter Closure with Amplatzer Septal Occluder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Chang, Sung-A; Huh, June; Park, Seung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) of non-circular defects in the transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD). Subjects and Methods A total of 67 patients who had undergone transcatheter closure of an ASD were reviewed retrospectively. A non-circular defect was defined as the ratio of the short diameter to the long diameter of the defect on the en-face image less than 0.75. The BOD was compared with the long diameter...

  16. Capillary electrophoresis - electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in small diameter capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, J.H.; Goodlett, D.R.; Udseth, H.R.; Smith, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    Methods (such as small inner diameter capillaries) are being explored to increase analyte sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis- electrospray ionization/mass spectroscopy(CE-ESI/MS). Results are reported for melittin in a protein mixture, with 10 to 100 {mu}m ID capillaries; and for a mixture of aprotinin, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and carbonic anhydrase, with 5 to 50 {mu}m ID capillaries. It is shown that an increase in solute sensitivity occurs when small ID capillaries ({lt} 20 {mu}m) are used in CE-ESI/MS for both a peptide and a protein mixture. 3 figs. (DLC)

  17. The first clinical experience with the new GORE® septal occluder (GSO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Loh, Poay Huan; Franzen, Olaf;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: A new GORE® septal occluder (GSO) was granted CE mark in Europe in June 2011 for the treatment of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect. Major changes have been made to the device and delivery system compared to the HELEX® device. The new delivery system has simplified the implantat......Aims: A new GORE® septal occluder (GSO) was granted CE mark in Europe in June 2011 for the treatment of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect. Major changes have been made to the device and delivery system compared to the HELEX® device. The new delivery system has simplified the...... of these patients had patent foramen ovale and one had secundum atrial septal defect. In all the cases, the GSO devices were successfully deployed in the first attempt without any complication. Only one patient had a minor residual shunt detected immediately after the device deployment. All the...

  18. Redefining the Septal L-Strut to Prevent Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Lee, Dong Chang; Ha, Dong-Heon; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    During septorhinoplasty, septal cartilage is frequently resected for various purposes but the L-strut is preserved. Numerous materials are inserted into the nasal dorsum during dorsal augmenation rhinoplasty without considering nasal structural safety. This study used a finite element method (FEM) to redefine the septal L-strut, to prevent collapse as pressure moved from the rhinion to the supratip breakpoint on the nasal dorsum and as the contact percentage between the caudal L-strut and the maxillary crest changed. We designed a 1-cm-wide L-strut model based on computed tomography data. At least 45% of the width of the L-strut in the inferior portion of the caudal strut must be preserved during septoplasty to stabilize the septum. In augmentation rhinoplasty, the caudal L-strut must either be preserved perfectly or reinforced to prevent collapse or distortion of the L-strut. The dorsal augmentation material must be fixed in an augmentation pocket to prevent movement of graft material toward the supratip breakpoint, which can disrupt the L-strut. We conducted a numerical analysis using a FEM to predict tissue/organ behavior and to help clinicians understand the reasons for target tissue/organ collapse and deformation. PMID:27073993

  19. Reduction of pulmonary capillary blood volume in patients with severe unexplained pulmonary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Borland, C.; Cox, Y.; Higenbottam, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unexplained or primary pulmonary hypertension results in an obliteration and obstruction of resistance pulmonary arteries. In these patients gas exchange is impaired and the measurement of gas transfer for carbon monoxide is usually reduced. This has been thought to represent a reduction in pulmonary alveolar capillary blood volume (Vc). A single breath test, measuring simultaneously the uptake of both nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), provides a simple and practical mea...

  20. Predicting diffusive alveolar oxygen transfer from carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity in exercising foxhounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hsia, Connie C. W.; Wagner, Peter D.; Dane, D. Merrill; Wagner, Harrieth E.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Although lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DlCO) is a widely used test of diffusive O2 transfer, few studies have directly related DlCO to O2-diffusing capacity (DlO2); none has used the components of DlCO, i.e., conductance of alveolar membrane and capillary blood, to predict DlO2 from rest to exercise. To understand the relationship between DlCO and DlO2 at matched levels of cardiac output, we analyzed cumulative data from rest to heavy exercise in 43 adult dogs, with normal lung...

  1. Comparative study of clinical, pathological and HRCT findings of primary alveolar proteinosis and silicoproteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the clinical, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological findings of primary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and silicoproteinosis. Material and methods: The study included 15 patients with PAP (6 women, 9 men, mean age 31 years) and 13 with silicoproteinosis (13 men, mean age 29.5 years). PAP was diagnosed by lung biopsy in 13 and bronchoalveolar lavage in two patients and silicoproteinosis by bronchoalveolar lavage in 10 and autopsy in three cases. HRCT images were reviewed by two chest radiologists with consensus for the presence, extent and distribution of ground-glass opacities, septal thickening, consolidation and nodules. Radiological–pathological correlation was performed by one radiologist and one chest pathologist. Results: Seven (46%) patients with PAP were asymptomatic; the remainder presented slowly progressive dyspnea and dry cough. All silicoproteinosis patients had dry cough and rapidly progressive dyspnea. The most common HRCT finding on PAP was the crazy-paving pattern (93%). All cases had areas of geographic sparing in the affected lung. The most common finding in silicoproteinosis (92%) was dependent consolidation with calcification in 83%. Centrilobular nodules were common (85%). On pathology, both diseases demonstrated intra-alveolar accumulation of PAS material, thickening of interlobular septae and alveolar walls and no evidence of fibrosis. A few silica particles were seen in silicoproteinosis. Conclusion: Despite the pathological similarities, PAP and silicoproteinosis have distinct clinical and imaging features and prognosis. Bilateral crazy-paving pattern with areas of geographic sparing is characteristic for PAP. Silicoproteinosis presents with bilateral dependent consolidation often with areas of calcification. The crazy-paving pattern is not seen in silicoproteinosis.

  2. A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is reported. A 33-year-old male visited our clinic because of cough and sore throat. The chest X-ray showed granular micronodulation diffusely disseminated throughout the lung fields. On the eighth day since admission, cough and sore throat disappeared. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis was confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and the differential cell count of the BAL fluid showed 74.3 % eosinophilia. Furthermore, 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy revealed diffuse uptake throughout the lung fields. Whether these findings are common in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis or not is considered to be an unanswered problem. (author)

  3. [Axillary approach for surgical closure of atrial septal defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Jaurena, J M; Castillo, R; Zabala, J I; Conejo, L; Cuenca, V; Picazo, B

    2013-08-01

    Mid-line sternotomy is the routine approach for surgical repair of congenital heart diseases. However, its noticeable scar is a constant reminder of having undergone heart surgery. Several alternative approaches have been developed for simple cardiac conditions to hide the scar. Our series, consisting of 26 patients with axillary closure of atrial septal defect, is presented. The median age was 5.45 years (range 3-13), and median weight was 19.84 Kg. (range 13-37). The defect was closed directly in 13 cases, and with an autologous pericardial patch in the other 13. The number of surgical steps and time taken were the same as in median sternotomy. Functional recovery, intensive care unit stay, and hospital discharge were also standard. The cosmetic result, assessed both by patients and relatives, was excellent. PMID:23462094

  4. Does asymptomatic septal agenesis exist? A review of 34 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary septal agenesis (PSA) is a rare brain malformation that can be isolated or part of developmental brain abnormalities (holoprosencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia or cortical malformation). Such associated malformation can be subtle, leading to difficulties in the prenatal management of PSA. Moreover, the neurological prognosis of isolated PSA remains debatable. The aims of the study were to specify the patterns and frequency of brain malformations associated with septal agenesis (SA), to identify the clinical prognosis, and to discuss the aetiology of PSA with the new insights provided by molecular genetics. The study consisted of a 14-year retrospective review of brain MRI in 34 patients having PSA (mean age, 5 years). Chiasm and optic nerves were not evaluated. Post-hydrocephalus SA or incomplete data were excluded. The clinical data were correlated to the MRI patterns. The study disclosed 82.5% associated lesions with MRI (28/34): 11 neuronal migration disorders, 9 holoprosencephalies (HP), 7 pituitary stalk interruptions, 1 corpus callosum partial agenesis; 17.5% (6/34) of cases were apparently isolated PAS. Clinically, the patients had motor dysfunction in 68% (23/34), mental retardation in 65% (22/34), blindness in 24% (8/34), endocrinological defects in 21% (7/34) and epilepsy in 18% (6/34) of cases. Nine percent of patients (3/34) were neurologically normal (including one with scoliosis and two infants younger than 2 years at the last follow-up). Patients with bilateral cortical anomalies and HP (even if mild) had the worst neurological prognosis. A severe motor impairment was present without evidence of hemispheric anomaly in 12% of patients (4/34). Interestingly, the frontal lobes were involved in 90% of cortical anomalies and HP, supporting the malformative aetiology of PSA. PSA rarely appears isolated and severe psychomotor impairment may occur in apparently isolated forms. These unfavourable results should be highlighted and need to be confirmed

  5. Does asymptomatic septal agenesis exist? A review of 34 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhocine, Ouardia; Andre, Christine; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Radiology Department, Paris (France)

    2005-04-01

    Primary septal agenesis (PSA) is a rare brain malformation that can be isolated or part of developmental brain abnormalities (holoprosencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia or cortical malformation). Such associated malformation can be subtle, leading to difficulties in the prenatal management of PSA. Moreover, the neurological prognosis of isolated PSA remains debatable. The aims of the study were to specify the patterns and frequency of brain malformations associated with septal agenesis (SA), to identify the clinical prognosis, and to discuss the aetiology of PSA with the new insights provided by molecular genetics. The study consisted of a 14-year retrospective review of brain MRI in 34 patients having PSA (mean age, 5 years). Chiasm and optic nerves were not evaluated. Post-hydrocephalus SA or incomplete data were excluded. The clinical data were correlated to the MRI patterns. The study disclosed 82.5% associated lesions with MRI (28/34): 11 neuronal migration disorders, 9 holoprosencephalies (HP), 7 pituitary stalk interruptions, 1 corpus callosum partial agenesis; 17.5% (6/34) of cases were apparently isolated PAS. Clinically, the patients had motor dysfunction in 68% (23/34), mental retardation in 65% (22/34), blindness in 24% (8/34), endocrinological defects in 21% (7/34) and epilepsy in 18% (6/34) of cases. Nine percent of patients (3/34) were neurologically normal (including one with scoliosis and two infants younger than 2 years at the last follow-up). Patients with bilateral cortical anomalies and HP (even if mild) had the worst neurological prognosis. A severe motor impairment was present without evidence of hemispheric anomaly in 12% of patients (4/34). Interestingly, the frontal lobes were involved in 90% of cortical anomalies and HP, supporting the malformative aetiology of PSA. PSA rarely appears isolated and severe psychomotor impairment may occur in apparently isolated forms. These unfavourable results should be highlighted and need to be confirmed

  6. Rare Lung Diseases II: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Juvet, Stephen C; David Hwang; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling...

  7. The Molecular Basis of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Brenna; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) comprises a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by abnormal surfactant accumulation resulting in respiratory insufficiency, and defects in alveolar macrophage- and neutrophil-mediated host defense. Basic, clinical and translational research over the past two decades have raised PAP from obscurity, identifying the molecular pathogenesis in over 90% of cases as a spectrum of diseases involving the disruption of GM-CSF signaling. Autoimmune PAP repre...

  8. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Ilaria; Kadija Zamir; Mariani Francesca; Paracchini Elena; Rodi Giuseppe; Mojoli Francesco; Braschi Antonio; Luisetti Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals and in distinct clinical forms: autoimmune (previously referred to as the idiopathic form, represents the vast majority of PAP cases, and is associated with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) auto-antibodies; GMAbs), secondary (is a consequence of underlying dis...

  9. A case report of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Helen; Aitchison, Frances; Nathani, Nazim; Bhatnager, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    This is a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis that presented in an inner city hospital in Birmingham, UK. The patient was a previously well 42-year-old man, who went on to experience unusual cerebral complications of the disease. The presentation, imaging findings and diagnostic histology findings are described. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare but important diagnosis. Characteristic high-resolution CT findings include diffuse ground glass density with superimposed interlobular sep...

  10. Toward Therapeutic Pulmonary Alveolar Regeneration in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Massaro, Donald; Massaro, Gloria DeCarlo

    2006-01-01

    In humans, age results in loss of pulmonary alveoli; menopause accelerates loss of diffusing capacity, an index of alveolar surface area; and disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) results in loss of alveoli. Thus, an important goal for investigators is to generate knowledge that allows induction of pulmonary alveolar regeneration in humans. Our enthusiasm for this goal and our assessment of its feasibility are based on work in several laboratories over the last decade that has...

  11. Lung Transplant Recipient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tokman, Sofya; Hahn, M. Frances; Abdelrazek, Hesham; Panchabhai, Tanmay S.; Patel, Vipul J.; Walia, Rajat; Omar, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a progressive lung disease characterized by accumulated surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli and distal bronchioles. This accumulation is the result of impaired clearance by alveolar macrophages. PAP has been described in 11 solid organ transplant recipients, 9 of whom were treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. We report a case of a lung transplant recipient treated with prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and ...

  12. Particulate concentrations in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEuen, D.D.; Abraham, J.L. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1978-12-01

    Quantitative birefringent particle counts per 10 high-power fields in lung tissue were correlated with age, sex, and occupational exposure in 37 cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Counts were significantly higher in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis cases in both regions of alveolar proteinosis (47 {plus minus} 11) and perivascular and peribronchiolar areas (dust retention areas) (275 {plus minus} 65) than in 13 controls (5 {plus minus} 3 and 79 {plus minus} 23, respectively). Of a total of 8619 particles, 4817 were less than 1 micron, and 3771 were 1 to 10 microns in diameter. Fifty-nine percent were round, 19% fibrous, and 22% irregular. When analyzed individually, 20 of 37 cases (78%) had alveolar particle counts significantly higher than controls, and 10 of 26 cases had dust-retention area counts greater than controls (P less than 0.050). Known or possible occupational exposure was ascertained in 13 cases. In the remaining 24 cases insufficient occupational information was available. The mean age of the pulmonary alveolar proteinosis patients was 33 {plus minus} 4 years, and of the controls, 40 {plus minus} 7 years, and there was a male-to-female ratio of approximately 3:1. We propose that many cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis will ultimately be shown to be associated with environmental exposures to fine dusts or fumes.

  13. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    A method for measurement of capillary permeability using external registration of gamma emitting isotopes after close arterial bolus injection was applied to the isolated inguinal fat pad in slightly fasting rabbits. An average extraction of 26 per cent for 51Cr-EDTA was found at a plasma flow of...... about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  14. Transconjunctival subperiosteal fat reposition for tear trough deformity: pedicled fat redraping versus septal reset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seungki; Shin, Jong In; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Fat-preserving lower blepharoplasty techniques are increasingly common, but to date there has been insufficient data comparing the results of fat repositioning and septal reset. The authors compared the aesthetic results of the 2 methods using statistical analysis. A total of 120 patients, who had undergone transconjunctival subperiosteal fat repositioning from February 2008 to April 2009, were included. Group 1 (71 patients) underwent fat reposition with pedicled infraorbital fat redraping. Group 2 (49 patients) underwent septal reset to reposition the underlying fat. Documentation of the results with grading (grade 0-III) by 2 surgeons was done, and the results were evaluated for clinical improvement.Septal reset showed statistical significance on grade improvement compared to direct fat manipulation methods in the patients with grade II and grade III deformities. Septal reset also showed a trend for a higher degree of improvement compared to the latter. There were no major postoperative complications. PMID:23722575

  15. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI hospitalized in

  16. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI

  17. Ventricular Septal Defect Spontaneous Close Induced by Transcatheter: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilian Xie; Jun Wang; Lei Gao; Zhen Wang; Milin Zhang; Kunshen Liu

    2007-01-01

    Congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD) spontaneous close induced by transcatheter treatment is rare and has not yet been reported.We report on one case of VSD spontaneous close induced by transcatheter treatment in a 10 years old girl.

  18. Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy for Simultaneous Correction of Ventricular Septal Defect and Coarctation of the Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Shu-Hsun; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chou, Tsai-Fwu; Wang, Shoei-Shen

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with ventricular septal defect and coarctation of the aorta were treated successfully by simultaneous correction of both anomalies through a single incision via a left transsternal anterolateral thoracotomy. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1994; 21:158-60)

  19. Classification of Atrial Septal Defect and Ventricular Septal Defect with Documented Hemodynamic Parameters via Cardiac Catheterization by Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Layered Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yıldız

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We aimed to develop a classification method to discriminate ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect by using severalhemodynamic parameters.Patients and Methods: Forty three patients (30 atrial septal defect, 13 ventricular septal defect; 26 female, 17 male with documentedhemodynamic parameters via cardiac catheterization are included to study. Such parameters as blood pressure values of different areas,gender, age and Qp/Qs ratios are used for classification. Parameters, we used in classification are determined by divergence analysismethod. Those parameters are; i pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, ii Qp/Qs ratio, iii right atrium pressure, iv age, v pulmonary arterysystolic pressure, vi left ventricular sistolic pressure, vii aorta mean pressure, viii left ventricular diastolic pressure, ix aorta diastolicpressure, x aorta systolic pressure. Those parameters detected from our study population, are uploaded to multi-layered artificial neuralnetwork and the network was trained by genetic algorithm.Results: Trained cluster consists of 14 factors (7 atrial septal defect and 7 ventricular septal defect. Overall success ratio is 79.2%, andwith a proper instruction of artificial neural network this ratio increases up to 89%.Conclusion: Parameters, belonging to artificial neural network, which are needed to be detected by the investigator in classical methods,can easily be detected with the help of genetic algorithms. During the instruction of artificial neural network by genetic algorithms, boththe topology of network and factors of network can be determined. During the test stage, elements, not included in instruction cluster, areassumed as in test cluster, and as a result of this study, we observed that multi-layered artificial neural network can be instructed properly,and neural network is a successful method for aimed classification.

  20. Surgical Outcome and Complications of Nasal Septal Perforation Repair with Temporal Fascia and Periosteal Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Virkkula; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Seija I. Vento

    2015-01-01

    AIMS Surgical treatment of nasal septal perforation remains a challenging field of rhinology. A large variety of techniques and grafts with promising results have been introduced for perforation repair. However, the use of fascia or fascia with periosteum has not been previously evaluated for a large sample of patients. METHODS During the years 2007–2014, 105 operations were performed and 98 patients were treated for nasal septal perforation at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and N...

  1. Dexmedetomidine sedation for transesophageal echocardiography during percutaneous atrial septal defect closure in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae Wook; Cheol Go, Gwang; Jeon, Sang Yoon; Bang, Sira; LEE, Ki Hwa; Kim, Yong Han; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2013-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is second common congenital heart disease that often leads to adult period. Intracardiac or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is essential for percutaneous closure of ASD using Amplatzer septal occluder. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), which is a highly selective α2-agonist, has sedative and analgesic properties without respiratory depression in the clinical dose range. We report percutaneous closure of ASD with TEE under DEX sedation.

  2. Dexmedetomidine sedation for transesophageal echocardiography during percutaneous atrial septal defect closure in adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Wook; Cheol Go, Gwang; Jeon, Sang Yoon; Bang, Sira; Lee, Ki Hwa; Kim, Yong Han; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2013-11-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is second common congenital heart disease that often leads to adult period. Intracardiac or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is essential for percutaneous closure of ASD using Amplatzer septal occluder. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), which is a highly selective α2-agonist, has sedative and analgesic properties without respiratory depression in the clinical dose range. We report percutaneous closure of ASD with TEE under DEX sedation. PMID:24550975

  3. Delayed Ventricular Septal Rupture after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Young; Park, Seong Hoon; Oh, Ji Young; Kim, In Je; Lee, Yu Hyun; Park, Si Hoon; Kwon, Ki Hwan

    2005-01-01

    In the era before reperfusion therapy, ventricular septal rupture complicated 1~3% of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) usually 3-5 days after onset. Studies have reported a positive correlation between the incidence of septal perforation and total occlusion of the coronary arteries. A 70-year old female patient was referred to the emergency room with the diagnosis of acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI) and recent cerebral infarction. The coronary angiogram showed a 90% stenosis at the...

  4. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy - a marker of hypertension in aortic stenosis (a SEAS substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuseth, Nora; Cramariuc, Dana; Rieck, Ashild E;

    2010-01-01

    Some patients with aortic stenosis develop asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH) that may influence the surgical approach and is associated with higher perioperative morbidity. The aim of this analysis was to characterize further this subtype of aortic stenosis patients.......Some patients with aortic stenosis develop asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH) that may influence the surgical approach and is associated with higher perioperative morbidity. The aim of this analysis was to characterize further this subtype of aortic stenosis patients....

  5. Assessment of the geometric profile of the Amplatzer and Cardioseal septal occluders by three dimensional echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, P; Saliba, Z; Bonhoeffer, P; Sidi, D; Kachaner, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To apply three dimensional echocardiography to describe the geometric profile of the Amplatzer and Cardioseal occluders after deployment for closure of atrial septal defect.
METHODS—20 patients (mean (SD) age, 14 (5) years) were enrolled for transcatheter closure of a secundum atrial septal defect with the Amplatzer occluder (10) or with the Cardioseal occluder (10). The two populations were matched for the stretched diameter of the defect (mean 18 (6) mm). The profile of the two oc...

  6. Percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er-Ping Xi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ventricular septal defects resulting from post-traumatic cardiac injury are very rare. Percutaneous closure has emerged as a method for treating this disorder. We wish to report our experience in three patients who underwent percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder. METHODS: We treated three patients with post-traumatic ventricular septal defects caused by stab wounds with knives. After the heart wound was repaired, patient examinations revealed ventricular septal defects with pulmonary/systemic flow ratios (Qp/Qs of over 1.7. The post-traumatic ventricular septal defects were closed percutaneously with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen Co., LTD, Guangdong, China utilizing standard techniques. RESULTS: Post-operative transthoracic echocardiography revealed no residual left-to-right shunt and indicated normal ventricular function. In addition, 320-slice computerized tomography showed that the occluder was well placed and exhibited normal morphology. CONCLUSION: Our experiences indicate that closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect using a patent ductus arteriosus occluder is feasible, safe, and effective.

  7. Tapered capillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  8. Features of idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the crazy-paving pattern on computed tomography is characteristic for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), it is not specific and has not been compared between idiopathic and secondary PAPs in the large studies. The aim of this study was to determine the high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of idiopathic PAP. HRCT images of 35 patients (mean age: 38±14years; 54.3% male) with idiopathic PAP (proved by bronchoalveolar lavage or biopsy) were reviewed by two experienced pulmonary radiologist and detailed findings were reported. The predominant HRCT presentation of PAP was interlobular septal thickening (ILST;100%) and ground glass opacities (GGOs; 91.7%), resulting in crazy-paving pattern (83%). All patients had diffuse bilateral lung involvement that was symmetric in 97%. ILST and GGO without crazy-paving were seen in 17% and 14.7%, respectively. The overall extent of parenchymal involvement was 50 to 75% in 80% of patients. Thirty three cases (94%) had areas of geographic sparing within the affected lung. Peripheral sparing was seen in 85.7% of patients, including three patterns with some overlap: costophrenic angle (80%), apices (60%), and subpleural (57%) sparing. Other HRCT findings were: consolidation (63%), pulmonary nodules (31.4%), mediastinal and/or hilar lymphadenopathy (23%), mass-like consolidation (17%), pleural effusion (8.6%), and honey combing (5.7%). All female patients (n=16) had crazy-paving, while 13 out of 19 (68%) male patients had crazy-paving on their lung HRCT (p=0.02). This study demonstrated that the predominant HRCT presentation of idiopathic PAP was interlobular septal thickening and ground glass opacities, resulting in crazy-paving pattern

  9. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  10. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  11. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  12. Capillary optics for radiation focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lenses using 58Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics

  13. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S protects alveolar growth in experimental O2-induced neonatal lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Vadivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, the chronic lung disease of prematurity, remains a major health problem. BPD is characterized by impaired alveolar development and complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Currently there is no specific treatment for BPD. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide (NO, belong to a class of endogenously synthesized gaseous molecules referred to as gasotransmitters. While inhaled NO is already used for the treatment of neonatal PHT and currently tested for the prevention of BPD, H2S has until recently been regarded exclusively as a toxic gas. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous H2S exerts beneficial biological effects, including cytoprotection and vasodilatation. We hypothesized that H2S preserves normal alveolar development and prevents PHT in experimental BPD. METHODS: We took advantage of a recently described slow-releasing H2S donor, GYY4137 (morpholin-4-ium-4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino phosphinodithioate to study its lung protective potential in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro, GYY4137 promoted capillary-like network formation, viability and reduced reactive oxygen species in hyperoxia-exposed human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. GYY4137 also protected mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo, GYY4137 preserved and restored normal alveolar growth in rat pups exposed from birth for 2 weeks to hyperoxia. GYY4137 also attenuated PHT as determined by improved pulmonary arterial acceleration time on echo-Doppler, pulmonary artery remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. GYY4137 also prevented pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: H2S protects from impaired alveolar growth and PHT in experimental O2-induced lung injury. H2S warrants further investigation as a new therapeutic target for alveolar damage and PHT.

  14. Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect with Amplatzer Septal Occluder in Adults: Immediate, Short, and Intermediate-Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Dehghani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transcatheter closure of the atrial septal defect (ASD has become an alternative technique to surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate, short, and intermediate-term results of the transcatheter closure of the secundum ASD with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO in adult Iranian patients.Methods: Between December 2004 and July 2008, the transcatheter closure of the ASD using the ASO was attempted in 58consecutive, adult patients. The mean age of the patients was 37.1 ± 12.7 years (range = 19 - 75 years.All the procedures were performed under local anesthesia with transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopic guidance. The stretched diameter of the ASD was determined with a balloon sizing catheter, and device selection was based on and matched to the stretched diameter of the septal defect.Transthoracic echocardiography was performed immediately after the release of the device and before discharge.Further follow-up at one month, six months, and yearly thereafter included physical examination, electrocardiography, andtransthoracic echocardiography.Results: The mean ASD diameter, as measured by esophageal echocardiography, was 24.8 ± 5.4 mm (range = 13 - 34 mm.The mean stretched diameter, as measured by the balloon catheter, was 27.1 ± 6.4 mm (range = 12.5 - 39 mm. Deploymentof the ASO was successful in 52 (89.6% patients and failed in 6 (10.4%. Four patients experienced severe complications,1 had tamponade requiring drainage, 2 had device embolization to the left atrium and right ventricular outflow tract, and 1 had late wire fracture (surgical removal and repair of the ASD. The position of two large devices (34 mm and 36 mm was considered unsuitable and unstable after implantation and resulted in the removal of these devices.Minor complications included transient complete atrioventricular block in 1 patient, paroxysmal supra tachycardia in 3 patients, atrial flutter in 1 patient

  15. Association of interatrial septal abnormalities with cardiac impulse conduction disorders in adult patients: experience from a tertiary center in Kosovo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaim Gashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Interatrial septal disorders, which include: atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm, are frequent congenital anomalies found in adult patients. Early detection of these anomalies is important to prevent their hemodynamic and/or thromboembolic consequences. The aims of this study were: to assess the association between impulse conduction disorders and anomalies of interatrial septum; to determine the prevalence of different types of interatrial septum abnormalities; to assess anatomic, hemodynamic, and clinical consequences of interatrial septal pathologies. Fifty-three adult patients with impulse conduction disorders and patients without ECG changes but with signs of interatrial septal abnormalities, who were referred to our center for echocardiography, were included in a prospective transesophageal echocardiography study. Intera trial septal anomalies were detected in around 85% of the examined patients.

  16. Device Closure of Small Ventricular Septal Defects: When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Vijayalakshmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD accounts for approximately 20-30 % of all forms of congenital heart disease (CHD. They were traditionally closed surgically in the past. The surgery though safe carries the risk of morbidity, complete heart block, wound infection and thoracotomy scar on the chest. On weighing the risk and benefit, the small VSDs were not submitted to surgery in the past. So for many years it has been taught that the small VSDs are to be left alone and surgery is not recommended. Many clinicians believed in spontaneous closure of VSDs. Hence they advised the parents to wait for spontaneous closure till the child is 9 years old. But what if the VSD does not close by 10 years is the question. Are they normal as grown up congenital heart (GUCH. The Jane Somerville GUCH unit showed that spontaneous closure occurred only in 10% between the age of 17 and 45 (mean - 27 years in small VSDs in adults. What is worth noting is about 25% had serious complications: infective endocarditis (11%, progressive aortic regurgitation (5%, age-related symptomatic arrhythmias (8.5% like atrial fibrillation. This means that asymptomatic small VSDs in childhood is not necessarily benign during adult life. This raises the question, when we have a safe non-surgical device closure available to close the small VSDs, should we put the future lives of the young in danger by not giving the benefit of technology to them?

  17. MORTAL PULPOTOMY ON CHILDREN WITH VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi N. R. Devy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is a condition of heart anomaly found since birth. The most common is ventricular septal defect whereby an aperture is found in the partition of heart chamber. It is estimated that 40,000 newborn in Indonesia have this defective condition. Dental treatment for patients with such condition must be undertaken in a very cautious way. Tooth with multiple caries can potentially lead to endocarditis bacteria. As such, dentist must be watchful on dental treatment that may worsen the patient’s condition. To prevent endocarditis bacteria, a prophylaxis antibiotic is required as recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA. In this particular case, a dental treatment was undertaken to a child patient with congenital heart disease. Previously, the patient has undergone dental treatment in the form of multiple extractions under general anesthesia before conducting cardiac surgery. In this case the treatment includes mortal pulpotomy, GIC restoration, and fissure sealant – all conducted in one visit under general anesthesia. A year after the treatment, there are no complaints from the patient and no irregularity on x-ray results.

  18. Reliability of transthoracic echocardiography in estimating the size of Amplatzer septal occluder and guiding percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-shuang; KONG Guang-ming; JI Qiu-shang; LI Ji-fu; CHEN Yu-guo; YOU Bei-an; ZHANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background In China,transthoracic echocardiography(TTE)is popularly used for pre-intervention examination for atrial septal defect(ASD)and for guiding ASD closure.However,the ability to determine ASD size and the safety and efficacy of TTE for guiding ASD closure still has not been widely accepted This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TTE used before,during and after transcatheter ASD closure with Amplatzer septal occluders(ASO).Methods Sixty-eight subjects(15 men and 53 women;mean age(33.7±17.3)years)were enrolled.TTE was used to measure the diameters and guide transcatheter closure of ASD.The ASD was examined by long-axis view,basal short-axis view,apical four-chamber view and the subcostal view to observe position.diameter and reIation with neighbouring structures.The largest diameter was selected as the reference diameter.Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the ASD reference diameter:22 subjects with ASD diameter 4-14 mm(group A):21 subjects with ASD diameter 15-20 mm(group B);and 25 subjects with ASD diameter 21-33 mm(group C).Results ASD was occluded successfully in groups A and B.In group C.occlusion failed in 2 cases;1 case remained with a 3-mm residual shunt sustained untiI 6-month follow-up.However,at 6-month follow-up,no case of thromboembolism,ASO dislocation or death occurred in the three groups.The diameter of ASD measured bv TTE could accurately predict the ASO size that could successfully occlude the ASD.especially in patients with ASD<20 mm.The ASD diameter measured by TTE correlated well with ASO size(r=0.925,P<0.001:r=0.976,P<0.001;r=0.929,P<0.001 respectively).Conclusions ASD diameter measured by TTE can accurately estimate the size of the ASO needed for successful closure of ASD.The larger the ASD,the much larger the ASo needed.TTE is a satisfactory guiding imaging tool for ASD closure.

  19. Association of interatrial septal abnormalities with cardiac impulse conduction disorders in adult patients: experience from a tertiary center in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zaim Gashi; Masar Gashi; Gani Dragusha; Tefik Bekteshi; Dardan Koçinaj; Nebih Musliu; Aurora Bakalli; Ejup Pllana

    2011-01-01

    Interatrial septal disorders, which include: atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm, are frequent congenital anomalies found in adult patients. Early detection of these anomalies is important to prevent their hemodynamic and/or thromboembolic consequences. The aims of this study were: to assess the association between impulse conduction disorders and anomalies of interatrial septum; to determine the prevalence of different types of interatrial septum abnormaliti...

  20. Association of interatrial septal abnormalities with cardiac impulse conduction disorders in adult patients: experience from a tertiary center in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalli, Aurora; Pllana, Ejup; Koçinaj, Dardan; Bekteshi, Tefik; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Musliu, Nebih; Gashi, Zaim

    2011-01-01

    INTERATRIAL SEPTAL DISORDERS, WHICH INCLUDE: atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm, are frequent congenital anomalies found in adult patients. Early detection of these anomalies is important to prevent their hemodynamic and/or thromboembolic consequences. The aims of this study were: to assess the association between impulse conduction disorders and anomalies of interatrial septum; to determine the prevalence of different types of interatrial septum abnormalities; to assess anatomic, hemodynamic, and clinical consequences of interatrial septal pathologies. Fifty-three adult patients with impulse conduction disorders and patients without ECG changes but with signs of interatrial septal abnormalities, who were referred to our center for echocardiography, were included in a prospective transesophageal echocardiography study. Interatrial septal anomalies were detected in around 85% of the examined patients. Patent foramen ovale was encountered in 32% of the patients, and in combination with atrial septal aneurysm in an additional 11.3% of cases. Atrial septal aneurysm and atrial septal defect were diagnosed with equal frequency in 20.7% of our study population. Impulse conduction disorders were significantly more suggestive of interatrial septal anomalies than clinical signs and symptoms observed in our patients (84.91% vs 30.19%, P=0.002). Right bundle branch block was the most frequent impulse conduction disorder, found in 41 (77.36%) cases. We conclude that interatrial septal anomalies are highly associated with impulse conduction disorders, particularly with right bundle branch block. Impulse conduction disorders are more indicative of interatrial septal abnormalities in earlier stages than can be understood from the patient's clinical condition. PMID:21977304

  1. Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis Diagnosed in a 49-Year-Old Woman after 10 Uneventful Births

    OpenAIRE

    Altin, Firat H.; Yildiz, Okan; Karacalilar, Mehmet; Tosun, Oyku; Kocyigit, Ozgen Ilgaz; Erek, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    Atrioventricular septal defects constitute 4% of all congenital cardiac malformations. Patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect rarely survive for decades without surgical treatment. Pulmonary stenosis can provide a delicate balance between the pulmonary and systemic circulations and thereby increase longevity. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman whose complete atrioventricular septal defect and associated pulmonary stenosis were diagnosed only after she had given birth to...

  2. Advances in capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) developed rapidly into a first-class analytical separation technique. Its advances in instru-mentation and method development will not only enhance or complement existing mature separation techniques such as liquid chromatography and conventional slab gel electrophoresis, but will also severely challenge these separation methods. A brief overview of most striking achievement of CE in the 1980s is given, which illustrates the challenge to liquid chromatography and conventional slab gel electrophoresis, and some detailed discussions are presented to highlight the advantages of CE. New developments in CE that can be expected for the 1990s include especially column technology, separation chemistry and instrumentation, which will serve further to diversify and improve the applicability of this technique in areas which are poorly addressed by other separation methods. This paper considers and speculates on the technological advancements that can be expected to emerge for CE in the 1990s. (author). 95 refs.; 14 figs

  3. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children with histomorphological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nema

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS are aggressive malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, related to skeletal muscle lineage. These are the most common soft tissue tumors in children. The diagnosis is made by microscopic analysis and ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, cytogenetics and molecular biology. We encountered a case of a 03 years old child who presented with a tender, reddish, soft swelling over cheek for three weeks. The FNAC was reported as a small round cell tumor, Probably Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET. The biopsy of tumor revealed a small round cell tumor with an alveolar pattern. Tumor giant cells were absent and mitotic figures were infrequent. Hence, differentials of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and PNET were rendered. Immunohistochemistry (IHC demonstrated desmin positivity. Thus, a final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was offered. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 775-778

  4. Whole lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented with complaints of dry cough of six months and progressive breathlessness of three months duration. He was coughing out milky white sputum for two months and had lost 12 kg weight in two months. He had an evening rise in temperature of one month duration. Clinically, the patient was in respiratory distress and the respiratory system examination revealed bilateral velcro crackles. High resolution computed tomography chest showed bilateral diffuse reticulonodular opacities and "Crazy Paving" pattern suggestive of alveolar proteinosis. Broncho alveolar lavage showed eosinophilic granular material, which was periodic acid-Schiff positive. Open lung biopsy was done to confirm the diagnosis and the histopathologic examination revealed eosinophilic secretions with granular appearance suggestive of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Subsequently, patient underwent bilateral sequential whole lung lavage under general anesthesia. Patient showed marked clinical and radiological improvement after sequential whole lung lavage.

  5. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  6. Lung ventilation injures areas with discrete alveolar flooding, in a surface tension-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Perlman, Carrie E

    2014-10-01

    With proteinaceous-liquid flooding of discrete alveoli, a model of the edema pattern in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung inflation over expands aerated alveoli adjacent to flooded alveoli. Theoretical considerations suggest that the overexpansion may be proportional to surface tension, T. Yet recent evidence indicates proteinaceous edema liquid may not elevate T. Thus whether the overexpansion is injurious is not known. Here, working in the isolated, perfused rat lung, we quantify fluorescence movement from the vasculature to the alveolar liquid phase as a measure of overdistension injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier. We label the perfusate with fluorescence; micropuncture a surface alveolus and instill a controlled volume of nonfluorescent liquid to obtain a micropunctured-but-aerated region (control group) or a region with discrete alveolar flooding; image the region at a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; apply five ventilation cycles with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0-20 cmH2O and tidal volume of 6 or 12 ml/kg; return the lung to a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; and image for an additional 10 min. In aerated areas, ventilation is not injurious. With discrete alveolar flooding, all ventilation protocols cause sustained injury. Greater positive end-expiratory pressure or tidal volume increases injury. Furthermore, we determine T and find injury increases with T. Inclusion of either plasma proteins or Survanta in the flooding liquid does not alter T or injury. Inclusion of 2.7-10% albumin and 1% Survanta together, however, lowers T and injury. Contrary to expectation, albumin inclusion in our model facilitates exogenous surfactant activity. PMID:25080924

  7. Impairment of Alveolar Macrophage Transcription in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ping; Rosas, Ivan O.; MacDonald, Sandra D.; Wu, Hai-Ping; Billings, Eric M; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Alveolar macrophages are inflammatory cells that may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which is characterized by excessive alveolar aggregation of cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

  8. Increased alveolar plasminogen activator in early asbestosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantin, A.; Allard, C.; Begin, R.

    1989-03-01

    Alveolar macrophage-derived plasminogen activator (PA) activity is decreased in some chronic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis but increased in experimental models of acute alveolitis. Although asbestos fibers can stimulate alveolar macrophages (AM) to release PA in vitro, the effect of chronic asbestos exposure of the lower respiratory tract on lung PA activity remains unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate PA activity of alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in asbestos-exposed sheep and asbestos workers. Forty-three sheep were exposed to either 100 mg UICC chrysotile B asbestos in 100 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to 100 ml PBS by tracheal infusion every 2 wk for 18 months. At Month 18, chest roentgenograms were analyzed and alveolar macrophage and extracellular fluid PA activity were measured in samples obtained by BAL. Alveolar macrophage PA activity was increased in the asbestos-exposed sheep compared to control sheep (87.2 +/- 17.3 versus 41.1 +/- 7.2 U/10(5) AM-24 h, p less than 0.05) as was the BAL fluid PA activity (674.9 +/- 168.4 versus 81.3 +/- 19.7 U/mg alb-24 h, p less than 0.01). Among the asbestos-exposed sheep, 10 had normal chest roentgenograms (Group SA) and 15 had irregular interstitial opacities (Group SB). Strikingly, whereas Group SA did not differ from the control group in BAL cellularity or PA activity, Group SB had marked increases in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.005), AM PA activity (p less than 0.02), and BAL PA activity (p less than 0.001) compared to the control group.

  9. High resolution computed tomographic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with unknown etiology and with a nonuniform clinical course. Nonuniformity of clinical course might be related to the degree of pulmonary parenchymal alterations, which can be revealed with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, HRCT findings of PAM were not fully described in the current literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to interpret and to contribute to describe HRCT findings of PAM and to investigate a correlation between profusion of micro nodules (MN) and pulmonary parenchymal alterations in patients with PAM. Material and methods: Ten male patients with PAM (mean age: 22 ± 3.2) were included into the study. HRCT images were assessed for patterns, distribution, and profusion of pulmonary abnormalities. Dividing the lungs into three zones, profusion of abnormalities was assessed. A profusion score (1-4) was given and the scores of each zone were then summed to obtain a global profusion score for HRCT ranging from 0 to 12. Also a parenchymal alteration score (PAS) was defined with respect to profusion of abnormalities. Chest X-rays were also scored. Results: All of ten patients with PAM had findings of interstitial lung disease in varying degrees on their HRCTs. HRCT findings of patients with PAM were as following: MN, parenchymal bands (PB), ground glass opacity (GGO) and, sub pleural interstitial thickening (SPIT) in 10 patients; interlobular septal thickening (ILST), in 9 patients; paraseptal emphysema (PSA) in 8 patients; centrilobular emphysema (CLA) in 7 patients; bronchiectasis (BE), confluent micro nodules (CMN) in 6 patients; peri bronchovascular interstitial thickening (PBIT) in 5 patients; panacinar emphysema (PANAA) in 3 patients; pleural calcification (PC) in 2 patients. A significant correlation between MN scores and PAS (r = 0.68, p = 0.031, MN scores and GGO scores (r = 0.69, p = 0.027) and, MN scores and CLA scores (r = 0.67, p = 0

  10. Tobacco smoke and the pulmonary alveolar macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Davies, P; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-01-01

    Our results indicate that tobacco smoke exposure to varying duration causes morphological, biochemical and functional alterations in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The results of these changes is a population of alveolar macrophages made up of larger cells, with a reduced nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, which are heavily loaded with heterolysosomes containing lipid. Though their fractional complement of mitochondria remains the same, an increase in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface area may be related to an enhanced oxidative metabolism. The cell is biochemically activated particularly following chronic exposure and is functionally impaired with respect to phagocytosis. PMID:232822

  11. Adenosine regulation of alveolar fluid clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Factor, Phillip; Mutlu, Göskhan M.; Chen, Lan; Mohameed, Jameel; Akhmedov, Alexander T.; Meng, Fan Jing; Jilling, Tamas; Lewis, Erin Rachel; Johnson, Meshell D.; Xu, Anna; Kass, Daniel; Martino, Janice M.; Bellmeyer, Amy; Albazi, John S.; Emala, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that regulates cell function through G protein-coupled receptors that activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Based on the understanding that cAMP regulates alveolar epithelial active Na+ transport, we hypothesized that adenosine and its receptors have the potential to regulate alveolar ion transport and airspace fluid content. Herein, we report that type 1 (A1R), 2a (A2aR), 2b (A2bR), and 3 (A3R) adenosine receptors are present in rat and mouse lungs and alveol...

  12. Alveolar proteinosis: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease. Its etiology, pathology, and manifestations are becoming increasingly more apparent. Few cases have been reported, which highlights the importance of reporting this case and reviewing current literature. New therapeutic options are being introduced with adequate outcomes thereby making it possible to manage patients who were previously unresponsive to conventional treatment. 25% of cases resolve spontaneously, while most patients require conventional treatment with total lung lavage that often does not improve prognosis. The case reported in this article was associated to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and diabetes. Primary alveolar proteinosis can have a direct relationship to these concomitant conditions.

  13. Lung Transplant Recipient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya Tokman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a progressive lung disease characterized by accumulated surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli and distal bronchioles. This accumulation is the result of impaired clearance by alveolar macrophages. PAP has been described in 11 solid organ transplant recipients, 9 of whom were treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. We report a case of a lung transplant recipient treated with prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, and tacrolimus who ultimately developed PAP, which worsened when MMF was replaced with everolimus.

  14. Lung Transplant Recipient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokman, Sofya; Hahn, M Frances; Abdelrazek, Hesham; Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Patel, Vipul J; Walia, Rajat; Omar, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a progressive lung disease characterized by accumulated surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli and distal bronchioles. This accumulation is the result of impaired clearance by alveolar macrophages. PAP has been described in 11 solid organ transplant recipients, 9 of whom were treated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. We report a case of a lung transplant recipient treated with prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and tacrolimus who ultimately developed PAP, which worsened when MMF was replaced with everolimus. PMID:27213073

  15. Iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, non-randomised, descriptive study is to characterise the neurosensory deficit and associated neurogenic discomfort in 52 patients with iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). All patients were examined and followed up according to a protocol...... injuries associated with third molar surgery, other dento-alveolar surgery or implant surgery occur sufficiently often to render prevention a key issue....... assessing tactile, thermal, and positional perception as well as two-point discrimination and pain. In 48 patients with IAN injuries of differing etiologies who did not undergo surgery, 32 patients with injury associated with third molar surgery exhibited significant spontaneous improvement of sensory...

  16. Blood Perfusion in Microfluidic Models of Pulmonary Capillary Networks: Role of Geometry and Hematocrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Sznitman, Josue; Technion-IIT Team; Department of Neonatology Carmel Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine-Technion IIT Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Microfluidic platforms are increasingly used to study blood microflows at true physiological scale due to their ability to overcome manufacturing obstacle of complex anatomical morphologies, such as the organ-specific architectures of the microcirculation. In the present work, we utilize microfluidic platforms to devise in vitro models of the underlying pulmonary capillary networks (PCN), where capillary lengths and diameters are similar to the size of RBCs (~ 5-10 μm). To better understand flow characteristics and dispersion of red blood cells (RBCs) in PCNs, we have designed microfluidic models of alveolar capillary beds inspired by the seminal ``sheet flow'' model of Fung and Sobin (1969). Our microfluidic PCNs feature confined arrays of staggered pillars with diameters of ~ 5,7 and 10 μm, mimicking the dense structure of pulmonary capillary meshes. The devices are perfused with suspensions of RBCs at varying hematocrit levels under different flow rates. Whole-field velocity patterns using micro-PIV and single-cell tracking using PTV are obtained with fluorescently-labelled RBCs and discussed. Our experiments deliver a real-scale quantitative description of RBC perfusion characteristics across the pulmonary capillary microcirculation.

  17. Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu

    2016-05-01

    Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.

  18. Modulation by arginine vasopressin of glutamate excitation in the ventral septal area of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturnal, J E; Veale, W L; Pittman, Q J

    1987-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin is hypothesized to act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the ventral septal area of the rat brain. To examine this role of vasopressin further, it was applied by microiontophoresis or micropressure from multiple-barrelled micropipettes onto spontaneously active or glutamate-activated neurons. Applied in this manner, vasopressin reduced glutamate-evoked excitation in 32 of the 47 cells studied. Further, micropressure application of the vasopressin antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP reversed the vasopressin effects. In contrast, administration of vasopressin had no effect on excitations evoked by acetylcholine iontophoresis or on the spontaneous activity of the majority of the ventral septal neurons studied. These observations suggest that vasopressin may be acting on a V1-like receptor on specific neurons in the ventral septal area as a modulator of glutamate actions. Evoked responses were also obtained in the same population of ventral septal cells following stimulation of a variety of limbic areas. Inhibitory input onto most of the vasopressin responsive neurons studied was obtained following electrical stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, two cell groupings that are potential sources of vasopressin to the ventral septal area. Thus, the similarity in action of exogenously applied vasopressin and the evoked responses following paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus stimulation suggests that vasopressin may be a neurotransmitter in this pathway. PMID:3567716

  19. Early Stages of Hyaline Membrane Formation Detected in Alveolar Mouths in Diffuse Alveolar-Damage-Associated Diseases: A Detailed Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fujita, Jiro; Yoshinouchi, Takeo; Enzan, Hideaki; Iguchi, Mitsuko; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2015-10-01

    To study the early stages of hyaline membrane (HM) formation, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was thoroughly investigated using immunohistochemical methods in 15 autopsy cases, which consisted of various types of interstitial pneumonias and pulmonary diseases derived from nonmalignant or malignant diseases. Alveolar mouths (AMs) that were presumed to be normal were ultrastructurally examined in detail, by using pulmonary tissues in the pneumothorax. It is interesting to note that during the initial stages of HM formation in AMs, fragmented eosinophilic masses were closely attached to AMs as irregular fragments or by a cap-like structure. The ultrastructure revealed some distance between the capillary spaces and surface epithelium of the AMs, indicating that the epithelial cells at the AMs might be often easily damaged even by minor stimuli; they can be considered as "locus minoris resistentiae." HMs were found to be formed initially at the site of AMs derived from fragmented eosinophilic masses in not only pulmonary but also extrapulmonary diseases, including both nonmalignant and malignant diseases. These irregular eosinophilic masses, representing the early shape of HMs, were immunohistochemically positive for the epithelial membrane antigens, namely, surfactant protein A and factor VIII antigen, and occasionally for KL-6 and cytokeratins. These results suggested that fragmented irregular masses represent the initial phase of HM formation. Five of 15 cases were focally negative for KL-6 at the initial irregular mass of HMs. Because KL-6 is one of the fundamental components of pulmonary surface elements, it needs to be studied further by detailed clinicopathological examination. PMID:26183849

  20. Surface Tension and Capillary Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the shortcomings of textbook explanations of surface tension, distinguishing between concepts of tension and capillary rise. The arguments require only a clear understanding of Newtonian mechanics, notably potential energy. (DF)

  1. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    CERN Document Server

    Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and crack tips) and to their influence on AFM imaging techniques as well as on the static and dynamic friction properties of solids (including granular heaps and sliding nanocontacts). A great attention is spent in investigating the delicate role of the surface roughness and all the difficulties involved in the reduction of the probe size to nanometric dimensions. Another major consequence of capillary condensation in nanosystems is the activation of several chemical and corrosive processes that can significantly alter the surface properties, such as dissolution/redeposition of solid materials and stress-corrosion crack propagati...

  2. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  3. Selective alveolar corticotomy to intrude overerupted molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Bruno Franco; de Araújo Brito, Helio Henrique; de Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes; Medeiros, Paulo José

    2008-06-01

    Orthodontic intrusion of overerupted molars in adults is challenging for most clinicians. Efficient intrusion can be achieved by combining selective alveolar corticotomies with a modified full-coverage maxillary splint to reduce surgical risks, treatment time, and costs for both orthodontists and patients. PMID:18538256

  4. Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Malur Anagha; Kavuru Mani S; Marshall Irene; Barna Barbara P; Huizar Isham; Karnekar Reema; Thomassen Mary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the PPARγ-regulated ATP binding cassette (ABC) lipid transpor...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulmonary veins Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open ... vessels. The disorder affects the millions of small air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs and the tiny blood vessels ( ...

  6. Interactions of inhaled nanoparticles with the alveolar-capillary barrier of the human respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper, Jennifer Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden zytotoxische Effekte sowie die inflammatorische Reaktionen des distalen respiratorischen Traktes nach Nanopartikelexposition untersucht. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit lag auch auf der Untersuchung unterschiedlicher zellulärer Aufnahmewege von Nanopartikeln wie z.B. Clathrin- oder Caveolae-vermittelte Endozytose oder auch Clathrin- und Caveolae-unabhängige Endozytose (mit möglicher Beteiligung von Flotillinen). Drei unterschiedliche Nanopartikel wurden hierbei gewählt: amo...

  7. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  8. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity. PMID:24976342

  9. Percutaneous repair of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect: current approaches and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasare, Maria D; Polyakov, Mark; Laub, Glenn W; Costic, Joseph T; McCormick, Daniel J; Goldberg, Sheldon

    2014-12-01

    Post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect is a devastating complication of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Although surgical intervention is considered the gold standard for treatment, it carries high morbidity and mortality rates. We present 2 cases that illustrate the application of percutaneous closure of a post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect: the first in a patient who had undergone prior surgical closure and then developed a new shunt, and the second as a bridge to definitive surgery in a critically ill patient. PMID:25593526

  10. Percutaneous septal ablation for left mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alioglu Emin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mid-ventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MVOHC is a rare type of cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis is based on the hourglass appearance on the left ventriculogram and the presence of pressure gradient between apical and basal chamber of the ventriculum on the hemodynamic assessment. Case presentation The present case represents successful percutaneous treatment with septal ablation to patient with MVOHC associated with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and obstruction at both the mid-ventricular and outflow levels. Conclusion Alcohol septal ablation has been proposed as less invasive alternatives to surgery in patients with MVOHC.

  11. Unexpected difficulty during transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defect associated with right aortic arch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right aortic arch (RAA) associated with isolated atrial septal defect (ASD) is very rare. We report successful closure of ASD associated with RAA using a 26-mm atrial septal occluder in a 30-year-old male patient. The impingement of right descending aorta in RAA caused malposition of the device in the left atrium. Deployment of the device through the right upper pulmonary vein successfully closed the defect. Follow-up evaluation by computerized tomography scan and echocardiogram showed no pulmonary venous obstruction

  12. Is it worth closing the atrial septal defect in patients with insignificant shunt?

    OpenAIRE

    Komar, Monika; Przewłocki, Tadeusz; Olszowska, Maria; Sobień, Bartosz; Tomkiewicz-Pająk, Lidia; Podolec, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Closure of the atrial septal defect in patients with insignificant shunt is controversial. Aim To evaluate the outcomes of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) in symptomatic patients with borderline shunt. Material and methods One hundred and sixty patients (120 female, 40 male) with a mean age of 30.1 ±16.2 (20–52) years with a small ASD who underwent transcatheter closure were analyzed. All patients had a small ASD with Qp: Qs ratio ≤ 1.5, mean 1.2 ±0.9 (1.1–1.5...

  13. Determinants and importance of atrial pressure morphology in atrial septal defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, D N; J. Fisher; Moses, J W; Goldberg, H.L.; Levin, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Borer, J S

    1984-01-01

    A prominent "v" wave relative to the "a" wave in the jugular vein and right atrial pressure tracing is considered to be a common haemodynamic sign of atrial septal defect. Since the prevalence, age relation, and haemodynamic determinants of the "v" greater than or equal to "a" wave configuration have not been studied the pressure recordings from 15 adults and 80 children with an isolated secundum atrial septal defect in sinus rhythm and from 40 adults and 55 children in sinus rhythm without s...

  14. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma and nutcracker phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavaş, Güliz Fatma; Okur, Nazan; Küsbeci, Tuncay; Norman, Esma; Inan, Ümit

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a patient with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and to discuss the clinical manifestations. A 25-year-old woman presented to our clinic with blurred vision for 2 months. Best corrected visual acuity in right eye was 20/50, and fundoscopic examination revealed juxtapapillary endophytic retinal capillary hemangioma. Examination findings on left eye were normal. On optical coherence tomography, exudation was prominent on macula. History revealed cerebellar operation because of cerebellar hemangioblastoma. On abdominal ultrasonography, liver hemangiomas and pancreatic cysts were seen, confirmed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT). Abdominal CT imaging also revealed nutcracker phenomenon. Transthoracic echocardiography showed atrial septal aneurysm without shunt. The patient refused ocular treatment. At 3-month control, ophthalmic findings were the same. To our knowledge, this is the first case of VHL disease reported to be associated with nutcracker phenomenon and atrial septal aneurysm. Systemic evaluation and regular follow-up should be recommended to subjects with VHL disease. PMID:23114531

  15. Computational micro-scale model of control of extravascular water and capillary perfusion in the air blood barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Enrico; Aliverti, Andrea; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    A computational model of a morphologically-based alveolar capillary unit (ACU) in the rabbit is developed to relate lung fluid balance to mechanical forces between capillary surface and interstitium during development of interstitial edema. We hypothesize that positive values of interstitial liquid pressure Pliq impact on capillary transmural pressure and on blood flow. ACU blood flow, capillary recruitment and filtration are computed by modulating vascular and interstitial pressures. Model results are compared with experimental data of Pliq increasing from ~-10 (control) up to ~4cmH2O in two conditions, hypoxia and collagenase injection. For hypoxia exposure, fitting data requires a linear increase in hydraulic conductivity Lp and capillary pressure PC, that fulfils the need of increase in oxygen delivery. For severe fragmentation of capillary endothelial barrier (collagenase injection), fitting requires a rapid increase in both hydraulic and protein permeability, causing ACU de-recruitment, followed by an increase in PC as a late response to restore blood flow. In conclusion, the model allows to describe the lung adaptive response to edemagenic perturbations; the increase in Pliq, related to the low interstitial compliance, provides an efficient control of extravascular water, by limiting microvascular filtration. PMID:27059893

  16. Laser-based capillary polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, K; Hankins, J; Bornhop, D J

    1999-01-01

    A laser-based capillary polarimeter has been configured to allow for the detection of optically active molecules in capillary tubes with a characteristic inner diameter of 250 microm and a 39-nL (10(-9)) sample volume. The simple optical configuration consists of a HeNe laser, polarizing optic, fused-silica capillary, and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in communication with a laser beam analyzer. The capillary scale polarimeter is based on the interaction between a polarized laser beam and a capillary tube, which results in a 360 degree fan of scattered light. This array of scattered light contains a set of interference fringe, which respond in a reproducible manner to changes in solute optical activity. The polarimetric utility of the instrument will be demonstrated by the analysis of two optically active solutes, R-mandelic acid and D-glucose, in addition to the nonoptically active control, glycerol. The polarimetric response of the system is quantifiable with detection limits facilitating 1.7 x 10(-3) M or 68 x 10(-12) nmol (7 psi 10(-9) g) sensitivity. PMID:11315158

  17. Rare Lung Diseases II: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Juvet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP, a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed.

  18. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and aluminum dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.R.; Churg, A.M.; Hutcheon, M.; Lom, S.

    1984-08-01

    A 44-yr-old male presented shortness of breath, diffuse X-ray infiltrates, and physiologic evidence of a restrictive lung disease. Biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. The patient had worked for the previous 6 yr as an aluminum rail grinder in a very dusty environment. Analysis of his lung tissue revealed greater than 300 X 10(6) particles of aluminum/g dry lung; all of the particles appeared as spheres of less than 1 mu diameter. We believe that this case represents an example of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis induced by inhalation of aluminum particles; this finding confirms animal studies which suggest that proteinosis can be produced by very large doses of many types of finely divided mineral dust.

  19. Treatment of Adult Primary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Portal, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant-like lipoproteinaceous material in the distal air spaces and terminal bronchi, which may lead to impaired gas exchange. This accumulation of surfactant is due to decreased clearance by the alveolar macrophages. Its primary, most common form, is currently considered an autoimmune disease. Better knowledge of the causes of PAP have led to the emergence of alternatives to whole lung lavage, although this is still considered the treatment of choice. Most studies are case series, often with limited patient numbers, so the level of evidence is low. Since the severity of presentation and clinical course are variable, not all patients will require treatment. Due to the low level of evidence, some objective criteria based on expert opinion have been arbitrarily proposed in an attempt to define in which patients it is best to initiate treatment. PMID:25896950

  20. Silver Nanoparticles in Alveolar Bone Surgery Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental implant surfaces and preventing biofilm formation, containing the risk of peri-implant infections. Modifying the structure or surface of bone grafts and membranes with Ag NPs may also prevent the risk of contamination and infection that are common when alveolar bone augmentation techniques are used. On the other hand, Ag NPs have revealed some toxic effects on cells in vitro and in vivo in animal studies. In this setting, the aim of the present paper is to summarize the principle behind Ag NP-based devices and their clinical applications in alveolar bone and dental implant surgery.

  1. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  2. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  3. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were...... performed subperiosteally on the premaxilla and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluations revealed that all allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone implants induced new bone formation. No inflammatory or foreign body reactions were observed....

  4. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  5. In situ methods for assessing alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2012-02-01

    Lung mechanics are an important determinant of physiological and pathophysiological lung function. Recent light microscopy studies of the intact lung have furthered the understanding of lung mechanics but used methodologies that may have introduced artifacts. To address this concern, we employed a short working distance water immersion objective to capture confocal images of a fluorescently labeled alveolar field on the costal surface of the isolated, perfused rat lung. Surface tension held a saline drop between the objective tip and the lung surface, such that the lung surface was unconstrained. For comparison, we also imaged with O-ring and coverslip; with O-ring, coverslip, and vacuum pressure; and without perfusion. Under each condition, we ventilated the lung and imaged the same region at the endpoints of ventilation. We found use of a coverslip caused a minimal enlargement of the alveolar field; additional use of vacuum pressure caused no further dimensional change; and absence of perfusion did not affect alveolar field dimension. Inflation-induced expansion was unaltered by methodology. In response to inflation, percent expansion was the same as recorded by all four alternative methods. PMID:22074721

  6. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: time to shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiris, Spyros A; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Papadaki, Georgia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Triantafillidou, Christina; Papaporfyriou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Griese, Matthias; Manali, Effrosyni D

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is categorized into hereditary, secondary and autoimmune PAP (aPAP) types. The common pathogenesis is the ability of the alveolar macrophages to catabolize phagocytized surfactant is affected. Hereditary PAP is caused by mutations involving the GM-CSF signaling, particularly in genes for the GM-CSF receptor and sometimes by GATA2 mutations. Secondary PAP occurs in hematologic malignancies, other hematologic disorders, miscellaneous malignancies, fume and dust inhalation, drugs, autoimmune disorders and immunodeficiencies. aPAP is related to the production of GM-CSF autoantibodies. PAP is characterized morphologically by the inappropriate and progressive 'occupation' of the alveolar spaces by an excessive amount of unprocessed surfactant, limiting gas exchange and gradually exhausting the respiratory reserve. Myeloid cells' immunity deteriorates, increasing the risk of infections. Treatment of PAP is based on its etiology. In aPAP, recent therapeutic advances might shift the treatment option from the whole lung lavage procedure under general anesthesia to the inhalation of GM-CSF 'as needed'. PMID:25864717

  7. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting. PMID:25595611

  8. Direct transatrial pericardiocentesis for tamponade caused by left atrial perforation after trans-septal puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Fabien; Millán, Xavier; de Hemptinne, Quentin; L L'allier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Trans-septal puncture is associated with risks of serious complications. We report a case of an obese 52-year-old man with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent preoperative coronary angiography and cardiac catheterisation complicated by left atrial perforation. We describe a direct transatrial pericardiocentesis approach to treating cardiac tamponade. PMID:27389729

  9. Involvement of the Lateral Septal Area in the Expression of Fear Conditioning to Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Daniel G.; Scopinho, America A.; Guimaraes, Francisco S.; Correa, Fernando M. A.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the evidence that the lateral septal area (LSA) modulates defensive responses, the aim of the present study is to verify if this structure is also involved in contextual fear conditioning responses. Neurotransmission in the LSA was reversibly inhibited by bilateral microinjections of cobalt chloride (CoCl[subscript 2], 1 mM) 10 min…

  10. Difficult case of a trans-septal puncture: Use of a “SafeSept” guidewire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martina; Zucchetti; Michela; Casella; Antonio; Dello; Russo; Gaetano; Fassini; Corrado; Carbucicchio; Eleonora; Russo; Vittoria; Marino; Valentina; Catto; Claudio; Tondo

    2015-01-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our center to undergo catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy. This procedure required access to the left atrium through the interatrial septum. During hospitalization, the patient performed routinely pre-procedure transthoracic echocardiography and gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance showing a normal anatomy of both the fossa ovalis and the interatrial septum. Access to the left atrium proved difficult and several unsuccessful attempts to perform the trans-septal puncture were made under both fluoroscopy and intracardiac echocardiography guidance, even with radiofrequency energy delivery. Finally, trans-septal puncture was successfully carried out using a novel nitinol J-shaped "Safe Sept" trans-septal guidewire, designed to cross the interatrial septum through the trans-septal needle thanks to a special sharp tip. Moreover, thanks to its rounded J shape that reduces the risk of atrial perforation, the "Safe Sept" guidewire, when advanced into the left atrium, becomes atraumatic.

  11. Long-term clinical outcome after alcohol septal ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veselka, Josef; Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Liebregts, Max;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The first cases of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were published two decades ago. Although the outcomes of single-centre and national ASA registries have been published, the long-term survival and clinical outcome of the procedure are still...

  12. Cardiac troponin I degradation in serum of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy undergoing percutaneous septal ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene H; Lund, Terje; Grieg, Zanina;

    2009-01-01

    : percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Here the iatrogenic induction of myocardial necrosis occurs in vivo, allowing us to investigate degradation of cTnI by the second. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 8 patients with HOCM just...

  13. Virtual Cardiac Surgery Using CFD: Application to Septal Myectomy in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is characterized by ventricular wall thickening, diastolic dysfunction, and dynamic outflow tract obstruction, all of which strongly influence the vortex dynamics and pressure distribution in the left ventricle (LV). Severe cases of HCM are usually managed through septal myectomy where the surgeon resects the hypertrophic mass. Surgeons currently try to remove as much tissue as possible in order to optimize the post surgical result. However, excessive debulking increases the chance of ventricular septal defects, bundle branch block or complete heart block, and aneurysmal septal thinning. On the other hand, insufficient tissue removal also leads to unsatisfactory outcomes in terms of reduction of outflow tract pressure gradient. Knowing how much muscle to remove and where to remove it from could reduce the likelihood of complications and suboptimal outcomes. In the present study, we employ an immersed boundary solver to model the effect of septal myectomy for ventricles with HOCM and demonstrate the potential of such an approach for surgical planning. Computational resources were provided by the National Institute of Computational Science under Tergrid grant number TG-CTS100002.

  14. Transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy compared with surgery in the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜腾勇; 吴学思; 吕强; 孟旭; 贾长琪; 张银

    2004-01-01

    @@ Transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH)can lead to sustained improvement in both hemodynamics and symptoms in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy ( HOCM ) . 1-4 However, there have been few reports about its efficacy and safety compared with traditional surgical procedures. This study sought to compare TASH with surgery in the treatment of HOCM.

  15. Videodensitometric time-density curve change after alcohol septal ablation of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, A; Kalapos, A; Sasi, V; Ungi, T; Ungi, I; Forster, T; Sepp, R

    2015-02-01

    A recently developed computerized method for estimation of myocardial perfusion, based on the analysis of the time-density curves, is demonstrated to assess myocardial blush over a selected myocardial region of interest in a patient with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy before and after alcohol septal ablation. PMID:23184598

  16. Surfactant-derived proteins as markers of alveolar membrane damage in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gargiulo

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF alveolar-capillary membrane is abnormal. Surfactant-derived proteins (SPs and plasma receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE have been proposed as lung damage markers.Eighty-nine chronic HF and 17 healthy subjects were evaluated by echocardiography, blood parameters, carbon monoxide lung diffusion (DLCO and cardiopulmonary exercise test. We measured immature SP-B, mature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE plasma levels.Immature SP-B (arbitrary units, mature SP-A (ng/ml and SP-D (ng/ml, but not mature SP-B (ng/ml and RAGE (pg/ml levels, were higher in HF than in controls [immature SP-B: 15.6 (13.1, 75th-25th interquartile range Vs. 11.1 (6.4, p<0.01; SP-A, 29.6 (20.1 Vs. 18.3 (13.5, p = 0.01; SP-D: 125 (90 Vs. 78 (58, p<0.01]. Immature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE values were related to DLCO, peak oxygen consumption, ventilatory efficiency, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, whereas plasma mature SP-B was not. The DLCO Vs. immature SP-B correlation was the strongest one. At multivariate analysis, RAGE was associated to age and creatinine, SP-A to DLCO and BNP, SP-D to BNP, mature SP-B to DLCO and creatinine, and immature SP-B only but strongly to DLCO.Immature SP-B is the most reliable biological marker of alveolar-capillary membrane function in HF.

  17. Association of TBX5 gene polymorphism with ventricular septal defect in the Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cai-xia; SHEN A-dong; LI Xiao-feng; JIAO Wei-wei; BAI Song; YUAN Feng; GUAN Xiao-lei; ZHANG Xin-gen; ZHANG Gui-rong; LI Zhong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease is a diverse group of diseases determined by genetic and environmental factors. Considerable research has been done on genes associated with development of the heart. A recent focus is the role of transcription factor TBX5 in the development of atria, left ventricle and conduction system. As part of a larger study, high density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scanning was used to explore the relationship between TBX5 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ventricular septal defect not associated with forelimb malformation in the Chinese Han population. Methods One hundred and ninety two paediatric patients with congenital ventricular septal defect and 192 matched healthy control subjects were studied. The haplotype reconstructions were calculated by PHASE2.0 software. Haploview software was used to 15erform linkage disequilibrium assessment and defining of haplotype blocks. The algorithm used for defining of blocks was the confidence interval method. Results The TBX5 gene region can be divided into 3 haplotype blocks of 27, 15 and 2 SNPs. Strong linkage disequilibrium exists within each block. SNP rs11067075 within the TBX5 gene had significant correlation with ventricular septal defect (P=0.0037) by single marker association analysis. In addition, a 20 kb haplotype composed of 27 SNPs correlated with ventricular septal defect (P=0.05, multiple loci regression analyses based on reconstructed haplotype blocks). Conclusions TBX5 is associated with the occurrence of ventricular septal defect and may be a predisposing gene to congenital heart disease in Hart Chinese. This finding has set a direction for further genetic and functional studies.

  18. Routine preoperative cardiac catheterization necessary before repair of secundum and sinus venosus atrial septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between January 1976 and July 1983, 217 patients with atrial septal defect underwent surgical repair at Children's Hospital. Thirty with a primum atrial septal defect and 26 who underwent cardiac catheterization elsewhere before being seen were excluded from analysis. Of the 161 remaining patients, 52 (31%) underwent preoperative cardiac catheterization, 38 because the physical examination was considered atypical for a secundum atrial septal defect and 14 because of a preexisting routine indication. One hundred nine (69%) underwent surgery without catheterization, with the attending cardiologist relying on clinical examination alone in 5, additional technetium radionuclide angiocardiography in 5, M-mode echocardiography in 13 and two-dimensional echocardiography in 43; both M-mode echocardiography and radionuclide angiography were performed in 24 and two-dimensional echocardiography and radionuclide angiography in 19. Since 1976, there has been a trend toward a reduction in the use of catheterization and use of one rather than two noninvasive or semiinvasive techniques for the detection of atrial defects. Of the 52 patients who underwent catheterization, the correct anatomic diagnosis was made before catheterization in 47 (90%). Two patients with a sinus venosus defect and one each with a sinus venosus defect plus partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection without an atrial septal defect and a sinoseptal defect were missed. Of 109 patients without catheterization, a correct morphologic diagnosis was made before surgery in 92 (84%). Nine patients with a sinus venosus defect, three with sinus venous defect and partial anomolous pulmonary venous connection, four with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return without an atrial septal defect and one with a secundum defect were incorrectly diagnosed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Claudins and alveolar epithelial barrier function in the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium of the lung constitutes a unique interface with the outside environment. This thin barrier must maintain a surface for gas transfer while being continuously exposed to potentially hazardous environmental stimuli. Small differences in alveolar epithelial barrier properties could therefore have a large impact on disease susceptibility or outcome. Moreover, recent work has focused attention on the alveolar epithelium as central to several lung diseases, including acute lu...

  20. Alveolar pressure during high-frequency jet ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Vught, Adrianus; Versprille, Adrian; Jansen, Jos

    1990-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the influence of ventilatory frequency (1-5 Hz), tidal volume, lung volume and body position on the end-expiratory alveolar-to-tracheal pressure difference during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in Yorkshire piglets. The animals were anesthetized and paralysed. Alveolar pressure was estimated with the clamp off method, which was performed by a computer controlled ventilator and which had been extensively tested on its feasibility. The alveolar-to-tracheal pressure...

  1. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, a...

  2. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Children: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    seyyed Ahmad Tabatabaei; abdollah karimi; Sedigheh Rafiee Tabatabaei; B Radpay; Farzaneh Jadali

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis(PAP) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the accumulation of proteinoceous material in the alveoli that is rich in lipid and is positive on periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) stain. PAP is rare in children. Two forms are encountered in pediatric practice: congenital alveolar proteinosis (CAP) and a later–onset form that is generally less severe. Broncho-alveolar lavage is the key to diagnosis. Therapeutic lung lavages are the only effective treatment ...

  3. Isolation and Culture of Human Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherden, I R; Tetley, T D

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar type II pneumocytes (alveolar type II cells; TII cells) play an important role in the homeostasis of the alveolar unit. They are the progenitor cells to the type I pneumocyte and are therefore responsible for regeneration of alveolar epithelium following alveolar epithelial cell damage. The type I cell covers over 90% of the alveolar surface, reflecting its capacity to stretch into a flattened cell with very little depth (approx. 0.1 µm), but with a large surface area, to facilitate gas exchange. Nevertheless, the type II cell outnumbers type I cells, estimated to be by 2:1 in rodents. Most of the type II cell lies buried in the interstitium of the alveolus, with only the apical tip of the cell reaching into the airspace, through which another crucial function, provision of alveolar surfactant, occurs. Surfactant synthesis and secretion is a unique feature of type II cells; surfactant consists of a high proportion of phospholipids (approx. 90%) and a small proportion of protein (approx. 10%), which contains surfactant apoprotein (SP), of which four have so far been described, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D (1,2). Surfactant is highly surface active and is essential to prevent alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant has many other roles, including pulmonary host defense. Compromised surfactant synthesis and function are believed to be a feature of numerous disease states (1,2), including infant respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar proteinosis, and microbial infection. PMID:21336897

  4. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  5. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    The capillary thinning of a polymeric filament is analysed experimentally as well as by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially a liquid sample is kept between two cylindrical plates. Then the bottom plate is lowered under gravity to yield a given strain...

  6. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of a few keV impact energy Ne ions through capillaries in anodic alumina membranes has been studied with different ion counting methods using an energy dispersive electrostatic spectrometer, a multichannel plate (MCP) array and sensitive current-measurement. In the present work, we...

  7. Capillary Rise in a Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, M.

    2009-01-01

    In introductory-level physics courses, the concept of surface tension is often illustrated using the example of capillary rise in thin tubes. In this paper the author describes experiments conducted using a planar geometry created with two small plates forming a thin wedge. The distribution of the fluid entering the wedge can be studied as a…

  8. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs’ electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:27119365

  9. Characteristic aspects of alveolar proteinosis diagnosis Aspectos característicos do diagnóstico da proteinose alveolar

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Prudente Bártholo; José Gustavo Pugliese; Luiz Carlos Aguiar Vaz; Cláudia Henrique da Costa; Rogério Rufino

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by an accumulation of surfactant in terminal airway and alveoli, thereby impairing gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency in some cases. Three clinically and etiologically distinct forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are recognized: congenital, secondary and idiopathic, the latter corresponding to 90% of the cases. In this case report we present a young male patient that was diagnosed with alveolar protein...

  10. 3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

  11. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  12. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-02-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of /sup 35/S-labeled NaSO/sub 4/ into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage.

  13. Simultaneous Removal of Right Lung Hydatid Cyst and Repair of Atrial Septal Defect in a Single Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guang; Lin, Xi; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of echinococcosis caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus species, and the lung is the most common site of occurrence. Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart disease with an incidence of 100 per 100,000 live births. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of coexistence of right lung hydatid cyst and atrial septal defect that were both treated with one-stage surgery. PMID:26694269

  14. Measurement of Atrial Septal Defect Size: A Comparative Study between Transesophageal Echocardiography and Balloon Occlusive Diameter Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Eslami; Masoumeh Lotfi-Tokaldany; Mohammad Alidoosti; Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian; Arezou Zoroufian; Elham Hakki; Mohammad Sahebjam; Mahmood Sheikhfathollahi; Alimohammad Hajizeinali; Hakimeh Sadeghian

    2010-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect secundum (ASD-II) has become an alternative method for surgery. We sought to compare the two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) method for measuring atrial septal defect with balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) in transcatheter ASD-II closure. Methods: A total of 39 patients (71.1% female, mean age: 35.31 ± 15.37 years) who underwent successful transcatheter closure of ASD-II between November 2005 and July 2008 were enroll...

  15. Initial Kaiser Permanente Southern California Experience Embracing the New Technology of Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengart, Ronald M; Salem, Morris M; Degner, Timothy L; Sapin, Samuel O

    2004-01-01

    As a result of individual physicians’ initiative, transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects—a new procedure—was made available to patients in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) Southern California Region soon after the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of the AMPLATZER Septal Occluder. This ingenious device and the procedure for its implantation are described along with results of implantation in our initial 51 pediatric and adult patients. These results are compared wi...

  16. Iatrogenic intra-atrial macro-reenterant tachycardia following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect treated by radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Marai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD has been established as a safe and effective alternative to surgical management. We describe a case of a 41-year-old patient in whom an Amplatzer septal occluder device was used to close a moderately large ASD and who subsequently developed incessant intra-atrial macro-reenterant tachycardia. The tachycardia was terminated by radiofrequency ablation guided by electroanatomical mapping.

  17. A radiographic study of alveolar bone loss in Irish schoolchildren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitewing radiographs were used to assess evidence of alveolar bone loss in 1492 children in the age range 7-12 years. According to the method used in this study, alveolar bone loss was shown to occur in 1.7% of the children, and maxillary teeth were affected twice as frequently as mandibular teeth. (Author)

  18. Perawatan Pulpa Gigi Sulung Disertai Abses Dento Alveolar

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Nurasiah Adita

    2008-01-01

    Abses dento alveolar adalah kumputan pus yang berada pada tulang alveolar sekitar apeks gigi akibat kematian pulpa. Matinya pulpa dapat disebabkan bakteri, trauma, iritasi mekanis, termis maupun kimiawi. Pengaruh bakteri merupakan penyebab kerusakan jaringan pulpa yang terbesar. Perluasan infeksi ke dalam jaringan periapikal dapat melalui foramen apikalke jaringan periodontal sehingga terjadi inflarnasi. Bila virulensi bakteri meningkat disertai rendahnya pertahanan tubuh penderita dapat ...

  19. Alveolar pressure during high-frequency jet ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Vught (Adrianus); A. Versprille (Adrian); J.R.C. Jansen (Jos)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the influence of ventilatory frequency (1-5 Hz), tidal volume, lung volume and body position on the end-expiratory alveolar-to-tracheal pressure difference during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in Yorkshire piglets. The animals were anesthetized and paralysed. Alveolar

  20. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M;

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...

  1. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  2. Unexplained alveolar hemorrhage associated with Ginkgo and ginseng use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Paul V

    2015-04-01

    The author presents a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a woman consuming Ginkgo biloba extract and ginseng. The patient had no illnesses or exposures that would predispose to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and an extensive evaluation revealed no etiology. The patient has had no further bleeding since discontinuing Ginkgo biloba extract and ginseng 1 year ago. PMID:25887018

  3. Anaesthetic management of bilateral alveolar proteinosis for bronchopulmonary lavage.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit R; Chaudhari L; Mahashur A

    1998-01-01

    The most hazardous manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is progressive hypoxia for which bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL) is the single most effective treatment. Unfortunately this procedure under general anesthesia itself increases the risk of hypoxia due to the need for one lung ventilation. It was therefore considered interesting to report the successful anaesthetic management of a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis for Bronchopulmonary lavage.

  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Ilaria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP is a rare syndrome characterized by pulmonary surfactant accumulation within the alveolar spaces. It occurs with a reported prevalence of 0.1 per 100,000 individuals and in distinct clinical forms: autoimmune (previously referred to as the idiopathic form, represents the vast majority of PAP cases, and is associated with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF auto-antibodies; GMAbs, secondary (is a consequence of underlying disorders, congenital (caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the GM-CSF receptor, and PAP-like syndromes (disorders associated with surfactant gene mutations. The clinical course of PAP is variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage (WLL is the current standard treatment for PAP patients and although it is effective in the majority of cases, disease persistence is not an unusual outcome, even if disease is well controlled by WLL. In this paper we review the therapeutic strategies which have been proposed for the treatment of PAP patients and the progress which has been made in the understanding of the disease pathogenesis.

  5. Double-chambered right ventricle, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 4-month-old female mongrel puppy was presented with an anophthalmos. On physical examination, systolic murmur was heard at the 4th left intercostal space near the sternum. However the dog appeared healthy without cyanosis and had no history of exercise intolerance. The phonocardiogram revealed a pansystolic murmur and a continuous murmur on the mitral area. A systolic ejection murmur was also recorded on the pulmonic area. The electrocardiogram indicated bi-ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular enlargement was seen on chest radiographs. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were diagnosed from these findings. PDA closure was performed at 2 years of age. After 2 months from the operation, the dog died during an attempted repair of the VSD. At necropsy, it was found that the double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) was formed by an anomalous septal band. The VSD was localized on the proximal conus and was 8 mm in diameter. (author)

  6. Study Of The Effect Of Nasal- Septal Deviation On The Middle Ear Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motesaddi Zarandi M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube connects middle ear space to the nasopharyngeal space. Upper airway obstruction, with any cause, can derange Eustachian tube function. Nasal septal deviation is one of the prevalent causes of upper airway obstruction which can affects the ventilation function of Eustachian tube."nMaterials and Methods: This study was conducted on the patients who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to unilateral nasal obstruction in Amiraalam hospital from summer of 1378 till the spring of 1379."nResults: There was 140 patients whose data were as: female patients 34 (24.3% male patients 106 (75.7%, mean age (22.7. Median age (20 years and mode of age (18 years of age. they were from 12 to 40 years of age."nConclusion: Comparison between preoperative and postoperative middle ear pressures shows no any significant statistical difference (p=0.798.

  7. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death.

  8. Percutaneous ventricular septal defect closure with Amplatzer devices resulting in severe tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyal, Robina; Wang, Angela; Mahmood, Feroze

    2013-11-15

    While percutaneous intervention is an alternative for patients who are not surgical candidates, the rate of morbidity and mortality is comparable to open repair. Appending the reported complications associated with percutaneous intervention (device mal-positioning, dislodgement, and entrapment in the sub-valvular apparatus), we report mechanical damage to the tricuspid valve (TV). Percutaneous closure with an Amplatzer septal occluder device was attempted on three patients who developed a ventricular septal defects (VSD) after myocardial infarction. In all three cases, damage to the tricuspid leaflet was noted post-procedure. The accompanying severe tricuspid regurgitation led to right ventricular failure, even in the patients where the VSD was considered successfully occluded. Despite successful deployment of the Amplatzer device, complications with catheter manipulation may still arise. Damage to the TV can occur during percutaneous VSD closure with Amplatzer device. Periprocedure TEE monitoring can detect damage to the tricuspid leaflets. PMID:23553968

  9. The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-02-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:15692343

  10. Prolonged postoperative desaturation in a child with Down syndrome and atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report prolonged desaturation in a child with Down syndrome (DS and atrial septal defect due to undiagnosed interstitial lung disease. An 18-month-old child with DS was scheduled for bilateral lens aspiration for cataract. The child had atrial septal defect and hypothyroidism. He also had delayed milestones and hypotonia with episodes of recurrent respiratory tract infection necessitating repeated hospitalization. Preoperative evaluation was unremarkable. General anaesthesia and controlled ventilation using proseal laryngeal mask airway was instituted. He had uneventful intraoperative period. In the postoperative period, the child had desaturation 1 hour after surgery on discontinuation of oxygen supplementation by face mask, which improved with oxygen therapy. Supplemental oxygen via face mask was continued and weaned off over several days. On further evaluation, the child was diagnosed as having interstitial lung disease. He improved and discharged from the hospital 15 days after the surgery with room air saturation of 90%.

  11. Right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions assessed by 81mKr scintigraphy and relation to ventricular septal ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic functions were assessed in patients with previous anteroseptal myocardial infarction to ascertain the influence of interventricular septal ischemia on RV function. Gated right ventriculography with continuous infusion of krypton-81 m was performed in 12 normal subjects and 28 patients with infarction but without significant stenosis of the right coronary artery. Furthermore, RV contractile reserve by postextrasystolic potentiation was evaluated by gated radionuclide ventriculography with 99mTc-HSA. The patients with anteroseptal infarction were divided into two groups by the presence or absence of three hours' redistribution in the septal region on exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Two indices of systolic function (ejection fraction and the peak ejection rate) and three indices of diastolic function (1/3 diastolic filling rate, the peak filling rate and time to the peak filling rate) were derived from the right ventricular time-activity curve and its derivative curve. There was no difference in systolic function among normal subjects and patients with or without redistribution. However, diastolic function was impaired only in the patients without redistribution. The RV contractile reserve in the patients without redistribution was less than in those with it. Thus, RV systolic function was maintained in the patients with anteroseptal infarction, but contractile reserve deteriorated only in severe septal ischemia. Similarly, diastolic function was maintained in mild septal ischemia, but impaired in severe septal ischemia. We concluded that RV systolic and diastolic functions are closely related to interventricular septal ischemia. (author)

  12. Radionuclide assessment of left ventricular perfusion and function after percutaneous translumial septal myocardial ablation in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who underwent percutaneous translumial septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA). Methods: Eight patients (5 men, 3 women) with symptomatic HOCM underwent rest 99Tcm-MIBI MPI and ERNA before and after PTSMA. The septal-to-lateral counts ratio and the extent of septal perfusion defect of the left ventricle were calculated from MPI. The left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), peak filling rate (PFR) and septal regional EF were measured from ERNA. Results: 99Tcm-MIBI MPI showed increased septa199Tcm-MIBI uptake before PTSMA in all patients, but septal perfusion defects after PTSMA in 7 patients. The count-activity ratio of the septal-to-lateral wall decreased from 1.15±0.11 to 0.76±0.14 (p0.05 ]. Conclusion: MPI and ERNA are useful for the assessment of myocardial pefusion and change of left ventricular function after PTSMA in patients with HOCM. (authors)

  13. Treatment to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with total bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease with variable course and characterized by the accumulation of surfactant in the alveoli. By the treatment it was used the alveolar lavage with good results. We present the experience accumulated in the Las Americas clinic of Medellin city with the treatment of three patients with diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by alveolar lavage. We realized seven lavages, two of them bilateral and sequential. We didn't 't have important complications and in all cases we got good clinical and physiological results. Two patients had relapsed six and seven months after the first lavage and they needed a second lavage. We conclude that the pulmonary lavage is a secure and effective procedure in the treatment of the pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and the modality of bilateral sequential lavage is a good alternative and less expensive

  14. Contemporary Approaches in the Repair of Alveolar Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. The repair of the alveolar clefts is an important part of the treatment for patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment concepts of alveolar bone grafting are still controversial. The corresponding controversial issues are; timing of alveolar bone grafting, graft materials, and timing of the orthodontic expansion. In the present article, aforementioned controversial issues and contemporary treatment modalities of the maxillary alveolar clefts were reviewed in the light of current literature. In conclusion, the most suitable time for alveolar bone grafting is mixed dentition period. Grafting procedure may be performed in the early or late phases of this period depending on some clinical features. Adjunct orthodontic expansion procedures should be performed before and/or after grafting depending on the patient's current features. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 563-574

  15. Capillary hemangioma of palatal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas are common tumors characterized microscopically by proliferation of blood vessels. The congenital hemangioma is often present at birth and may become more apparent throughout life. They are probably developmental rather than neoplastic in origin. Despite their benign origin and behavior, hemangiomas in the oral cavity are always of clinical importance to the dental profession and require appropriate clinical management. This case report presents a case of capillary hemangioma of a...

  16. Exponential asymptotics and capillary waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S. J.; Vanden-Broeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Recently developed techniques in exponential asymptotics beyond all orders are employed on the problem of potential flows with a free surface and small surface tension, in the absence of gravity. Exponentially small capillary waves are found to be generated on the free surface where the equipotentials from singularities in the flow (for example, stagnation points and corners) meet it. The amplitude of these waves is determined, and the implications are considered for many quite general flows....

  17. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a ...

  18. Inertial Rise in Short Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shardt, Orest; Derksen, J J; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2013-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show capillary rise experiments with diethyl ether in short tubes. The height of each short tube is less than the maximum height the liquid can achieve, and therefore the liquid reaches the top of the tube while still rising. Over a narrow range of heights, the ether bulges out from the top of the tube and spreads onto the external wall.

  19. Treelike networks accelerating capillary flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Dahua; Ye, Lin; Fan, Jintu

    2014-05-01

    Transport in treelike networks has received wide attention in natural systems, oil recovery, microelectronic cooling systems, and textiles. Existing studies are focused on transport behaviors under a constant potential difference (including pressure, temperature, and voltage) in a steady state [B. Yu and B. Li, Phys. Rev. E 73, 066302 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.066302; J. Chen, B. Yu, P. Xu, and Y. Li, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056301 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.056301]. However, dynamic (time-dependent) transport in such systems has rarely been concerned. In this work, we theoretically investigate the dynamics of capillary flow in treelike networks and design the distribution of radius and length of local branches for the fastest capillary flow. It is demonstrated that capillary flow in the optimized tree networks is faster than in traditional parallel tube nets under fixed constraints. As well, the flow time of the liquid is found to increase approximately linearly with penetration distance, which differs from Washburn's classic description that flow time increases as the square of penetration distance in a uniform tube.

  20. Synaptic Targets of Medial Septal Projections in the Hippocampus and Extrahippocampal Cortices of the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Gunes; Joshi, Abhilasha; Viney, Tim J; Kis, Viktor; Somogyi, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Temporal coordination of neuronal assemblies among cortical areas is essential for behavioral performance. GABAergic projections from the medial septum and diagonal band complex exclusively innervate GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus, contributing to the coordination of neuronal activity, including the generation of theta oscillations. Much less is known about the synaptic target neurons outside the hippocampus. To reveal the contribution of synaptic circuits involving the medial septum of mice, we have identified postsynaptic cortical neurons in wild-type and parvalbumin-Cre knock-in mice. Anterograde axonal tracing from the septum revealed extensive innervation of the hippocampus as well as the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, and the retrosplenial cortex. In all examined cortical regions, many septal GABAergic boutons were in close apposition to somata or dendrites immunopositive for interneuron cell-type molecular markers, such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding protein 1, cholecystokinin, reelin, or a combination of these molecules. Electron microscopic observations revealed septal boutons forming axosomatic or axodendritic type II synapses. In the CA1 region of hippocampus, septal GABAergic projections exclusively targeted interneurons. In the retrosplenial cortex, 93% of identified postsynaptic targets belonged to interneurons and the rest to pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the GABAergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band complex contributes to temporal coordination of neuronal activity via several types of cortical GABAergic interneurons in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal cortices. Oscillatory septal neuronal firing at delta, theta, and gamma frequencies may phase interneuron activity. PMID:26631464

  1. Successful Repair of Complete Atrio-ventricular Septal Defect at the Beginning of the Second Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq, Awais; Shah, Nilay; Siddiqui, Osama T.; Amanullah, Muhammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Complete atrio-ventricular septal defects (CAVSD) are present in about 3% of children born with congenital heart pathologies. They usually require early surgical correction, mostly in infancy, and surgery is considered to be the gold standard. It is unlikely that anyone would survive beyond the first years without severe morbidity. However, we report a case of a Pakistani girl who underwent successful surgical repair of CAVSD at the age of 11.

  2. The role of cardiac MRI in the diagnosis and management of sinus venosus atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Ganigara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SV-ASDs are inter-atrial communications caused by a deficiency of the common wall between the superior or inferior vena cava and the right-sided pulmonary veins. The diagnosis can be challenging, especially in adults with delayed presentation. We present images that illustrate an example of the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of a patient with SV-ASD.

  3. Successful device closure of a post-infarction ventricular septal defect

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Seon Ah

    2016-01-01

    Si-Wan Choi,* Ji Hye Han,* Seon-Ah Jin, Mijoo Kim, Jae-Hwan Lee, Jin-Ok Jeong Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a lethal complication of myocardial infarction. The event occurs 2–8 days after an infarction and patients should undergo emergency surgical ...

  4. Successful device closure of a post-infarction ventricular septal defect

    OpenAIRE

    Choi SW; Han JH; Jin SA; Kim M; Lee JH; Jeong JO

    2016-01-01

    Si-Wan Choi,* Ji Hye Han,* Seon-Ah Jin, Mijoo Kim, Jae-Hwan Lee, Jin-Ok Jeong Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a lethal complication of myocardial infarction. The event occurs 2–8 days after an infarction and patients should undergo emergency surgical treatmen...

  5. Free Wall Rupture and Ventricular Septal Defect Post Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sahebjam; Ali Mohammad Haji Zeinali; Maryam Semnani; Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi; Shahla Majidi; Mahmood Shirzad; Naghmeh Moshtaghi; Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian; Kyomars Abbasi; Hakimeh Sadeghian

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial free wall rupture is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction, and prognosis will depend on the prompt diagnosis by echocardiography, extension of infarct size, and prompt surgical treatment. Free wall rupture concomitant with ventricular septal defect (VSD) may be more complicated for management. A case of a 69-year-old man with myocardial free wall rupture and VSD following acute anterior myocardial infarction is presented.

  6. THE EFFECT OF SEPTAL LESION ON NALOXONE INDUCED HYPOPHAGIA IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gargate

    2014-01-01

    AIM : Ventromedial hypothalamus and lateral hypothalamus are well known for their role in regulation of food intake. Septum is key component of limbic system which has reciprocal connections with lateral hypothalamus. These septal projections to lateral hypothalamus are thought to affect food intake. Opioid system is one of the systems affecting food intake. Agonists of Opioid receptors increase food intake while antagonists of these receptors decrease food intake. Als...

  7. Interventricular septal rupture after myocardial infarction despite early percutaneous coronary intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Davran Cicek; Seher Gokay; Tonguc Saba; Ismail Sapmaz; Haldun Muderrisoglu

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious clinical problem with high mortality rate due to cardiogenic shock or prolonged hemodynamic compromise. Despite multiple improvements in medical, interventional and surgical techniques, early and long-term prognosis after AMI related VSR still remain unpromising. We report a patient in whom an acute VSR was diagnosed 7 days after an anterior myocardial infarction treated with early primary percutaneou...

  8. Dilatation of the Great Arteries in an Infant with Marfan Syndrome and Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rozendaal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an infant presenting with contractures of the fingers, a large ventricular septal defect (VSD, and severe pulmonary artery dilatation. He had clinical and echocardiographic features of both neonatal or infantile Marfan syndrome (MFS and congenital contractural arachnodactyly. After surgical VSD closure, the aortic root developed progressive dilatation while the size of pulmonary artery returned to normal limits. Eventually the diagnosis of MFS was confirmed by DNA analysis.

  9. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro eGarcía-Aviles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if methylphenidate administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered methylphenidate doses (1.3; 2.7 and 5mg/Kg to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3mg/Kg methylphenidate; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum, an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the medial septum the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibres did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.

  10. RESIDUAL DEFECTS AFTER SURGICAL REPAIR OF VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS IN CHILDREN:

    OpenAIRE

    K Sayadpour-Zanjani; M Y Aarabi-Moghadam

    2008-01-01

    "nResidual ventricular septal defects (VSD) are major complications after cardiac surgery. We studied the incidence of this complication, risk factors for its occurrence and short-term follow-up in 179 pediatric patients that underwent surgical closure of VSD from April 2003 until May 2004. All data were gathered retrospectively except measurements of shunt ratio. Studied risk factors included age, sex, weight, height, ejection fraction, VSD size, presence of pulmonary stenosis (PS), res...

  11. Hybrid Procedure for Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect in a Low Birth Weight Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Young; Seo, Dong-Man; Shin, Hong Ju; Kim, Soo-Jin; Son, Jae Sung

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac surgery in neonates with congenital heart disease has progressed dramatically in the past three decades. However, low-birth-weight neonates with congenital heart disease continue to challenge the intellectual and technical skills of healthcare professionals. We present a case of a low-birth-weight neonate with pulmonary atresia and a ventricular septal defect, in whom palliation was achieved with a right ventricular outflow tract stent using a hybrid procedure.

  12. Coronary sinus type atrial septal defect in a child with pulmonary atresia and Ebstein's anomaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G A; Stovin, P G

    1985-01-01

    At birth an infant was found to have an unusual series of abnormalities with a coronary sinus type atrial septal defect complicating pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and Ebstein's anomaly. The functionally important anomalies were diagnosed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation. The coronary sinus defect and Ebstein's anomaly were detected only at necropsy. Although only a single case, the features of this heart favour Bull's revised classification of pulmonary at...

  13. The role of cardiac MRI in the diagnosis and management of sinus venosus atrial septal defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SV-ASDs) are inter-atrial communications caused by a deficiency of the common wall between the superior or inferior vena cava and the right-sided pulmonary veins. The diagnosis can be challenging, especially in adults with delayed presentation. We present images that illustrate an example of the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) in the diagnosis and follow-up of a patient with SV-ASD

  14. Papillary muscle hypertrophy as a structural abnormality in patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Kanadaţý; Esmeray Acartürk

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH) is the most classical abnormality in hypertrophic cardiomy-opathy (HCM). Segmental hypertrophy of the left ventricle is less frequently observed. Some cases with papillary muscle hypertrophy (PMH) particularly associated with apical HCM and also ASH has been reported. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PMH in patients with ASH. Material and methods: Two-dimensional echocardiographic examinations were perf...

  15. TYMPANOPLASTY WITH SEPTAL CARTILAGE AND CORTICAL MASTOID BONE IN CHOLESTEATOMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biram Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to find out the ideal graft between septal cartilage and cortical mastoid bone in Farrior’s type 3 tympanoplasty in cholesteatoma patients in terms of hearing improvement, graft status and recurrence rate of the disease after canal wall down mastoidectomy. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care centre and the procedure and data collections were carried out for one and a half calendar year with effect from September 2007 and each case was followed up for 6 months. The data were entered and calculated statistically using SPSS16 for windows. RESULTS The study shows significant hearing improvement in both the groups. The tympanoplasty type 3 with cortical mastoid bone had air bone gap less than 20dB in 40% of patients. In septal cartilage, tympanoplasty group air bone gap less than 20dB was observed in 36.4%. Retraction of graft developed in 1(2.4% out of 20 patients among cortical mastoid bone tympanoplasty group. Among 22 patients of septal cartilage tympanoplasty type 3, 2(4.8% patients had cartilage resorption and 3(7.1% had graft displacement. Of the total 42 patients, 2(4.8% developed recurrence of the disease. CONCLUSION Cholesteatoma management is controversial. Canal wall down mastoidectomy can reduce the recurrence of disease. The cortical mastoid bone and septal cartilage grafts can provide hearing improvement after tympanoplasty type 3. There is no significant difference in hearing improvement between the two grafts.

  16. Hippocampal infusions of pyruvate reverse the memory-impairing effects of septal muscimol infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Desiree L.; Parent, Marise B.

    2005-01-01

    Hippocampal infusions of glucose reverse memory deficits in spontaneous alternation and in a continuous multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. The current experiments tested whether glucose metabolism may participate in these effects of glucose. Specifically, these experiments determined whether the glycolytic metabolite pyruvate would mimic these effects of glucose. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were given septal infusions of vehicle or the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist musci...

  17. Challenges in treatment of postinfarction ventricular septal defect and heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangovski Ljupčo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD is uncommon, but serious mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction with poor outcome and high mortality rate in surgically or medically treated patients. Case report. We report a 58-year-old male patient admitted to our hospital six days following acute inferior myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular septal rupture with signs of heart failure. Coronary angiography revealed 3-vessel disease, with proximally occluded dominant right coronary artery. Transthoracic echo exam revealed aneurysm of a very thin inferior septum and the basal portion of the inferior left ventricular wall, with septal wall rupture. One of the VSD dimensions was 15 mm and left- to right shunt was calculated 2 : 1. Since the patient was at too high risk for surgical closure, transcatheter closure of VSD was chosen as a better option. Under short intravenous sedation, 24 mm Amplatzer device was implanted percutaneously with transesophageal echo guidance. The post-procedural result revealed a small residual shunt, but it was followed by significant improvement of the patient’s clinical status. A 24h Holter ECG monitoring did not show cardiac rhythm or conduction disturbances. Coronary angiography was repeated ten days following the procedure, after hemodynamic stabilization of the patient, with direct stenting of the circumflex artery and the intermediate artery. Ostial left descending artery lesion was left for further functional significance assessment. Conclusion: Percutaneous closure with a septal occluder device can be definitive primary treatment for anatomically suitable patients or it can serve as a bridge to surgical treatment.

  18. Percutaneous closure of congenital aortocaval fistula with a coexisting secundum atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Jensen, Tim; Søndergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Congenital aortocaval fistula is a very rare anomaly. Clinically, it resembles conditions that cause left-to-right shunt of blood. We report a case of such anomaly in combination with a secundum atrial septal defect in a 13-month-old girl who presented with failure to thrive and exertional...... respiratory symptoms. The aortocaval fistula was occluded percutaneously using an Amplatzer® Duct Occluder....

  19. The effect of changing attitudes to Down's syndrome in the management of complete atrioventricular septal defects

    OpenAIRE

    Amark, K.; Sunnegardh, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the evaluation, decision making, and care of children with a complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD).
STUDY DESIGN—Retrospective study of 136 consecutive cases from 1970 to 1996.
RESULTS—A total of 115 (85%) children had Down's syndrome. Denial of surgery without obvious medical reasons was more common in the early years, as was parental refusal of offered surgery and institutional care of the children. Improved results in later years encour...

  20. EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA FOR CESAREAN SECTION IN ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT WITH PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant patients with atrial septal defect (ASD with pulmonary hypertension , occasionally present for anaesthesia . These patients are considered high risk for anaesthesia due to increased chances of per i operative cardiovascular complications . Anaesthesia requires intensive cardiovascular mo nitoring and maintenance of stable pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics . Here is a case of second gravida for LSCS which was managed under epidural anaesthesia successfully

  1. Masking of Pressure Overload in a Patient with Pulmonary Thromboembolism Accompanied by Atrial Septal Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tae Kyung; Kim, Woo Shik; Kim, Weon

    2011-01-01

    A pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) causes a dramatic pressure overload to the right heart. Previous case reports have shown that elevated right atrial pressure secondary to a PTE can cause right-to-left shunting in the presence of an atrial septal aneurysm (ASA). A 57-year-old female with diabetes, hypertension, and an old cerebral infarction was admitted to our hospital with acute PTE. Initial transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed an ASA swing from the right side to the left side, and r...

  2. Ventricular septal rupture caused by myocardial bridge, solved by interventional closure device

    OpenAIRE

    Zóka, András; Andréka, Péter; Becker, Dávid; Fontos, Géza; Merkely, Béla; Szabó, György; Szatmári, András; Bárczi, György

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial bridging is a common coronary anomaly, which is generally described as a benign phenomenon. However, a growing number of studies consider this anomaly a relevant pathophysiological phenomenon with serious pathological consequences. Here we report on the case of an 88-year-old woman suffering from myocardial infarction and ventricular septal rupture, lacking any recognizable coronary disease except for a myocardial bridge causing the systolic compression of the left anterior descend...

  3. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  4. Endocarditis and Incomplete Endothelialization 12 Years after Amplatzer Septal Occluder Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Allan K; Palafox, Brian A; Starr, Joanne P; Gates, Richard N; Berdjis, Farbouch

    2016-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a 15-mm atrial septal defect repaired percutaneously with use of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. At age 16 years, he presented with a week's history of fever, chills, dyspnea, fatigue, and malaise. Cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.25 × 1.5-cm pedunculated mass on the left aspect of the atrial septum just superior to the mitral valve, and a smaller vegetation on the right inferior medial aspect of the septum. At surgery, visual examination of both sides of the septum revealed granulation tissue, the pedunculated mass, the small vegetation, and exposed metal wires that suggested incomplete endothelialization of the occluder. We removed the occluder and patched the septal defect. The patient returned to full activity after 4 months and was asymptomatic 3 years postoperatively. Our report reinforces the need for further investigation into prosthetic device endothelialization, endocarditis prophylaxis, and recommended levels of physical activity in patients whose devices might be incompletely endothelialized. In addition to reporting our patient's case, we review the medical literature on this topic. PMID:27303238

  5. Fechamento de perfuração septal nasal em coelhos com celulose bacteriana Nasal septal perforation closure with bacterial cellulose in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulógio Emílio Martinez Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomateriais podem ser válidos à somação de tecido e estrutura para o fechamento da perfuração do septo nasal. OBJETIVO: Testar celulose produzida pela bactéria Acetobacter xylinum associada à cola biológica no fechamento de perfurações septais em coelhos. Comparar histologicamente fibrose, inflamação, congestão vascular, integridade do enxerto e fechamento da perfuração septal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Quinze coelhos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Controle (5 coelhos e celulose - Bionext® associado à cola de fibrina - Tissucol® (10 coelhos. Foi realizada uma perfuração cirúrgica no septo nasal em todos os coelhos. Nos animais do grupo Bionext® foi realizado o fechamento da perfuração com a colocação de celulose e aplicação de cola de fibrina. RESULTADOS: Dois coelhos foram a óbito. No grupo com celulose ocorreu o fechamento de duas perfurações e em 4 casos a celulose manteve-se impactada entre os bordos das perfurações. No grupo controle não ocorreu fechamento da perfuração septal em nenhum dos coelhos operados. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença estatística significante nos quesitos inflamação aguda, congestão vascular e fibrose, avaliado histologicamente. Nos casos onde o enxerto se manteve posicionado, não houve alteração quanto à sua integridade. Pode ser útil à somação do arsenal terapêutico como base para re-epitelização dos bordos da perfuração.Alloplastic materials can be used together with tissue and structure to close nasal septal perforation. AIM: to test cellulose use in the closure of septal perforation in rabbits and to compare fibrosis, inflammation, vascular congestion and graft integrity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two groups: Control: Five rabbits and Bionext® and fibrin glue Tissucol®: Ten rabbits. Septal perforations were done in all of them. In the Bionext® group the closure was performed with the placement of cellulose

  6. Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malur Anagha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and the PPARγ-regulated ATP binding cassette (ABC lipid transporter, ABCG1. An open label proof of concept Phase II clinical trial was conducted in PAP patients using rituximab, a chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody directed against B lymphocyte specific antigen CD20. Rituximab treatment decreased anti-GM-CSF antibody levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and 7/9 patients completing the trial demonstrated clinical improvement as measured by arterial blood oxygenation. Objectives This study sought to determine whether rituximab therapy would restore lipid metabolism in PAP alveolar macrophages. Methods BAL samples were collected from patients pre- and 6-months post-rituximab infusion for evaluation of mRNA and lipid changes. Results Mean PPARγ and ABCG1 mRNA expression increased 2.8 and 5.3-fold respectively (p ≤ 0.05 after treatment. Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2 (a key enzyme in surfactant degradation mRNA expression was severely deficient in PAP patients pre-treatment but increased 2.8-fold post-treatment. In supplemental animal studies, LPLA2 deficiency was verified in GM-CSF KO mice but was not present in macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Oil Red O intensity of PAP alveolar macrophages decreased after treatment, indicating reduced intracellular lipid while extracellular free cholesterol increased in BAL fluid. Furthermore, total protein and Surfactant protein A were significantly decreased in the BAL fluid post therapy. Conclusions Reduction in GM

  7. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  8. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  9. Recent advances in alveolar biology: Evolution and function of alveolar proteins☆

    OpenAIRE

    Orgeig, Sandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Edwin J A Veldhuizen; Casals, Cristina; Clark, Howard W.; Haczku, Angela; Knudsen, Lars; Possmayer, Fred

    2010-01-01

    This review is focused on the evolution and function of alveolar proteins. The lung faces physical and environmental challenges, due to changing pressures/volumes and foreign pathogens, respectively. The pulmonary surfactant system is integral in protecting the lung from these challenges via two groups of surfactant proteins – the small molecular weight hydrophobic SPs, SP-B and -C, that regulate interfacial adsorption of the lipids, and the large hydrophilic SPs, SP-A and -D, which are surfa...

  10. Hemorragia alveolar associada a nefrite lúpica Alveolar hemorrhage associated with lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemorragia alveolar, como causa de insuficiência respiratória, é pouco freqüente, com diversas etiologias possíveis. Entre elas, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que se apresenta geralmente como síndrome pulmão-rim, possui alta morbimortalidade. Acredita-se que a patogênese da microangiopatia, tanto renal como pulmonar, esteja associada ao depósito de imunocomplexos, que ativariam as vias de apoptose celular. Relatam-se dois casos de pacientes com nefrite lúpica que evoluíram com hemorragia alveolar associada à insuficiência respiratória necessitando de ventilação mecânica com evoluções totalmente distintas frente às terapias farmacológicas. O achado de anticorpos antimembrana basal em um dos casos evidencia a multiplicidade de mecanismos fisiopatológicos possivelmente envolvidos, que poderiam justificar as respostas heterogêneas frente aos tratamentos disponíveis.Alveolar hemorrhage leading to respiratory failure is uncommon. Various etiologies have been reported, including systemic lupus erythematosus, which generally presents as pulmonary-renal syndrome. It is believed that the pathogenesis of microangiopathy is related to deposits of immune complexes that lead to activation of cellular apoptosis. The authors report two cases of alveolar hemorrhage and respiratory failure, both requiring mechanical ventilation. The two cases had opposite outcomes after pharmacological therapy. The presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in one of the cases demonstrates the multiplicity of physiopathological mechanisms that may be involved. This multiplicity of mechanisms provides a possible explanation for the heterogeneous responses to the available treatments.

  11. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  12. A New Conductivity Detector for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new conductivity detector for capillary electrophoresis consisting of an electrochemical cell and a conductive meter was developed. In the cell, the microelectrode and capillary were inserted through the cell wall and fixed by screws and sealing ring, the ends of microelectrode and capillary were located by a guide with two cross holes. LOD for K+ was 1.5×10-5 mol/L.

  13. Serum proteins analysis by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Uji, Yoshinori; Okabe, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multi-capillary electrophoresis instrument in clinical laboratory. An automated clinical capillary electrophoresis system was evaluated for performing serum proteins electrophoresis and immuno-fixation electrophoresis by subtraction. In this study the performance of capillary electrophoresis was compared with the cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and agarose gel immunofixation electrophoresis for serum proteins. The results of...

  14. Cytokine Analysis by Immunoaffinity Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonca, Mark; Kalish, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (ICE) is a powerful tool used to detect and quantify target proteins of interest in complex biological fluids. The target analyte is captured and bound to antibodies immobilized onto the wall of a capillary, labeled in situ with a fluorescent dye, eluted and detected online using laser-induced fluorescence following electrophoretic separation. Here, we illustrate how to construct an immunoaffinity capillary and utilize it to run ICE in order to capture...

  15. Epidemiology of human alveolar echinococcosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Globally human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare zoonotic helminthic disease confined to the Northern Hemisphere as sporadic infections in rural populations, principally in some areas of North America, west-central Europe, the Near East, Siberia, Central Asia, Japan and China. In China the first human cases were reported from western regions in the 1960s, but most hospital records remain fragmented and inadequate. From the mid-1990s mass screening surveys using portable ultrasound scanners recorded higher prevalences (up to 6% by county) than in any other areas of the world with some village rates as high as 15%. Risk factors identified for AE cases included ethnicity, sex, age and occupation. The role of the dog in transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis to humans now appears to be significant and may be one of the most important risk factor, in combination with landscape/land-use features conducive to maintaining wildlife host populations. PMID:16338167

  16. CT diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the CT findings and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM). Methods: The CT findings of 9 cases of PAM proved by lung biopsy or clinical diagnosis were retrospectively analysed. Results: On conventional CT, pulmonary window revealed widespread intraalveolar calcifications of both lungs concentrating in the subpleural parenchyma of the middle and lower lobes. The CT value of microliths ranged from 200 to 400 HU, usually combined with pulmonary emphysema and interstitial fibrosis; Mediastinal window showed linear calcifications along pleura or scattered punctate calcifications in the concentrated area of microliths looking like flame or white line in the medial border. On HRCT, pulmonary window revealed diffuse ground-glass appearance, nodules of different sizes, more microliths along the bronchovesicular bundles and thickening of lobule septa. Conclusion: CT, especially HRCT, can better demonstrate pathological features and stage of PAM, playing an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis

  17. Computed tomographic appearances of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated longitudinal changes in chest CT images in six cases (5 males and one female, age: 35-57 yr) of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treated with bronchopulmonary lavage. Chest CT images on admission showed a mixed pattern of air-space consolidation and reticular or reticulonodular shadows in most cases and showed a peripheral clear zone in all cases. These shadows gradually diminished after bronchopulmonary lavage. Some cases revealed early improvement in the hilar zone while others had equal improvement in all lung lesions. In one case, consolidation was changed into reticular shadows by treatment. Previous reports have indicated that 'interstitial shadows which disappeared with lavage' reflect edematous thickening of interlobular septa. However, our longitudinal evaluation suggests that interstitial shadows on CT images may reflect not only real interstitial infiltration but also inhomogeneous distribution of intralobular deposits. (author)

  18. Computed tomographic appearances of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, Yasuo; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nagao, Keiichi; Kuriyama, Takayuki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujita, Akira; Hashizume, Ikko

    1994-03-01

    We evaluated longitudinal changes in chest CT images in six cases (5 males and one female, age: 35-57 yr) of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treated with bronchopulmonary lavage. Chest CT images on admission showed a mixed pattern of air-space consolidation and reticular or reticulonodular shadows in most cases and showed a peripheral clear zone in all cases. These shadows gradually diminished after bronchopulmonary lavage. Some cases revealed early improvement in the hilar zone while others had equal improvement in all lung lesions. In one case, consolidation was changed into reticular shadows by treatment. Previous reports have indicated that 'interstitial shadows which disappeared with lavage' reflect edematous thickening of interlobular septa. However, our longitudinal evaluation suggests that interstitial shadows on CT images may reflect not only real interstitial infiltration but also inhomogeneous distribution of intralobular deposits. (author).

  19. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰

    2010-01-01

    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  20. X-ray and high resolution CT findings in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and their relationship with pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study X-ray and high resolution computed tomograghy (HRCT) features and their relationship with pulmonary function test in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Methods: The findings of X-ray and HRCT and the results of pulmonary function tests in 19 patients with PAP were reviewed retrospectively. X-ray and HRCT scores were rated in the aspects of opacity density, extent, and severity. The relationship between the imaging scores and pulmonary function tests were determined. Results X-ray showed a symmetrical perihilar predominance appearance in patients with PAP. HRCT scan showed bilateral clear-defined pathchy areas of ground-glass opacity and interlobular septal thickening, a pattern commonly characterized as crazy paving. Nineteen PAP respiratory function results were: DLCO/Pred (54.49 ± 16.78)%, FEV1/FVC=(86.00±6.70)%. Chest radiographic extent score and severity score correlated with diffusing capacity (r=-0.661, P1/FVC, r=0.573, P<0.05). Conclusions: In patients with PAP, there is close relationship between X-ray, HRCT findings and pulmonary function. HRCT correlates more closely with pulmonary function. (authors)

  1. Crazy paving radiography finding in asymptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Rak; Chang, You-Jin; Kim, Si Wook; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disorder characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant phospholipids and protein components. The symptoms and prognosis are extremely variable. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or transbronchial lung biopsy are useful for diagnosis; surgical lung biopsy is often unnecessary but useful in the focal involvement. We report a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 50-year-old woman, confirmed by a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy from the initial focal involvement, with normal bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy findings. PMID:25182335

  2. Upper Alveolar Ridge in Edentulous Patients and Caldwell Luc Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Murthy, V.; Mahendra Kumar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the upper alveolar ridge changes and its impact on Caldwell Luc surgery, in a patient papulation from a Medical College Hospital. We undertook a study to measure the thickness of upper alveolar ridge in edentulous and edentulous patients, to know the difference between the two and its effects on Caldwell Luc surgery. The finding of the study led us to conclude that the upper alveolar ridge is quite thin in edentulous patients and requires care while scra...

  3. Electromigration dispersion in Capillary Electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen; 10.1007/s11538-011-9708-7

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper (S. Ghosal and Z. Chen Bull. Math. Biol. 2010, vol. 72, pg. 2047) it was shown that the evolution of the solute concentration in capillary electrophoresis is described by a nonlinear wave equation that reduced to Burger's equation if the nonlinearity was weak. It was assumed that only strong electrolytes (fully dissociated) were present. In the present paper it is shown that the same governing equation also describes the situation where the electrolytic buffer consists of a single weak acid (or base). A simple approximate formula is derived for the dimensionless peak variance which is shown to agree well with published experimental data.

  4. Microbeam-coupled capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the first few microseconds following a charged particle traversal of a cell, numerous oxygen and nitrogen radicals are formed along the track. Presented here is a method, using capillary electrophoresis, for simultaneous measurement, within an individual cell, of specific reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide radical (O2-*) as well as the native and oxidised forms of glutathione, an ubiquitous anti-oxidant that assists the cell in coping with these species. Preliminary data are presented as well as plans for integrating this system into the charged particle microbeam at Columbia University. (authors)

  5. Capillary electrophoresis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Paul D

    1992-01-01

    This book is designed to be a practical guide, used by wide audience, including those new to CE, those more experienced, routine users, those interested in technology development, and those involved with applications research. References have been emphasized to allow the reader to explore the detailed specifics and theoretical foundations.This book draws together the rapidly evolving, diverse, and multidisciplinary subject of capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is designed as a practical guide to be used by a wide audience, including those new to CE as well as more experienced users. T

  6. Exotic containers for capillary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses 'exotic' rotationally symmetric containers that admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium capillary free surfaces. The paper extends earlier work to a larger class of parameters and clarifies and simplifies the governing differential equations, while expressing them in a parametric form appropriate for numerical integration. A unified presentation suitable for both zero and nonzero gravity is given. Solutions for the container shapes are depicted graphically along with members of the free-surface continuum, and comments are given concerning possible physical experiments.

  7. Depletion of resident alveolar macrophages does not prevent Fas-mediated lung injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bem, R. A.; Farnand, A. W.; Wong, V; Koski, A; Rosenfeld, M. E.; Van Rooijen, N.; C. W. Frevert; Martin, T R; Matute-Bello, G.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system in the lungs results in a form of injury characterized by alveolar epithelial apoptosis and neutrophilic inflammation. Studies in vitro show that Fas activation induces apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells and cytokine production in alveolar macrophages. The main goal of this study was to determine the contribution of alveolar macrophages to Fas-induced lung inflammation in mice, by depleting alveolar macrophages using clodronate-containing lip...

  8. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Karp, Philip H.; Ernst, Sarah E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Michael V Rector; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A.; McCray, Paul B.; Welsh, Michael J.; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epitheli...

  9. Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis co-existing with breast cancer: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sawai, Toyomitsu; Umeyama, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Sumako; Matsuo, Nobuko; Suyama, Naofumi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disease characterized by excessive alveolar accumulation of surfactant due to defective alveolar clearance by macrophages. There are only a few published case reports of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis occurring in association with solid cancers. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously reported cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis associated with breast cancer. Case presentation A 48-year-old Asian woman, a nonsmo...

  10. Resultados a longo prazo da miectomia septal no tratamento da cardiomiopatia hipertrófica Long term results of septal myectomy in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Ferreira Lisboa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação clínica e ecocardiográfica tardia da miectomia septal cirúrgica de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica obstrutiva (CMHO. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 34 pacientes adultos (média de 55,7±15,2 anos portadores de CMHO operados consecutivamente na instituição entre 1988 e 2008. Apenas quatro (11,8% pacientes tinham conhecimento de história familiar para CMHO. Nove (26,5% pacientes apresentavam insuficiência cardíaca (NYHA classe funcional IV. Trinta (88,2% pacientes apresentavam CMHO isolada e, em quatro (11,8%, a CMHO estava associada à insuficiência coronária. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada em todos os casos foi a miectomia septal transaórtica. RESULTADOS: Em 26 (76,5% pacientes, a insuficiência mitral decorrente do movimento anterior sistólico regrediu após a miectomia. Em oito (23,5% pacientes, houve necessidade de abordagem da valva mitral. Houve um (2,9% óbito hospitalar. Dois (5,9% pacientes necessitaram de marcapasso definitivo no pós-operatório. Em média, o gradiente de pico pré-operatório na via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo, que era de 84,9±29,0 mmHg, diminuiu para 27,8±12,9 mmHg no pós-operatório inicial e caiu para 19,2±11,2 mmHg no pós-operatório tardio (49,0±33,0 meses. A classe funcional (NYHA que, em média, era de 3,1±0,8 passou para 1,4±0,5 no pós-operatório. Com seguimento médio de 9,6±8,4 anos, a sobrevida foi de 87,9% e a sobrevida livre de eventos cardiovasculares foi de 77,7%. CONCLUSÃO: A miectomia septal cirúrgica pode ser realizada de modo seguro, com excelente sobrevida, melhora dos sintomas e alívio da obstrução na via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo em pacientes com CMHO. Os benefícios iniciais se mantiveram a longo prazo.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the clinical and echocardiographic late outcomes of surgical septal myectomy in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHCM. METHODS: We examined

  11. The Prevalence of Concha Bullosa and Nasal Septal Deviation and Their Relationship to Maxillary Sinusitis by Volumetric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle D. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of concha bullosa and nasal septal deviation and their potential relationships to maxillary sinusitis. 883 CT scans taken at Creighton University School of Dentistry from 2005 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of concha bullosa, nasal septal deviation, and maxillary sinusitis. 67.5% of patients exhibited pneumatization of at least one concha, 19.4% of patients had a deviated septum, and 50.0% had mucosal thickening consistent with maxillary sinusitis. 49.3% of patients who had concha bullosa also had evidence of maxillary sinusitis. Only 19.5% of patients with concha bullosa also had nasal septal deviation, whereas 19.7% of patients with sinusitis also presented with nasal septal deviation. Although concha bullosa is a common occurrence in the nasal cavity, there did not appear to be a statistically significant relationship between the presence of concha bullosa or nasal septal deviation and maxillary sinusitis.

  12. Alveolar proteinosis lung lavage using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, A P; Pelias, A; Johnston, R F; Goel, I P; Hakki, H I; Oslick, T; Shinnick, J P

    1981-01-01

    An adult case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presented with an arterial oxygen tension of 27 mmHg (3.6 kPa) while breathing air. Dangerous hypoxaemia during lung lavage was avoided by using partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

  13. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A Rare Cause of Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Zeeshan; Khosa, Muhammad Zeeshan; Qazi, Muhammad Yaqoob

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare syndrome in the paediatric age group and characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of proteinaceous phospholipid-laden material called surfactant. The diagnosis is made by High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest which shows characteristic crazy paving appearance and diagnosis confirmed by Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL). We report two cases. First was a 9-month old infant who presented with respiratory distress and peripheral cyanosis since birth. He was diagnosed on High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest as a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and broncho-alveolar lavage confirmed his diagnosis. Second case was a 10-year old female child who had a history of repeated chest infections for 5 years and now presented with cough and respiratory distress for 45 days. She was also diagnosed on HRCT chest but unfortunately she died before bronchoalveolar lavage. PMID:26208564

  14. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Biljana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

  15. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  16. Diagnostics of a high current capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated that thin (10 to 25 μm diameter) capillaries can be fabricated in suitably configured insulators for use in pulse power machines. Large currents can be used to heat these capillaries which produce photons with an energies greater than 1 keV

  17. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  18. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  19. Dynamics of surfactant release in alveolar type II cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Thomas; Ortmayr, Jörg; Friedrich, Franz; Völkl, Harald; Dietl, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, secreted via exocytosis of lamellar bodies (LB) by alveolar type II (AT II) cells, maintains low alveolar surface tension and is therefore essential for normal lung function. Here we describe real-time monitoring of exocytotic activity in these cells by visualizing and quantifying LB fusion with the plasma membrane (PM). Two approaches were used. First, fluorescence of LysoTracker Green DND-26 (LTG) in LB disappeared when the dye was released after exocytosis. Second, ph...

  20. Identification of a cell membrane protein that binds alveolar surfactant.

    OpenAIRE

    Strayer, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Alveolar surfactants are complex mixtures of proteins and phospholipids produced by type II alveolar cells and responsible for lowering pulmonary surface tension. The process by which surfactant is produced and exported and by which its production by pulmonary cells is regulated are not well understood. This study was designed to identify a cellular receptor for surfactant constituents. To do so, monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against antibodies to porcine and rabbit surfactant...

  1. Dynamic thermal performance of alveolar brick construction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Even though U-value does not measure thermal inertia, it is the commonly used parameter. → The thermal performance analysis of buildings must include the evaluation of transient parameters. → Transient parameters of alveolar brick constructive system show good agreement with its low energy consumption. -- Abstract: Alveolar bricks are being introduced in building sector due to the simplicity of their construction system and to the elimination of the insulation material. Nevertheless, it is not clear if this new system is energetically efficient and which is its thermal behaviour. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the alveolar brick construction system, compared with a traditional Mediterranean brick system with insulation. The experimental study consists of measuring the thermal performance of four real house-like cubicles. The thermal transmittance in steady-state, also known as U-value, is calculated theoretically and experimentally for each cubicle, presenting the insulated cubicles as the best construction system, with differences around 45% in comparison to the alveolar one. On the other hand, experimental results show significantly smaller differences on the energy consumption between the alveolar and insulated construction systems during summer period (around 13% higher for the alveolar cubicle). These values demonstrate the high thermal efficiency of the alveolar system. In addition, the lack of agreement between the measured energy consumption and the calculated U-values, guides the authors to analyze the thermal inertia of the different building components. Therefore, several transient parameters, extracted from the heat transfer matrix and from experimental data, are also evaluated. It can be concluded that the alveolar brick construction system presents higher thermal inertia than the insulated one, justifying the low measured energy consumption.

  2. Effect of growth hormone on human alveolar macrophage oxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, M. P.; Coakley, R.; COSTELLO, R; O'Neill, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has diverse immunological actions and has been shown to augment oxidative metabolism in rat peritoneal and porcine alveolar macrophages and both human and animal neutrophils. A study was performed to determine the effects of GH on human alveolar macrophages in vitro. METHODS: Macrophages were harvested from 10 patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage and incubated with 0, 10 and 100 nmol/ml GH for four hours. Oxidative metabolism was assessed by means o...

  3. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    OpenAIRE

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to ...

  4. Familial occurrence of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in 3-siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by intra-alveolar calcium deposits. More than 500 cases were reported in the literature. The disorder affects people at every age beginning from the early childhood. It occurs probably as a result of autosomal recessive transmission. Familial occurrence is often found with family history of the disease being present in up to 50% of the reported cases. We report PAM in 3 siblings. (author)

  5. Anaesthetic management of bilateral alveolar proteinosis for bronchopulmonary lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The most hazardous manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is progressive hypoxia for which bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL is the single most effective treatment. Unfortunately this procedure under general anesthesia itself increases the risk of hypoxia due to the need for one lung ventilation. It was therefore considered interesting to report the successful anaesthetic management of a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis for Bronchopulmonary lavage.

  6. Alveolar proteinosis and nocardiosis: a patient treated by bronchopulmonary lavage.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, J.; Gómez Aguinaga, M. A.; Vidal, R; Maudes, A.; Sureda, A.; Gómez Mampaso, E.; Fogué, L.

    1989-01-01

    Alveolar proteinosis is a relatively rare disease of unclear pathogenesis associated with opportunistic-infections. Although nocardiosis is the most frequent one, only 22 cases have been reported previously and are reviewed here. We present a patient with alveolar proteinosis with nocardiosis treated as an emergency with bilateral bronchopulmonary lavage and antibiotics. No previous cases of this association have been successfully managed in this way.

  7. Spontaneous monokine release by alveolar macrophages in chronic sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, J; Männel, Daniela N.; S. Pfeifer; A. Borkowski; Ferlinz, R.; Müller-Quernheim, J.

    1991-01-01

    In pulmonary sarcoidosis an activation of alveolar T lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM) has been demonstrated. There is evidence that in contrast to acute disease a heightened T-cell response cannot be observed in the chronic phase of sarcoidosis. The role of AM in the inflammatory process of chronic sarcoidosis is not yet intensively evaluated. To address this question we measured the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by AM of 39 patients with...

  8. Assessment of atrial septal defects in adults comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance with transoesophageal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adult patients with secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDs are able to have these defects fixed percutaneously. Traditionally, this has involved an assessment of ASD size, geometry and atrial septal margins by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE prior to percutaneous closure. This is a semi-invasive technique, and all of the information obtained could potentially be obtained by non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. We compared the assessment of ASDs in consecutive patients being considered for percutaneous ASD closure using CMR and TOE. Methods Consecutive patients with ASDs diagnosed on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE were invited to undergo both CMR and TOE. Assessment of atrial septal margins, maximal and minimal defect dimensions was performed with both techniques. Analyses between CMR and TOE were made using simple linear regression and Bland Altman Analyses. Results Total CMR scan time was 20 minutes, and comparable to the TOE examination time. A total of 20 patients (M:F = 5:15, mean age 42.8 years ± 15.7 were included in the analyses. There was an excellent agreement between CMR and TOE for estimation of maximum defect size (R = 0.87. The anterior inferior, anterior superior and posterior inferior margins could be assessed in all patients with CMR. The posterior superior margin could not be assessed in only one patient. Furthermore, in 1 patient in whom TOE was unable to be performed, CMR was used to successfully direct percutaneous ASD closure. Conclusions CMR agrees with TOE assessment of ASDs in the work-up for percutaneous closure. Potentially CMR could be used instead of TOE for this purpose.

  9. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory—the coaxial TS (CTS) needle—and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  10. Single Centre Experience for Percutaneous Closure of Secundum Atrial Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Aydemir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial septal defect (ASD is the most common congenital heart disease in adults and constitutes 5-10% of all congenital heart disease. Primary surgical closure has been the standard approach for many years with high success rate. Transcatheter closure of ASD in selected patients has became the contemprorary practice that has the advantages of short hospital stay and relative ease of prosedure. In this article, we reported the results of percutaneous closure of ASD in our center.
Methods: Between 2009-2011, thirty-two patients (mean age 36±18 years and 24 females who had secundum type ASD which detected by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE were included in this study. Twenty-nine (90,6% patients were closed percutaneously. Tree patients were referred for surgery because of failure of percutaneous closure. Amplatzer Septal Occluder was used in 25 (86,2% patients and Occlutech device was used in other patients. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia. All of the patients were examined with TTE before the procedure and, at the 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th month follow-up visits.
Results: Pre-operative mean pulmonary artery pressure was 33,3±7,5 mmHg and mean pulmonary to systemic flow (Qp/Qs ratio was 2,9±1,1. Mean ASD diameter measured by TEE was 20,1±6,6 mm and mean streched diameter measured by balloon catheter was 22,1±5,9 mm. Mean device size 24±6 mm (range 12-36 mm. In the follow-up period no major complication was observed, but mild to moderate residual shunt flow was detected in two patients (% 6,8.
Conclusion: Percutaneous ASD closure has been performed with high success and low complication rates in patients with secundum atrial septal defect in our center.

  11. Alcohol septal ablation in obstructive acromegalic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros Monteiro, André; Fiarresga, António; Cacela, Duarte; de Sousa, Lídia; Ramos, Ruben; Galrinho, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease, mostly caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting benign pituitary tumor, with an increased production of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Cardiovascular complications are common and are associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis and concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Suppression of GH and IGF-1 appears to improve cardiac function only in the short term, with little or no decrease in left ventricular mass or improvement in cardiac function after prolonged treatment. Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to septal myectomy, with significant improvement in symptoms, gradients and left ventricular remodeling. In this report, we describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma diagnosed and treated surgically at the age of 38 but with recurrence and reoperation at the age of 50. She was referred to our cardiology department due to a three-month history of progressively worsening exercise-induced dyspnea and orthopnea under optimal medical therapy. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe basal hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (19 mm), dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with a gradient of 70 mmHg at rest and 120 mmHg with Valsalva maneuver, and systolic anterior movement (SAM). Genetic testing excluded the most frequent forms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ASA was performed with injection of 2 cc of alcohol in the first septal branch of the left coronary artery, without complications. At one-year reassessment, significant clinical and echocardiographic improvement was noted, with disappearance of SAM. To our knowledge, there have been no previously reported cases of ASA in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to acromegaly. We report a case of successful ASA in acromegalic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27503591

  12. Radiation dosage accepted by children during interventional treatment for congenital ventricular septal defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To estimate the radiation dose to which children are exposed during cardiac catheterizations for the treatment of ventricular septal defect, to analyze the factors affecting the radiation dose and to find out the measures to decrease the radiation dose. Methods: From December 2008 to October 2009, transcatheter closure was performed in 30 children with perimembranous ventricular septal defect. During the procedure the radiation doses to the children were estimated by using thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The TLD chips were calibrated before use and were attached in four measuring points,representing the radiation dose of the crystalline lens, the thyroid, the exposure field and the gonad. Results: The mean entrance dose of the crystalline lens,the thyroid,the exposure field and the gonad was (65.7 ± 48.8)μGy, (2618.2 ± 862.6)μGy, (3376.5 ± 838.4)μGy and (57.0 ± 59.4)μGy, respectively. The mean fluoroscopic time used for interventional procedure was (7.2 ± 3.0) minutes, and the mean angiographic exposures time was (6.1 ± 1.8) seconds. Conclusion: Transcatheter closure therapy for perimembranous ventricular septal defect is safe and effective. The exposure field is the region receiving the largest radiation dose, in the next place was the thyroid.Some more effective protections, such as smaller exposure field, strengthened protection of thyroid region, etc. should be taken in order to decrease the X-ray radiation dosage accepted by children as they are more sensitive to radiation exposure. (authors)

  13. The clinical application of Amplatzer duct occluder Ⅱ in treating perimembranous ventricular septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility of using Amplatzer duct occluder Ⅱ to treat perimembranous ventricular septal defects. Methods: Transcatheter closure by using Amplatzer duct occluder Ⅱ was carried out in two female infants with small perimembranous ventricular septal defect. One female infant was 3 years old. The echocardiogram showed that the diameter of VSD was 5.5 mm in left ventricle side and 2.3 mm in right ventricle side. The distance of the upper border of VSD to aortic valve was 4 mm. The other female infant was 2 years and 10 months old, the diameter of VSD was 7.8 mm in left ventricle side and 2.0 mm in right ventricle side. The distance between the upper border of VSD to aortic valve was 5.8 mm. Results: For one infant the 4 by 4 mm Amplatzer duct occluder Ⅱ and 5 F TorqVue low profile delivery catheter was employed, while for the other infant 3 by 4 mm Amplatzer duct occluder Ⅱ and 4 F delivery catheter was used. In accordance with the standard procedure the arteriovenous pathway was set up first, than the left shed and right shed were released in turn. After the operation, echocardiogram showed that there was no residual shunt and aortic regurgitation in occluded site, but mild atrioventricular regurgitation was seen in one infant. The electrocardiogram performed two days after procedure was normal. Conclusion: Transcatheter closure by using Amplatzer duct occluder Ⅱ is very effective for the treatment of small perimembranous ventricular septal defects in infants. This technique has some advantages such as the use of small delivery catheter, minimally-invasive to the vessels, etc. In a short-term after the operation no complications such as residual shunt, valve regurgitation, arrhythmia, etc. occur. (authors)

  14. Experimental radiation pneumonitis: changes in physiology of the alveolar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice received 2400 rads in two fractions to the thorax; 4 months later at a time when deaths began, mechanical and biochemical properties of the lungs were studied and compared to those of littermate controls. The principal mechanical change was a large increase in the elastance of the alveolar surface element and abnormal surface tension properties of the AF. Alveolar fluid phospholipid content and saturation were only minimally changed; however the alveolar fluid contained a large excess of protein, possible of circulatory origin. The latter may explain the fall in compliance of the alveolar surface and hence of the lung in radiation pneumoritis. A small increase in elastance of the lung tissue element was also found; this correlated with a decrease in lung volume and a small increase in lung hydroxyproline content. These changes may signify the early development of radiation fibrosis. Other features of this model are the frequent occurrence of pleural effusions and the presence of increased numbers of alveolar macrophages in the alveolar lavage

  15. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  16. Transthoracic echocardiographic guidance during transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Abdullah; Sarıtas, Turkay; Zeybek, Cenap; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Erol, Nurdan; Demır, Halil; Odemıs, Ender; Yalcın, Yalim; Celebı, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure guided by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Since 2004, ASD closure was performed successfully in total 337 patients. Transthoracic echocardiography guidance was used in 206 patients (61.1%) (group 1). Closure was guided by transesophageal echocardiography under general anesthesia in patients with poor transthoracic acoustic windows, defects with aneurysmatic septum and/or multiple defects in 131 patients (38.9%) (group 2). The median age (9 vs. 16 years, P acoustic windows. Performing the procedure under TTE guidance significantly reduces procedure time and also provides increased patient's comfort. PMID:21833775

  17. Secundum atrial septal defect in the adult. Clinical, haemodynamic and electrophysiological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Thilén, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common congenital heart malformation diagnosed in adult life. In this thesis important clinical, haemodynamic and electrophysiological aspects of ASD in the adult are explored. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance velocity mapping (MRvm)in calculating the pulmonary/systemic flow ratio (QP/QS)was assessed (I). The mean and maximal error by MRvm was 1±1% and ≤4% respectively in the whole range of different QP/QS and repeatability showed a d...

  18. Completely endoscopic removal of a dislocated Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Müller, Silvana; Bartel, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Surgical treatment of residual shunts after transcatheter occlusion of atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale is reported in approximately one to two percent of these percutaneous interventions. Minimally invasive surgery on the atrial septum is getting more and more common but little data is available on Amplatzer device explantation through limited access. No completely endoscopic device removal has been described previously. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman in whom an Amplatzer device was removed in a robotic totally endoscopic fashion through ports only using the daVinci telemanipulation system. PMID:17951273

  19. Associations Between ABCG2 Gene Polymorphisms and Isolated Septal Defects in a Han Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chuan; Xie, Liang; Li, Huaying; Li, Yifei; Mu, Dezhi; Zhou, Rong; Liu, Ruiqi; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the placenta, encoded by the ABCG2 gene in humans, plays an essential role in regulating fetal exposure to toxicants and the maintenance of cellular folic acid homeostasis. This study aimed at exploring the associations between 421C>A and 34G>A polymorphisms within the ABCG2 gene of the children and isolated septal defects in a Han Chinese population. An age- and gender-matched case-control study involving 210 pairs was conducted. Genotyping of the A...

  20. Presynaptic modulation of 5-HT release in the rat septal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, S; Riegert, C; Rothmaier, A K; Jackisch, R

    2007-05-11

    5-HT released from serotonergic axon terminals in the septal nuclei modulates the activity of septal output neurons (e.g. septohippocampal cholinergic neurons) bearing somatodendritic 5-HT receptors. Therefore, we studied the mechanisms involved in the presynaptic modulation of 5-HT release in the lateral (LS) and medial septum (MS), and the diagonal band of Broca (DB). HPLC analysis showed that tissue concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-HT were highest in DB (DB>MS>LS). Slices prepared from LS, MS and DB regions were preincubated with [(3)H]5-HT, superfused in the presence of 6-nitro-2-(1-piperazinyl)-quinoline (6-nitroquipazine) and electrically stimulated up to three times (first electrical stimulation period (S(1)), S(2), S(3); 360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 26-28 mA). In all septal regions the Ca(2+)-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive electrically-evoked overflow of [(3)H] was inhibited by the 5-HT(1B) agonist CP-93,129 and the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline tartrate (UK-14,304). Also the mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists (d-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), glycinol(5))-enkephalin (DAMGO) and [trans-(1S,2S(-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) cyclohexyl]-benzenacetamide hydro-chloride] (U-50,488H), respectively, acted inhibitory (although less potently), whereas the delta-opioid receptor agonist (d-Pen(2), d-Pen(5))-enkephalin (DPDPE), the dopamine D(2) receptor agonist quinpirole and the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine were all ineffective; the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen had weak effects. All inhibitory effects of the agonists were antagonized by the corresponding antagonists (3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-4-hydroxy-N-[4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]benzamide dihydrochloride (GR-55,562), idazoxan, naloxone, nor-binaltorphimine), which also significantly enhanced the evoked release of 5-HT at S(1). It is concluded that 5-HT release in septal nuclei of the rat is modulated by

  1. Prenatal Isolated Ventricular Septal Defect May Not Be Associated with Trisomy 21

    OpenAIRE

    Ori Shen; Sari Lieberman; Benjamin Farber; Daniel Terner; Amnon Lahad; Ephrat Levy-Lahad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if isolated fetal ventricular septal defect (VSD) is associated with trisomy 21. One hundred twenty six cases with prenatal VSD diagnosed by a pediatric cardiologist were reviewed. Cases with known risk factors for congenital heart disease, the presence of other major anomalies, soft signs for trisomy 21 or a positive screen test for trisomy 21 were excluded. Ninety two cases formed the study group. None of the cases in the study group had trisomy 21. The ...

  2. Phase image showing pseudoparadoxical septal motion in case of rupture of the chordae tendineae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When observing a phase image with an apparent dykinetic behaviour of the intraventricular septum, a differential diagnosis between conditions with true paradoxical septal motion and conditions of apparent paradoxical movement due to other causes is necessary, like in the case reported here. In a patient with a good EF value and a high RI, ventricular wall motion has to be scrutinized by cinedisplay, since it may show a vigorous contraction and rotation of the heart to the left. A recent sudden valvular insufficiency has to be considered likely due to a myxomatous change of the mitral valvular apparatus. (orig.)

  3. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christley, Scott; Emr, Bryanna; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Josh; Gatto, Louis; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary F.; An, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  4. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  5. Lung vasculitis and alveolar hemorrhage: pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Fishbein, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary vasculitides are a diverse group of limited and systemic disorders associated with inflammation of pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. These diseases often have distinctive clinical, serological, and histopathological features-extrapulmonary sites of involvement, circulating autoantibodies, predispositions for small or large vessels, and others. Some have characteristic inflammatory lesions; others are characterized by the absence of such lesions. Frequently pathological findings overlap, rendering classification, and diagnosis a challenge. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel diseases constitute the major pulmonary vasculitides. These include Wegener granulomatosis (WG), Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Less frequently, diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, Behçet syndrome, and connective tissue diseases may involve pulmonary vessels, but these entities are better associated with extrapulmonary disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis. DAH is most commonly seen in small-vessel vasculitides, specifically MPA and WG. Other syndromes associated with DAH include Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Less commonly, DAH may be secondary to infection or drugs/toxins. Furthermore, in the absence of discernable systemic disease, DAH may be idiopathic-referred to as isolated pulmonary capillaritis (IPC) or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), depending on the presence of capillaritis. PMID:21674412

  6. Cardiovascular risk in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Papadaki, Georgia; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Schams, Andrea; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Karakatsani, Anna; Orfanos, Stylianos; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cardiovascular events and/or indices of cardiac dysfunction may be increased in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, stroke and ischemic heart attack were reported. Patients underwent serum anti-GM-CSF antibodies, disease severity score (DSS), Doppler transthoracic echocardiograph, glucose, thyroid hormones, lipids, troponin and pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) examination. Thirteen patients (8 female) were studied, median age of 47. Pro-BNP inversely related to DLCO% and TLC%; troponin directly related to DSS, age, P(A-a)O2, left atrium-, left ventricle-end-diastole diameter and BMI. On multiple regression analysis DSS was the only parameter significantly and strongly related with troponin (R(2) = 0.776, p = 0.007). No cardiovascular event was reported during follow-up. In PAP cardiovascular risk indices relate to lung disease severity. Therefore, PAP patients could be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Quantitation of its magnitude and potential links to lungs' physiologic derangement will be addressed in future studies. PMID:26558331

  7. Computed tomography of the alveolar bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the conventional radiological methods used in odontology, computed tomography (CT) provides superposition-free images of the mandible and maxilla. Its value has been proved not only in cases of malignancy but also in many other problems. If an examination is performed with a slice thickness of less than 1.5 mm, the form and position of retained teeth in the alveolar bone, as well as subsequent lesions of neighboring permanent teeth, can be visualized so that early treatment can be planned. If the parodontal space of a retained tooth is visible, orthodontic intervention is possible. Precise assessment of horizontal or vertical bone loss is essential in inflammatory dental diseases. The morphology and extent of benign cystic lesions are also shown by CT. With CT surgical strategy of an intended implant therapy can take into account the remaining bone substance and the exact position of nerves and foramina. If such therapy is possible, the location, form and number of implants are easily defined. (orig.)

  8. Predominant location of coronary artery atherosclerosis in the left anterior descending artery. The impact of septal perforators and the myocardial bridging effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilewski, Jarosław; Niedziela, Jacek; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Duszańska, Agata; Sraga, Wojciech; Desperak, Piotr; Myga-Porosiło, Jolanta; Jackowska, Zuzanna; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Głowacki, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery atherosclerosis presents characteristic patterns of plaque distribution despite systemic exposure to risk factors. We hypothesized that local hemodynamic forces induced by the systolic compression of intramuscular septal perforators could be involved in atherosclerotic processes in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) adjacent to the septal perforators’ origin. Therefore we studied the spatial distribution of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, especially i...

  9. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  10. Detection of alveolar epithelial injury by 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scan following blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DTPA clearance rate is a reliable index of alveolar epithelial permeability, and is a highly sensitive marker of pulmonary epithelial damage, even of mild degree. In this study, 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was used to assess the pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and to investigate the possible application of this permeability value as an indicator of early alveolar or interstitial changes in patients with blunt chest trauma. A total of 26 patients was chest trauma (4 female, 22 male, 31-80 yrs, mean age; 53±13 yrs) who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital participated in this study. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was performed on the first and thirtieth days after trauma. Clearance half times (T1/2) were calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was calculated on the first-minute image. On the first day, mean T1/2 value of the whole lung was 63±19 minutes (min), and thirtieth day mean T1/2 value was 67±21 min. On the first day, mean PI values of the lung and 30th day mean PI value were 0.60±0.05, and 0.63 ±0.05, respectively. Significant changes were observed in radioaerosol clearance and penetration indices. Following chest trauma, clearance of 99mTc-DTPA increased owing to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier. This increase in the epithelial permeability of the lung appears to be an early manifestation of lung disease that may lead to efficient therapy in the early phase. (author)

  11. Geometry of the capillary net in human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakusan, K; Cicutti, N; Spatenka, J; Samánek, M

    1997-01-01

    The geometry of the coronary capillary bed in human hearts was studied using samples obtained during cardiac surgery of children operated for tetralogy of Fallot and samples from fresh normal hearts used for valve harvesting. The results revealed a similar coronary capillary density and heterogeneity of capillary spacing in samples from both groups. A double-staining method was used to distinguish between capillary segments close to the feeding arteriole (proximal capillaries) and segments distant from the arteriole (distal capillaries). In both groups of hearts, capillary segment length was consistently shorter on the venular than the arteriolar portion of the capillary. Similarly, capillary domain areas were also smaller and the resulting capillary supply unit was smaller along venular portions compared to arteriolar regions of the capillary bed. This distinctive geometry would provide advantageous geometric conditions for tissue oxygen supply. PMID:9176723

  12. Immunoproteasome dysfunction augments alternative polarization of alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Kammerl, I E; Vosyka, O; Baumann, T; Yu, Y; Wu, Y; Irmler, M; Overkleeft, H S; Beckers, J; Eickelberg, O; Meiners, S; Stoeger, T

    2016-06-01

    The proteasome is a central regulatory hub for intracellular signaling by degrading numerous signaling mediators. Immunoproteasomes are specialized types of proteasomes involved in shaping adaptive immune responses, but their role in innate immune signaling is still elusive. Here, we analyzed immunoproteasome function for polarization of alveolar macrophages, highly specialized tissue macrophages of the alveolar lung surface. Classical activation (M1 polarization) of primary alveolar macrophages by LPS/IFNγ transcriptionally induced all three immunoproteasome subunits, low molecular mass protein 2 (LMP2), LMP7 and multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1, which was accompanied by increased immunoproteasome activity in M1 cells. Deficiency of LMP7 had no effect on the LPS/IFNγ-triggered M1 profile indicating that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for classical alveolar macrophage activation. In contrast, IL-4 triggered alternative (M2) activation of primary alveolar macrophages was accompanied by a transcriptionally independent amplified expression of LMP2 and LMP7 and an increase in immunoproteasome activity. Alveolar macrophages from LMP7 knockout mice disclosed a distorted M2 profile upon IL-4 stimulation as characterized by increased M2 marker gene expression and CCL17 cytokine release. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed enrichment of IL-4-responsive genes and of genes involved in cellular response to defense, wounding and inflammation in LMP7-deficient alveolar macrophages indicating a distinct M2 inflammation resolving phenotype. Moreover, augmented M2 polarization was accompanied by amplified AKT/STAT6 activation and increased RNA and protein expression of the M2 master transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 in LMP7(-/-) alveolar macrophages. IL-13 stimulation of LMP7-deficient macrophages induced a similar M2-skewed profile indicative for augmented signaling via the IL-4 receptor α (IL4Rα). IL4Rα expression was generally

  13. Successful anesthetic management of a child with blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect for reconstructive ocular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalim Kumar Baidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blepharophimosis syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by eyelid malformation, involvement of reproductive system and abnormal facial morphology leading to difficult airway. We report a rare association of blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect in a 10-year-old girl who came for reconstruction surgery of eyelid. The child had dyspnea on exertion. Atrial septal defect was identified preoperatively by clinical examination and echocardiography. Anesthesia management was complicated by failure in laryngeal mask airway placement and Cobra perilaryngeal airway was subsequently used.

  14. Radioactive aerosols study: computer program proposal for processing alveoli-capillary clearance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on alveolar-capillary clearance (ACC) of technetium-99 m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99 mTc-DTPA) allows early presumptive diagnosis of opportunistic lung infections with higher sensitivity than conventional methods. A computer program for processing such studies is developed. Acquired data are then processed by the program which corrects for radioactive decay, allows regions of interest drawing and builds time-activity curves up. The program still apply the least mean square method and gives the user the ACC rate (%/min), the best fitting equations and the time-activity graph. Thirteen non-smoker normal subjects (3 female, 10 male), 22-62 years-old (mean 34 years-old) are studied, using the developed program. (author). 123 refs, 20 figs

  15. Associação das manobras de recrutamento alveolar e posição prona na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo Association of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position in acute respiratory disease syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Caetano Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo é a apresentação clínica de insuficiência respiratória aguda caracterizada por lesão alveolar difusa e pelo desenvolvimento do edema pulmonar não cardiogênico, devido ao aumento da permeabilidade da membrana alvéolo-capilar pulmonar. As manobras de recrutamento alveolar e a posição prona podem ser utilizadas no tratamento da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os possíveis benefícios, indicações, complicações e cuidados na associação da manobra de recrutamento alveolar e posição prona na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Realizou-se revisão de literatura científica nacional e internacional conforme os critérios estabelecidos para a pesquisa documental nas bases de dados MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed, Cochrane, no período de 1994-2008, nas linguagens portuguesa e inglesa, com os unitermos: síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, manobra de recrutamento alveolar e posição prona. Apesar de avanços no entendimento da fisiopatologia da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, essa ainda resulta em significativa mortalidade. A manobra de recrutamento alveolar e a posição prona contribuem significativamente no tratamento desses pacientes com a finalidade de melhorar a oxigenação e reduzir as complicações decorrentes da hipoxemia refratária e diminuição da complacência pulmonar. Entretanto, na literatura, há poucos estudos que associam a manobra de recrutamento alveolar e posição prona no tratamento da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, fazendo-se necessária maior investigação sobre o tema e evidências de sua aplicação clínica.The acute respiratory distress syndrome is the clinical presentation of acute lung injury characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and development of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary membrane permeability

  16. CPAP of 10 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass followed by an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre does not improve post-bypass oxygenation compared to a recruitment manoeuvre alone in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J T; Na, H S; Kim, H S; Kim, C S; Kim, S D

    2010-03-01

    This randomised controlled study assessed whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 10 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass improves post-bypass oxygenation in children compared with no CPAP during bypass. We studied children with a ventricular septal defect. CPAP of 10 cmH2O was applied during bypass in the CPAP group (n=24), whereas the lungs were left deflated in the control group (n=20). In both groups, an alveolar recruitment maneuver was performed by applying positive pressure of 30 to 40 cmH2O for five seconds before weaning from bypass. Postoperative ventilation had the peak inflation pressure set to produce an expired tidal volume of 8 ml/kg with positive end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Arterial blood gas and haemodynamic measurements were performed at skin incision, five minutes after weaning from bypass, five minutes after chest closure and four hours after arrival in the intensive care unit. In four children CPAP was discontinued because it adversely affected the operating field. There was no difference in demographic characteristics, haemodynamic data, bypass time and operation time. No difference was observed between the groups with respect to pH, PaO2, P(A-a) DO2, PaCO2, and ETCO2 at each time. Variability in the data was greater than expected, leading to a decrease in the expected power of the study. CPAP at 10 cmH2O during bypass was not found to improve the post-bypass oxygenation as compared with leaving the lung deflated during bypass in children undergoing ventricular septal defect repair who had an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the end of bypass. PMID:20369762

  17. The Effect of Nasal Septal Perforation and its Treatment on Objective Sleep and Breathing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynuegri, Suleyman; Cayonu, Melih; Tuna, Evrim Unsal; Kurukahvecioglu, Selma; Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Turkay, Burak; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasal septal perforation (NSP) may alter nasal airflow patterns and physiology. To the best of our knowledge, no studies in the English literature have investigated the effect of NSP and its treatment on polysomnographic parameters. In this study, we aimed to investigate polysomnographic parameters in patients with NSP as well as changes in those parameters after treatment of NSP. Material/Methods Nineteen patients diagnosed with NSP were included in the study. All patients had baseline and post-procedure polysomnographies (PSG) after insertion of silicone septal button for closure of NSP. Results Both median AHI [5.30 (14.40) vs. 2.40 (14.50)] and median supine AHI [10.00 (42.10) vs. 6.60 (37.00)] decreased after correction of the perforation. There was a large reduction in median supine AHI in patients with a perforation size >66 mm2 [10.10 (34.15) vs. 1.60 (28.30)]. Conclusions We conclude that NSP did not cause any deterioration in objective sleep parameters as determined by PSG, other than a decrease in REM sleep duration and an increase in supine AHI. Correction of NSP did not affect REM duration and supine AHI decreased after treatment. PMID:26878399

  18. Robotic atrial septal defect repair and endoscopic treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenziano, Michael; Williams, Mathew R

    2003-04-01

    Computer (robotic) enhancement has emerged as a facilitator of minimally invasive cardiac surgery and has been used to perform portions of intracardiac procedures via thoracotomy incisions. This report describes the use of the da Vinci surgical system in two totally endoscopic ("closed chest") cardiac operations: atrial septal defect closure and pulmonary vein isolation of atrial fibrillation. ASD closure: Fifteen patients underwent repair of a secundum-type atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale by a totally endoscopic approach, utilizing the da Vinci robotic system. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was achieved peripherally. Cardioplegia was administered via the distal port of the arterial cannula after endoballoon inflation. Via three port incisions in the right chest, the entire operation including pericardiotomy; bicaval occlusion; atriotomy; atrial septopexy; and atrial closure was performed by a surgeon seated at a computer console. A fourth 15 mm port was utilized for suction and suture passage by a patient-side assistant. In one case, a recurrent shunt was identified and repaired on POD 5. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 20 hours, and median hospital LOS was 4 days. Atrial fibrillation surgery: This report also describes the pathway that we have pursued in the development of a totally endoscopic operation for atrial fibrillation. Beginning with animal models, we tested various ablative energy sources; methods of ablation; and minimally invasive approaches. This work has led to the development of a variety of minimally invasive surgical approaches including a totally endoscopic, robotically assisted beating heart procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. PMID:12838483

  19. Off-Pump Repair of a Post Myocardial Infarction Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory cardiogenic shock meant that traditional patch repairs requiring cardiopulmonary bypass would be poorly tolerated and external sandwich closure of post myocardial ventricular septal defect (VSD appears to be simple and effective after initial myocardial infarction (MI. The three cases presented with a VSD after of acute MI with or without thrombolysed with streptokinase during patient admission. The general condition of the three patients was poor with pulmonary edema, low cardiac output and renal failure. The heart was approached through a median sternotomy. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting of the coronary artery lesion was done first using octopus and beating heart surgery method and latero - lateral septal plication was performed using sandwich technique. Low cardiac output managed with intra-aortic balloon pump in these patients accompanied with inotropic drugs. Post-operative transesophageal echocardiography revealed that VSD was closed completely in one patient and in two patients small residual VSD remained. More experience is required to ascertain whether this technique will become an accepted alternative to patch repairs.

  20. Urgent hybrid approach in treatment of the acute myocardial infarction complicated by the ventricular septal rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević-Radovanović Mina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ventricular septal rupture (VSR in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a rare but very serious complication, still associated with high mortality, despite significant improvements in pharmacological and surgical treatment. Therefore, hybrid approaches are introduced as new therapeutical options. Case Outline. We present an urgent hybrid approach, consisting of the initial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI of the infarct-related artery, followed by immediate surgical closure of the ventricular septal rupture, for treatment of high risk, hemodynamically unstable female patient with AMI caused by one-vessel disease and complicated by VSR and cardiogenic shock. Since the operative risk was also very high (EUROSCORE II 37%, this therapeutic decision was based on the assumption that preoperative PCI could promptly establish blood flow and thereby lessen the risks, duration and complexity of urgent cardiosurgical intervention, performed on the same day. This approach proved to be successful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifteenth postoperative day in stable condition. Conclusion. In selected cases, with high operative risk and unstable hemodynamic state due to AMI complicated by VSR, urgent hybrid approach consisting of the initial PCI followed by surgical closure of VSR may represent an acceptable treatment option and contribute to the treatment of this complex group of patients.

  1. Pulmonary stenosis development and reduction of pulmonary arterial hypertension in atrioventricular septal defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninet Gérard

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 24-year-old patient was admitted for dyspnoea and syncope. He had a previous history of complete atrio-ventricular septal defect and trisomy 21. At the age of 6 months, in 1984, cardiac catheterization revealed a quasi-systemic pulmonary arterial hypertension with a bidirectional shunt corresponding to an Eisenmenger syndrome. Corrective cardiac surgery was not performed at this time because surgical risk was considered too high. Until the age of 20 years old, he showed few symptoms while under medical treatment. But since 2006, his functional status became worse with an increased dyspnoea, syncopes, and severe cyanosis. In these conditions, haemodynamic parameters have been re-evaluated in 2006 and 2008. They highlighted a late and progressive development of a valvular and infundibular pulmonary stenosis leading to a normalisation of pulmonary arterial pressures. At the age of 24 , the patient underwent corrective cardiac surgery which was successful. Late development of both infundibular and valvular pulmonary stenosis have not been described before in non operated congenital ventricular septal defects, but development of one or the other abnormality would be found in 8% of patients. The physiopathological mechanism of this obstruction is unclear. Nevertheless, in unoperated congenital cardiac shunt lesions, reversibility of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension should be reconidered and re-assessed during follow up.

  2. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [14C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  3. Proteinose alveolar pulmonar: série de quatro casos Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Thompson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a evolução de quatro casos de proteinose alveolar pulmonar atendidos na Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, enfocando a importância da lavagem pulmonar total como tratamento de escolha. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de quatro pacientes, sendo três do gênero feminino, com idades de 22 a 34 anos, e histórias semelhantes de dispnéia progressiva e tosse seca. O diagnóstico final foi realizado por biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto. A lavagem pulmonar total foi realizada em três pacientes em centro cirúrgico, com anestesia geral e sonda de duplo lúme. RESULTADOS: Um paciente apresentou regressão espontânea da proteinose alveolar pulmonar, não sendo necessária a lavagem pulmonar. Nos outros três casos, o número de lavagens variou: uma única lavagem unilateral com remissão completa do quadro bilateralmente, três lavagens sem melhora significativa e quatro procedimentos intercalados com períodos de melhora. CONCLUSÃO: Constatamos em nossa casuística que a lavagem pulmonar se mostrou eficiente, apesar de alguns pacientes apresentarem certa resistência ao procedimento, enquanto que outros podem ter remissão completa da doença.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present the evolution of four patients presenting pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and treated at the State University of Londrina School of Medicine. We focus on the importance of whole-lung lavage as the treatment of choice. METHODS: A retrospective study of four patients, three females and one male, 22 to 34 years old, presenting similar histories of progressive dyspnea and dry cough. The final diagnosis was established through open-lung biopsy. Three of the patients underwent whole-lung lavage in the Department of Surgery. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia and using a double-lumen endotracheal tube. RESULTS: One patient presented spontaneous regression of the pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

  4. The role of MRI for the evaluation of atrial septal defects before and after percutaneous occlusion with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of morphologic and functional MRI of atrial septal defects (ASD) before and after percutaneous occlusion with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder (AOC). Comparison of MRI with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), balloon measurement (IVBM) and cardiac catheterization with shunt quantification (CCSQ). Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with ASD were examined before and three months after AOC implantation. ECG-triggered, breath-hold T1-weighted Turbo Spin Echo Segmented FLASH 2D and dynamic turbo-FLASH-GRE sequences after application of 0,2 mmol gadolinium DTPA per kg body weight were obtained in a 1.5 T MRI system. Defect size, and distance to coronal sinus (CS) and right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV) were determined for pre-interventional planning, and the AOC size was measured quantitatively for post-interventional follow-up. The shunts were evaluated qualitatively (occurrence of jets), semiquantitatively (jet length, turbulence square product) and quantitatively (flow measurement in the thoracic aorta and in the left and right pulmonary arteries). Results: The average size of the ASD measured by MRI was 17.6 mm (11-24.8 mm) in the axial view, 15.9 mm (10.8-28.9 mm) in the sagittal view and 16.4 mm (12.1-24.8 mm) in the short axis view. In comparison, the average defect size was 15 mm (8-24 mm) by TEE and 20 mm (13-27 mm) by IVBM. The average distance to the RUPV was 17 mm (9.6-21.9 mm) and to the CS 11.2 mm (5-17 mm). The AOC was visualized with only minimal artifacts. Qualitative analysis of the MRI findings revealed an occurence of jets in 17/20 patients. Semiquantitative analysis documented a high correlation for jet length and square product of the turbulence to defect size r=0.81 resp. r=0.82. Mean QP/QS-ratio measured by MR-volumetry was 1.6±0.29 and by MR-flow 1.6±0.26. The corresponding measurements were 1.7±0.3 for TEE and 1.5±0.5 for CCSQ. In comparison to TEE, the correlation coefficient was r=0.96 for MR-volumetry and r=0.85 for

  5. "Getting the best sensitivity from on-capillary fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis" - A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galievsky, Victor A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Krylov, Sergey N

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection is being applied to new analytical problems which challenge both the power of CE separation and the sensitivity of LIF detection. On-capillary LIF detection is much more practical than post-capillary detection in a sheath-flow cell. Therefore, commercial CE instruments utilize solely on-capillary CE-LIF detection with a Limit of Detection (LOD) in the nM range, while there are multiple applications of CE-LIF that require pM or lower LODs. This tutorial analyzes all aspects of on-capillary LIF detection in CE in an attempt to identify means for improving LOD of CE-LIF with on-capillary detection. We consider principles of signal enhancement and noise reduction, as well as relevant areas of fluorophore photochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. PMID:27543015

  6. Degradation of pulmonary surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholines by alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine whether rat pulmonary surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) are degraded by alveolar macrophages in vitro. When [3H]choline-labeled surfactant materials are incubated with unlabeled alveolar macrophages, approximately 40% of the labeled DSPC is broken down in 6 h. There is just a slight decrease in the specific activity of DSPC, which suggests that most products of degradation are not reincorporated into DSPC, at least during the 6-h incubation period. There is a time- and temperature-dependent association of surfactant DSPC with alveolar macrophages, and some of the cell-associated materials are released from the cell fragments after sonication. Association of surfactant with the cells precedes degradation. The breakdown of surfactant DSPC by intact alveolar macrophages lags behind that produced by sonicated cell preparations with disrupted cell membranes. These data and other information suggest that the surfactant materials are internalized by the cells, before the breakdown. The products of degradation probably include free choline and fatty acids, most of which appear in the extracellular fluid. The breakdown processes do not seem to depend on the physical form of the surfactant or on the presence of surfactant apoproteins. Incubation of the cells alone also results in disappearance of intracellular DSPC, some of which may be surfactant phospholipid taken up by the cells in vivo. These results indicate that alveolar macrophages can degrade surfactant DSPC and suggest that these cells may be involved in catabolism of pulmonary surfactant materials

  7. The effect of exogenous surfactant on alveolar interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salito, Caterina; Aliverti, Andrea; Mazzuca, Enrico; Rivolta, Ilaria; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the nature of alveolar mechanical interdependence, we purposefully disturbed the equilibrium condition by administering exogenous surfactant in physiological non-surfactant deprived conditions. Changes in alveolar morphology induced by intra-tracheal delivery of CUROSURF were evaluated after opening a pleural window allowing in-vivo microscopic imaging of sub-pleural alveoli in 6 male anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated rabbits. Surfactant instillation increased the surface area of alveoli smaller than 20,000 μm(2) up to ∼ 50% at 15 min after instillation, reflecting a lowering of surface tension due to local surfactant enrichment. Conversely, for alveoli greater than 20,000 μm(2), surface area decreased by ∼ 5%. Opposite changes in alveolar surface are interpreted as reflecting a new inter-alveolar mechanical equilibrium modified by local surfactant distribution and by a decrease in lung distending pressure. We propose that smaller alveoli, representing the majority of alveolar population, might mostly contribute to improve the oxygenation index following surfactant replacement therapy in case of surfactant deficiency. PMID:25600053

  8. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. Seifeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CL/P is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material.

  9. Capillary electrochromatography using fibers as stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, K; Watanabe, H; Saito, Y; Takeichi, T

    2001-10-01

    Fiber-packed capillary columns have been evaluated in chromatographic performance in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The change of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity and selectivity using different kinds of fiber materials was examined. Although the EOF velocity among the different fiber packed columns was almost the same, retention of parabens was larger on the Kevlar-packed column than on the Zylon-packed one, and was larger on the as-span-type fiber-packed column than on the high-modulus-type packed one. Using 200 microm ID x 5 cm Kevlar packed column combined with a 100 microm ID x 20 cm precolumn capillary and a 530 microm ID x 45 cm postcolumn capillary, the separation of three parabens within 30 s was achieved. Other compounds were also separated in a few minutes by the fiber-packed CEC method. PMID:11669512

  10. Uptake of water droplets by nonwetting capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Geoff R; Hendy, Shaun C

    2010-01-01

    We present direct experimental evidence that water droplets can spontaneously penetrate non-wetting capillaries, driven by the action of Laplace pressure due to high droplet curvature. Using high-speed optical imaging, microcapillaries of radius 50 to 150 micron, and water microdroplets of average radius between 100 and 1900 micron, we demonstrate that there is a critical droplet radius below which water droplets can be taken up by hydrophobised glass and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillaries. The rate of capillary uptake is shown to depend strongly on droplet size, with smaller droplets being absorbed more quickly. Droplet size is also shown to influence meniscus motion in a pre-filled non-wetting capillary, and quantitative measurements of this effect result in a derived water-PTFE static contact angle between 96 degrees and 114 degrees. Our measurements confirm recent theoretical predictions and simulations for metal nanodroplets penetrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The results are relevant to a wide ...

  11. Capillary Electrophoresis coupled with Automated Fraction Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1 mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standa...

  12. The capillary electrophoresis of the influenza viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Kubíček, O.; Kubíčková, Z.; Rosenbergová, K.; Šlais, Karel

    Tallinn: Tallinn University of Technology, 2009 - (Borissova, M.; Vaher, M.). s. 93 ISBN 978-9985-59-930-3. [Nordic Separation Science Society (NoSSS) International Conference /5./. 26.08.2009-29.08.2009, Tallinn] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * capillary electrophoresis * influenza swine and equine viruses Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Selectivity and detection in capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, Maha Yehia

    1994-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the minimization of some of the selectivity and detection limitations in capillary electrophoresis. A more practical design of an electrochemical detector is introduced with simultaneous on-line UV detection (1), for the selective detection of a number of pungent and neurological compounds, the piperines and the capsacinoids. Commercially available microelectrodes together with large 25 μm id fused silica capillary columns are used for the fir...

  14. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  15. Potts shunt in a child with end-stage pulmonary hypertension after late repair of ventricular septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Cecilie; Helvind, Morten; Jensen, Tim; Andersen, Henrik Ørbæk

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 10-year-old boy with medically refractory pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and end-stage right heart failure after closure of a ventricular septal defect. The boy was a candidate for lung transplantation (LTX), but an alternative option was to create an Eisenmenger physiology...

  16. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation. PMID:26852671

  17. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  18. Virtual reality 3D echocardiography in the assessment of tricuspid valve function after surgical closure of ventricular septal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bol-Raap (Goris); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); T.V. Scohy (Thierry); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. This study was done to investigate the potential additional role of virtual reality, using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic holograms, in the postoperative assessment of tricuspid valve function after surgical closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD). Methods. 12 da

  19. Value of Multidimensional Modeling in Planning Surgery for a Dissecting Ventricular Septal Hematoma Following Aortic Valve Sparing Root Reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossien, Abdullrazak; Gelsomino, Sandro; Mochtar, Bahremsjah; Sardari Nia, Peyman; Kats, Suzanne; Maessen, Jos

    2016-06-01

    We report a technique of multidimensional modeling (MDM) used to assist in the planning of a repair of a dissecting ventricular septal hematoma (DVSH) following a David procedure. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12757 (J Card Surg 2016;31:390-393). PMID:27151757

  20. Variant Inferior Alveolar Nerves and Implications for Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kevin T; Brokaw, Everett J; Bell, Andrea; Joy, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A sound knowledge of anatomical variations that could be encountered during surgical procedures is helpful in avoiding surgical complications. The current article details anomalous morphology of inferior alveolar nerves encountered during routine dissection of the craniofacial region in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. We also report variations of the lingual nerves, associated with the inferior alveolar nerves. The variations were documented and a thorough review of literature was carried out. We focus on the variations themselves, and the clinical implications that these variations present. Thorough understanding of variant anatomy of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves may determine the success of procedural anesthesia, the etiology of pathologic processes, and the avoidance of surgical misadventure. PMID:27269666

  1. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the mandibular ramus and its surrounding tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, when it occurs in the head and neck, is primarily found in children. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is rarely seen in the oral lesion, comparing to the embryonal and the pleomorphic variants. This is a report of a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the mandible in a ten-year old girl who complained of a non-painful swelling on the right cheek. The right lower 1st molar was mobile. Her radiographs revealed an extensive radiolucency with somewhat irregular border on the right mandibular ramus. The right mandibular 1st and 2nd molars lost their lamina dura and were floating. CT images revealed smooth-outlined soft tissue mass occupying the pterygomandibular space, the infratemporal space, and the masseteric muscle with thinning and perforation of the right mandibular angle and ramus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings established the final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

  2. Acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to exposure to cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thind Gurcharan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is rare but may occur in association with malignancy, certain infections, and exposure to inorganic or organic dust and some toxic fumes. This case report describes the second recorded case of PAP due to exposure to cotton dust. A 24-year-old man developed PAP after working as a spinner for eight years without respiratory protection. He was admitted as an emergency patient with very severe dyspnea for four months and cough for several years. Chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse alveolar consolidation. He died 16 days later, and a diagnosis of acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made at autopsy. The histopathology demonstrated alveoli and respiratory bronchioles filled with characteristic periodic acid Schiff-positive material, which also revealed birefringent bodies of cotton dust under polarized light. Secondary PAP can be fatal and present with acute respiratory failure. The occupational history and characteristic pathology can alert clinicians to the diagnosis.

  3. Rare combination of congenital heart disease and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Yoshitake, Shuichi; Naito, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tomio

    2015-10-01

    Here, we describe a case of total anomalous pulmonary venous return with coarctation of the aorta that was diagnosed as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis at autopsy in a male infant. Surgical repair was performed at 1 day of age, but the infant died on postoperative day 51 due to respiratory insufficiency without any evidence of pulmonary venous obstruction. He had been unexpectedly diagnosed with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary hypoplasia on autopsy. Congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a serious condition with a high mortality rate, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a clinical picture of pulmonary venous obstruction, because most patients are unable to survive without proper treatment. In this report, we address specific issues that should be discussed in such cases based on our recent experience. PMID:26310609

  4. Recent advances in alveolar biology: evolution and function of alveolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgeig, Sandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Casals, Cristina; Clark, Howard W; Haczku, Angela; Knudsen, Lars; Possmayer, Fred

    2010-08-31

    This review is focused on the evolution and function of alveolar proteins. The lung faces physical and environmental challenges, due to changing pressures/volumes and foreign pathogens, respectively. The pulmonary surfactant system is integral in protecting the lung from these challenges via two groups of surfactant proteins - the small molecular weight hydrophobic SPs, SP-B and -C, that regulate interfacial adsorption of the lipids, and the large hydrophilic SPs, SP-A and -D, which are surfactant collectins capable of inhibiting foreign pathogens. Further aiding pulmonary host defence are non-surfactant collectins and antimicrobial peptides that are expressed across the biological kingdoms. Linking to the first symposium session, which emphasised molecular structure and biophysical function of surfactant lipids and proteins, this review begins with a discussion of the role of temperature and hydrostatic pressure in shaping the evolution of SP-C in mammals. Transitioning to the role of the alveolus in innate host defence we discuss the structure, function and regulation of antimicrobial peptides, the defensins and cathelicidins. We describe the recent discovery of novel avian collectins and provide evidence for their role in preventing influenza infection. This is followed by discussions of the roles of SP-A and SP-D in mediating host defence at the alveolar surface and in mediating inflammation and the allergic response of the airways. Finally we discuss the use of animal models of lung disease including knockouts to develop an understanding of the role of these proteins in initiating and/or perpetuating disease with the aim of developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:20433956

  5. Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients......Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients...

  6. Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms

  7. Use of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Recapitulate Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Takuji; Mayhew, Christopher; Sallese, Anthony; Chalk, Claudia; Carey, Brenna C.; Malik, Punam; Wood, Robert E.; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) syndrome, disruption of granulocyte/macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling is associated with pathogenic surfactant accumulation from impaired clearance in alveolar macrophages.

  8. Alveolar recruitment in pulmonary contusion: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Lívia Maria Vitório; Lopes, Lucianne Cristina da Silva; Cipriano, Graziella França Bernardelli; Vendrame, Letícia Sandre; Andrade Junior, Ary

    2009-03-01

    Treatment of pulmonary contusion when adequately established is very simple in most cases. Pathophysiological changes occur as a result of the effects produced by loss of chest wall integrity, accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, obstruction of the airways and lung dysfunction. The alveolar recruitment maneuver is the reopening of collapsed lung areas by increasing inspiratory pressure in the airway. The primary objective of this case report was to evaluate the effectiveness of the alveolar recruitment maneuver in a patient with pulmonary contusion. A 33 year old male patient, with a clinical condition of bilateral chest trauma and traumatic brain injury, evolved with reduction of the level of consciousness, acute respiratory failure, hypovolemic shock and hemoptysis. The patient underwent thoracentesis, bilateral thoracic drainage and was also submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation. After 48 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation, in accordance with protective strategy an alveolar recruitment maneuver mode, pressure-controlled ventilation, pressure controlled 10 cmH2O, respiratory rate 10 rpm, inspiratory time 3.0, positive end-expiratory pressure 30 cmH2O and FI0(2) 100%, for two minutes. After the alveolar recruitment maneuver, the patient presented clinical pulmonary improvement, but there was a variation of 185 to 322 of Pa0(2)/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/ fraction of inspired oxygen). He was discharged from the intensive care unit 22 days after admission. The alveolar recruitment maneuver in this patient showed significant results in the treatment of pulmonary contusion, improving blood oxygenation, preventing alveolar collapse and reversing atelectasis. PMID:25303136

  9. The analysis of the maxillary sinus volumes and the nasal septal deviation in patients with antrochoanal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Salih; Taskin, Umit; Orhan, Israfil; Altas, Bengül; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk; Toksöz, Mehmet; Albayrak, Ramazan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the maxillary sinus volumes and the nasal septal deviation angles in patients with antrochoanal polyps (ACP). 76 patients who underwent ACP surgery were included in the study. Of those 36 patients who had multislice computed tomography (MSCT) were evaluated to calculate maxillary sinus volume. The records of paranasal MSCT of 36 healthy people without any paranasal sinus diseases or surgery constituted age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Maxillary sinüs volumes and septal deviation angles were calculated using the paranasal MSCT volume-rendering technique. Thirty-six patients in the ACP group were compared with 36 polyp side-matched healthy people. The mean age was 16.6 ± 6.7 years in both groups. Statistically, the mean value of the maxillary sinus volume was significantly higher in the ACP group compared with the ACP side-matched control group (15.1 ± 4.6 versus 12.0 ± 3.5 mm(3)) (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the mean value of the maxillary sinus volume in the non-polyp side (14.2 ± 4.7 mm(3)) was statistically higher in the ACP group compared with the side-matched control group volume (11.9 ± 3.8 mm(3)) (p = 0.024). In addition, Fifty-three of 76 ACP patients had septal deviation. While the septal deviation was on the same side with the ACP in 17 patients, it was on the opposite side in 36 patients. In conclusion, the maxillary sinus volumes increased in ACP patients compared with the healthy control group. Many patients had nasal septal deviation on the opposite side of the ACP. PMID:25534286

  10. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette;

    1997-01-01

    P carinii pneumonia, whereas none without P carinii pneumonia had this finding (p < 0.05). Erosion of the type II pneumocyte was not observed. CONCLUSION: Inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial erosion are characteristic features of P carinii pneumonia. The changes may form the......, exudate, fibrosts, type II pneumocyte proliferation, and cellular infiltration of the alveolar wall when compared with other lung diseases (all p < 0.05). Electron microscopy showed apposition of the trophozoite to the type I pneumocyte. Erosion of type I pneumocytes was observed in 13 of 15 patients with...

  11. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  12. Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

  13. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (kep) in children with bronchial asthma, 99mTc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the kep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high kep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high kep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

  14. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis associated with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li-xin; ZHAO Tie-mei; WANG Qiao-yun; CHEN Liang-an; LI Ai-min; WANG Dian-jun; QI Fei; LIU You-ning

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an uncommon disease first reported by Rosen et al 1 in 1958, and characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired PAP is divided into two forms based on clinical features:idiopathic PAP and secondary PAP. Secondary PAP is reported to be associated with haematological malignancies, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and inhalation of silica or titanium, and the most frequent underlying disease of secondary PAP is haematological malignancy. The exact incidence of PAP in haematological malignancies is still obscure, since there have been only sporadic reports of secondary PAP. 2, 3

  15. Low Levels of IGF-1 Contribute to Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    Bessich, Jamie L.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana; Ashare, Alix

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are major contributors to lung innate immunity. Although alveolar macrophages from CFTR−/− mice have impaired function, no study has investigated primary alveolar macrophages in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and our prior studies demonstrate a relationship between IGF-1 and macrophage function. We hypothesize that reduced IGF-1 in CF leads to impaired alveolar macrophage function and chronic infectio...

  16. Onychomycosis due to Candida parapsilosis in a Child with Ventricular Septal Defect: An Unusual Predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosuru Subramanya, Supram; Hamal, Deependra; Nayak, Niranjan; Gokhale, Shishir

    2016-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is emerging as a potential pathogen for onychomycosis. A 4-year-old male child with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) was admitted with features of cystitis and was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. Two weeks later, he developed yellowish discoloration of nails of both hands. The sloughed out nail, on microscopy, showed numerous yeast forms that were identified as Candida parapsilosis by both phenotypic and genotypic methods. Antifungal sensitivity testing of the isolate was performed by microbroth dilution method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. Patient was successfully treated with topical amphotericin B and oral fluconazole. Thus, one should have a high index of suspicion of C. parapsilosis onychomycosis, especially when the patient is in the paediatric age group, presenting with unusual predisposing condition like congenital heart disease, and is on broad spectrum antibiotics. PMID:27195165

  17. Onychomycosis due to Candida parapsilosis in a Child with Ventricular Septal Defect: An Unusual Predisposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supram Hosuru Subramanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis is emerging as a potential pathogen for onychomycosis. A 4-year-old male child with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD was admitted with features of cystitis and was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. Two weeks later, he developed yellowish discoloration of nails of both hands. The sloughed out nail, on microscopy, showed numerous yeast forms that were identified as Candida parapsilosis by both phenotypic and genotypic methods. Antifungal sensitivity testing of the isolate was performed by microbroth dilution method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. Patient was successfully treated with topical amphotericin B and oral fluconazole. Thus, one should have a high index of suspicion of C. parapsilosis onychomycosis, especially when the patient is in the paediatric age group, presenting with unusual predisposing condition like congenital heart disease, and is on broad spectrum antibiotics.

  18. Multimodality cardiac imaging of a ventricular septal rupture post myocardial infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Surinder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventricular septal rupture (VSR, a mechanical complication following an acute myocardial infarction (MI, is thought to result from coagulation necrosis due to lack of collateral reperfusion. Although the gold standard test to confirm left-to-right shunting between ventricular cavities remains invasive ventriculography, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE with color flow Doppler and cardiac MRI (CMR are reliable tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of VSR. Case presentation A 62-year-old Caucasian female presented with a late case of a VSR post inferior MI diagnosed by multimodality cardiac imaging including TTE, CMR and ventriculography. Conclusion We review the presentation, diagnosis and management of VSR post MI.

  19. Septal perfusion in left bundle branch block: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial scintigraphy was performed three times in a 55-year-old woman with left bundle branch block (LBBB). A significant LAD stenosis had been excluded by coronary angiography. The first scintigraphy was performed with Tc-99m sestamibi after submaximal bicycle exercise and revealed a septal perfusion deficit. This deficit could not be reproduced in the following examinations after pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole using both Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi. Perfusion at rest assessed with Tl-201 was normal in all studies. It is concluded that pharmacological stress testing with dipyridamole is to be preferred in patients with LBBB. With respect to the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging the choice of the radiopharmaceutical plays a less important role. (orig.)

  20. Atrial septal defect: a coincidental finding on a screening medical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    An otherwise fit, healthy medical practitioner who was a recreational diver underwent a medical assessment for a remote posting as an Antarctic Medical Practitioner at which a coincidental finding of an atrial septal defect (ASD) was made. ASDs can have health implications in extreme environments such as high altitude and is contraindicated in scuba diving. ASDs are common, being present in 1:1,500 live births and comprise 10% of all cardiac abnormalities. In this case, a percutaneous occlusive device was inserted under general anaesthetic with subsequent improvements in the practitioner's exercise capacity, return to diving and full employment, including Antarctic deployment, and right-sided heart remodelling 18 months post closure. PMID:26165535

  1. Numerical investigation of the flow field in realistic nasal septal perforation geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Abouali, Omid; Atighechi, Saeid; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Farhadi, Pejman; Keshavarzian, Erfan; Behniafard, Nasim; Baradaranfar, Amin

    2014-07-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to evaluate the physiological function of the nose. We evaluated the aerodynamics of the nasal cavity in a patient with septal perforation (SP), pre- and postvirtual repair. Three-dimensional nasal models were reconstructed, and then a wide range of the pressure drops and flow rates were analyzed. The airflow velocity is higher in the central region and is lower around the boundary of the SP. The air velocity in the SP increases as the pressure drop increases. Furthermore, at the anterior part of the SP, the shear stress is higher in the upper part. In addition, the repair of SP does not affect the total nasal airflow rate and the velocity contour patterns. The potential usage of the CFD technique as a predictive technique to explore the details and a preoperative assessment tool to help in clinical decision making in nasal surgery is emphasized. PMID:24988523

  2. Prenatal Isolated Ventricular Septal Defect May Not Be Associated with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine if isolated fetal ventricular septal defect (VSD is associated with trisomy 21. One hundred twenty six cases with prenatal VSD diagnosed by a pediatric cardiologist were reviewed. Cases with known risk factors for congenital heart disease, the presence of other major anomalies, soft signs for trisomy 21 or a positive screen test for trisomy 21 were excluded. Ninety two cases formed the study group. None of the cases in the study group had trisomy 21. The upper limit of prevalence for trisomy 21 in isolated VSD is 3%. When prenatal VSD is not associated with other major anomalies, soft markers for trisomy 21 or a positive nuchal translucency or biochemical screen, a decision whether to perform genetic amniocentesis should be individualized. The currently unknown association between isolated VSD and microdeletions and microduplications should be considered when discussing this option.

  3. Eisenmenger syndrome in a patient with ventricular septal defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES represents Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH associated with Congenital Heart Defects (CHD. Although patients survive until their third or fourth decades of life, the symptoms include dyspnea, cyanosis, fatigue, dizziness, and syncope. In addition, cardiac arrhythmias, a late complication are causing sudden death in patients with ES. Treatment options have been limited; however, recent successes have been achieved with the use of therapies targeted against the pathophysiological pathways that underlie PAH. The dual endothelin receptor antagonist and prostacyclins demonstrated to improve hemodynamics of the patients. This is the case of a 16 year old young female with ventricular septal defect that was admitted with increasing shortness of breath and cyanosis with clubbing which are clinical features of Eisenmenger syndrome. She was medicated with Furosemide, Sildenafil which improved her functional status. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 376-378

  4. Device closure in adults with atrial septal defect in Shiraz, a single center registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Kojuri, Javad; Dehghani, Pooyan; Razazi, Vida; Moarref, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Successful closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) improves patients’ functional class and exercise capacity. In this study we evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous device closure of ASDs. Methods: Two hundred fifty six patients with significant ASD according to our criteria were enrolled. The patients were treated using nitinol wire mesh transcatheter devices. Complications were followed for a median of 2.5 years. Results: Success rate was 98.4% with 3 unsuccessful cases and a mean hospital stay of 1.007 ± 0.0004 days. Complication rate was 7.42%. Size of the right ventricle (RV) annulus was significantly decreased 24 hours after intervention (P = 0.005). Conclusion: The present report demonstrates that transcatheter closure of ASD is safe and effective. PMID:27069566

  5. Echocardiographic diagnosis and necropsy findings of a congenital ventricular septal defect in a stranded harbor porpoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Viktor; Bunskoek, Paulien; Kuiken, Thijs; van den Berg, Annemarie; van Elk, Cornelis

    2016-03-30

    A live-stranded harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena was found on the west coast of the Dutch island Texel (North Sea) and transported to a rehabilitation center for small cetaceans, where it underwent a veterinary health check. Cardiac auscultation revealed a systolic cardiac murmur with the point of maximal intensity in the right hemithorax with an intensity of IV out of VI. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a congenital ventricular septal defect with left-to-right shunting. Because the left atrium was not dilated according to the reference range of canine left atrium to aortic ratio, the presence of congestive heart failure was considered very unlikely. Therefore, this congenital cardiac anomaly was thought to be a clinically non-relevant incidental finding and would not explain the weakness, coughing, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Because the animal was still unable to swim or eat by itself after 2 wk of supportive care, it was euthanized. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a ventricular septal defect. The weight of the heart relative to the animal's length was greater than expected, using linear regression analysis on the lengths and cardiac weights of 71 other stranded wild harbor porpoises without macroscopic cardiac pathologic changes. This finding suggests that the left ventricle had an eccentric hypertrophy because of volume overload resulting from the intracardiac shunt. This is the first report of a congenital cardiac anomaly and its ante-mortem diagnosis in this species. Data presented for the other 71 harbor porpoises may provide reference values for this species. PMID:27025305

  6. The influence of septal lesions on sodium and water retention induced by Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of studies on the effects of septal area lesions on neuroimmunomodulation and Walker 256 tumor development, it was observed that tumor-induced sodium and water retention was less marked in lesioned than in non-lesioned rats. In the present study possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon were investigated. The experiments were performed in septal-lesioned (LW; N = 15 and sham-operated (SW; N = 7 8-week-old male Wistar rats, which received multifocal simultaneous subcutaneous (sc inoculations of Walker 256 tumor cells about 30 days after the stereotaxic surgery. Control groups (no tumor, sham-operated food-restricted (SFR, N = 7 and lesioned food-restricted (LFR, N = 10 were subjected to a feeding pattern similar to that observed in tumor-bearing animals. Multifocal inoculation of Walker 256 tumor rapidly induces anorexia, which is paradoxically accompanied by an increase in body weight, as a result of renal Na+ and fluid retention. These effects of the tumor were also seen in LW rats, although the rise in fractional sodium balance during the early clinical period was significantly smaller than in SW rats (day 4: SW = 47.6 ± 6.4% and LW = 13.8 ± 5.2%; day 5: SW = 57.5 ± 3.5% and LW = 25.7 ± 4.8%; day 6: SW = 54.4 ± 3.8% and LW = 32.1 ± 4.4%; P<0.05, suggesting a temporary reduction in tumor-induced sodium retention. In contrast, urine output was significantly reduced in SW rats and increased in LW rats (LW up to -0.85 and SW up to 4.5 ml/100 g body weight, with no change in osmolar excretion. These temporary changes in the tumor's effects on LW rats may reflect a "reversal" of the secondary central antidiuretic response induced by the tumor (from antidiuretic to diuretic.

  7. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent. PMID:24229192

  8. Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi Masooma; DeLaCruz Angel E; Tejwani Dimple; Diaz-Fuentes Gilda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Diffuse lung infiltrates are a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and causes range from infectious processes to malignancies or interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disorder rarely reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. It can b...

  9. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K Rennis; Vadakkan, D Thomas; Krishnakumar, E V; Anas, A Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia. PMID:25814803

  10. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    K Rennis Davis; D Thomas Vadakkan; Krishnakumar, E. V.; A Muhammed Anas

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia.

  11. DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18226603 Silica ... binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian ... ub 2007 Dec 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Silica ... binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Pubm ... edID 18226603 Title Silica ... binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Auth ...

  12. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rennis Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia.

  13. Continuous positive airway pressure ventilation during whole lung lavage for treatment of alveolar proteinosis -A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelazeem El-Dawlatly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease that affects young population usually in the age group of 20-40 years, characterized by the deposition of lipoproteinacious material in the alveoli secondary to abnormal processing of surfactant by macrophages. We report a case of a 15-year-old female who had history of cough with sputum for 3 days along with fever. She was seen in another hospital and was treated as a case of pneumonia where she received antibiotic but with no improvement. Computerized tomography (CT chest showed diffuse interlobular septal thickening in the background of ground glass opacity giving a picture of crazy paving pattern which was consistent with the diagnosis of PAP. The patient was scheduled to undergo, first right-sided whole lung lavage (WLL under general anesthesia. Endobronchial intubation using left sided 37 Fr double lumen tube. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP as described in our previously published report was connected to the right lumen of the endobronchial tube. CPAP ventilation was used during the suctioning of lavage fluid phase in order to improve oxygenation. WLL was done using 5 L of warm heparinized saline (500 i.u/litre. The same procedure was repeated on the left side using 6 L of heparinized normal saline solution. In conclusion, anesthesia in alveolar proteinosis for patients undergoing WLL is challenging to the anesthesiologist. It requires meticulous preoperative preparation with antibiotics, mucolytics and chest physiotherapy. Also it requires careful intraoperative monitoring and proper oxygenation especially during the suctioning phase of the lavaged fluid. With this second case report of successful anesthetic management using the modified CPAP system we recommend with confidence the application of CPAP ventilation to improve oxygenation during WLL.

  14. Use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantitate in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; el-Maghrabi, M R; Gomez, F A

    2000-04-01

    The use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantify reaction products of in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions is described. Migrating in a capillary under conditions of electrophoresis, plugs of enzyme and substrate are injected and allowed to react. Capillary electrophoresis is subsequently used to measure the extent of reaction. This technique is demonstrated using two model systems: the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fructose-biphosphate aldolase (ALD, EC 4.1.2.13), and the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-1,6-bisphospatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11). These procedures expand the use of the capillary as a microreactor and offer a new approach to analyzing enzyme-mediated reactions. PMID:10892022

  15. A Novel Polybrene/Chondroitin Sulfate C Double Coated Capillary and Its Application in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU,Ying-Xiang(杜迎翔); HONDA,Susumu; TAGA,Atsushi; LIU,Wen-Ying(刘文英); SUZUKI,Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    A new capillary coated by double polymer, polybrene/chondroitin sulfate C (P/CC), was developed using a simple procedure. The P/CC double coated capillary showed long lifetime,strong chemical stability and good reproducibility. It endured during more than 100 replicated analyses and was also tolerant to HCl (1 mol/L), NaOH (0.01 mol/L), CH3OH and CH3CN. The P/CC double coated capillary can be applied to basic drug analyses. The adsorption of basic drugs to the capillary wall was suppressed and the peak tailing greatly decreased. The use of the P/CC double coated capillary allowed excelent separation of the enantiomers of some basic drugs by using chondroitin sulfate C as the chiral selector, ami the peak symmetry of basic drugs was further improved under these conditions.

  16. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.;

    2010-01-01

    of nanoparticles, i.e. in CE mode, the protein samples adsorbed completely to the capillary walls and could not be recovered. In contrast, nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation resolved green fluorescent protein from several of its impurities within I min. Furthermore, a mixture of native green...... fluorescent protein and two of its single-amino-acid-substituted variants was separated within 2.5 min with efficiencies of 400 000 plates/m. The nanoparticles prevent adsorption by introducing a large interacting surface and by obstructing the attachment of the protein to the capillary wall. A one......Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence...

  17. Capillary-Tube Model and Experiment of Multiphase Flow in Capillary Fringes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武晓峰; 唐杰; 吕贤弼

    2002-01-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by organic substances is causing more and more problems worldwide. Analysis of the movement and distribution of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in subsurface domain is critical for contaminant remediation. Two-dimensional experiments were conducted in a transparent plexiglass trough (105.0 cm×70.0 cm×1.5 cm) to simulate the release and redistribution of gasoline and kerosene in porous media. The results show that before the contaminant distribution reaches equilibrium, the movement of light NAPLs (LNAPLs) can be divided into four sub-stages. After the contaminant front reaches the upper boundary of the capillary fringe, contaminant movement along the upper boundary of the capillary fringe is the primary transport process. Most of the contaminants then move into the capillary fringe except for the residual part. One-dimensional and two-dimensional capillary tube models were developed to analyze the movement of LNAPLs in the capillary fringe.

  18. The capillary hysteresis model HYSTR: User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential disposal of nuclear waste in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has generated increased interest in the study of fluid flow through unsaturated media. In the near future, large-scale field tests will be conducted at the Yucca Mountain site, and work is now being done to design and analyze these tests. As part of these efforts a capillary hysteresis model has been developed. A computer program to calculate the hysteretic relationship between capillary pressure φ and liquid saturation (S1) has been written that is designed to be easily incorporated into any numerical unsaturated flow simulator that computes capillary pressure as a function of liquid saturation. This report gives a detailed description of the model along with information on how it can be interfaced with a transport code. Although the model was developed specifically for calculations related to nuclear waste disposal, it should be applicable to any capillary hysteresis problem for which the secondary and higher order scanning curves can be approximated from the first order scanning curves. HYSTR is a set of subroutines to calculate capillary pressure for a given liquid saturation under hysteretic conditions

  19. Synthetic Capillaries to Control Microscopic Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarveswaran, K.; Kurz, V.; Dong, Z.; Tanaka, T.; Penny, S.; Timp, G.

    2016-02-01

    Capillaries pervade human physiology. The mean intercapillary distance is only about 100 μm in human tissue, which indicates the extent of nutrient diffusion. In engineered tissue the lack of capillaries, along with the associated perfusion, is problematic because it leads to hypoxic stress and necrosis. However, a capillary is not easy to engineer due to its complex cytoarchitecture. Here, it is shown that it is possible to create in vitro, in about 30 min, a tubular microenvironment with an elastic modulus and porosity consistent with human tissue that functionally mimicks a bona fide capillary using “live cell lithography”(LCL) to control the type and position of cells on a composite hydrogel scaffold. Furthermore, it is established that these constructs support the forces associated with blood flow, and produce nutrient gradients similar to those measured in vivo. With LCL, capillaries can be constructed with single cell precision—no other method for tissue engineering offers such precision. Since the time required for assembly scales with the number of cells, this method is likely to be adapted first to create minimal functional units of human tissue that constitute organs, consisting of a heterogeneous population of 100-1000 cells, organized hierarchically to express a predictable function.

  20. EUV radiation from nitrogen capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade EUV sources attract interest from researchers over the world. One of the main motivations is EUV lithography, which could lead to further miniaturization in electronics. Nitrogen recombination laser at wavelength of 13.4 nm based on capillary discharge Z-pinch configuration could be used in experiments with testing of resolution of photoresist for EUV lithography (close to wavelength of 13.5 nm Si/Mo multilayer mirrors have a high reflectivity at normal incidence angles). In this work, pinching of nitrogen-filled capillary discharge is studied for the development of EUV laser, which is based on recombination pumping scheme. The goal of this study is achieving the required plasma conditions using a capillary discharge Z-pinch apparatus. In experiments with nitrogen, the capillary length was shortened from 232 mm to 90 mm and current quarter-period was changed from 60 ns to 50 ns in contrast with early experiments with Ne-like argon laser. EUV radiation from capillary discharge was registered by X-ray vacuum diode for different pressure, amplitude and duration of pre-pulse and charging voltage of the Marx generator.

  1. Alveolar bone of BBMl rats: a morphometric and histochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R B; Carlson, E. C.

    1989-01-01

    The present study reported histochemical changes in alveolar bone glycosaminoglycans (GAG) (using Safranin 0 ) and in interdental bone height in three groups of BB/W rats: diabetic, diabetes prone, and diabetes resistant. Safranin O staining intensity suggested that total GAG levels were highest in diabetic bone (p

  2. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal...

  3. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  4. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  5. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma presenting with multiple intracranial metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar G

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man presented with history of raised intracranial pressure and one episode of generalized tonic clonic seizures. Computed Tomogram revealed multiple contrast enhancing intracranial lesions. Biopsy of one of the lesions was reported as metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma. He was advised whole brain radiotherapy.

  6. Alveolar pulmonary proteinosis: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the case of a young women with primary alveolar proteinosis, with a short period of symptoms that are uncommon for this disease, without risk factors for this entity, the clinical evolution of the patient and some complications with the treatment. We review the literature for this entity.

  7. Abnormal gallium scintigraphy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with medulloblastoma of the cerebellum developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased lung volume and diffusing capacity, while the chest radiographs initially showed only mild interstitial infiltrates. Repeated gallium scans showed diffuse lung uptake and diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made by open lung biopsy

  8. CT scan patterns of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. To study computed tomographic (CT) findings in children with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) more extensively. Objective. To describe the CT features at the time of diagnosis and after therapeutic broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of five children (aged 3 months to 4 years) examined because of incidental bronchitis (n = 1), disease in a sibling (n = 1) and relapsing fever, cough and dyspnoea (n = 3). Each patient had an initial CT scan. Two asymptomatic cases were not treated but were followed up by plain chest films. The other three had BAL and follow-up CT. Results. Initial CT in all cases showed a diffuse reticulomicronodular pattern associated in three cases with posterior bilateral alveolar infiltrates. CT in the two asymptomatic patients remained unchanged or slightly improved without BAL. After BAL, a variable decrease of lung infiltrates was observed. Conclusions. Correlation between the extent of alveolar consolidation and severity of disease was found. Anatomical and pathological considerations allow us to consider that the classical reticulomicronodular pattern is not due to an interstitial infiltration but to alveoli filled with the abnormal material characteristic of PAP. (orig.)

  9. Alveolar macrophages in rabbits exposed to nickel dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camner, P.; Johansson, A.; Lundborg, M.

    1978-07-01

    Two groups of four rabbits each were exposed to 0.5 and 2.0 mg/m/sup 3/ of metallic nickel dust respectively, for 4 weeks (5 days/week, 6 hours/day). About half of the particle masses penetrated a Casella preseparator. After exposure the lungs were extracted and lavaged. Compared to four control rabbits significant effects were seen in both exposed groups with regard to lung weight and density as well as phagocytic activity, size distribution, and ultrastructure of the alveolar macrophages (numerous slender microvilli and long protrusions from the cell surface and laminated structures similar to those seen in alveolar type II cells). The effects on the macrophages were probably not caused directly by nickel. The lung washing from the exposed rabbits contained an amorphous substance rich in phospholipids and laminated structures. Apart from the ultrastructural changes the effects seemed to be dose related. The results of exposure to metallic nickel dust have at least some features in common with ''alveolar lipoproteinosis,'' described in rats exposed to silica dust, and with ''pulmonary alveolar proteinosis,'' described in man.

  10. Abnormal gallium scintigraphy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, S.D.; White, D.A.; Stover-Pepe, D.E.; Caravelli, J.F.; Van Uitert, C.; Benua, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    A patient with medulloblastoma of the cerebellum developed dyspnea and hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests showed decreased lung volume and diffusing capacity, while the chest radiographs initially showed only mild interstitial infiltrates. Repeated gallium scans showed diffuse lung uptake and diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made by open lung biopsy.

  11. Anti-GM-CSF antibodies in paediatric pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Latzin, P; Tredano, M.; Wust, Y; J. de Blic; Nicolai, T; Bewig, B; Stanzel, F.; Kohler, D.; Bahuau, M.; Griese, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Auto-antibodies against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be central to the pathogenesis of adult sporadic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The role of anti-GM-CSF auto-antibodies in paediatric forms of PAP is as yet unclear.

  12. CT scan patterns of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albafouille, V.; Sayegh, N.; Coudenhove, S. de; Mamou-Mani, T.; Hassine, A.; Brunelle, F. [Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Scheinmann, P.; Blic, J. de [Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France). Dept. of Pneumology; Jaubert, F. [Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France). Dept. of Pathology

    1999-03-01

    Background. To study computed tomographic (CT) findings in children with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) more extensively. Objective. To describe the CT features at the time of diagnosis and after therapeutic broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of five children (aged 3 months to 4 years) examined because of incidental bronchitis (n = 1), disease in a sibling (n = 1) and relapsing fever, cough and dyspnoea (n = 3). Each patient had an initial CT scan. Two asymptomatic cases were not treated but were followed up by plain chest films. The other three had BAL and follow-up CT. Results. Initial CT in all cases showed a diffuse reticulomicronodular pattern associated in three cases with posterior bilateral alveolar infiltrates. CT in the two asymptomatic patients remained unchanged or slightly improved without BAL. After BAL, a variable decrease of lung infiltrates was observed. Conclusions. Correlation between the extent of alveolar consolidation and severity of disease was found. Anatomical and pathological considerations allow us to consider that the classical reticulomicronodular pattern is not due to an interstitial infiltration but to alveoli filled with the abnormal material characteristic of PAP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage with trypsin in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasaka, Y.; Takahashi, M; Ueshima, H; Tohda, Y.; Nakajima, S.

    1996-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis were treated with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) via a fibreoptic bronchoscope. Additional clinical improvement was seen when trypsin was added to the lavage fluid. Analysis of effluents in the BAL fluid showed marked reduction of protein constituents with clinical improvement after treatment with trypsin in the lavage. BAL with trypsin was well tolerated.

  14. Alveolar echinococcosis localized in the liver, lung and brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyit Mehmet Kayacan; Kutigin Turkmen; Fatih Yakar; Kerim Guier; Sezai Vatansever; Suleyman Temiz; Bora Uslu; Dilek Kayacan; Vakur Akkaya; Osman Erk; Büent Saka; Aytac Karadag

    2008-01-01

    @@ Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval forms of echinococci. It has two main forms as the unilocular cystic form that is more commonly seen and caused by E. granulosus and the alveolar form that is rarely seen and caused by E.

  15. Studying the Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Surya Kumari; Sharma, Sharad; Chintala, Navin; Patel, Jalpa; Karbowniczek, Magdalena; Markiewski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the syngeneic model of breast cancer (4T1) to the studies on a role of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in cancer metastasis. The 4T1 cells expressing GFP in combination with imaging and confocal microscopy are used to monitor tumor growth, track metastasizing tumor cells, and quantify the metastatic burden. These approaches are supplemented by digital histopathology that allows the automated and unbiased quantification of metastases. In this method the routinely prepared histological lung sections, which are stained with hematoxylin and eosin, are scanned and converted to the digital slides that are then analyzed by the self-trained pattern recognition software. In addition, we describe the flow cytometry approaches with the use of multiple cell surface markers to identify alveolar macrophages in the lungs. To determine impact of alveolar macrophages on metastases and antitumor immunity these cells are depleted with the clodronate-containing liposomes administrated intranasally to tumor-bearing mice. This approach leads to the specific and efficient depletion of this cell population as confirmed by flow cytometry. Tumor volumes and lung metastases are evaluated in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages, to determine the role of these cells in the metastatic progression of breast cancer. PMID:27403530

  16. Biomimetics of fetal alveolar flow phenomena using microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josué

    2015-01-01

    At the onset of life in utero, the respiratory system begins as a liquid-filled tubular organ and undergoes significant morphological changes during fetal development towards establishing a respiratory organ optimized for gas exchange. As airspace morphology evolves, respiratory alveolar flows have been hypothesized to exhibit evolving flow patterns. In the present study, we have investigated flow topologies during increasing phases of embryonic life within an anatomically inspired microfluidic device, reproducing real-scale features of fetal airways representative of three distinct phases of in utero gestation. Micro-particle image velocimetry measurements, supported by computational fluid dynamics simulations, reveal distinct respiratory alveolar flow patterns throughout different stages of fetal life. While attached, streamlined flows characterize the shallow structures of premature alveoli indicative of the onset of saccular stage, separated recirculating vortex flows become the signature of developed and extruded alveoli characteristic of the advanced stages of fetal development. To further mimic physiological aspects of the cellular environment of developing airways, our biomimetic devices integrate an alveolar epithelium using the A549 cell line, recreating a confluent monolayer that produces pulmonary surfactant. Overall, our in vitro biomimetic fetal airways model delivers a robust and reliable platform combining key features of alveolar morphology, flow patterns, and physiological aspects of fetal lungs developing in utero. PMID:25759753

  17. Increased alveolar soluble annexin V promotes lung inflammation and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Susan; Shi, Wei; Xu, Wei; Frey, Mark R; Moats, Rex; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Warburton, David

    2015-11-01

    The causes underlying the self-perpetuating nature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal disease, remain unknown. We hypothesised that alveolar soluble annexin V contributes to lung fibrosis, based on the observation that human IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) containing high annexin V levels promoted fibroblast involvement in alveolar epithelial wound healing that was reduced when annexin V was depleted from the BALF. Conditioned medium from annexin V-treated alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2), but not annexin V per se, induced proliferation of human fibroblasts and contained pro-fibrotic, IPF-associated proteins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines that were found to correlate tightly (r>0.95) with annexin V levels in human BALF. ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in AECs was activated by annexin V, and blockade reduced the fibrotic potential of annexin V-treated AEC-conditioned medium. In vivo, aerosol delivery of annexin V to mouse lung induced inflammation, fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline, with activation of Wnt, transforming growth factor-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways, as seen in IPF. Chronically increased alveolar annexin V levels, as reflected in increased IPF BALF levels, may contribute to the progression of IPF by inducing the release of pro-fibrotic mediators. PMID:26160872

  18. Contribution of the tooth bud mesenchyme to alveolar bone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diep, L.; Matalová, Eva; Mitsiadis, T. A.; Tucker, A. S.

    312B, č. 5 (2009), 510-517. ISSN 1552-5007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC524/08/J032; GA AV ČR KJB500450802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tooth * alveolar bone * bud Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.938, year: 2009

  19. The role of alveolar type II cells in swine leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela P. Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to investigate a possible relationship between alveolar type II cells and the inflammatory response to infection with Leptospira spp., and thus comprise a further element that can be involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury in naturally infected pigs. The study group consisted of 73 adult pigs that were extensively reared and slaughtered in Teresina, Piauí state, and Timon, Maranhão state, Brazil. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT aided by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The MAT registered the occurrence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in 10.96% (8/73 of the pigs. Immunohistochemistry allowed for the visualization of the Leptospira spp. antigen in the lungs of 87.67% (64/73 of the pigs. There was hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and circulatory changes, such as congestion of alveolar septa, parenchymal hemorrhage and edema within the alveoli. Lung inflammation was more intense (p = 0.0312 in infected animals, which also showed increased thickening of the alveolar septa (p = 0.0006. Evaluation of alveolar type II (ATII cells using an anti-TTF-1 (Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 antibody showed that there were more immunostained cells in the non-infected pigs (53.8% than in the infected animals (46.2% and that there was an inverse correlation between TTF-1 positive cells and the inflammatory infiltrate. There was no amplification of Leptospira DNA in the lung samples, but leptospiral DNA amplification was observed in the kidneys. The results of this study showed that a relationship exists between a decrease in alveolar type II cells and a leptospire infection. Thus, this work points to the importance of studying the ATII cells as a potential marker of the level of lung innate immune response during leptospirosis in pigs.

  20. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  1. Capillary filling in closed end nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Vinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Yang, Chun; Joseph, Pierre; Djeghlaf, Lyes; Bourrier, David; Gue, Anne-Marie

    2010-08-17

    We investigated the interactions between liquid, gas, and solid phases in the capillary filling process of closed-end nanochannels. This paper presents theoretical models without and with absorption and diffusion of gas molecules in the liquid. Capillary filling experiments were carried out in closed-end silicon nanochannels with different lengths. The theoretical and measured characteristics of filling length versus time are compared. The results show that the filling process consists of two stages. The first stage resembles the capillary filling process in an open-end nanochannel. However, a remarkable discrepancy between the experimental results and the theory without gas absorption is observed in the second stage. A closer investigation of the second stage reveals that the dissolution of gas in the liquid is important and can be explained by the model with gas absorption and diffusion. PMID:20695566

  2. SUCCESSFUL ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A PATIENT WITH PARADOXICAL VENTRICULAR SEPTAL MOTION (PVSM POSTED FOR MODIFIED RADICAL NECK DISSECTION WITH RADIAL FREE FLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Patients with paradoxical ventricular septal motion are a challenge to anaesthesiologist due to risk of perioperative myocardial ischaemia and sudden cardiac arrest. CASE DESCRIPTION : We present anaesthetic management of a 45year old lady with a diagnosed case of carcinoma left buccal mucosa with paradoxical ventricular septal motion posted for modified radical neck disse ction with radial free flap. CONCLUSION : Although clinical manifestations of this cardiac condition may be mild, there is certainly associated pathology of direct relevance, which carries importance in the anaesthetic management in the peri - operative perio d. Patients with paradoxical ventricular septal motion of any etiology are more prone for perioperative myocardial ischaemia and sudden cardiac arrest, because if cardiac conduction is not maintained properly then it may result in further increase in the p aradoxical ventricular septal motion

  3. Effects of septal nucleus lesion on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Shuande Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the septal nucleus is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on autopsies of schizophrenia patients, studies have shown a reduced number of septal nucleus neurons and gila. In addition, experimental rat models of schizophrenia have shown increased dopamine receptor D2 binding sites in the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, and substantia nigra. Previous studies have demonstrated that the septal nucleus modulates dopamine metabolic disorder and dopamine D2 receptor balance.OBJECTIVE: Dopamine D2 receptor expression in a rat model of schizophrenia, combined with antipsychotic drugs, was analyzed in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem. In situ hybridization was used to observe the effects of stereotactic septal nucleus lesions on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the brains of methylamphetamine-treated rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Laboratory of General Institute of Psychosurgery, Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from November 2005 to June 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult Sprague Dawley rats, weighing approximately 200 g, were included. Methylamphetamine (Sigma, USA) and an in situ hybridization detection kit for dopamine D2 receptor (Boster, China) were also used for this study. METHODS: All rats were randomly allocated to the following 4 groups, with 30 rats in each group: normal control, simple administration, septal nucleus lesion, and sham-operated groups. In the normal control group, rats were not administered or lesioned. In the remaining 3 groups, rats were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg methylamphetamine, once per day, for 15 successive days to establish a schizophrenia model. Following successful model establishment, rats from the septal nucleus lesion group were subjected to stereotactic septal nucleus lesions. The cranial bone was exposed in rats from the sham-operated group, and the septal nucleus was not

  4. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  5. Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting and Iliac Cancellous Bone Harvesting for Patients With Alveolar Cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weiyi; Wu, Chenzhou; Yang, Zheng; Duan, Zexi; Su, Zhifei; Wang, Peiqi; Zheng, Qian; Li, Chunjie

    2016-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of present interventions optimizing the result of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) and the interventions alleviating the donor site morbidity after iliac cancellous bone harvesting. Researches were identified by searching the electronic database of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. In addition, relevant journals and references of the included studies were searched manually. The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence were applied to assess the methodological quality of selected studies, and the best evidence synthesis system was applied afterward to measure the strength of evidence. As a result, 42 studies were considered eligible and included, among which 4 were of high quality while 38 were of low quality. Thirty lines of evidences were acquired after the synthesis, among which 13 were rated as moderate while 17 were rated as insufficient. As for the interventions optimizing the result of SABG, moderate evidence confirmed the efficacy of preoperative orthodontic treatment, the superiority of performing SABG before the eruption of canine, and the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in preoperative estimation of the cleft volume. As for the interventions alleviating the morbidity of iliac cancellous bone harvesting, moderate evidence confirmed the treatment benefit of the interventions below: minimally invasive technique, including trephine and Shepard osteotomy; preemptive analgesia, including continuous bupivacaine infusion or transversus abdominis plane block. As for the rest interventions, only insufficient evidence was found. PMID:27244214

  6. Immunological tolerance to pig-serum partially inhibits the formation of septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Guimarães Andrade; Bruna Magalhães Gotardo; Bárbara Cristina A Assis; José Mengel; Zilton A. Andrade

    2004-01-01

    Systhematized septal fibrosis of the liver can be induced in rats either by repeated intraperitoneal injections of pig-serum or by Capillaria hepatica infection. The relationship between these two etiological factors, as far as hepatic fibrosis is concerned, is not known, and present investigation attempts to investigate it. C. hepatica-induced septal fibrosis of the liver was considerably inhibited in rats previously rendered tolerant to pig-serum. Pig-serum-tolerant rats developed antibodie...

  7. Site-Specific Enhancement of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Neural Activity by Ethanol in the Rat Medial Septal Area1

    OpenAIRE

    GIVENS, BENNET S.; Breese, George R.

    1990-01-01

    Because of uncertainty concerning the interaction of ethanol with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated events, the present work was designed to investigate the effect of ethanol on GABA transmission in the rat septal area using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Microinjection of the GABAA agonist muscimol into the medial septal area (MSA) enhanced, and bicuculline administration antagonized, ethanol-induced impairment of the aerial righting reflex. Microinjection of thes...

  8. Capillary Rise of Liquids in Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Patrick; Kityk, Andriy V

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements on the spontaneous imbibition (capillary rise) of water, a linear hydrocarbon (n-C16H34) and a liquid crystal (8OCB) into the pore space of monolithic, nanoporous Vycor glass (mean pore radius 5 nm). Measurements on the mass uptake of the porous hosts as a function of time, m(t), are in good agreement with the Lucas-Washburn square root of time prediction, typical of imbibition of liquids into porous hosts. The relative capillary rise velocities scale as expected from the bulk fluid parameters.

  9. A lymph nodal capillary-cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellachà, A; Fulcheri, E; Campisi, C

    1999-09-01

    A capillary-cavernous hemangioma in an obturator lymph node was found incidentally in a 64 year-old woman who had undergone unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for an ovarian neoplasm. Vascular tumors of lymph nodes are briefly reviewed including eight previously described nodal capillary-cavernous hemangiomas. The association with other splanchnic hemangiomas is pointed out and the likelihood that the lesion is a hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm is addressed. Despite its rarity, this entity needs to be recognized by lymphologists who image lymph nodes by lymphangiography as well as by lymph nodal pathologists. PMID:10494525

  10. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  11. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences.The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows

  12. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  13. Quantification of nucleotides by ICPMS: coupling of ICPMS with capillary electrophoresis or capillary HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantification of nucleotides in small volumes of biological samples has eagerly been demanded. A method using ICPMS coupled with capillary electrophoresis or capillary liquid chromatography is reported. A new interface system, which consists of a double tube nebulizer inserted with a fused silica capillary tube and a cylinder mini-chamber with a sheath gas inlet, was designed. Moreover, the surface conditions of the sampling and skimmer cones, and the introduction of H2 gas into the plasma were found to significantly improve the signal/background ratio for phosphorus determination at m/z 31. (author)

  14. Characteristic aspects of alveolar proteinosis diagnosis Aspectos característicos do diagnóstico da proteinose alveolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Prudente Bártholo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by an accumulation of surfactant in terminal airway and alveoli, thereby impairing gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency in some cases. Three clinically and etiologically distinct forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are recognized: congenital, secondary and idiopathic, the latter corresponding to 90% of the cases. In this case report we present a young male patient that was diagnosed with alveolar proteinosis. Computed tomography of the thorax, bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy were performed. The histopathologic aspect was characteristic. The patient was discharged in good health conditions and remains asymptomatic to date.Proteinose alveolar é uma doença pulmonar incomum caracterizada pelo acúmulo de surfactante nas vias aéreas terminais e nos alvéolos, alterando a troca gasosa e, em alguns casos, promovendo insuficiência respiratória. Três formas clínicas e etiologicamente distintas de proteinose alveolar são reconhecidas: congênitas, secundárias e idiopáticas (mais de 90% dos casos são de etiologia idiopática. Neste relato, apresentamos um homem jovem que foi diagnosticado com proteinose pulmonar. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax, broncoscopia e biópsia transbrônquica foram realizadas. O aspecto histopatológico foi característico. O paciente teve alta, com boas condições de saúde, e encontra-se assintomático nos dias de hoje.

  15. Real-time-MR guidance for placement of a self-made fully MR-compatible atrial septal occluder: in vitro test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This in vitro study investigated the feasibility to visualize the placement of three different atrial septal occluder systems using real-time MR control. Methods: The experiments were performed on an interventional 1.5 T high field whole body system. Real-time MR imaging was achieved by radial or spiral k-space filling in conjunction with the sliding window reconstruction technique yielding an imaging speed of 15 frames per second. The CardioSeal, Ampaltzer Septal Occluder and a specially designed MR-compatible closure device were tested in a water bath. A punctured plastic wall served as model for the atrial septal defect. Results: The delivery systems of the CardioSeal and Amplatzer Occluder were ferromagnetic and caused substantial artifacts, making the device placement impossible, even if the magnetic forces would have been acceptable. The self-made prototype caused only minor susceptibility artifacts allowing its visualization on the MR images. The MR imaging techniques applied enabled real-time control of the occluder including steering through the artificial septal foramen and visualization of the occluder deployment. Conclusion: Real-time MR imaging allows for guidance and placement of an MR-compatible septal occluder in vitro suggesting the feasibility to perform atrial septal occlusion under MR-guidance in vivo as well. (orig.)

  16. [Electrophysiological and behavioral features of septal seizures in cats--experimental sham-rage seizures induced by injection of kainic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, K; Tanaka, T; Yonemasu, Y

    1994-07-01

    The septal nucleus has close connections with the hippocampus and amygdala and is known to be involved in emotional behavior. We analyzed the electrophysiological and behavioral features of seizures induced by an injection of kainic acid into the lateral septal nucleus of the cat. Stereotactic surgery was performed to implant a cannula into the lateral septal nucleus to make the injection, and deep electrodes were implanted into the hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally. Seven days post operatively kainic acid, 0.5 microgram/0.5 microliter, was injected via the cannula, and three to five minutes later the cats began to exhibit head turning to the contralateral side. The seizures subsequently progressed limbic seizure status. The electroencephalogram revealed that the spike discharges started in the lateral septal nucleus, extended to the ipsilateral hippocampus and amygdala, then propagated to the contralateral side. Spontaneous sham-rage seizures occurred more than seven days after the injection. These seizure were characterized by sudden onset of aggressive and violent behavior which included hissing, biting and scratching. The electroencephalogram showed synchronization of rhythmic spikes in the ipsilateral septal nucleus, hippocampus and amygdala during such seizures. Further study of this model is important not only to understand the relationship between the septal nucleus and the hippocampus and amygdala but to understand the mechanism of sham-rage seizures. In addition, this model may be useful in understanding the emotional features of intractable complex partial seizures in man. PMID:7946621

  17. Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force

  18. A Rare Association of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalgia: Pontine Capillary Telangiectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Gocmen, Rahsan; Kurt, Erdal; Arslan, Sabina; Unal-Cevik, Isin; Karli Oguz, Kader; Tezer, F Irsel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of pontine capillary telangiectasia in a 43-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. The possible association with pontine capillary telangiectasia and trigeminal autonomic cephalgia is discussed.

  19. Guillain - Barre syndrome in a patient with acute myocardial infarction with ventricular septal defect repair treated with plasma exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey D Gajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain - Barre syndrome (GBS is an acute, frequently severe progressive illness of peripheral nervous system that is autoimmune in nature. GBS after myocardial infarction (MI with ventricular septal defect (VSD is uncommon with high mortality rate if not treated promptly. [1] We report a successful outcome of GBS post MI with VSD in a 60-year-old male patient who was on a ventilator treated successfully with therapeutic plasma exchange.

  20. Feasibility and Safety of Transthoracic Echocardiography-Guided Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects with Deficient Superior-Anterior Rims

    OpenAIRE

    Gui-Shuang Li; Hai-De Li; Jie Yang; Wen-Quan Zhang; Zong-Shen Hou; Qing-Chen Li; Yun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies showed that transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) can be used to guide transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD), whether TTE can be used to guide transcatheter closure of secundum ASD with a deficient superior-anterior rim is unknown and this critical issue was addressed in the present study. A total of 280 patients with secundum ASD who underwent transcatheter ASD closure were recruited and divided into groups A and B depending on ASD superior-anterior rim...